HOME
The Info List - History Of Denmark





The history of Denmark
Denmark
as a unified kingdom began in the 8th century, but historic documents describe the geographic area and the people living there—the Danes—as early as 500 AD. These early documents include the writings of Jordanes
Jordanes
and Procopius. With the Christianization
Christianization
of the Danes
Danes
c. 960 AD, it is clear that there existed a kingship speaking. Queen Margrethe II
Margrethe II
can trace her lineage back to the Viking
Viking
kings Gorm the Old
Gorm the Old
and Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth
from this time, thus making the Monarchy of Denmark
Denmark
the oldest in Europe.[1] The area now known as Denmark
Denmark
has a rich prehistory, having been populated by several prehistoric cultures and people for about 12,000 years, since the end of the last ice age. Denmark's history has particularly been influenced by its geographical location between the North and Baltic seas, a strategically and economically important placement between Sweden
Sweden
and Germany, at the center of mutual struggles for control of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
(dominium maris baltici). Denmark
Denmark
was long in disputes with Sweden
Sweden
over control of Skånelandene
Skånelandene
and with Germany
Germany
over control of Schleswig
Schleswig
(a Danish fief) and Holstein
Holstein
(a German fief). Eventually, Denmark
Denmark
lost these conflicts and ended up ceding first Skåneland
Skåneland
to Sweden
Sweden
and later Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
to the German Empire. After the eventual cession of Norway
Norway
in 1814, Denmark
Denmark
retained control of the old Norwegian colonies of the Faroe Islands, Greenland and Iceland. During the 20th century, Iceland
Iceland
gained independence, Greenland
Greenland
and the Faroese became integral parts of the Kingdom of Denmark
Denmark
and North Schleswig
Schleswig
reunited with Denmark
Denmark
in 1920 after a referendum. During World War II, Denmark
Denmark
was occupied by Nazi Germany, but was eventually liberated by British forces of the Allies in 1945,[2] after which it joined the United Nations. In the aftermaths of World War II, and with the emergence of the subsequent Cold War, Denmark
Denmark
was quick to join the military alliance of NATO
NATO
as a founding member in 1949.

Contents

1 Prehistoric Denmark

1.1 Stone and Bronze Age 1.2 Iron Age

2 Middle Ages

2.1 Earliest literary sources 2.2 Viking
Viking
Age 2.3 Christianity, expansion and the establishment of the Kingdom of Denmark 2.4 Count rule 2.5 Margaret and the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
(1397–1523)

3 Early Modern Denmark

3.1 The Reformation

3.1.1 Dissatisfaction with the Catholic Church 3.1.2 Count's Feud
Count's Feud
(1534–1536) 3.1.3 State Lutheranism

3.2 The loss of Eastern Denmark

3.2.1 Torstenson War
Torstenson War
(1643–1645) 3.2.2 Second Northern War
Second Northern War
(1655–1660)

3.3 Absolutism

3.3.1 Great Northern War
Great Northern War
(1700–1721) 3.3.2 Changes in the agricultural economy 3.3.3 The Enlightenment and Danish nationalism

3.3.3.1 Reforms 3.3.3.2 Newspapers

3.4 Colonial ventures

4 The 19th century

4.1 The Napoleonic Wars 4.2 Nationalism
Nationalism
and liberalism 4.3 Industrialisation 4.4 Monetary union

5 The 20th century

5.1 1901–1939 5.2 Second World War 5.3 Post-war

6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 Further reading

8.1 Political history 8.2 Culture and religion 8.3 Economic and social history 8.4 Relations with Germany 8.5 Historiography, memory, teaching 8.6 In German

9 External links

Prehistoric Denmark[edit] See also: Prehistory
Prehistory
of Scandinavia The Scandinavian region has a rich prehistory, having been populated by several prehistoric cultures and people for about 12,000 years, since the end of the last ice age. During the ice age, all of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
was covered by glaciers most of the time, except for the southwestern parts of what we now know as Denmark. When the ice began retreating, the barren tundras were soon inhabited by reindeer and elk, and Ahrenburg and Swiderian hunters from the south followed them here to hunt occasionally. The geography then was very different from what we know today. Sea levels were much lower; the island of Great Britain was connected by a land bridge to mainland Europe and the large area between Great Britain
Great Britain
and the Jutlandic peninsula - now beneath the North Sea
North Sea
and known as Doggerland
Doggerland
- was inhabited by tribes of hunter-gatherers. As the climate warmed up, forceful rivers of meltwater started to flow and shape the virgin lands, and more stable flora and fauna gradually began emerging in Scandinavia, and Denmark
Denmark
in particular. The first human settlers to inhabit Denmark
Denmark
and Scandinavia
Scandinavia
permanently were the Maglemosian people, residing in seasonal camps and exploiting the land, sea, rivers and lakes. It was not until around 6,000 BC that the approximate geography of Denmark
Denmark
as we know it today had been shaped. Denmark
Denmark
has some unique natural conditions for preservation of artifacts, providing a rich and diverse archeological record from which to understand the prehistoric cultures of this area. Stone and Bronze Age[edit]

Stone Dolmen
Dolmen
near Vinstrup, Nørhald. Built in the 3rd millennium BC.

See also: Neolithic, Nordic Stone Age, and Nordic Bronze Age The Weichsel glaciation covered all of Denmark
Denmark
most of the time, except the western coasts of Jutland. It ended around 13,000 years ago, allowing humans to move back into the previously ice-covered territories and establish permanent habitation. During the first post-glacial millennia, the landscape gradually changed from tundra to light forest, and varied fauna including now-extinct megafauna appeared. Early prehistoric cultures uncovered in modern Denmark include the Maglemosian Culture
Maglemosian Culture
(9,500-6,000 BC); the Kongemose culture (6,000-5,200 BC), the Ertebølle culture
Ertebølle culture
(5,300-3,950 BC), and the Funnelbeaker culture
Funnelbeaker culture
(4,100-2,800 BC).

The famous Trundholm sun chariot
Trundholm sun chariot
(called Solvognen
Solvognen
in Danish), a sculpture of the sun pulled by a mare. Scholars have dated it to some time in the 15th century BC and believe that it illustrates an important concept expressed in Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
mythology.

The first inhabitants of this early post-glacial landscape in the so-called Boreal period, were very small and scattered populations living from hunting of reindeer and other land mammals and gathering whatever fruits the climate was able to offer. Around 8,300 BC the temperature rose drastically, now with summer temperatures around 15 degrees Celsius, and the landscape changed into dense forests of aspen, birch and pine and the reindeer moved north, while aurochs and elk arrived from the south. The Koelbjerg Man is the oldest known bog body in the world and also the oldest set of human bones found in Denmark,[3] dated to the time of the Maglemosian culture
Maglemosian culture
around 8,000 BC.[4][5] With a continuing rise in temperature the oak, elm and hazel arrived in Denmark
Denmark
around 7,000 BC. Now boar, red deer, and roe deer also began to abound.[6] A burial from Bøgebakken at Vedbæk
Vedbæk
dates to c. 6,000 BC and contains 22 persons - including four newborns and one toddler. Eight of the 22 had died before reaching 20 years of age - testifying to the hardness of hunter-gatherer life in the cold north.[7] Based on estimates of the amount of game animals, scholars estimate the population of Denmark
Denmark
to have been between 3,300-8,000 persons in the time around 7,000 BC.[8] It is believed that the early hunter-gatherers lived nomadically, exploiting different environments at different times of the year, gradually shifting to the use of semi permanent base camps.[9] With the rising temperatures, sea levels also rose, and during the Atlantic period, Denmark
Denmark
evolved from a contiguous landmass around 11,000 BC to a series of islands by 4,500 BC. The inhabitants then shifted to a seafood based diet, which allowed the population to increase. Agricultural settlers made inroads around 3,000 BC. Many dolmens and rock tombs (especially passage graves) date from this period. The Nordic Bronze Age
Nordic Bronze Age
period in Denmark, from about 1,500 BC, featured a culture which buried its dead, with their worldly goods, beneath burial mounds. The many finds of gold and bronze from this era include beautiful religious artifacts and musical instruments, and provide the earliest evidence of social classes and stratification.

Iron Age[edit] See also: Nordic Iron Age

The silver Gundestrup Cauldron, with what some scholars interpret as Celtic depictions, exemplifies the trade relations of the period.

During the Pre-Roman Iron Age
Pre-Roman Iron Age
(from the 4th to the 1st century BC), the climate in Denmark
Denmark
and southern Scandinavia
Scandinavia
became cooler and wetter, limiting agriculture and setting the stage for local groups to migrate southward into Germania. At around this time people began to extract iron from the ore in peat bogs. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark, and in much of northwest Europe, and survives in some of the older place names. From the first to the fifth century the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
interacted with Jutland
Jutland
and the Danish isles in many ways, ranging from commerce to a possible "client state" relationship.[10] This period is therefore referred to as the Roman Iron Age. The Roman provinces, whose frontiers stopped short of Denmark, nevertheless maintained trade routes and relations with Danish or proto-Danish peoples, as attested by finds of Roman coins. The earliest known runic inscription dates back to c. 200 AD. Depletion of cultivated land in the last century BC seems to have contributed to increasing migrations in northern Europe and increasing conflict between Teutonic tribes and Roman settlements in Gaul. Roman artifacts are especially common in finds from the 1st century. It seems clear that some part of the Danish warrior aristocracy served in the Roman army.[11] Occasionally during this time, both animal and human sacrifice occurred and bodies were immersed in bogs. In recent times[update] some of these bog bodies have emerged very well-preserved, providing valuable information about the religion and people who lived in Denmark
Denmark
during this period. Some of the most well-preserved bog bodies from the Nordic Iron Age
Nordic Iron Age
are the Tollund Man
Tollund Man
and the Grauballe Man. From around the 5th to the 7th century, Northern Europe
Northern Europe
experienced mass migrations and this period and its material culture are referred to as the Germanic Iron Age.

The face of Tollundmanden, one of the best preserved bog body finds.

The Dejbjerg wagon
Dejbjerg wagon
from the Pre-Roman Iron Age, thought to be a ceremonial wagon.

The Nydam oak boat, a ship burial from the Roman Iron Age. At Gottorp Castle, Schleswig, now in Germany.

Copies of the Golden Horns of Gallehus from the Germanic Iron Age, thought to be ceremonial horns but of unknown purpose.

Middle Ages[edit] Earliest literary sources[edit] Further information: Etymology of Denmark
Denmark
and Danes
Danes
(Germanic tribe)

The extent of the Danish Realm before the expansion of the Viking
Viking
Age. It is not known when, but the tribal Danes
Danes
divided the realm into "herreder" (marked by red lines).

In his description of Scandza
Scandza
(from the 6th century work, Getica), the ancient writer Jordanes
Jordanes
says that the Dani were of the same stock as the Suetidi (Swedes, Suithiod?) and expelled the Heruli
Heruli
and took their lands.[12] The Old English poems Widsith and Beowulf, as well as works by later Scandinavian writers — notably by Saxo Grammaticus
Saxo Grammaticus
(c. 1200) — provide some of the earliest references to Danes. Viking
Viking
Age[edit] Main article: Viking
Viking
Age

The Ladby ship, the largest ship burial found in Denmark.

With the beginning of the Viking Age
Viking Age
in the 9th century, the prehistoric period in Denmark
Denmark
ends. The Danish people were among those known as Vikings, during the 8th–11th centuries. Viking
Viking
explorers first discovered and settled in Iceland
Iceland
in the 9th century, on their way from the Faroe Islands. From there, Greenland
Greenland
and Vinland (probably Newfoundland) were also settled. Utilizing their great skills in shipbuilding and navigation they raided and conquered parts of France
France
and the British Isles
British Isles
and Ireland.

The fortified Viking
Viking
town of Aros (Aarhus), 950 AD.

They also excelled in trading along the coasts and rivers of Europe, running trade routes from Greenland
Greenland
in the north to Constantinople
Constantinople
in the south via Russian and Ukrainian rivers, most notably along the River Dnieper
Dnieper
and via Kiev, then being the capital of Kiev Rus. The Danish Vikings were most active in Britain, Ireland, France, Spain, Portugal and Italy where they raided, conquered and settled (their earliest settlements included sites in the Danelaw, Ireland
Ireland
and Normandy). The Danelaw
Danelaw
resulted when Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
was forced to cede half his kingdom to the Vikings, who then settled there for a time and engaged in peaceful trade, but attacks eventually resumed and the English kings had to pay tribute (Danegeld). In the early 9th century, Charlemagne's Christian empire had expanded to the southern border of the Danes, and Frankish sources (e.g. Notker of St Gall) provide the earliest historical evidence of the Danes. These report a King Gudfred, who appeared in present-day Holstein
Holstein
with a navy in 804 where diplomacy took place with the Franks; In 808, King Gudfred attacked the Obotrites
Obotrites
and conquered the city of Reric
Reric
whose population was displaced or abducted to Hedeby. In 809, King Godfred and emissaries of Charlemagne
Charlemagne
failed to negotiate peace, despite the sister of Godfred being a concubine of Charlemagne, and the next year King Godfred attacked the Frisians
Frisians
with 200 ships.

Map showing Danevirke
Danevirke
and Hærvejen.

Viking
Viking
raids along the coast of France
France
and the Netherlands
Netherlands
were large-scale. Paris was besieged and the Loire Valley devastated during the 10th century. One group of Danes
Danes
was granted permission to settle in northwestern France
France
under the condition that they defend the place from future attacks. As a result, the region became known as "Normandy" and it was the descendants of these settlers who conquered England
England
in 1066. In addition, the Danes
Danes
and Norwegians moved west into the Atlantic Ocean, settling on Iceland, Greenland, and the Shetland Isles. Brief Viking
Viking
expeditions to North America around 1000 did not result in any settlements, and they were soon driven off by natives. Other Viking raids into Germany
Germany
and the Mediterranean were short-lived and had no lasting effect. The oldest parts of the defensive works of Danevirke
Danevirke
near Hedeby
Hedeby
at least date from the summer of 755 and were expanded with large works in the 10th century. The size and number of troops needed to man it indicates a quite powerful ruler in the area, which might be consistent with the kings of the Frankish sources. In 815 AD, Emperor Louis the Pious
Louis the Pious
attacked Jutland
Jutland
apparently in support of a contender to the throne, perhaps Harald Klak, but was turned back by the sons of Godfred, who most likely were the sons of the above-mentioned Godfred. At the same time St. Ansgar
Ansgar
travelled to Hedeby
Hedeby
and started the Catholic Christianisation of Scandinavia. Gorm the Old
Gorm the Old
(Danish: Gorm den Gamle, Old Norse: Gormr gamli, Latin: Gormus Senex[13][14]), also called Gorm the Languid (Danish: Gorm Løge, Gorm den Dvaske), was the first historically recognized ruler of Denmark, reigning from c.  936 to his death c.  958.[15] He ruled from Jelling, and made the oldest of the Jelling
Jelling
Stones in honour of his wife Thyra. Gorm was born before 900 and died c.  958. His rule marks the start of the Danish monarchy and royal house (see Danish monarchs' family tree.[15] The Danes
Danes
were united and officially Christianized in 965 AD by Gorm's son Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth
(see below), the story of which is recorded on the Jelling
Jelling
stones. The extent of Harald's Danish Kingdom is unknown, although it is reasonable to believe that it stretched from the defensive line of Dannevirke, including the Viking
Viking
city of Hedeby, across Jutland, the Danish isles and into southern present day Sweden; Scania
Scania
and perhaps Halland
Halland
and Blekinge. Furthermore, the Jelling stones attest that Harald had also "won" Norway.[16] In retaliation for the St. Brice's Day massacre of Danes
Danes
in England, the son of Harald, Sweyn Forkbeard
Sweyn Forkbeard
mounted a series of wars of conquest against England. By 1014, England
England
had completely submitted to the Danes. However, distance and a lack of common interests prevented a lasting union, and Harald's son Cnut the Great
Cnut the Great
barely maintained the link between the two countries, which completely broke up during the reign of his son Hardecanute. A final attempt by the Norwegians under Harald Hardrada
Harald Hardrada
to reconquer England
England
failed, but did pave the way for William the Conqueror's takeover in 1066.[16] Following the death of Canute the Great, Denmark
Denmark
and England
England
were left divided and despite some attempts (see below) were never reunited. Canute thanked the Norwegians for their patience and then went from assembly to assembly (Danish:landsting) outlawing any sailor, captain or soldier who refused to pay a fine which amounted to more than a years harvest for most farmers. Canute and his housecarls fled south with a growing army of rebels on his heels. Canute fled to the royal property outside the town of Odense on Funen
Funen
with his two brothers. After several attempts to break in and then bloody hand-to-hand fighting in the church, Benedict was cut down and Canute struck in the head by a large stone and then speared from the front. He died at the base of the main altar 10 July 1086, where he was buried by the Benedictines. When Queen Edele came to take Canute's body to Flanders, a light allegedly shone around the church and it was taken as a sign that Canute should remain where he was.[citation needed] The death of St. Canute marks the end of the Viking
Viking
Age. Never again would massive flotillas of Scandinavians meet each year to ravage the rest of Christian Europe. Christianity, expansion and the establishment of the Kingdom of Denmark[edit] See also: North Sea
North Sea
Empire

Often regarded as Denmark's "birth certificate", the large Jelling Stone announces the unification and Christianization
Christianization
of Denmark
Denmark
by Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth
c. 980

Northern countries during the 13th and early 14th centuries

  Norway    Sweden
Sweden
1330s–1350s   Denmark   Conquered by Denmark
Denmark
in 1219   Livonia before 1343

The history of Christianity
Christianity
in Denmark
Denmark
overlaps with that of the Viking
Viking
Age. Various petty kingdoms existed throughout the area now known as Denmark
Denmark
for many years. Between c. 960 and the early 980s, Harald Bluetooth
Harald Bluetooth
appears to have established a kingdom in the lands of the Danes
Danes
which stretched from Jutland
Jutland
to Skåne. Around the same time, he received a visit from a German missionary who, according to legend,[17] survived an ordeal by fire, which convinced Harald to convert to Christianity. The new religion, which replaced the old Norse religious practices, had many advantages for the king. Christianity
Christianity
brought with it some support from the Holy Roman Empire. It also allowed the king to dismiss many of his opponents who adhered to the old mythology. At this early stage there is no evidence that the Danish Church was able to create a stable administration that Harald could use to exercise more effective control over his kingdom, but it may have contributed to the development of a centralising political and religious ideology among the social elite which sustained and enhanced an increasingly powerful kingship. England
England
broke away from Danish control in 1035 and Denmark
Denmark
fell into disarray for some time. Sweyn Estridsen's son, Canute IV, raided England
England
for the last time in 1085. He planned another invasion to take the throne of England
England
from an aging William I. He called up a fleet of 1,000 Danish ships, 60 Norwegian long boats, with plans to meet with another 600 ships under Duke Robert of Flanders in the summer of 1086. Canute, however, was beginning to realise that the imposition of the tithe on Danish peasants and nobles to fund the expansion of monasteries and churches and a new head tax (Danish:nefgjald) had brought his people to the verge of rebellion. Canute took weeks to arrive at Struer where the fleet had assembled, but he found only the Norwegians still there. Canute's nephew Sweyn Estridson (1020–74) re-established strong royal Danish authority and built a good relationship with Archbishop
Archbishop
Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen — at that time the Archbishop
Archbishop
of all of Scandinavia. In the early 12th century Denmark
Denmark
became the seat of an independent church province of Scandinavia. Not long after that, Sweden
Sweden
and Norway established their own archbishoprics, free of Danish control. The mid-12th century proved a difficult time for the kingdom of Denmark. Violent civil wars rocked the land. Eventually, Valdemar the Great (1131–82), gained control of the kingdom, stabilizing it and reorganizing the administration. King Valdemar and Absalon
Absalon
(ca 1128–1201), the bishop of Roskilde, rebuilt the country. During Valdemar's reign construction began of a castle in the village of Havn, leading eventually to the foundation of Copenhagen, the modern capital of Denmark. Valdemar and Absalon
Absalon
built Denmark
Denmark
into a major power in the Baltic Sea, a power which later competed with the Hanseatic League, the counts of Holstein, and the Teutonic Knights
Teutonic Knights
for trade, territory, and influence throughout the Baltic. In 1168, Valdemar and Absalon
Absalon
gained a foothold on the southern shore of the Baltic, when they subdued the Principality of Rügen. In the 1180s, Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and the Duchy of Pomerania
Duchy of Pomerania
came under Danish control, too. In the new southern provinces, the Danes
Danes
promoted Christianity
Christianity
(mission of the Rani, monasteries like Eldena Abbey) and settlement (Danish participation in the Ostsiedlung). The Danes
Danes
lost most of their southern gains after the Battle of Bornhöved (1227), but the Rugian principality stayed with Denmark
Denmark
until 1325. In 1202, Valdemar II became king and launched various "crusades" to claim territories, notably modern Estonia. Once these efforts were successful, a period in history known as the Danish Estonia
Estonia
began. Legend has it that the Danish flag, the Dannebrog fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse
Battle of Lyndanisse
in Estonia
Estonia
in 1219. A series of Danish defeats culminating in the Battle of Bornhöved on 22 July 1227 cemented the loss of Denmark's north German territories. Valdemar himself was saved only by the courageous actions of a German knight who carried Valdemar to safety on his horse. From that time on Valdemar focused his efforts on domestic affairs. One of the changes he instituted was the feudal system where he gave properties to men with the understanding that they owed him service. This increased the power of the noble families (Danish: højadelen) and gave rise to the lesser nobles (Danish: lavadelen) who controlled most of Denmark. Free peasants lost the traditional rights and privileges they had enjoyed since Viking
Viking
times.[3] The king of Denmark
Denmark
had difficulty maintaining control of the kingdom in the face of opposition from the nobility and from the Church. An extended period of strained relations between the crown and the Popes of Rome
Rome
took place, known as the "archiepiscopal conflicts". By the late 13th century, royal power had waned, and the nobility forced the king to grant a charter, considered Denmark's first constitution. Following the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227, a weakened Denmark
Denmark
provided windows of opportunity to both the Hanseatic League and the Counts of Holstein. The Holstein
Holstein
Counts gained control of large portions of Denmark
Denmark
because the king would grant them fiefs in exchange for money to finance royal operations. Valdemar spent the remainder of his life putting together a code of laws for Jutland, Zealand
Zealand
and Skåne. These codes were used as Denmark's legal code until 1683. This was a significant change from the local law making at the regional assemblies (Danish: landting) had been the long-standing tradition. Several methods of determining guilt or innocence were outlawed including trial by ordeal and trial by combat. The Code of Jutland
Jutland
(Danish: Jyske Lov) was approved at meeting of the nobility at Vordingborg in 1241 just prior to Valdemar's death. Because of his position as "the king of Dannebrog" and as a legislator, Valdemar enjoys a central position in Danish history. To posterity the civil wars and dissolution that followed his death made him appear to be the last king of a golden age. The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
saw a period of close cooperation between the Crown and the Roman Catholic Church. Thousands of church buildings sprang up throughout the country during this time. The economy expanded during the 12th century, based mostly on the lucrative herring-trade, but the 13th century turned into a period of difficulty and saw the temporary collapse of royal authority. Count rule[edit]

The kingless time 1332–1340

During the disastrous reign of Christopher II (1319–1332), most of the country was seized by the provincial counts (except Skåne, which was taken over by Sweden) after numerous peasant revolts and conflicts with the Church. For eight years after Christopher's death, Denmark had no king, and was instead controlled by the counts. After one of them was assassinated in 1340, Christopher's son Valdemar was chosen as king, and gradually began to recover the territories, which was finally completed in 1360. The Black Death, which came to Denmark
Denmark
during these years, also aided Valdemar's campaign. His continued efforts to expand the kingdom after 1360 brought him into open conflict with the Hanseatic League. He conquered Gotland, much to the displeasure of the League, which lost Visby, an important trading town located there. The Hanseatic alliance with Sweden
Sweden
to attack Denmark
Denmark
initially proved a fiasco since Danish forces captured a large Hanseatic fleet, and ransomed it back for an enormous sum. Luckily for the League, the Jutland
Jutland
nobles revolted against the heavy taxes levied to fight the expansionist war in the Baltic; the two forces worked against the king, forcing him into exile in 1370. For several years, the Hanseatic League controlled the fortresses on "the sound" between Skåne
Skåne
and Zealand. Margaret and the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
(1397–1523)[edit] Main article: Kalmar Union Margaret I, the daughter of Valdemar Atterdag, found herself married off to Håkon VI of Norway
Norway
in an attempt to join the two kingdoms, along with Sweden, since Håkon had kinship ties to the Swedish royal family. The dynastic plans called for her son, Olaf II to rule the three kingdoms, but after his early death in 1387 she took on the role herself (1387–1412). During her lifetime (1353–1412) the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden
Sweden
(including the Faroe Islands, as well as Iceland, Greenland, and present-day Finland) became linked under her capable rule, in what became known as the Kalmar Union, made official in 1397.

The tomb of Margaret I in Roskilde Cathedral.

Her successor, Eric of Pomerania (King of Denmark
Denmark
from 1412 to 1439), lacked Margaret's skill and thus directly caused the breakup of the Kalmar Union. Eric's foreign policy engulfed Denmark
Denmark
in a succession of wars with the Holstein
Holstein
counts and the city of Lübeck. When the Hanseatic League
Hanseatic League
imposed a trade embargo on Scandinavia, the Swedes (who saw their mining industry adversely affected) rose up in revolt. The three countries of the Kalmar Union
Kalmar Union
all declared Eric deposed in 1439. However, support for the idea of regionalism continued, so when Eric's nephew Christopher of Bavaria
Christopher of Bavaria
came to the throne in 1440, he managed to get himself elected in all three kingdoms, briefly reuniting Scandinavia
Scandinavia
(1442–1448). The Swedish nobility grew increasingly unhappy with Danish rule and the union soon became merely a legal concept with little practical application. During the subsequent reigns of Christian I (1450–1481) and Hans (1481–1513), tensions grew, and several wars between Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark
Denmark
erupted. In the early 16th century, Christian II
Christian II
(reigned 1513–1523) came to power. He allegedly declared, "If the hat on my head knew what I was thinking, I would pull it off and throw it away." This quotation apparently refers to his devious and machiavellian political dealings. He conquered Sweden
Sweden
in an attempt to reinforce the union, and had about 100 leaders of the Swedish anti-unionist forces killed in what came to be known as the Stockholm Bloodbath
Stockholm Bloodbath
of November 1520. The bloodbath destroyed any lingering hope of Scandinavian union. In the aftermath of Sweden's definitive secession from the Kalmar Union in 1521, civil war and the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
followed in Denmark
Denmark
and Norway. When things settled down, the Privy Council of Denmark
Denmark
had lost some of its influence, and that of Norway
Norway
no longer existed. The two kingdoms, known as Denmark–Norway, operated in a personal union under a single monarch. Norway
Norway
kept its separate laws and some institutions, such as a royal chancellor, separate coinage and a separate army. As an hereditary kingdom, Norway's status as separate from Denmark
Denmark
remained important to the royal dynasty in its struggles to win elections as kings of Denmark. The two kingdoms remained tied until 1814. Early Modern Denmark[edit]

Abraham Ortelius's 1570 map of Denmark
Denmark
including parts on the Scandinavian peninsula.

The Reformation[edit] Main article: Reformation
Reformation
in Denmark– Norway
Norway
and Holstein

Hans Tausen
Hans Tausen
was one of the first Lutheran preachers, and later a bishop, in Denmark.

The Reformation, which originated in the German lands in the early 16th century from the ideas of Martin Luther
Martin Luther
(1483–1546), had a considerable impact on Denmark. The Danish Reformation
Reformation
started in the mid-1520s. Some Danes
Danes
wanted access to the Bible
Bible
in their own language. In 1524 Hans Mikkelsen and Christiern Pedersen
Christiern Pedersen
translated the New Testament
New Testament
into Danish; it became an instant best-seller.[18] Those who had traveled to Wittenberg
Wittenberg
in Saxony and come under the influence of the teachings of Luther and his associates included Hans Tausen, a Danish monk in the Order of St John Hospitallers. On Good Friday in 1525, Tausen used the pulpit at Antvorskov
Antvorskov
Abbey Church to proclaim Luther's reforms. His scandalized superiors ordered him out of Zealand
Zealand
and held him in the priory at Viborg under close confinement until he should come to his senses.[18] Townspeople came to see the troublesome monk, and Tausen preached to them from the window of his cell. Within days Tausen's ideas swept through the town. The then radical ideas of Luther found a receptive audience. Tausen's preaching converted ordinary people, merchants, nobles, and monks and even the Prior grew to appreciate Tausen and ordered his release. Tausen preached openly: much to the consternation of Bishop Jøn Friis, who lost his ability to do anything about the Lutherans and retreated to Hald Castle.[18] After preaching in the open air, Tausen gained the use of a small chapel, which soon proved too small for the crowds who attended services in Danish. His followers broke open a Franciscan
Franciscan
Abbey so they could listen to Tausen, who packed the church daily for services. The town leaders protected Tausen from the Bishop of Viborg.[18] Viborg became the center for the Danish Reformation
Reformation
for a time. Lutheranism spread quickly to Aarhus
Aarhus
and Aalborg. Within months King Frederick appointed Tausen as one of his personal chaplains (October 1526) in order to protect him from Catholics. Tausen's version of Luther's ideas spread throughout Denmark. Copenhagen
Copenhagen
became a hotbed of reformist activity and Tausen moved there to continue his work. His reputation preceded him and the excitement of hearing the liturgy in Danish brought thousands of people out to hear him. With the kings' permission, churches in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
opened their doors to the Lutherans and held services for Catholics and for Lutherans at different times of the day. At Our Lady Church, the main church of Copenhagen, Bishop Ronnow refused to admit the "heretics". In December 1531 a mob stormed the Church of Our Lady in Copenhagen, encouraged by Copenhagen's fiery mayor, Ambrosius Bogbinder. They tore down statues and side-altars and destroyed artwork and reliquaries. Frederick I's policy of toleration insisted that the two competing groups share churches and pulpits peacefully, but this satisfied neither Lutherans nor Catholics. Luther's ideas spread rapidly as a consequence of a powerful combination of popular enthusiasm for church reform and a royal eagerness to secure greater wealth through the seizure of church lands and property. In Denmark
Denmark
the reformation increased the crown's revenues by 300%. Dissatisfaction with the Catholic Church[edit] Dissatisfaction with the established Catholic Church had already been widespread in Denmark. Many people viewed the tithes and fees — a constant source of irritation for farmers and merchants — as unjust. This became apparent once word got out that King Frederick and his son, Duke Christian had no sympathy with Franciscans who persistently made the rounds of the parishes to collect food, money, and clothing in addition to the tithes. Between 1527 and 1536 many towns petitioned the king to close the Franciscan
Franciscan
houses.[19] Frederick obliged by sending letters authorizing the closure of the monasteries, often offering a small sum of money to help the brothers on their way. With the royal letter in hand, mobs forcibly closed Franciscan
Franciscan
abbeys all over Denmark. They beat up monks, two of whom died.[19] The closure of Franciscan
Franciscan
houses occurred systematically in Copenhagen, Viborg, Aalborg, Randers, Malmö and ten other cities; in all, 28 monasteries or houses closed. People literally hounded Franciscan
Franciscan
monks out of the towns.[19] No other order faced such harsh treatment. Considering how strongly many people felt about removing all traces of Catholic traditions from Danish churches, surprisingly little violence took place. Luther's teaching had become so overwhelmingly popular that Danes systematically cleared churches of statues, paintings, wall-hangings, reliquaries and other Catholic elements without interference. The only exceptions came in individual churches where the local churchmen refused to permit reform.

King Christian III carried out the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
in Slesvig, Holsten, Denmark
Denmark
and Norway.

Frederick I died in 1533; the Viborg Assembly (Danish:landsting) proclaimed his son, Duke Christian of Schleswig, King Christian III. The State Council (Danish: Rigsråd) on Zealand, led by the Catholic bishops took control of the country and refused to recognize the election of Christian III, a staunch Lutheran. The regents feared Christian's zeal for Luther's ideas would tip the balance and disenfranchise Catholics — both peasants and nobles. The State Council encouraged Count Christopher of Oldenburg
Christopher of Oldenburg
to become Regent of Denmark. Christian III quickly raised an army to enforce his election, including mercenary troops from Germany. Count Christopher raised an army (including troops from Mecklenburg
Mecklenburg
and Oldenburg
Oldenburg
and the Hanseatic League, especially Lűbeck) to restore his Catholic uncle King Christian II
Christian II
(deposed in 1523). This resulted in a three-year civil war called the Count's Feud
Count's Feud
(Danish: Grevens Fejde). Count's Feud
Count's Feud
(1534–1536)[edit] Armed rebellion by Catholic peasants led by Skipper Clement
Skipper Clement
started in northern Jutland. Rebellion swept across Funen, Zealand
Zealand
and Skåne. Christian III's army soundly defeated an army of Catholic nobles at Svenstrup on 16 October 1534. Christian forced a truce with the Hanseatic League, which had sent troops to help Count Christopher. Christian III's army, under Johan Rantzau, chased the rebels all the way back to Aalborg
Aalborg
and then massacred over two thousand of them inside the city in December 1534. The Protestants captured Skipper Clement
Skipper Clement
(1534), and later executed him in 1536. Christian III's mercenary troops put an end to Catholic hopes on Zealand
Zealand
and then Funen. Skåne
Skåne
rebels went as far as proclaiming Christian II
Christian II
king again. King Gustav Vasa of Sweden
Sweden
sent two separate armies to ravage Halland
Halland
and Skåne
Skåne
into submission. Besiegers finally starved the last hold-outs in the rebellion, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
and Malmø, into surrender in July 1536. By the spring of 1536 Christian III had taken firm control. State Lutheranism[edit] Denmark
Denmark
became officially Lutheran on 30 October 1536 by decree of King Christian III, and in 1537 the reconstituted State Council approved the Lutheran Ordinances which was worked out by Danish theologians and Johannes Bugenhagen, based on the Augsburg Confession and Luther's Little Catechism. The government established the Danish National Church (Danish: Folkekirken) as the state church. All of Denmark's Catholic bishops went to prison until such time as they converted to Luther's reform. The authorities released them when they promised to marry and to support the reforms. If they agreed, they received property and spent the rest of their lives as wealthy landowners. If they refused conversion, they died in prison. The State confiscated Church lands to pay for the armies that had enforced Christian III's election. Priests swore allegiance to Lutheranism or found new employment. The new owners turned monks out of their monasteries and abbeys. Nuns in a few places gained permission to live out their lives in nunneries, though without governmental financial support. The Crown
The Crown
closed churches, abbeys, priories and cathedrals, giving their property to local nobles or selling it. The King appointed Danish superintendents (later bishops) to oversee Lutheran orthodoxy in the church. Denmark
Denmark
became part of a Lutheran heartland extending through Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and northern Germany. The Catholic Church everywhere in Scandinavia
Scandinavia
had sealed its fate by supporting hopeless causes: Christian II
Christian II
and the emperor Charles V in Denmark, Norwegian independence in that country, and in Sweden
Sweden
the Kalmar Union. Geographical distance also prevented them from receiving anything more than a sympathetic ear from Rome. The 17th century saw a period of strict Lutheran orthodoxy in Denmark, with harsh punishments visited on suspected followers of either Calvinism or Huldrych Zwingli. Lutheran authorities treated Catholics harshly — in the fear that they might undermine the king, government, and national church. In a delayed result of the Reformation, Denmark
Denmark
became embroiled in the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) on the Protestant side. The loss of Eastern Denmark[edit] See also: Dominium maris baltici The Danog-Norwegian Kingdom grew wealthy during the 16th century, largely because of the increased traffic through the Øresund, which Danes
Danes
could tax because Denmark
Denmark
controlled both sides of the Sound. The trade in grain exports from Poland
Poland
to the Netherlands
Netherlands
and to the rest of Europe grew enormously at this time, and the Danish kings did not hesitate to cash in on it. The Sound duty was only repealed in the 1840s. The Danish economy benefited from the Eighty Years' War
Eighty Years' War
(1568–1648) in the Netherlands
Netherlands
because a large number of skilled refugees from that area (the most economically advanced in Europe) came to Denmark. This helped to modernize many aspects of society and to establish trading links between Denmark
Denmark
and the Netherlands. Denmark– Norway
Norway
had a reputation as a relatively powerful kingdom at this time. European politics of the 16th century revolved largely around the struggle between Catholic and Protestant forces, so it seemed almost inevitable that Denmark, a strong, unified Lutheran kingdom, would get drawn into the larger war when it came. The Thirty Years' War went badly for the Protestant states in the early 1620s, and a call went out to Denmark– Norway
Norway
to "save the Protestant cause". King Christian IV, who was also a duke of the Holy Roman Empire
Roman Empire
on the basis of his possessions in Holstein, decided to intervene in the conflict raging in northern Germany. The campaign ended in defeat, and Jutland
Jutland
was occupied by the imperial army of Albrecht von Wallenstein. In the Treaty of Lübeck, Christian made peace and agreed to not intervene in Germany
Germany
again. The war in Germany
Germany
had been very expensive and Christian IV saw no other recourse than to raise the Sound tolls. Unfortunately, this act pushed the Netherlands
Netherlands
away from Denmark
Denmark
and into the arms of Sweden. Torstenson War
Torstenson War
(1643–1645)[edit]

Denmark
Denmark
before 1645

In 1643, Sweden's armies, under the command of Lennart Torstensson, suddenly invaded Denmark
Denmark
without declaring war. The ensuing conflict became known as the Torstenson War. The Netherlands, wishing to end the Danish stranglehold on the Baltic, joined the Swedes in their war against Denmark–Norway. In October 1644 a combined Dutch-Swedish fleet destroyed 80 percent of the Danish fleet in the Battle of Femern. The result of this defeat proved disastrous for Denmark–Norway: in the Second treaty of Brömsebro (1645)
Second treaty of Brömsebro (1645)
Denmark ceded to Sweden
Sweden
the Norwegian provinces Jemtland, Herjedalen
Herjedalen
and Älvdalen as well as the Danish islands of Gotland
Gotland
and Øsel. Halland went to Sweden
Sweden
for a period of 30 years and the Netherlands
Netherlands
were exempted from paying the Sound Duty.

Denmark
Denmark
before 1658

Treaty of Roskilde, 1658.   Halland, previously occupied by Sweden
Sweden
for a 30-year period under the terms of the Peace of Brömsebro negotiated in 1645, was now ceded   the Scanian lands and Bohus County were ceded    Trøndelag
Trøndelag
and Bornholm
Bornholm
provinces, which were ceded in 1658, but rebelled against Sweden
Sweden
and returned to Danish rule in 1660.

Nevertheless, Danes
Danes
remember Christian IV as one of the great kings of Denmark. He had a very long reign, from 1588 to 1648, and has become known as "the architect on the Danish throne" because of the large number of building projects he undertook. Many of the great buildings of Denmark
Denmark
date from his reign. After the death of Christian IV in 1648, his son Frederick succeeded him. Second Northern War
Second Northern War
(1655–1660)[edit] In 1657, during the Second Northern War, Denmark– Norway
Norway
launched a war of revenge against Sweden
Sweden
(then distracted in Poland) which turned into a complete disaster. The war became a disaster for two reasons: Primarily, because Denmark's new powerful ally, the Netherlands, remained neutral as Denmark
Denmark
was the aggressor and Sweden
Sweden
the defender. Secondly, the Belts froze over in a rare occurrence during the winter of 1657-1658, allowing Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Sweden
to lead his armies across the ice to invade Zealand. In the following Treaty of Roskilde, Denmark– Norway
Norway
capitulated and gave up all of Eastern Denmark
Denmark
(Danish: Skåne, Halland, Blekinge
Blekinge
and Bornholm), in addition to the counties of Bahusia
Bahusia
(Norwegian: Båhuslen) and Trøndelag
Trøndelag
in Norway. Holstein- Gottorp
Gottorp
was also tied to Sweden, providing a gateway for future invasions from the south. But the Second Northern War
Second Northern War
was not yet over. Three months after the peace treaty was signed, Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Sweden
held a council of war where he decided to simply wipe Denmark
Denmark
from the map and unite all of Scandinavia
Scandinavia
under his rule. Once again the Swedish army arrived outside Copenhagen. However, this time the Danes
Danes
did not panic or surrender. Instead, they decided to fight and prepared to defend Copenhagen.

March across the Belts in 1658

Frederick III of Denmark
Denmark
had stayed in his capital and now encouraged the citizens of Copenhagen
Copenhagen
to resist the Swedes, by saying he would die in his nest. Furthermore, this unprovoked declaration of war by Sweden
Sweden
finally triggered the alliance that Denmark– Norway
Norway
had with the Netherlands. A powerful Dutch fleet was sent to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
with vital supplies and reinforcements, which saved the city from being captured during the Swedish attack. Furthermore, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
and the Habsburg monarchy
Habsburg monarchy
had gathered large forces to aid Denmark– Norway
Norway
and fighting continued into 1659.

Battle of Køge Bay in 1677

Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Sweden
suddenly died of an illness in early 1660, while planning an invasion of Norway. Following his death, Sweden
Sweden
made peace in the Treaty of Copenhagen. The Swedes returned Trøndelag
Trøndelag
to Norway
Norway
and Bornholm
Bornholm
to Denmark, but kept both Bahusia
Bahusia
and Terra Scania. The Netherlands
Netherlands
and other European powers accepted the settlement, not wanting both coasts of the Sound controlled by Denmark. This treaty established the boundaries between Norway, Denmark, and Sweden
Sweden
that still exist today. Absolutism[edit] As a result of the disaster in the war against Sweden, King Frederick III (reigned 1648–1670) succeeded in convincing the nobles to give up some of their powers and their exemption from taxes, leading to the era of absolutism in Denmark. The country's main objective in the following decades was the recovery of its lost provinces from Sweden. In the 1670s Denmark– Norway
Norway
had regained enough strength to start a war with Sweden
Sweden
to recover its lost provinces. However, in spite of Denmark's outside support, naval dominance and initial support from the population of the former eastern provinces, the war ended in a bitter stalemate. Great Northern War
Great Northern War
(1700–1721)[edit] A renewed attack during the Third Northern War (1700–1721) first resulted in the unfavourable Peace of Travendal, but after Denmark's re-entry into the war and Sweden's ultimate defeat by a large alliance, Sweden
Sweden
was no longer a threat to Denmark. However, the great powers opposed any Danish territorial gains, which meant the Treaty of Frederiksborg did not return the former eastern provinces to Denmark. Furthermore, Denmark
Denmark
was even forced to return Swedish Pomerania, held by Danish forces since 1715, to Sweden. Denmark
Denmark
now had no hope of recovering its lost provinces from Sweden. As noted earlier, the rest of Europe was simply against the Sound being controlled by a single nation ever again. For most of the 18th century, Denmark
Denmark
was at peace. The only time when war threatened was in 1762, when the Duke of Holstein- Gottorp
Gottorp
became Tsar Peter III of Russia
Russia
and declared war on Denmark
Denmark
over his ancestral claims in Schleswig. Before any fighting could begin, however, he was overthrown by his wife, who took control of Russia
Russia
as Tsarina Catherine II.[20] Empress Catherine withdrew her husband's demands and negotiated the transfer of ducal Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
to the Danish crown in return for Russian control of the County of Oldenburg and adjacent lands within the Holy Roman Empire, an exchange that was formalized with the 1773 Treaty of Tsarskoye Selo. The alliance that accompanied the territorial exchange tied Denmark's foreign policy to Russia's and led directly to Denmark's involvement in a series of wars over the succeeding decades. With the suspension of the Danish diet, that body disappeared for a couple of centuries. During this time power became increasingly centralized in Copenhagen. Frederick's government reorganized itself in a much more hierarchical manner, built around the king as a focal point of administration. Crown officials dominated the administration, as well as a new group of bureaucrats, much to the dismay of the traditional aristocracy, who saw their own influence curtailed even further. The absolutist kings of Denmark
Denmark
were quite weak compared to their Swedish counterparts, and non-noble landlords became the real rulers of the country. They used their influence to pass laws that favored themselves. The administration and laws underwent "modernization" during this period. In 1683 the Danske lov 1683 (Danish Code) standardized and collected all the old provincial laws. Other initiatives included the standardization of all weights and measures throughout the kingdom, and an agricultural survey and registry. This survey allowed the government to begin taxing landowners directly, moving it beyond dependence on revenue from crown lands. The population of Denmark
Denmark
rose steadily through this period, from 600,000 in 1660 (after the loss of territory to Sweden) to 700,000 in 1720. By 1807 it had risen to 978,000. Changes in the agricultural economy[edit] Attempts to diversify the economy away from agriculture failed. During this period little industry existed, except for a very small amount in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
(population: 30,000). In the late 17th century a small amount of industry did develop, catering to the military. Denmark suffered in part because of its lack of natural resources. It had nothing much to export except agricultural products. The Netherlands bought the largest share of Denmark's exports. The landlords, only about 300 in number, nevertheless owned 90% of the land in the country. Rural administration remained primarily the preserve of the large landholders and of a few law-enforcement officials. In 1733, low crop prices caused the introduction of adscription, an effort by the landlords to obtain cheap labor. The effect of this was to turn the previously free Danish peasantry into serfs. The adscription system tied rural laborers to their place of birth and required them to rent farms on the estates. As rent, peasants were required to work the landlords' plots and could not negotiate contracts or demand payment for improvements made to the farm. Peasants who refused to rent a farm were subject to six years of military service. Danish agriculture was very inefficient and unproductive as a result, since the peasants had no motivation to perform anything more than the absolute minimum of work. Attempts to sell Danish grain in Norway
Norway
failed because of its low quality compared to grain from the Baltic. In the late 18th century, extensive agricultural reforms took place, involving the abolition of the old open-field system and the amalgamation of many smaller farms into larger ones. With the abolition of the adscription system, the military could now only obtain manpower through conscription. These reforms were possible because agricultural prices steadily rose in the second half of the century. Throughout the 18th century the Danish economy did very well, largely on the basis of expanded agricultural output to meet growing demand across Europe. Danish merchant ships also traded around Europe and the North Atlantic, venturing to new Danish colonies in the Caribbean
Caribbean
and North Atlantic. The Enlightenment and Danish nationalism[edit]

Denmark's social reformers Struensee and Brandt quartered and displayed on the wheel on 28 April 1772

New propriety and Enlightenment ideas became popular among the middle classes of Denmark, arousing increased interest in personal liberty. In the last 15 years of the 18th century the authorities relaxed the censorship which had existed since the beginning of the 17th century. At the same time, a sense of Danish nationalism began to develop. Hostility increased against Germans and Norwegians present at the royal court. Pride in the Danish language
Danish language
and culture increased, and eventually a law banned "foreigners" from holding posts in the government. Antagonism between Germans and Danes
Danes
increased from the mid-18th century on. In the 1770s, during the reign of the mentally unstable Christian VII (1766–1808), the queen's lover, a German doctor named Johann Friedrich Struensee, became the real ruler of the country. Filled with the ideas of the Enlightenment, he attempted a number of radical reforms including freedom of the press and religion. But it was short-lived. The landlords feared that the reforms were a threat to their power, while the commoners believed that religious freedom was an invitation to atheism. In 1772, Struensee was arrested, tried, and convicted of crimes against the majesty, his right hand was cut off following his beheading, his remains were quartered and put on display on top of spikes on the commons west of Copenhagen. The next 12 years were a period of unmitigated reaction until a group of reformers gained power in 1784. Reforms[edit] Denmark
Denmark
became the model of enlightened despotism, partially influenced by the ideas of the French Revolution. Denmark
Denmark
thus adopted liberalizing reforms in line with those of the French Revolution, with no direct contact. Danes
Danes
were aware of French ideas and agreed with them, as it moved from Danish absolutism to a liberal constitutional system between 1750-1850. The change of government in 1784 was caused by a power vacuum created when King Christian VII took ill, and influence shifted to the crown prince (who later became King Frederick VI) and reform-oriented landowners. Between 1784 and 1815, the abolition of serfdom made the majority of the peasants into landowners. The government also introduced free trade and universal education. In contrast to France
France
under the ancien regime, agricultural reform was intensified in Denmark, civil rights were extended to the peasants, the finances of the Danish state were healthy, and there were no external or internal crises. That is, reform was gradual and the regime itself carried out agrarian reforms that had the effect of weakening absolutism by creating a class of independent peasant freeholders. Much of the initiative came from well-organized liberals who directed political change in the first half of the 19th century.[21] Newspapers[edit] Danish news media first appeared in the 1540s, when handwritten fly sheets reported on the news. In 1666, Anders Bording, the father of Danish journalism, began a state paper. The royal privilege to bring out a newspaper was issued to Joachim Wielandt in 1720. University officials handled the censorship, but in 1770 Denmark
Denmark
became one of the first nations of the world to provide for press freedom; it ended in 1799. The press in 1795-1814, led by intellectuals and civil servants, called out for a more just and modern society, and spoke out for the oppressed tenant farmers against the power of the old aristocracy.[22] In 1834, the first liberal newspaper appeared, one that gave much more emphasis to actual news content rather than opinions. The newspapers championed the Revolution of 1848 in Denmark. The new constitution of 1849 liberated the Danish press. Newspapers flourished in the second half of the 19th century, usually tied to one or another political party or labor union. Modernization, bringing in new features and mechanical techniques, appeared after 1900. The total circulation was 500,000 daily in 1901, more than doubling to 1.2 million in 1925. The German occupation brought informal censorship; some offending newspaper buildings were simply blown up by the Nazis. During the war, the underground produced 550 newspapers—small, surreptitiously printed sheets that encouraged sabotage and resistance.[23] Colonial ventures[edit] Main articles: Danish colonization of the Americas
Danish colonization of the Americas
and Danish colonial empire

Map showing Denmark– Norway
Norway
and its colonial possessions c. 1800

Denmark
Denmark
maintained a number of colonies outside Scandinavia, starting in the 17th century and lasting until the 20th century. Denmark
Denmark
also controlled traditional colonies[citation needed] in Greenland
Greenland
and Iceland
Iceland
in the north Atlantic, obtained through the union with Norway. Christian IV (reigned 1588–1648) first initiated the policy of expanding Denmark's overseas trade, as part of the mercantilist trend then popular in European governing circles. Denmark
Denmark
established its own first colony at Tranquebar, or Trankebar, on India's south coast, in 1620. In the Caribbean
Caribbean
Denmark
Denmark
started a colony on St Thomas in 1671, St John in 1718, and purchased Saint Croix
Saint Croix
from France
France
in 1733. Denmark maintained its Indian colony, Tranquebar, as well as several other smaller colonies there, for about two hundred years. The Danish East India Company operated out of Tranquebar. During its heyday, the Danish East Indian Company and the Swedish East India Company imported more tea than the British East India Company — and smuggled 90% of it into Britain, where it sold at a huge profit. Both of the Scandinavia-based East India Companies folded during the course of the Napoleonic Wars. Denmark
Denmark
also maintained other colonies, forts, and bases in West Africa, primarily for the purpose of slave-trading. The 19th century[edit] Further information: Danish Golden Age The Napoleonic Wars[edit]

The Battle of Copenhagen, 1801.

The long decades of peace came to an abrupt end during the Napoleonic Wars. Britain felt threatened by the Armed Neutrality Treaty of 1794, which originally involved Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden, and later Prussia
Prussia
and Russia. The British fleet attacked Copenhagen
Copenhagen
in 1801, destroying much of Denmark's navy. Denmark
Denmark
nonetheless managed to remain largely uninvolved in the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
until 1807. The British fleet bombarded Copenhagen
Copenhagen
again that year, causing considerable destruction to the city. They then captured the entire Danish fleet so that it could not be used by France
France
to invade Britain (as the French had lost their own fleet at Trafalgar in 1805), leading to the Gunboat War (1807–1814). The confiscation of the Danish navy was widely criticised in Britain. In 1809 Danish forces fighting on the French side participated in defeating the anti-Bonapartist German rebellion led by Ferdinand von Schill, at the Battle of Stralsund. By 1813, Denmark
Denmark
could no longer bear the war costs, and the state was bankrupt. When in the same year the Sixth Coalition isolated Denmark
Denmark
by clearing Northern Germany
Germany
of French forces, Frederick VI had to make peace. Accordingly, the unfavourable Treaty of Kiel
Treaty of Kiel
was concluded in January 1814 with Sweden and Great Britain, and another peace was signed with Russia
Russia
in February. The post-Napoleonic Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
demanded the dissolution of the Dano-Norwegian union, and this was confirmed by the Treaty of Kiel
Treaty of Kiel
in 1814. The treaty transferred Heligoland
Heligoland
to Great Britain
Great Britain
and Norway from the Danish to the Swedish crown, Denmark
Denmark
was to be satisfied with Swedish Pomerania. But the Norwegians revolted, declared their independence, and elected crown-prince Christian Frederick (the future Christian VIII) as their king. However, the Norwegian independence movement failed to attract any support from the European powers. After a brief war with Sweden, Christian had to abdicate in order to preserve Norwegian autonomy, established in a personal union with Sweden. In favour of the Kingdom of Prussia, Denmark
Denmark
renounced her claims to Swedish Pomerania
Swedish Pomerania
at the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
(1815), and instead was satisfied with the Duchy of Lauenburg
Duchy of Lauenburg
and a Prussian payment of 3.5 million talers. Prussia
Prussia
also took over a Danish 600,000-taler debt to Sweden. Interestingly, this period also counts as "the Golden Age" of Danish intellectual history. A sign of renewed intellectual vigor was the introduction of compulsory schooling in 1814. Literature, painting, sculpture, and philosophy all experienced an unusually vibrant period. The stories of Hans Christian Andersen
Hans Christian Andersen
(1805–1875) became popular not only in Denmark, but all over Europe and in the United States.[24] The ideas of the philosopher Søren Kierkegaard
Søren Kierkegaard
(1813–1855) spread far beyond Denmark, influencing not only his own era, but proving instrumental in the development of new philosophical systems after him. The sculptures of Thorvaldsen (1770–1834) grace public buildings all over Denmark
Denmark
and other artists appreciated and copied his style. Grundtvig (1783–1872) tried to reinvigorate the Danish National Church and contributed to the hymns used by the church in Denmark. Nationalism
Nationalism
and liberalism[edit] See also: History of Schleswig-Holstein

Den Grundlovgivende Rigsforsamling The Constitutional Assembly created The Danish constitution, 1860–1864 painting by Constantin Hansen.

The Danish liberal and national movements gained momentum in the 1830s, and after the European revolutions of 1848 Denmark
Denmark
became a constitutional monarchy on 5 June 1849. The growing bourgeoisie had demanded a share in government, and in an attempt to avert the sort of bloody revolution occurring elsewhere in Europe, Frederick VII gave in to the demands of the citizens. A new constitution emerged, separating the powers and granting the franchise to all adult males, as well as freedom of the press, religion, and association. The king became head of the executive branch. The legislative branch consisted of two parliamentary chambers; the Folketing, comprising members elected by the general population, and the Landsting, elected by landowners. Denmark
Denmark
also gained an independent judiciary. Another significant result of the revolution was the abolition of slavery in the Danish West Indies, the Danish colony in the Caribbean, which at an earlier part of its history witnessed the biggest slave auctions in the world.[25] In 1845 Denmark's other tropical colony, Tranquebar
Tranquebar
in India, was sold to Britain. The Danish king's realm still consisted of the islands, the northern half of the Jutland
Jutland
peninsula, and the Duchy of Schleswig
Schleswig
in real union with the Duchy of Holstein

Danish Infantry regiment in a fight with regiment "Martini". Contemporary illustration of the 1864 Second Schleswig
Schleswig
War.

The islands and Jutland
Jutland
together constituted the kingdom, whereas the monarch held the duchies in personal union with the kingdom. The duchy of Schleswig
Schleswig
constituted a Danish fief, while the Duchy of Holstein remained a part of the German Confederation. Since the early 18th century, and even more so from the early 19th century, the Danes
Danes
had become used to viewing the duchies and the kingdom as increasingly unified in one state. This view, however, clashed with that of the German majority in the duchies, also enthused by liberal and national trends, which lead to a movement known as Schleswig-Holsteinism. Schleswig-Holsteinists aimed for independence from Denmark. The First Schleswig
Schleswig
War (1848–1851) broke out after constitutional change in 1849 and ended with the status quo because of the intervention of Britain and other Great Powers. Much debate took place in Denmark
Denmark
as to how to deal with the question of Schleswig-Holstein. National-Liberals demanded permanent ties between Schleswig
Schleswig
and Denmark, but stated that Holstein
Holstein
could do as it pleased. However, international events overtook domestic Danish politics, and Denmark
Denmark
faced war against both Prussia
Prussia
and Austria
Austria
in what became known as the Second Schleswig
Schleswig
War (1864). The war lasted from February to October 1864. Denmark
Denmark
was easily beaten by Prussia and Austria, and obliged to relinquish both Schleswig
Schleswig
and Holstein. The war caused Denmark
Denmark
as a nation severe trauma, forcing it to reconsider its place in the world. The loss of Schleswig- Holstein
Holstein
came as the latest in the long series of defeats and territorial loss that had begun in the 17th century. The Danish state had now lost some of the richest areas of the kingdom: Skåne
Skåne
to Sweden
Sweden
and Schleswig
Schleswig
to Germany, so the nation focused on developing the poorer areas of the country. Extensive agricultural improvements took place in Jutland, and a new form of nationalism, which emphasized the "small" people, the decency of rural Denmark, and the shunning of wider aspirations, developed. Industrialisation[edit] Industrialisation
Industrialisation
came to Denmark
Denmark
in the second half of the 19th century. The nation's first railroads were constructed in the 1850s, and improved communications and overseas trade allowed industry to develop in spite of Denmark's lack of natural resources. Trade unions developed starting in the 1870s. There was a considerable migration of people from the countryside to the cities, and Danish agriculture became centered around the export of dairy and meat products. The two concepts of internationalism and nationalism have become very much part of the history of the Danish Labour movement. The Labour movement gathered momentum when social issues became associated with internationalism. Socialist theory and organisational contact with the First International, which linked labour movements in various countries, paved the way. Louis Pio
Louis Pio
emerged as the driving force. In 1871, following the bloody defeat of the Paris Commune, he started publishing socialist journalism. He campaigned strongly for an independent organisation of the workers under their own management, and organised a Danish branch of the First International. This became the foundation stone for the Social Democratic Party under the name of Den Internationale Arbejderforening for Danmark (The International Labour Association for Denmark). As a combination of union and political party, it adroitly brought together national and international elements. Pio saw internationalism as vital for the success of the workers' struggle: without internationalism, no progress. He pointed out that the middle classes cooperated across national frontiers and used nationalistic rhetoric as a weapon against the workers and their liberation. The Danish section started organising strikes and demonstrations for higher wages and social reforms. Moderate demands, but enough to provoke the employers and the forces of law and order. Things came to a head in the Battle of Fælleden on 5 May 1872. The authorities arrested the three leaders, Louis Pio, Poul Geleff
Poul Geleff
and Harald Brix, charged them and convicted them of high treason. The three left Denmark
Denmark
for the United States to set up the ill-starred and short-lived socialist colony near Hays City, in Ellis County, Kansas. Back in Denmark, the emerging political situation made possible by the new Danish door of independence alarmed many of the existing elites, since it inevitably empowered the peasantry. Simple men with little education replaced professors and professionals in positions of power. The peasants, in coalition with liberal and radical elements from the cities, eventually won a majority of seats in the Folketing. Even though constitutional changes had taken place to boost the power of the Landsting, the Left Venstre Party demanded to form the government, but the king, still the head of the executive branch, refused. However, in 1901, king Christian IX gave in and asked Johan Henrik Deuntzer, a member of Venstre, to form a government, the Cabinet of Deuntzer. This began a tradition of parliamentary government, and with the exception of the Easter Crisis of 1920, no government since 1901 has ruled against a parliamentary majority in the Folketing. Monetary union[edit] Main article: Scandinavian Monetary Union

Two golden 20 kr coins from the Scandinavian Monetary Union, which was based on a gold standard. The coin to the left is Swedish and the right one is Danish.

The Scandinavian Monetary Union, a monetary union formed by Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark
Denmark
on 5 May 1873, fixed both their currencies against gold at par to each other. Norway, governed in union with Sweden, entered the monetary union two years later in 1875 by pegging its currency to gold at the same level as Denmark
Denmark
and Sweden
Sweden
(.403 gram).[26] The monetary union proved one of the few tangible results of the Scandinavist
Scandinavist
political movement of the 19th century. The union provided fixed exchange-rates and stability in monetary terms, but the member-countries continued to issue their own separate currencies. In an outcome not initially foreseen, the perceived security led to a situation where the formally separate currencies circulated on a basis of "as good as" the legal tender virtually throughout the entire area. The outbreak of World War I
World War I
in 1914 brought an end to the monetary union. Sweden
Sweden
abandoned the tie to gold on 2 August 1914, and without a fixed exchange rate the free circulation came to an end. The 20th century[edit] 1901–1939[edit] In the early decades of the 20th century the new Radical Party and the older Venstre Party shared government. During this time women gained the right to vote (1915), and the United States purchased some of Denmark's colonial holdings: the three islands of St. John, St. Croix, and St. Thomas in the West Indies. The period also saw Denmark inaugurating important social and labour-market reforms, laying the basis for the present[update] welfare state. Denmark
Denmark
remained neutral during World War I
World War I
(entry into the war on either side would have been suicidal), but the conflict affected the country to a considerable extent. As its economy was heavily based on exports, the unrestricted German submarine warfare was a serious problem. Denmark
Denmark
had no choice but to sell many of its exports to Germany
Germany
instead of overseas nations. Widespread profiteering took place, but commerce also suffered great disruption because of the conflict and because of the ensuing financial instability in Europe. Rationing was instituted, and there were food and fuel shortages. In addition, Denmark
Denmark
was forced by Berlin to mine the Sound to prevent British ships from entering it. Following the defeat of Germany
Germany
in the war (1918), the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
(1919) mandated the Schleswig Plebiscites, which resulted in the return of Northern Schleswig (now[update] South Jutland) to Denmark. The king and parts of the opposition grumbled that Prime Minister Carl Theodor Zahle
Carl Theodor Zahle
(in office 1909–1910 and 1913–1920) did not use Germany's defeat to take back a bigger portion of the province, which Denmark
Denmark
had lost in the Second Schleswig
Schleswig
War in 1864. The king and the opposition wanted to take over the city of Flensburg, while the cabinet insisted on only claiming areas where a majority of Danes
Danes
lived, which led to a plebiscite in the affected areas over whether they wanted to become a part of Denmark
Denmark
or remain within Germany. Believing that he had the support of the people, King Christian X used his reserve power to dismiss Zahle's cabinet, sparking the Easter Crisis of 1920. As a result of the Easter Crisis, the king promised to no longer interfere in politics. Although the Danish Constitution
Constitution
was not amended at that time, Danish monarchs have stayed out of politics since then. The end of the war also prompted the Danish government to finish negotiating with Iceland, resulting in Iceland
Iceland
becoming a sovereign Kingdom on 1 December 1918 while retaining the Danish monarch as head of state. In the 1924 Folketing
Folketing
election the Social Democrats, under the charismatic Thorvald Stauning, became Denmark's largest parliamentary political party, a position they maintained until 2001. Since the opposition still held a majority of the seats in the Landsting, Stauning had to co-operate with some of the right-wing parties, making the Social Democrats a more mainstream party. He succeeded in brokering an important deal in the 1930s which brought an end to the Great Depression
Great Depression
in Denmark, and also laid the foundation for a welfare state. Denmark
Denmark
joined the League of Nations
League of Nations
in 1920 and during the interwar period was active in promoting peaceful solutions to international issues. With the rise of Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
in Germany
Germany
during the 1930s, the country found itself in a very precarious situation. Berlin refused to recognize its post-1920 border with Denmark, however the Nazi regime was preoccupied with more important matters and did not make any issue of it. The Danes
Danes
tried unsuccessfully to obtain recognition of the border from their neighbor, but otherwise went out of their way to avoid antagonizing Germany. Second World War[edit] Main article: Occupation of Denmark

During the German occupation, King Christian X became a powerful symbol of national sovereignty. This image dates from the King's birthday, 26 September 1940. Note the lack of a guard.

In 1939, Hitler offered nonaggression pacts to the Scandinavian nations. While Sweden
Sweden
and Norway
Norway
refused, Denmark
Denmark
readily accepted. With the beginning of WWII that fall, Copenhagen
Copenhagen
declared its neutrality. Nevertheless, Germany
Germany
(so as to secure communications for its invasion of Norway) occupied Denmark
Denmark
on April 9, 1940, meeting limited resistance. British forces, however, occupied the Faroe Islands (12 April 1940) and invaded Iceland
Iceland
(10 May 1940) in pre-emptive moves to prevent German occupation. Following a plebiscite, Iceland
Iceland
declared its independence on June 17, 1944 and became a republic, dissolving its union with Denmark. The Nazi occupation of Denmark
Denmark
unfolded in a unique manner. The Monarchy remained. The conditions of occupation started off very leniently (although the authorities banned Danmarks Kommunistiske Parti (the Communist party) when the Wehrmacht invaded the Soviet Union in June 1941), and Denmark
Denmark
retained its own government. The new coalition government tried to protect the population from Nazi rule through compromise. The Germans allowed the Folketing
Folketing
to remain in session, the police remained under Danish control, and the German authorities stayed one step removed from the population. However, the Nazi demands eventually became intolerable for the Danish government, so, in 1943, it resigned and Germany
Germany
assumed full control of Denmark. From that point, an armed resistance movement grew against the occupying forces. Towards the end of the war, Denmark
Denmark
grew increasingly difficult for Germany
Germany
to control, but the country remained under occupation until near the end of the war. On 4 May 1945, German forces in Denmark, North West Germany, and the Netherlands
Netherlands
surrendered to the Allies. On 5 May 1945, British troops liberated Copenhagen. Three days later, the war ended. Denmark
Denmark
succeeded in smuggling most of its Jewish population to Sweden, in 1943, when the Nazis threatened deportation; see Rescue of the Danish Jews. Danish doctors refused to treat German citizens fleeing from Germany, which resulted in the deaths of 13,000 people.[27] Post-war[edit] In 1948 Denmark
Denmark
granted home rule to the Faroe Islands. 1953 saw further political reform in Denmark, abolishing the Landsting (the elected upper house), colonial status for Greenland
Greenland
and allowing female rights of succession to the throne with the signing of a new constitution. After the war, Denmark
Denmark
became a founding charter-member of the United Nations in 1945. With the Soviet occupation of Bornholm, the emergence of what evolved to become the Cold War
Cold War
and with the lessons of World War II still fresh in Danish minds, the country abandoned its former policy of neutrality and became one of the original founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) in 1949. Denmark
Denmark
had originally tried to form an alliance with Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
only, but this attempt had failed. A Nordic Council
Nordic Council
later emerged however, with the aim of co-ordinating Nordic policies. Later on, in a referendum in 1972, Danes
Danes
voted in favour of joining the European Community, the predecessor of the European Union, and Denmark
Denmark
became a member on 1 January 1973. Since then, Denmark
Denmark
has proven a hesitant member of the European community, opting out of many proposals, including the Euro, which the country rejected in a referendum in 2000. In 2001, the Folketing
Folketing
agreed to enter the war in Afghanistan.[28] A total of 43 Danish soldiers were killed in Afghanistan since the first deployment in 2002. See also[edit]

Denmark
Denmark
portal Faroe Islands
Faroe Islands
portal Greenland
Greenland
portal History portal

List of Danish monarchs

Danish monarchs' family tree

List of Danish chronicles History of Christianity
Christianity
in Denmark Politics of Denmark Politics of the Faroe Islands Politics of Greenland

Footnotes[edit]

^ http://madmonaco.blogspot.com/2010/06/oldest-monarchy.html http://www.royalinsight.net/content/danish-monarchy-overview ^ The remote Danish island of Bornholm
Bornholm
in the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
was liberated by Soviet forces of the Allies. This led to some political turmoil and conflict, occasionally resurfacing in modern times. ^ "Koelbjergkvinden fra Danmark" (in Danish). Archived from the original on 2005-03-06. Retrieved 2011-11-30.  ^ "Koelbjerg Woman". Bodies of the Bogs. Archeology Magazine. 1997. Retrieved 21 March 2013.  ^ "Koelbjerg". og Fund Fortidsminder (in Danish). Retrieved 2011-11-30.  ^ Jensen 2003:12-18 ^ Jensen 2003:24 ^ Jensen 2003:32 ^ Jensen 2003:34 ^ Roman "client state" in Denmark ^ Birger Storgaard, Cosmopolitan aristocrats, pp. 106-125 in: The Spoils of Victory - The North in the shadow of the Roman Empire, Nationalmuseet, 2003. ISBN 87-7602-006-1. ^ Jordanes. Mierow (1908), ed. Getica III (23).  ^ Zoega, Georg (1797-01-01). De origine et usu obeliscorum (in Latin). Typis Lazzarinii Typographi Cameralis.  ^ Torfaeus, Thormodus (1711-01-01). Thormodi Torfæi ... Historia rerum Noruegicarum in quatuor tomos diuisa. In qua, præter Noruegiæ descriptionem, primordia gentis, instituta, mores, incrementa; ... & inprimis heroum ac regum, tam ante qvàm post monarchiam institutam, successiones, eorumque domi juxta ac foris gesta, cumque vicinis gentibus commercia; genealogia item, chronologia, & qvæcunque ad regni Norvegici illustrationem spectant, singula ex archivis regiis, & optimis, qvæ haberi potuerunt, membranis, aliisque fide dignissimis authoribus, eruta, luci publicæ exponuntur. Cum prolegomenis & indicibus necessariis: Thormodi Torfæi Historiae rerum Noruegicarum pars tertia, continens ea quæ à tempore introductæ in Noruegiam christianæ religionis ad initium usque regni Suerreris acta sunt (in Latin). ex typographeo Joachimi Schmitgenii.  ^ a b "The Royal Lineage - The Danish Monarchy". kongehuset.dk. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 15 May 2015.  ^ a b Staff. Saint Brices Day massacre, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 26 December 2007. ^ Adam of Bremen, History of the Archbishops of Hamburg-Bremen, trans. Francis J. Tschan (New York, 2002), pp. 77–78. ^ a b c d C. F. Bricka (editor) (1903). "Tausen, Hans, 1494-1561, evangelisk Reformator og Biskop". Dansk Biografiske Lexicon (in Danish). Gyldendal. pp. 100–114. Retrieved 2008-09-09. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b c Krønike om Gråbrodrenes Udjagelse ^ Tytler Woodhouselee, Lord Alexander Fraser (1823). Elements of General History, Ancient and Modern. H. Hill. pp. 428–429. Retrieved 4 November 2016.  ^ Henrik Horstboll, and Uffe Ostergård, "Reform and Revolution: The French Revolution
French Revolution
and the Case of Denmark, Scandinavian Journal of History (1990) 15#3 pp 155-179 ^ Thorkild Kjærgaard, "The rise of press and public opinion in eighteenth‐century Denmark—Norway." Scandinavian journal of History 14.4 (1989): 215-230. He stresses the role ^ Kenneth E. Olson, The history makers: The press of Europe from its beginnings through 1965 (LSU Press, 1966) pp 50 – 64, 433 ^ Sven Hakon Rossel, ed. (1996). Hans Christian Andersen: Danish Writer and Citizen of the World. Rodopi. pp. 52–54.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Neville A.T. Hall, and B. W. Higman, Slave Society in the Danish West Indies: St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix
St. Croix
(Aarhus Universitetsforlag, 1992). ^ From silver standard to gold standard Archived 2013-11-03 at the Wayback Machine., retrieved 2008-08-05 ^ Manfred Ertel. A Legacy of Dead German Children Spiegel Online, 16 May 2005 ^ https://www.dr.dk/undervisning/samfundsfag/tidslinje-krigen-i-afghanistan (in Danish). Retrieved 2017-11-06

Further reading[edit] Further information: History of Scandinavia
History of Scandinavia
§ Further reading

Bain online Derry, T. K. A History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland
Finland
and Iceland. (U of Minnesota Press, 1979.) ISBN 0-8166-3799-7. Lauring, Palle. A History of Denmark. (3rd ed. Copenhagen: Høst, 1995). ISBN 87-14-29306-4. Jespersen, Knud J. V. A History of Denmark
Denmark
(Palgrave Essential Histories) (2nd ed. 2011) excerpt and text search Oakley, Stewart. A short history of Denmark
Denmark
(Praeger Publishers, 1972)

Political history[edit]

Barton, H. A. Scandinavia
Scandinavia
in the Revolutionary Era, 1760-1815 (Minneapolis, 1986) Campbell, John L., John A. Hall, and Ove Kaj Pedersen, eds. National Identity and the Varieties of Capitalism: The Danish Experience (Studies in Nationalism
Nationalism
and Ethnic Conflict) (2006) Etting, Vivian. Queen Margrete I, 1353-1412, and the Founding of the Nordic Union (Brill, 2004) online edition Gouges, Linnea de (2014) From Witch Hunts to Scientific Confidence; The Influence of British and Continental Currents on the Consolidation of the Scandinavian States in the 17th Century (Nisus Publications). Jespersen, Leon. "Court and Nobility
Nobility
in Early Modern Denmark," Scandinavian Journal of History, September 2002, Vol. 27 Issue 3, pp 129–142, covers 1588 to 1650 Munck, Thomas. "Absolute Monarchy in Later 18th-century Denmark: Centralized Reform, Public Expectations, and the Copenhagen
Copenhagen
Press" Historical
Historical
Journal, March 1998, Vol. 41 Issue 1, pp 201–24 in JSTOR Munck, Thomas. The peasantry and the early absolute monarchy in Denmark, 1660-1708 (Copenhagen, 1979)

Culture and religion[edit]

Eichberg, Henning. "Sporting history, moving democracy, challenging body culture: The development of a Danish approach." Stadion (2011) 37#1 pp: 149-167. Jacobsen, Brian Arly. "Islam and Muslims in Denmark." in Marian Burchardt and Ines Michalowski, eds. After integration: Islam, conviviality and contentious politics in Europe (Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 2015) pp: 171-186. Kirmmse, Bruce. Kierkegaard in Golden Age Denmark
Denmark
(Indiana University Press, 1990) Michelson, William. "From Religious Movement to Economic Change: The Grundtvigian Case in Denmark," Journal of Social History, (1969) 2#4 pp: 283–301 Mordhorst, Mads. "Arla and Danish national identity–business history as cultural history." Business History (2014) 56#1 pp: 116-133. Rossel, Sven H. A History of Danish Literature (University of Nebraska Press, 1992) 714pp online edition Schwarz, Martin. Church History of Denmark
Denmark
(Ashgate, 2002). 333 pp. ISBN 0-7546-0307-5

Economic and social history[edit]

Abildgren, Kim. "Consumer prices in Denmark
Denmark
1502-2007," Scandinavian Economic History Review, (2010) 58#1 pp: 2–24 Abildgren, Kim. "Estimates of the national wealth of Denmark 1845-2013" ( Danmarks Nationalbank
Danmarks Nationalbank
Working Papers No. 92., 2015) online Hornby, Ove. "Proto- Industrialisation
Industrialisation
Before Industrialisation? The Danish Case," Scandinavian Economic History Review, April 1982, Vol. 30 Issue 1, pp 3–33, covers 1750 to 1850 Christiansen, Palle Ove. "Culture and Contrasts in a Northern European Village: Lifestyles among Manorial Peasants in 18th-Century Denmark, Journal of Social History Volume: 29#2 (1995) pp 275+. Johansen, Hans Chr. Danish Population History, 1600-1939 (Odense: University Press of Southern Denmark, 2002) 246 pp. ISBN 978-87-7838-725-7 online review Johansen, Hans Chr. "Trends in Modern and Early Modern Social History Writing in Denmark
Denmark
after 1970," Social History, Vol. 8, No. 3 (Oct. 1983), pp. 375–381 Kjzergaard, T. The Danish Revolution: an ecohistorical interpretation (Cambridge, 1995), on farming Olson, Kenneth E. The history makers;: The press of Europe from its beginnings through 1965 (LSU Press, 1966) pp 50 – 64 Topp, Niels-Henrik. "Unemployment and Economic Policy in Denmark
Denmark
in the 1930s," Scandinavian Economic History Review, April 2008, Vol. 56 Issue 1, pp 71–90

Relations with Germany[edit]

Barfod, Jörgen H.: The Holocaust Failed in Denmark. Kopenhagen 1985. Berdichevsky, Norman. The Danish-German Border Dispute, 1815–2001: aspects of cultural and demographic politics. (2002) ISBN 1-930901-34-8 Buckser, Andrew: After the Rescue: Jewish identity and community in contemporary Denmark. ORT 2003. Lund, Joachim. " Denmark
Denmark
and the ‘European New Order’, 1940–-1942," Contemporary European History, August 2004, Vol. 13 Issue 3, pp 305–321

Historiography, memory, teaching[edit]

Brincker, Benedikte. "When did the Danish nation emerge? A review of Danish historians' attempts to date the Danish nation," National Identities, December 2009, Vol. 11 Issue 4, pp 353–365 Haue, Harry. "Transformation of history textbooks from national monument to global agent." Nordidactica: Journal of Humanities and Social Science Education (2013) 1 (2013): 80-89. online Jørgensen, Simon Laumann. "The History We Need: Strategies of Citizen Formation in the Danish History Curriculum." Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research (2014): 1-18. Pedersen, Christian Damm. "Empire and the Borders of Danish History." (2014).

In German[edit]

Robert Bohn: Dänische Geschichte. München: Beck, 2001. – (Beck'sche Reihe; 2162). – ISBN 3-406-44762-7 Eva Heinzelmann / Stefanie Robl / Thomas Riis (Hrsg.): Der dänische Gesamtstaat, Verlag Ludwig, Kiel 2006, ISBN 978-3-937719-01-6. Erich Hoffmann: „Der heutige Stand der Erforschung der Geschichte Skandinaviens in der Völkerwanderungszeit im Rahmen der mittelalterlichen Geschichtsforschung.“ In: Der historische Horizont der Götterbild–Amulette aus der Übergangsepoche von der Spätantike zum Frühmittelalter. Göttingen 1992. S. 143–182. Jörg-Peter Findeisen: Dänemark. Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Regensburg 1999.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to History of Denmark.

Historical
Historical
Atlas of Denmark
Denmark
[Bad link as of 2008-05-01.] History of Denmark: Primary Documents Review of Danish History Sources on Danish history

v t e

Denmark articles

Part of the Kingdom of Denmark

History

Archaeology Viking
Viking
Age Kalmar Union Reformation Danevirke Denmark–Norway Danish Empire

Colonization of the Americas

Golden Age Scandinavian Monetary Union Postal history Skåneland Slesvig-Holsten

Duchy of Holstein Duchy of Schleswig

World War II

Rescue of the Danish Jews

Geography

Birds Cities Danish straits Extreme points Geography Forests Islands Lakes Mammals Mountains and hills Regions Rivers

Politics

Administrative divisions

Municipalities

Current cabinet Constitution Courts Elections Folketing
Folketing
(Danish Parliament) Foreign relations Human rights

LGBT rights

Law

enforcement

Monarchy The unity of the Realm Prime Minister Military Political parties

Economy

OMX Copenhagen
Copenhagen
20 2000s property bubble Energy Flexicurity Krone (currency) National Bank Stock Exchange Taxation Communications Tourism Transport

Society

Danes Demographics Education Immigration Health care Languages

Culture

Art Architecture Cinema Cuisine Folklore Jante Law Literature Modern Breakthrough Media Music People Photography Prostitution Public holidays Religion Sport

Symbols

Coat of arms Flag National (civic) anthem Royal anthem

Outline Index

Category Portal

v t e

History of Europe

Prehistory

Paleolithic
Paleolithic
Europe Neolithic
Neolithic
Europe Bronze Age Europe Iron Age Europe

Classical antiquity

Classical Greece Roman Republic Hellenistic period Roman Empire Early Christianity Crisis of the Third Century Fall of the Western Roman Empire Late antiquity

Middle Ages

Early Middle Ages Migration Period Christianization Francia Byzantine Empire Maritime republics Viking
Viking
Age Kievan Rus' Holy Roman Empire High Middle Ages Feudalism Crusades Mongol invasion Late Middle Ages Hundred Years' War Kalmar Union Renaissance

Early modern

Reformation Age of Discovery Baroque Thirty Years' War Absolute monarchy Ottoman Empire Portuguese Empire Spanish Empire Early modern France Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Swedish Empire Dutch Republic British Empire Habsburg Monarchy Russian Empire Age of Enlightenment

Modern

Great Divergence Industrial Revolution French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Nationalism Revolutions of 1848 World War I Russian Revolution Interwar period World War II Cold War European integration

See also

Art of Europe Genetic history of Europe History of the Mediterranean region History of the European Union History of Western civilization Maritime history of Europe Military history of Europe

v t e

History of Europe
History of Europe
by country

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland

Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom Vatican City

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Kosovo Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard

Other entities

Eu

.