The history of fluid mechanics, the study of how fluids move and the forces on them, dates back to the Ancient Greeks. Contents 1 Antiquity 1.1 Pre-history 1.2 Archimedes 1.3 The Alexandrian school 1.4 Sextus Julius Frontinus 2 Middle Ages 2.1 Islamicate physicists 2.2 Islamicate engineers 3 Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 3.1 Castelli and Torricelli 3.2 Blaise Pascal 3.3 Mariotte and Guglielmini 3.4 Studies by Isaac Newton 3.4.1
3.5 Daniel Bernoulli 3.6 Jean le Rond d'Alembert 3.7 Leonhard Euler 3.8 Pierre Louis Georges Dubuat 4 Nineteenth century 4.1 Hermann von Helmholtz
4.2 Gaspard Riche de Prony
4.3 Johann Albert Eytelwein
4.4
5 Twentieth century 5.1 Developments in vortex dynamics 6 Further reading 7 References Antiquity[edit] Pre-history[edit] A pragmatic, if not scientific, knowledge of fluid flow was exhibited by ancient civilizations, such as in the design of arrows, spears, boats, and particularly hydraulic engineering projects for flood protection, irrigation, drainage, and water supply.[1] The earliest human civilizations began near the shores of rivers, and consequently coincided with the dawn of hydrology, hydraulics, and hydraulic engineering. Archimedes[edit] The forces at work in buoyancy as discovered by Archimedes. Note that the object is floating because the upward force of buoyancy is equal to the downward force of gravity. The fundamental principles of hydrostatics and dynamics were given by
This section possibly contains inappropriate or misinterpreted citations that do not verify the text. Please help improve this article by checking for citation inaccuracies. (September 2010) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Islamicate physicists[edit]
See also: Physics in medieval Islam
Islamicate scientists, particularly
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2010) Developments in vortex dynamics[edit]
Vortex dynamics is a vibrant subfield of fluid dynamics, commanding
attention at major scientific conferences and precipitating workshops
and symposia that focus fully on the subject.
A curious diversion in the history of vortex dynamics was the vortex
atom theory of William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin. His basic idea was
that atoms were to be represented as vortex motions in the ether. This
theory predated the quantum theory by several decades and because of
the scientific standing of its originator received considerable
attention. Many profound insights into vortex dynamics were generated
during the pursuit of this theory. Other interesting corollaries were
the first counting of simple knots by P. G. Tait, today considered a
pioneering effort in graph theory, topology and knot theory.
Ultimately, Kelvin's vortex atom was seen to be wrong-headed but the
many results in vortex dynamics that it precipitated have stood the
test of time. Kelvin himself originated the notion of circulation and
proved that in an inviscid fluid circulation around a material contour
would be conserved. This result — singled out by Einstein in "Zum
hundertjährigen Gedenktag von Lord Kelvins Geburt,
Naturwissenschaften, 12 (1924), 601–602," (title translation: "On
the 100th Anniversary of Lord Kelvin's Birth"), as one of the most
significant results of Kelvin's work provided an early link between
fluid dynamics and topology.
The history of vortex dynamics seems particularly rich in discoveries
and re-discoveries of important results, because results obtained were
entirely forgotten after their discovery and then were re-discovered
decades later. Thus, the integrability of the problem of three point
vortices on the plane was solved in the 1877 thesis of a young Swiss
applied mathematician named Walter Gröbli. In spite of having been
written in
J.D. Anderson, Jr. (1997). A History of Aerodynamics (Cambridge
University Press). ISBN 0-521-45435-2
J.D. Anderson, Jr. (1998). Some Reflections on the History of Fluid
Dynamics, in The Handbook of
References[edit] ^ G. Garbrecht (1987). Hydrologic and hydraulic concepts in antiquity
in
Using a whole body of mathematical methods (not only those inherited
from the antique theory of ratios and infinitesimal techniques, but
also the methods of the contemporary algebra and fine calculation
techniques), Arabic scientists raised statics to a new, higher level.
The classical results of
^ Marshall Clagett (1961), The Science of Mechanics in the Middle
Ages, p. 64, University of Wisconsin Press
^ Robert E. Hall (1973), "Al-Biruni", Dictionary of Scientific
Biography, Vol. VII, p. 336
^ a b Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part
II: Transmission Of Islamic
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University |