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The territory of the modern state of Iraq
Iraq
was defined in 1920 as Mandatory Iraq. It is centered on Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
(corresponding to historical Babylonia, later also known as ʿIrāq-i ʿArab) but also includes part of Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
and of the Syrian Desert
Syrian Desert
and the Arabian Desert. Its history includes much of the world's earliest writing, literature, sciences, mathematics, laws and philosophies; hence its common epithet, the Cradle of Civilization. As part of the larger Fertile Crescent, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
saw the earliest emergence of civilization in the Neolithic
Neolithic
(the Ubaid period) Age and formed a significant part of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
throughout the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and the Iron Age
Iron Age
(Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian).[1] After the fall of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, Mesopotamia fell under Persian and then Greek rule. By the 3rd century, when it was once again under Persian (Sassanid) control, the earlier population was increasingly displaced by Arabs, and the Arabic
Arabic
name al-ʿIrāq dates to about this time.[2] The Sassanid Empire was destroyed by the Islamic conquests and displaced by the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century. Baghdad
Baghdad
became the center of the "Islamic Golden Age" under the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
during the 9th century. Baghdad's rapid growth stagnated in the 10th century due to the Buwayhid
Buwayhid
and Seljuq invasions, but it remained of central importance until the Mongol
Mongol
invasion of 1258. After this, Iraq
Iraq
became a province of the Turco- Mongol
Mongol
Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and declined in importance. After the disintegration of the Ilkhanate, Iraq
Iraq
was ruled by the Jalairids and Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
until its eventual absorption into the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
in the 16th century, intermittently falling under Iranian Safavid and Mamluk
Mamluk
control. Ottoman rule ended with World War I, and Iraq
Iraq
came to be administered by the British Empire as Mandatory Iraq
Mandatory Iraq
until the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq
Kingdom of Iraq
in 1933. A republic was established in 1958 following a coup d'état. It was controlled by Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
from 1979 to 2003, into which period falls the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War and the Gulf War. Saddam Hussein was deposed following the 2003 US-led invasion of the country. Over the following years, Iraq
Iraq
came to the brink of civil war, and the situation deteriorated after the withdrawal of U.S. troops in 2011. By 2015, Iraq
Iraq
was effectively divided, the central and southern part being controlled by the government, the northwest by the Kurdistan Regional Government and the western part by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

Contents

1 Prehistory 2 Ancient Mesopotamia

2.1 Bronze Age 2.2 Iron Age

3 Classical Antiquity

3.1 Achaemenid and Seleucid rule 3.2 Parthian and Roman rule 3.3 Sassanid Empire

4 Middle Ages

4.1 Muslim conquest 4.2 Abbasid Caliphate 4.3 Mongol
Mongol
invasion 4.4 Turco- Mongol
Mongol
rule

5 Ottoman and Mamluk
Mamluk
rule 6 20th century

6.1 British mandate 6.2 Independent Kingdom of Iraq 6.3 Republic
Republic
of Iraq

6.3.1 Ba'athist Iraq 6.3.2 Under Saddam Hussein

7 Recent history (2003–present)

7.1 2003 invasion 7.2 Occupation (2003–11) 7.3 Insurgency and civil war (2011–present)

8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External links

Prehistory[edit] During 1957–1961 Shanidar Cave
Shanidar Cave
was excavated by Ralph Solecki and his team from Columbia University, and nine skeletons of Neanderthal man of varying ages and states of preservation and completeness (labelled Shanidar I – IX) were discovered dating from 60–80,000 years BP. A tenth individual was recently discovered by M. Zeder during examination of a faunal assemblage from the site at the Smithsonian Institution. The remains seemed to Zeder to suggest that Neanderthals had funeral ceremonies, burying their dead with flowers (although the flowers are now thought to be a modern contaminant), and that they took care of injured and elderly individuals. Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. It has been identified as having "inspired some of the most important developments in human history including the invention of the wheel, the planting of the first cereal crops and the development of cursive script, Mathematics, Astronomy and Agriculture."[3] Ancient Mesopotamia[edit] Main articles: Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and History of Mesopotamia See also: Ancient Near East Bronze Age[edit] Main articles: Sumer, Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire, Assyria, and Babylonia Sumer
Sumer
emerged as the civilization of Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
out of the prehistoric Ubaid period
Ubaid period
(mid-6th millennium BC) in the Early Bronze Age ( Uruk
Uruk
period) Classical Sumer
Sumer
ends with the rise of the Akkadian Empire in the 24th century BC. Following the Gutian period, there is a brief Sumerian renaissance
Sumerian renaissance
in the 21st century, cut short in the 20th century BC by Amorite
Amorite
invasion. The Amorite
Amorite
dynasty of Isin
Isin
persisted until c. 1600 BC, when southern Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was united under Kassite Babylonian rule. The north of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
had become the Akkadian
Akkadian
speaking state of Assyria
Assyria
by the late 25th century BC. Along with the rest of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
it was ruled by Akkadian
Akkadian
kings from the late 24th to mid 22nd centuries BC, after which it once again became independent.[4] Babylonia
Babylonia
was a state in Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
with Babylon
Babylon
as its capital. It was founded as an independent state by an Amorite
Amorite
king named Sumuabum in 1894 BC.[5] During the 3rd millennium BCE, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism.[6] Akkadian
Akkadian
gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
somewhere around the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC,[7] but Sumerian continued to be used as a written or ceremonial language in Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
well into the period of classical antiquity. Babylonia
Babylonia
emerged from the Amorite
Amorite
dynasties (c. 1900 BC) when Hammurabi
Hammurabi
(c. 1792–1750 BC), unified the territories of the former kingdoms of Sumer
Sumer
and Akkad. During the early centuries of what is called the " Amorite
Amorite
period", the most powerful city states were Isin and Larsa, although Shamshi-Adad I
Shamshi-Adad I
came close to uniting the more northern regions around Assur
Assur
and Mari. One of these Amorite
Amorite
dynasties was established in the city-state of Babylon, which would ultimately take over the others and form the first Babylonian empire, during what is also called the Old Babylonian Period. Assyria
Assyria
was an Akkadian
Akkadian
(East Semitic) kingdom in Upper Mesopotamia, that came to rule regional empires a number of times through history. It was named for its original capital, the ancient city of Assur ( Akkadian
Akkadian
Aššūrāyu). Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria, little is positively known. In the Assyrian King List, the earliest king recorded was Tudiya. He was a contemporary of Ibrium of Ebla
Ebla
who appears to have lived in the late 25th or early 24th century BC, according to the king list. The foundation of the first true urbanised Assyrian monarchy was traditionally ascribed to Ushpia a contemporary of Ishbi-Erra
Ishbi-Erra
of Isin and Naplanum of Larsa.[8] c. 2030 BC. Assyria
Assyria
had a period of empire from the 19th to 18th centuries BC. From the 14th to 11th centuries BC Assyria
Assyria
once more became a major power with the rise of the Middle Assyrian Empire. Iron Age[edit] The Neo-Assyrian Empire
Neo-Assyrian Empire
(911–609 BC) was the dominant political force in the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
during the Iron Age, eclipsing Babylonia, Egypt, Urartu[9] and Elam. During this period, Aramaic was also made an official language of the empire, alongside the Akkadian language. The Neo-Babylonian Empire
Neo-Babylonian Empire
(626 BC–539 BC) marks the final period of the history of the Ancient Near East
Ancient Near East
preceding Persian conquest. A year after the death of the last strong Assyrian ruler, Assurbanipal, in 627 BC, the Assyrian empire spiralled into a series of brutal civil wars. Babylonia
Babylonia
rebelled under Nabopolassar, a member of the Chaldean tribe which had migrated from the Levant to south eastern Babylonia
Babylonia
in the early 9th century BC. In alliance with the Medes, Persians, Scythians
Scythians
and Cimmerians, they sacked the city of Nineveh
Nineveh
in 612 BC, and the seat of empire was transferred to Babylonia
Babylonia
for the first time since the death of Hammurabi
Hammurabi
in the mid 18th century BC. This period witnessed a general improvement in economic life and agricultural production, and a great flourishing of architectural projects, the arts and science. The Neo-Babylonian period ended with the reign of Nabonidus
Nabonidus
in 539 BC. To the east, the Persians had been growing in strength, and eventually Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
established his dominion over Babylon. Classical Antiquity[edit] Achaemenid and Seleucid rule[edit] Main articles: Babylonia
Babylonia
(Persian province), Achaemenid Assyria, and Seleucid Empire Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was conquered by the Achaemenid Persians under Cyrus the Great in 539 BC, and remained under Persian rule for two centuries. The Persian Empire
Persian Empire
fell to Alexander of Macedon in 331 BC and came under Greek rule as part of the Seleucid Empire. Babylon
Babylon
declined after the founding of Seleucia on the Tigris, the new Seleucid Empire capital. The Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
at the height of its power stretched from the Aegean in the west to India in the east. It was a major center of Hellenistic culture that maintained the preeminence of Greek customs where a Greek political elite dominated, mostly in the urban areas.[10] The Greek population of the cities who formed the dominant elite were reinforced by immigration from Greece.[10][11] Much of the eastern part of the empire was conquered by the Parthians under Mithridates I of Parthia
Mithridates I of Parthia
in the mid-2nd century BC. Parthian and Roman rule[edit] Main articles: Asuristan, Osroene, Adiabene, Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
(Roman province), and Assyria
Assyria
(Roman province) At the beginning of the 2nd century AD, the Romans, led by emperor Trajan, invaded Parthia and conquered Mesopotamia, making it an imperial province. It was returned to the Parthians shortly after by Trajan's successor, Hadrian. Christianity reached Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the 1st century AD, and Roman Syria in particular became the center of Eastern Rite Christianity and the Syriac literary tradition. Mandeism
Mandeism
is also believed to have either originated there around this time or entered as Mandaeans sought refuge from Palestine. Sumerian- Akkadian
Akkadian
religious tradition disappeared during this period, as did the last remnants of cuneiform literacy, although temples were still being dedicated to the Assyrian national god Ashur in his home city as late as the 4th century.[4] Sassanid Empire[edit] Main article: Asuristan In the 3rd century AD, the Parthians were in turn succeeded by the Sassanid dynasty, which ruled Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
until the 7th century Islamic invasion. The Sassanids conquered the independent Neo-Assyrian states of Adiabene, Osroene, Hatra
Hatra
and finally Assur
Assur
during the 3rd century. In the mid-6th century the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
under the Sassanid dynasty was divided by Khosrow I
Khosrow I
into four quarters, of which the western one, called Khvārvarān, included most of modern Iraq, and subdivided to provinces of Mishān, Asuristān
Asuristān
(Assyria), Adiabene (which was for a time an independent Assyrian state) and Lower Media. The term Iraq
Iraq
is widely used in the medieval Arabic
Arabic
sources for the area in the center and south of the modern republic as a geographic rather than a political term, implying no greater precision of boundaries than the term "Mesopotamia" or, indeed, many of the names of modern states before the 20th century. There was a substantial influx of Arabs
Arabs
in the Sassanid period. Upper Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
came to be known as Al-Jazirah in Arabic
Arabic
(meaning "The Island" in reference to the "island" between the Tigris
Tigris
and Euphrates rivers), and Lower Mesopotamia
Lower Mesopotamia
came to be known as ʿIrāq-i ʿArab, meaning "the escarpment of the Arabs" (viz. to the south and east of "the island".[12] Until 602, the desert frontier of the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
had been guarded by the Arab Lakhmid
Lakhmid
kings of Al-Hirah. In that year, Shahanshah Khosrow II
Khosrow II
Aparviz (Persian خسرو پرويز) abolished the Lakhmid kingdom and laid the frontier open to nomad incursions. Farther north, the western quarter was bounded by the Byzantine Empire. The frontier more or less followed the modern Syria- Iraq
Iraq
border and continued northward, passing between Nisibis (modern Nusaybin) as the Sassanian frontier fortress and Dara and Amida (modern Diyarbakır) held by the Byzantines. Middle Ages[edit] Muslim conquest[edit] Main article: Muslim conquest of Iraq

The Age of the Caliphs   Prophet Mohammad, 622-632   Rashidun Caliphate, 632-661   Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
in Washington, D.C.

The first organized conflict between local Arab tribes and Persian forces seems to have been in 634, when the Arabs
Arabs
were defeated at the Battle of the Bridge. There was a force of some 5,000 Muslims
Muslims
under Abū `Ubayd ath-Thaqafī, which was routed by the Persians. This was followed by Khalid ibn al-Walid's successful campaign which saw all of Iraq
Iraq
come under Arab rule within a year, with the exception of the Persian Empire's capital, Ctesiphon. Around 636, a larger Arab Muslim force under Sa`d ibn Abī Waqqās
Sa`d ibn Abī Waqqās
defeated the main Persian army at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah
Battle of al-Qādisiyyah
and moved on to capture the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. By the end of 638, the Muslims
Muslims
had conquered all of the Western Sassanid provinces (including modern Iraq), and the last Sassanid Emperor, Yazdegerd III, had fled to central and then northern Persia, where he was killed in 651. The Islamic expansions constituted the largest of the Semitic expansions in history. These new arrivals did not disperse and settle throughout the country; instead they established two new garrison cities, at al-Kūfah, near ancient Babylon, and at Basrah in the south, while the north remained largely Assyrian and Christian
Christian
in character. Abbasid Caliphate[edit] Main articles: Abbasid Caliphate, Islamic Golden Age, and Iranian Intermezzo The city of Baghdad
Baghdad
was built in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. Baghdad
Baghdad
soon became the primary cultural center of the Muslim world
Muslim world
during the centuries of the incipient "Islamic Golden Age" of the 8th to 9th centuries. In the 9th century, the Abbasid Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate
entered a period of decline. During the late 9th to early 11th centuries, a period known as the "Iranian Intermezzo", parts of (the modern territory of) Iraq
Iraq
were governed by a number of minor Iranian emirates, including the Tahirids, Saffarids, Samanids, Buyids and Sallarids. Tughril, the founder of the Seljuk Empire, captured Baghdad
Baghdad
in 1055. In spite of having lost all governance, the Abbasid caliphs nevertheless maintained a highly ritualized court in Baghdad
Baghdad
and remained influential in religious matters, maintaining the orthodoxy of their Sunni
Sunni
sect in opposition to the Ismaili
Ismaili
and Shia
Shia
sects of Islam. Mongol
Mongol
invasion[edit] Further information: Seljuk Empire
Seljuk Empire
and Siege of Baghdad
Baghdad
(1258) In the later 11th century, Iraq
Iraq
fell under the rule of the Khwarazmian dynasty. Both Turkic secular rule and Abassid caliphate came to an end with the Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
of the 13th century.[13] The Mongols under Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
had conquered Khwarezmia by 1221, but Iraq
Iraq
proper gained a respite due to the death of Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
in 1227 and the subsequent power struggles. Möngke Khan
Möngke Khan
from 1251 began a renewed expansion of the Mongol
Mongol
Empire, and when caliph al-Mustasim refused to submit to the Mongols, Baghdad
Baghdad
was besieged and captured by Hulagu Khan
Hulagu Khan
in 1258. With the destruction of the Abbasid Caliphate, Hulagu had an open route to Syria and moved against the other Muslim powers in the region.[14] Turco- Mongol
Mongol
rule[edit] Main articles: Ilkhanate, Timurid Empire, Jalairid Sultanate, Kara Koyunlu, Ag Qoyunlu, and Eldiguzids Iraq
Iraq
now became a province on the southwestern fringes of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
and Baghdad
Baghdad
would never regain its former importance. The Jalayirids
Jalayirids
were a Mongol
Mongol
Jalayir
Jalayir
dynasty[15] which ruled over Iraq and western Persia
Persia
[16] after the breakup of the Ilkhanate
Ilkhanate
in the 1330s. The Jalayirid sultanate lasted about fifty years, until disrupted by Tamerlane's conquests and the revolts of the "Black Sheep Turks" or Qara Qoyunlu
Qara Qoyunlu
Turkmen. After Tamerlane's death in 1405, there was a brief attempt to re-establish the sultanate in southern Iraq
Iraq
and Khuzistan. The Jalayirids
Jalayirids
were finally eliminated by Kara Koyunlu
Kara Koyunlu
in 1432. Ottoman and Mamluk
Mamluk
rule[edit] Further information: Ottoman Empire, Baghdad
Baghdad
Eyalet, Mosul
Mosul
Eyalet, Basra
Basra
Eyalet, and Mamluk
Mamluk
dynasty of Iraq During the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the Black Sheep Turkmen ruled the area now known as Iraq. In 1466, the White Sheep Turkmen defeated the Black Sheep and took control. In the 16th century, most of the territory of present-day Iraq
Iraq
came under the control of Ottoman Empire as the pashalik of Baghdad. Throughout most of the period of Ottoman rule (1533-1918) the territory of present-day Iraq
Iraq
was a battle zone between the rival regional empires and tribal alliances. Iraq
Iraq
was divided into three vilayets:

Mosul
Mosul
Province Baghdad
Baghdad
Province Basra
Basra
Province

The Safavid dynasty
Safavid dynasty
of Iran
Iran
briefly asserted their hegemony over Iraq in the periods of 1508-1533 and 1622-1638. During the years 1747-1831 Iraq
Iraq
was ruled by the Mamluk
Mamluk
officers of Georgian origin who succeeded in obtaining autonomy from the Ottoman Empire, suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order and introduced a program of modernization of economy and military. In 1831, the Ottomans managed to overthrow the Mamluk
Mamluk
regime and again imposed their direct control over Iraq.[17] 20th century[edit] Main article: 20th century history of Iraq British mandate[edit] Main article: Mandatory Iraq

Iraqi market in Mosul, 1932

Ottoman rule over Iraq
Iraq
lasted until World War I, when the Ottomans sided with Germany
Germany
and the Central Powers. In the Mesopotamian campaign against the Central Powers, British forces invaded the country and suffered a defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut
Siege of Kut
(1915–16). However the British finally won in the Mesopotamian Campaign with the capture of Baghdad
Baghdad
in March 1917. During the war the British employed the help of a number of Assyrian, Armenian and Arab tribes against the Ottomans, who in turn employed the Kurds as allies. After the war the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was divided up, and the British Mandate of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
was established by League of Nations mandate. Britain imposed a Hāshimite monarchy on Iraq
Iraq
and defined the territorial limits of Iraq
Iraq
without taking into account the politics of the different ethnic and religious groups in the country, in particular those of the Kurds and the Christian
Christian
Assyrians to the north. During the British occupation, the Kurds fought for independence, and the British employed Assyrian Levies
Assyrian Levies
to help quell these insurrections. Iraq
Iraq
also became an oligarchy government at this time. Although the monarch Faisal I of Iraq
Iraq
was legitimized and proclaimed King by a plebiscite in 1921, independence was achieved in 1932, when the British Mandate officially ended. Independent Kingdom of Iraq[edit]

Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Iraq
Kingdom of Iraq
1932-1959

Establishment of Arab Sunni
Sunni
domination in Iraq
Iraq
was followed by Assyrian, Yazidi and Shi'a unrests, which were all brutally suppressed. In 1936, the first military coup took place in the Kingdom of Iraq, as Bakr Sidqi
Bakr Sidqi
succeeded in replacing the acting Prime Minister with his associate. Multiple coups followed in a period of political instability, peaking in 1941. During World War II, Iraqi regime of Regent 'Abd al-Ilah
'Abd al-Ilah
was overthrown in 1941 by the Golden Square officers, headed by Rashid Ali. The short lived pro-Nazi government of Iraq
Iraq
was defeated in May 1941 by the allied forces (with local Assyrian and Kurdish help) in Anglo-Iraqi War. Iraq
Iraq
was later used as a base for allied attacks on Vichy-French held Mandate of Syria
Mandate of Syria
and support for the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran.[18] In 1945, Iraq
Iraq
joined the United Nations
United Nations
and became a founding member of the Arab League. At the same time, the Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani led a rebellion against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising, Barzani and his followers fled to the Soviet Union. In 1948, massive violent protests known as the Al-Wathbah uprising broke out across Baghdad
Baghdad
with partial communist support, having demands against the government's treaty with Britain. Protests continued into spring and were interrupted in May when martial law was enforced as Iraq
Iraq
entered the failed 1948 Arab-Israeli War
1948 Arab-Israeli War
along with other Arab League
Arab League
members. In February 1958, King Hussein of Jordan
Hussein of Jordan
and `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed Egyptian-Syrian union. The prime minister Nuri as-Said
Nuri as-Said
wanted Kuwait to be part of the proposed Arab-Hāshimite Union. Shaykh `Abd-Allāh as-Salīm, the ruler of Kuwait, was invited to Baghdad
Baghdad
to discuss Kuwait's future. This policy brought the government of Iraq
Iraq
into direct conflict with Britain, which did not want to grant independence to Kuwait. At that point, the monarchy found itself completely isolated. Nuri as-Said
Nuri as-Said
was able to contain the rising discontent only by resorting to even greater political oppression. Republic
Republic
of Iraq[edit] Further information: Iraqi Republic
Republic
(1958–68) Inspired by Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
of Egypt, officers from the Nineteenth Brigade, 3rd Division known as "The Four Colonials", under the leadership of Brigadier Abd al-Karīm Qāsim (known as "az-Za`īm", 'the leader') and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif
Abdul Salam Arif
overthrew the Hashimite monarchy on July 14, 1958. The new government proclaimed Iraq
Iraq
to be a republic and rejected the idea of a union with Jordan. Iraq's activity in the Baghdad
Baghdad
Pact ceased. In 1961, Kuwait
Kuwait
gained independence from Britain and Iraq
Iraq
claimed sovereignty over Kuwait. A period of considerable instability followed. The same year, Mustafa Barzani, who had been invited to return to Iraq
Iraq
by Qasim three years earlier, began engaging Iraqi government forces and establishing Kurdish control in the north in what was the beginning of the First Kurdish Iraqi War. Ba'athist Iraq[edit] Main article: Ba'athist Iraq Qāsim was assassinated in February 1963, when the Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
took power under the leadership of General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
(prime minister) and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif
Abdul Salam Arif
(president). In June 1963, Syria, which by then had also fallen under Ba'athist rule, took part in the Iraqi military campaign against the Kurds by providing aircraft, armoured vehicles and a force of 6,000 soldiers. Several months later, `Abd as-Salam Muhammad `Arif led a successful coup against the Ba'ath government. Arif declared a ceasefire in February 1964 which provoked a split among Kurdish urban radicals on one hand and Peshmerga
Peshmerga
(Freedom fighters) forces led by Barzani on the other. On April 13, 1966, President Abdul Salam Arif
Abdul Salam Arif
died in a helicopter crash and was succeeded by his brother, General Abdul Rahman Arif. Following this unexpected death, the Iraqi government launched a last-ditch effort to defeat the Kurds. This campaign failed in May 1966, when Barzani forces thoroughly defeated the Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
at the Battle of Mount Handrin, near Rawanduz. Following the Six Day War
Six Day War
of 1967, the Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
felt strong enough to retake power in 1968. Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
became president and chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC). The Ba'ath government started a campaign to end the Kurdish insurrection, which stalled in 1969. This can be partly attributed to the internal power struggle in Baghdad
Baghdad
and also tensions with Iran. Moreover, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
pressured the Iraqis
Iraqis
to come to terms with Barzani. The war ended with more than 100,000 mortal casualties, with little achievements to both Kurdish rebels and the Iraqi government. In the aftermath of the First Kurdish Iraqi War, a peace plan was announced in March 1970 and provided for broader Kurdish autonomy. The plan also gave Kurds representation in government bodies, to be implemented in four years.[19] Despite this, the Iraqi government embarked on an Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin
Khanaqin
in the same period.[20] In the following years, Baghdad government overcame its internal divisions and concluded a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in April 1972 and ended its isolation within the Arab world. On the other hand, Kurds remained dependent on the Iranian military support and could do little to strengthen their forces. By 1974 the situation in the north escalated again into the Second Kurdish Iraqi War, to last until 1975. Under Saddam Hussein[edit]

Promoting women's education in the 1970s.

In July 1979, President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
was forced to resign by Saddam Hussein, who assumed the offices of both President and Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council. Territorial disputes with Iran
Iran
led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war, the Iran– Iraq
Iraq
War (1980–1988, termed Qādisiyyat-Saddām – 'Saddam's Qādisiyyah'), which devastated the economy. Iraq
Iraq
declared victory in 1988 but actually achieved a weary return to the status quo ante bellum, meaning both sides retained their original borders. The war began when Iraq
Iraq
invaded Iran, launching a simultaneous invasion by air and land into Iranian territory on 22 September 1980, following a long history of border disputes, and fears of Shia insurgency among Iraq's long-suppressed Shia
Shia
majority influenced by the Iranian Revolution. Iraq
Iraq
was also aiming to replace Iran
Iran
as the dominant Persian Gulf
Persian Gulf
state. The United States
United States
supported Saddam Hussein in the war against Iran.[21] Although Iraq
Iraq
hoped to take advantage of the revolutionary chaos in Iran
Iran
and attacked without formal warning, they made only limited progress into Iran
Iran
and within several months were repelled by the Iranians who regained virtually all lost territory by June 1982. For the next six years, Iran
Iran
was on the offensive.[22] Despite calls for a ceasefire by the United Nations Security Council, hostilities continued until 20 August 1988. The war finally ended with a United Nations
United Nations
brokered ceasefire in the form of United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 598, which was accepted by both sides. It took several weeks for the Iranian armed forces to evacuate Iraqi territory to honor pre-war international borders between the two nations (see 1975 Algiers Agreement). The last prisoners of war were exchanged in 2003.[22][23] The war came at a great cost in lives and economic damage—half a million Iraqi and Iranian soldiers as well as civilians are believed to have died in the war with many more injured—but it brought neither reparations nor change in borders. The conflict is often compared to World War I,[24] in that the tactics used closely mirrored those of that conflict, including large scale trench warfare, manned machine-gun posts, bayonet charges, use of barbed wire across trenches, human wave attacks across no-man's land, and extensive use of chemical weapons such as mustard gas by the Iraqi government against Iranian troops and civilians as well as Iraqi Kurds. At the time, the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
issued statements that "chemical weapons had been used in the war." However, in these UN statements it was never made clear that it was only Iraq
Iraq
that was using chemical weapons, so it has been said that "the international community remained silent as Iraq
Iraq
used weapons of mass destruction against Iranian as well as Iraqi Kurds" and it is believed. A long-standing territorial dispute was the ostensible reason for Iraq's invasion of Kuwait
Kuwait
in 1990. In November 1990, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 678, permitting member states to use all necessary means, authorizing military action against the Iraqi forces occupying Kuwait
Kuwait
and demanded a complete withdrawal by January 15, 1991. When Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
failed to comply with this demand, the Persian Gulf War
Gulf War
(Operation "Desert Storm") ensued on January 17, 1991. Probably as many as 30,000 Iraqi soldiers and a few thousand civilians were killed.[citation needed] In March 1991 revolts in the Shia-dominated southern Iraq
Iraq
started involving demoralized Iraqi Army
Iraqi Army
troops and the anti-government Shia parties. Another wave of insurgency broke out shortly afterwards in the Kurdish populated northern Iraq
Iraq
(see 1991 uprisings in Iraq). Although they presented a serious threat to the Iraqi Ba'ath Party regime, Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
managed to suppress the rebellions with massive and indiscriminate force and maintained power. They were ruthlessly crushed by the loyalist forces spearheaded by the Iraqi Republican Guard and the population was successfully terrorized. During the few weeks of unrest tens of thousands of people were killed. Many more died during the following months, while nearly two million Iraqis
Iraqis
fled for their lives. In the aftermath, the government intensified the forced relocating of Marsh Arabs
Arabs
and the draining of the Iraqi marshlands, while the Coalition established the Iraqi no-fly zones. On 6 August 1990, after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 661 which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo, excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity, these to be determined by the Security Council sanctions committee. After the end of the Gulf War
Gulf War
and after the Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait, the sanctions were linked to removal of weapons of mass destruction by Resolution 687.[25] From 1991 until 2003 Iraq
Iraq
underwent hyperinflation, increased poverty and malnutrition. To varying degrees, the effects of government policy, the aftermath of Gulf War and the sanctions regime have been blamed for these conditions. The effects of the sanctions on the civilian population of Iraq
Iraq
have been disputed.[26][27] Whereas it was widely believed that the sanctions caused a major rise in child mortality, recent research has shown that commonly cited data were fabricated by the Iraqi government and that "there was no major rise in child mortality in Iraq
Iraq
after 1990 and during the period of the sanctions."[28][29][30] An oil for food program was established in 1996 to ease the effects of sanctions. Iraqi cooperation with UN weapons inspection teams was questioned on several occasions during the 1990s. UNSCOM
UNSCOM
chief weapons inspector Richard Butler withdrew his team from Iraq
Iraq
in November 1998 because of Iraq's lack of cooperation. The team returned in December.[31] Butler prepared a report for the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
afterwards in which he expressed dissatisfaction with the level of compliance [2]. The same month, US President Bill Clinton authorized air strikes on government targets and military facilities. Air strikes against military facilities and alleged WMD sites continued into 2002. Recent history (2003–present)[edit]

v t e

Iraq
Iraq
War

Timeline

2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Invasion (2003)

Umm Qasr Al Faw 1st Basra Nasiriyah Raid on Karbala Haditha Dam 1st Najaf Airborne Dragon Northern Delay Viking Hammer Samawah 1st Karbala Al Kut Hillah Green Line Karbala Gap Baghdad Debecka Pass Kani Domlan Ridge

Post-invasion insurgency (2003–06)

Al Anbar 1st Ramadan Red Dawn Spring 2004

Al Kut 1st Fallujah Sadr City 1st Ramadi Husaybah

Danny Boy 2nd Najaf CIMIC-House Samarra 2nd Fallujah Mosul Lake Tharthar Al Qaim Hit Haditha Steel Curtain Tal Afar 2nd Ramadi Together Forward Diwaniya

Sectarian violence (2006-08)

2nd Ramadan Sinbad Amarah Turki Diyala Haifa Street Karbala Raid 3rd Najaf Imposing Law U.K. bases Black Eagle Baghdad
Baghdad
belts Baqubah Donkey Island Shurta Nasir Phantom Strike 2nd Karbala Phantom Phoenix

Insurgency (2008–11)

2008 Day of Ashura Ninawa Spring 2008 2nd Basra 2008 Al-Qaeda Offensive Augurs of Prosperity Abu Kamal Camp Ashraf Palm Grove US withdrawal violence

v t e

Insurgent attacks of the Iraq
Iraq
War

‡ indicates attacks resulting in over 100 deaths § indicates the deadliest attack in the Iraq
Iraq
WarThis list only includes major attacks.

2003 1st Baghdad 2nd Baghdad Najaf 3rd Baghdad 1st Nasiriyah 1st Karbala

2004 ‡ 1st Erbil ‡ Ashoura 1st Basra Mosul
Mosul
(2004) 4th Baghdad 5th Baghdad Karbala-Najaf 1st Baqubah Kufa FOB Marez

2005 Suwaira bombing ‡ 1st Al Hillah 2nd Erbil ‡ Musayyib 6th Baghdad ‡ 7th Baghdad 1st Balad Khanaqin

2006 ‡ Karbala-Ramadi 1st Samarra 8th Baghdad 9th Baghdad ‡ 10th Baghdad

2007 11th Baghdad 12th Baghdad ‡ 13th Baghdad 14th Baghdad 15th Baghdad 2nd Al Hillah ‡ 1st Tal Afar 16th Baghdad 17th Baghdad 2nd & 3rd Karbala Mosul
Mosul
(2007) ‡ 18th Baghdad Makhmour Abu Sayda 2nd Samarra 19th Baghdad ‡ Amirli 1st Kirkuk 20th Baghdad 21st Baghdad § Qahtaniya Amarah

2008 22nd Baghdad 2nd Balad 23rd Baghdad 4th Karbala 24th Baghdad Karmah 2nd Baqubah Dujail Balad Ruz

2009 25th Baghdad 26th Baghdad Baghdad-Muqdadiyah Taza 27th Baghdad 2nd Kirkuk 2nd Tal Afar ‡ 28th Baghdad ‡ 29th Baghdad ‡ 30th Baghdad

2010 31st Baghdad 32nd Baghdad 3rd Baqubah 33rd Baghdad 34th Baghdad 35th Baghdad ‡ 1st Pan-Iraq 36th Baghdad 37th Baghdad 2nd Pan-Iraq 38th Baghdad 39th Baghdad ‡ 40th Baghdad

2011 41st Baghdad ‡ 3rd Pan-Iraq Karbala-Baghdad 42nd Baghdad Tikrit 3rd Al Hillah 3rd Samarra Al Diwaniyah Taji 4th Pan-Iraq 43rd Baghdad 4th Karbala 44th Baghdad 2nd Basra 45th Baghdad

2003 invasion[edit] Main article: 2003 invasion of Iraq After the terrorist attacks on New York and Washington in the United States in 2001 were linked to the group formed by the multi-millionaire Saudi Osama bin Laden, American foreign policy began to call for the removal of the Ba'ath government in Iraq. Neoconservative think-tanks in Washington had for years been urging regime change in Baghdad, but until the Iraq
Iraq
Liberation Act of 1998, official US policy was to simply keep Iraq
Iraq
complying with UN sanctions. The Iraq
Iraq
Liberation Act, codified regime change in Iraq
Iraq
as the official policy of the United States
United States
government. It was passed 99-0 by the United States Senate
United States Senate
in 1998. The US urged the United Nations
United Nations
to take military action against Iraq. American president George W. Bush
George W. Bush
stated that Saddām had repeatedly violated 16 UN Security Council
UN Security Council
resolutions. The Iraqi government rejected Bush's assertions. A team of U.N. inspectors, led by Swedish diplomat Hans Blix
Hans Blix
was admitted, into the country; their final report stated that Iraqis
Iraqis
capability in producing "weapons of mass destruction" was not significantly different from 1992 when the country dismantled the bulk of their remaining arsenals under terms of the ceasefire agreement with U.N. forces, but did not completely rule out the possibility that Saddam still had weapons of mass destruction. The United States
United States
and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
charged that Iraq
Iraq
was hiding WMD and opposed the team's requests for more time to further investigate the matter. Resolution 1441 was passed unanimously by the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
on November 8, 2002, offering Iraq
Iraq
"a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations" that had been set out in several previous UN resolutions, threatening "serious consequences" if the obligations were not fulfilled. The UN Security Council did not issue a resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq. In March 2003, the United States
United States
and the United Kingdom, with military aid from other nations, invaded Iraq. Occupation (2003–11)[edit] Main article: History of Iraq
Iraq
(2003–11)

Occupation zones in Iraq
Iraq
in September 2003

U.S. Army
U.S. Army
soldier searches an Iraqi boy, March 2011.

In 2003, after the American and British invasion, Iraq
Iraq
was occupied by Coalition forces. On May 23, 2003, the UN Security Council
UN Security Council
unanimously approved a resolution lifting all economic sanctions against Iraq. As the country struggled to rebuild after three wars and a decade of sanctions, it was plagued by violence between a growing Iraqi insurgency and occupation forces. Saddam Hussein, who vanished in April, was captured on December 13, 2003. Jay Garner
Jay Garner
was appointed Interim Civil Administrator with three deputies, including Tim Cross. Garner was replaced in May 2003 by L. Paul Bremer, who was himself replaced by John Negroponte
John Negroponte
on April 19, 2004. Negroponte was the last US interim administrator and left Iraq in 2005. A parliamentary election was held in January 2005, followed by the drafting and ratification of a constitution and a further parliamentary election in December 2005. Terrorism emerged as a threat to Iraq's people not long after the invasion of 2003. Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
now had a presence in the country, in the form of several terrorist groups formerly led by Abu Musab Al Zarqawi. Al-Zarqawi was a Jordanian militant Islamist who ran a militant training camp in Afghanistan. He became known after going to Iraq
Iraq
and being responsible for a series of bombings, beheadings and attacks during the Iraq
Iraq
war. Al-zarqawi was killed on June 7, 2006. Many foreign fighters and former Ba'ath Party
Ba'ath Party
officials also joined the insurgency, which was mainly aimed at attacking American forces and Iraqis
Iraqis
who worked with them. The most dangerous insurgent area was the Sunni
Sunni
Triangle, a mostly Sunni-Muslim area just north of Baghdad. Reported acts of violence conducted by an uneasy tapestry of insurgents steadily increased by the end of 2006.[32] Sunni
Sunni
jihadist forces including Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
in Iraq
Iraq
continued to target Shia
Shia
civilians, notably in the 23 February 2006 attack on the Al Askari Mosque
Al Askari Mosque
in Samarra, one of Shi'ite Islam's holiest sites. Analysis of the attack suggested that the Mujahideen Shura Council and Al-Qaeda in Iraq
Iraq
were responsible, and that the motivation was to provoke further violence by outraging the Shia
Shia
population.[33] In mid-October 2006, a statement was released stating that the Mujahideen Shura Council had been disbanded and was replaced by the "Islamic State of Iraq". It was formed to resist efforts by the U.S. and Iraqi authorities to win over Sunni
Sunni
supporters of the insurgency. Shia
Shia
militias, some of whom were associated with elements in the Iraq
Iraq
government, reacted with reprisal acts against the Sunni
Sunni
minority. A cycle of violence thus ensued whereby Sunni
Sunni
insurgent attacks were followed reprisals by Shiite militias, often in the form of Shi'ite death squads that sought out and killed Sunnis. Following a surge in U.S. troops in 2007 and 2008, violence in Iraq
Iraq
began to decrease. The U.S. ended their main military presence in 2011, however, resulting in renewed escalation into civil war.[34] Insurgency and civil war (2011–present)[edit] Main article: History of Iraq
Iraq
(2011–present)

v t e

Iraqi Civil War (2014–present)

Timeline

2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

Battles and operations

1st Anbar

1st Fallujah

1st Northern Iraq

1st Mosul Badush prison Camp Speicher 1st Kirkuk

2nd Northern Iraq

Zumar 1st Sinjar Mosul
Mosul
Dam

Musab bin Umair mosque Suq al-Ghazi Saqlawiyah 1st Hīt Jurf al-Sakhar Salahuddin

1st Baiji Siege of Amirli 1st Tikrit 2nd Baiji 3rd Baiji Dhuluiya 2nd Tikrit

1st Ramadi 2nd Sinjar 2nd Mosul 2nd Kirkuk Al-Karmah 2nd Anbar

2nd Ramadi 2nd Fallujah 2nd Hīt Ar-Rutbah 3rd Fallujah

3rd Sinjar Nineveh
Nineveh
Plains offensive 3rd Mosul 4th Mosul

Mosul
Mosul
airstrike Western Nineveh

3rd Kirkuk Hamam al-Alil 4th Sinjar Turkish Sinjar
Sinjar
airstrike Tal Afar Western Anbar Hawija 4th Kirkuk Western Iraq

Major insurgent attacks

1st Hillah 1st Baghdad Khan Bani Saad 2nd Baghdad Sharaban Ramadi Mosul 3rd Baghdad Miqdadiyah 2nd Hillah Iskandariya 4th Baghdad Samawa 5th Baghdad 1st Balad Taji 6th Baghdad 7th Baghdad 2nd Balad 8th Baghdad 9th Baghdad 3rd Hillah 10th Baghdad 11th Baghdad Tikrit 12th Baghdad Nasiriyah 13th Baghdad

Foreign interventions

Iranian-led intervention American-led intervention

Inherent Resolve Shader Okra Chammal Impact

ISIL genocide of minorities

Christian
Christian
genocide Yazidi genocide Shia
Shia
genocide

ISIL war crimes

Mosul
Mosul
executions Chemical weapons

Further information: Iraqi insurgency (2011–13), Iraqi Civil War (2014–present), Northern Iraq
Iraq
offensive (June 2014), Northern Iraq offensive (August 2014), and Battle of Mosul
Mosul
(2016–2017) The departure of US troops from Iraq
Iraq
in 2011 triggered a renewed insurgency and by a spillover of the Syrian civil war
Syrian civil war
into Iraq. By 2013, the insurgency escalated into a state renewed civil war, the central government of Iraq
Iraq
being opposed by various factions, primarily radical Sunni
Sunni
forces. The Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant invaded Iraq
Iraq
in 2013–14 and seized the majority of Anbar province,[35] including the cities of Fallujah,[36] Al Qaim,[37] Abu Ghraib[38] and (in May 2015) Ramadi,[39] leaving them in control of 90% of Anbar.[40][41] Tikrit, Mosul
Mosul
and most of the Nineveh
Nineveh
province, along with parts of Salahuddin, Kirkuk and Diyala provinces, were seized by insurgent forces in the June 2014 offensive.[42] ISIS also captured Sinjar
Sinjar
and a number of other towns in the August 2014 offensive, but were halted by the Sinjar
Sinjar
offensive launched in December 2014 by Kurdish Peshmerga
Peshmerga
and YPG forces. See also[edit]

Abbasid Caliphate Akkadian
Akkadian
Empire Assyria Babylonia History of Asia History of Baghdad History of the Middle East List of kings of Iraq List of presidents of Iraq List of Prime Ministers of Iraq Mesopotamia Politics of Iraq Sumer Timeline of Baghdad Timeline of Basra

References[edit]

^ Hart, Ron Duncan (2007), A Phoenix Rising, World Arts Press, p. 33, ISBN 978-0-9777514-1-9  Elsheshtawy, Yasser (2004), Planning Middle Eastern Cities, Routledge, p. 60, ISBN 978-0-415-30400-9  "Baghdad's Treasure: Lost To The Ages". Time. 28 April 2003. Retrieved 4 May 2010.  ^ Concise Encyclopedia Of World History. Carlos Ramirez-Faria. 2007. p. 33.  ^ Milton-Edwards, Beverley (May 2003). "Iraq, past, present and future: a thoroughly-modern mandate?". History & Policy. United Kingdom: History & Policy. Retrieved 9 December 2010.  ^ a b George Roux - Ancient Iraq ^ Georges Roux - Ancient Iraq ^ Deutscher, Guy (2007). Syntactic Change in Akkadian: The Evolution of Sentential Complementation. Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press
US. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-19-953222-3.  ^ [Woods C. 2006 “Bilingualism, Scribal Learning, and the Death of Sumerian”. In S.L. Sanders (ed) Margins of Writing, Origins of Culture: 91-120 Chicago [1] ^ According to the Assyrian King List
Assyrian King List
and Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq, p. 187. ^ "Black Obelisk, K. C. Hanson's Collection of Mesopotamian Documents". K.C. Hansen. Retrieved 23 November 2014.  ^ a b Steven C. Hause, William S. Maltby (2004). Western civilization: a history of European society. Thomson Wadsworth. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-534-62164-3. The Greco-Macedonian Elite. The Seleucids respected the cultural and religious sensibilities of their subjects but preferred to rely on Greek or Macedonian soldiers and administrators for the day-to-day business of governing. The Greek population of the cities, reinforced until the second century BCE by immigration from Greece, formed a dominant, although not especially cohesive, elite.  ^ Glubb, Sir John Bagot (1967). Syria, Lebanon, Jordan. Thames & Hudson. p. 34. OCLC 585939. In addition to the court and the army, Syrian cities were full of Greek businessmen, many of them pure Greeks from Greece. The senior posts in the civil service were also held by Greeks. Although the Ptolemies and the Seleucids were perpetual rivals, both dynasties were Greek and ruled by means of Greek officials and Greek soldiers. Both governments made great efforts to attract immigrants from Greece, thereby adding yet another racial element to the population.  ^ possibly an Arabic
Arabic
folk etymology of an older toponym deriving from the name of Uruk, see name of Iraq. ^ Thomas T. Allsen Culture and Conquest in Mongol
Mongol
Eurasia, p.84 ^ Morgan. The Mongols. pp. 132–135. ^ Bayne Fisher, William "The Cambridge History of Iran", p.3: "(From then until the Timur's invasion of the country, Iran
Iran
was under the rule of various rival petty princes of whom henceforth only the Jalayirids
Jalayirids
could claim Mongol) ^ The History Files Rulers of Persia ^ Iraq. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 October 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
Online. ^ Robert Lyman (2006). Iraq
Iraq
1941: The Battles For Basra, Habbaniya, Fallujah
Fallujah
and Baghdad. Osprey Publishing. pp. 12–17.  ^ G.S. Harris, Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pp.118–120, 1977 ^ "Introduction : GENOCIDE IN IRAQ: The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds (Human Rights Watch Report, 1993)". Hrw.org. Retrieved 2010-12-28.  ^ Tyler, Patrick E. "Officers Say U.S. Aided Iraq
Iraq
in War Despite Use of Gas" New York Times August 18, 2002. ^ a b Molavi, Afshin (2005). "The Soul of Iran". Norton: 152.  ^ Fathi, Nazila (14 March 2003). "Threats And Responses: Briefly Noted; Iran- Iraq
Iraq
Prisoner Deal". The New York Times.  ^ Abrahamian, Ervand, A History of Modern Iran, Cambridge, 2008, p.171 ^ " UN Security Council
UN Security Council
Resolution 687 -1991". www.mideastweb.org.  ^ Iraq
Iraq
surveys show 'humanitarian emergency' UNICEF
UNICEF
Newsline August 12, 1999 ^ Rubin, Michael (December 2001). "Sanctions on Iraq: A Valid Anti-American Grievance?". 5 (4). Middle East Review of International Affairs: 100–115. Archived from the original on 2012-10-28.  ^ Spagat, Michael (September 2010). "Truth and death in Iraq
Iraq
under sanctions" (PDF). Significance.  ^ Dyson, Tim; Cetorelli, Valeria (2017-07-01). "Changing views on child mortality and economic sanctions in Iraq: a history of lies, damned lies and statistics". BMJ Global Health. 2 (2): e000311. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000311. ISSN 2059-7908.  ^ " Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
said sanctions killed 500,000 children. That was 'a spectacular lie.'". Washington Post. Retrieved 2017-08-04.  ^ Richard Butler, Saddam Defiant, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 2000, p. 224 ^ Gordon, Michael R.; Mazzetti, Mark; Shanker, Thom (17 August 2006). "Bombs Aimed at G.I.'s in Iraq
Iraq
Are Increasing". nytimes.com. Retrieved 27 March 2014.  ^ Ibrahim, Ellen Knickmeyer and K. I. (23 February 2006). "Bombing Shatters Mosque In Iraq" – via www.washingtonpost.com.  ^ Logan, Joseph (December 18, 2011). "Last U.S. troops leave Iraq, ending war". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-08-12.  ^ "John Kerry holds talks in Iraq
Iraq
as more cities fall to ISIS militants". CNN. 23 June 2014.  ^ "Al Qaeda-linked militants capture Fallujah
Fallujah
during violent outbreak". Fox News Channel. 4 January 2014.  ^ "Militants kill 21 Iraqi leaders, capture 2 border crossings". NY Daily News. Retrieved 14 October 2014.  ^ " Iraq
Iraq
Update #42: Al-Qaeda in Iraq
Iraq
Patrols Fallujah; Aims for Ramadi, Mosul, Baghdad". Institute for the Study of War. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ "Isis seizes Ramadi". The Independent. May 18, 2015.  ^ "Iraq: Shiite Gov't faces Mammoth Task in taking Sunni
Sunni
al-Anbar from ISIL". Informed Comment. Retrieved 11 June 2015.  ^ "Islamic State overruns Camp Speicher, routs Iraqi forces". Retrieved 14 October 2014.  ^ Reuters (2014-06-09). "Insurgents in Iraq
Iraq
Overrun Mosul
Mosul
Provincial Government Headquarters". Voanews.com. Retrieved 2014-07-31.  "Iraqi city of Mosul
Mosul
falls to jihadists". CBS. 10 June 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Kriwaczek, Paul. Babylon : Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and the Birth of Civilization. Atlantic Books (2010). ISBN 978-1-84887-157-1 Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. Penguin Books (1992). ISBN 0-14-012523-X Taurus,I.B. Three Kings in Baghdad: The Tragedy of Iraq's Monarchy, (2008). ISBN 978-1-84511-535-7 Tripp, Charles R. H. (2002). A History of Iraq. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87823-4. 

External links[edit]

Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization Iraq
Iraq
History and Culture from the cradle of civilization and Noah to the present age and time Historical Context of the Iran
Iran
- Iraq
Iraq
War from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives

v t e

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638–1958

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