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The Historic Compromise
Historic Compromise
(Italian: Compromesso storico), called also Third Phase (Italian: Terza Fase) or Democratic Alternative (Italian: Alternativa Democratica), was an Italian historical political alliance and accommodation between the Christian Democrats (DC) and the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in the 1970s.

Contents

1 History 2 Composition 3 See also 4 Notes

History[edit]

Aldo Moro

Enrico Berlinguer

In 1973, Enrico Berlinguer, General Secretary of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), launched in communist magazine Rinascita a proposal for a "democratic alliance" with Christian Democracy (DC), embraced by Aldo Moro. The call for this alliance was inspired by the overthrow of the Allende Government in Chile. For Berlinguer, the events in Chile proved that the Marxist left could not aspire to govern in democratic countries without establishing alliances with more moderate forces. After the 1973 Chilean coup, there was cooperation between the PCI and DC that became a political alliance in 1976. Then Berlinguer's PCI attempted to distance itself from the USSR, with the launching of "Eurocommunism" along with the Spanish Communist Party and the French Communist Party. However, the Compromise was unpopular among the other centre-leftist groups like the Italian Republican Party
Italian Republican Party
(PRI) and Italian Socialist Party (PSI), led respectively by Ugo La Malfa and Bettino Craxi. Also the rightist Christian Democrat Giulio Andreotti
Giulio Andreotti
had doubts about the accommodation.[1] Finally, the PCI started to provide external support to a Christian Democratic one-party government led by Andreotti. Despite this, several radical communists in the PCI boycotted the government. There was an increase in far-left terrorism, mainly committed by the Red Brigades (Italian: Brigate Rosse, BR). The BR kidnapped Aldo Moro, the then Party President of DC, on 16 March 1978. After several consultations in the Italian Parliament, the government refused the terrorists' conditions, and Moro was killed on 9 May 1978. A strong anti-communist sentiment rose, and the PSI, along with the far-right Italian Social Movement
Italian Social Movement
(MSI), increased their votes in the 1979 general election. Nevertheless, the Compromise continued but it was in decline. At the DC's XIV Congress in 1980, the DC's moderate wing ("Democratic Initiative", "Dorothean" and "New Force") won with an anti-communist programme, obtaining 57.7% of the vote, while the DC's conservative wing and Giulio Andreotti's faction "Spring", ironically, obtained 42.3% with a pro-Compromise program. The new DC Secretary became Flaminio Piccoli, a Dorothean, and the Compromise was discontinued. In November 1980 Berlinguer announced the end of the Historic Compromise. Composition[edit]

Party Main ideology Leader/s

Christian Democracy Christian democracy Aldo Moro, Benigno Zaccagnini

Italian Communist Party Communism Enrico Berlinguer

See also[edit]

Grand coalition (Germany) Strategy of tension Years of lead

Notes[edit]

^ Fallaci, Oriana (1974). Intervista con la storia. Rizzoli. 

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Italian Communist Party

General Secretary

Amadeo Bordiga
Amadeo Bordiga
(1922–1923) Executive Committee (1923–1924) Antonio Gramsci
Antonio Gramsci
(1924–1927) Camilla Ravera
Camilla Ravera
(1927–1930) Palmiro Togliatti
Palmiro Togliatti
(1930–1934) Ruggero Grieco
Ruggero Grieco
(1934–1938) Palmiro Togliatti
Palmiro Togliatti
(1938–1964) Luigi Longo (1964–1972) Enrico Berlinguer
Enrico Berlinguer
(1972–1984) Alessandro Natta
Alessandro Natta
(1984–1988) Achille Occhetto
Achille Occhetto
(1988–1991)

Related articles

Italian Socialist Party L'Ordine Nuovo Culturalists Communist Party of Italy
Communist Party of Italy
(banned in 1926) L'Unità XII International Brigade
XII International Brigade
(Garibaldi Battalion) Italian resistance movement National Liberation Committee May 1947 crises AvtoVAZ Tolyatti Italian Communist Youth Federation Marxist-Leninism Bordigism Eurocommunism Meliorism

Derivatives

International Communist Party Communist Party of Italy
Communist Party of Italy
(Marxist–Leninist) / Italian Marxist–Leninist Party Union of Italian Communists (Marxist–Leninist) Proletarian Democracy Democratic Party of the Left
Democratic Party of the Left
/ Democrats of the Left
Democrats of the Left
/ Democratic Party Communist Refoundation Party
Communist Refoundation Party
/ Party of Italian Communists

Alliances

Popular Democratic Front (1947–1948) Historic Compromise
Historic Compromise
(1976–1980)

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Historical political parties in Italy

Communist

Communist Party of Italy Proletarian Unity Party Italian Communist Party Proletarian Democracy Movement of Unitarian Communists Party of Italian Communists

Socialist and post-communist

Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party Italian Labour Party Italian Socialist Party
Italian Socialist Party
of Proletarian Unity Democratic Party of the Left Democratic Left Movement for the Left Left Ecology Freedom

Social-democratic

Italian Reformist Socialist Party Unitary Socialist Party Labour Democratic Party Action Party Unitary Socialist Party Socialist Autonomy Popular Unity Unified Socialist Party Italian Socialist Party Democrats of the Left Labour Federation Social Christians Italian Socialists Italian Democratic Socialist Party Italian Democratic Socialists

Green

Rainbow Greens Green Lists

Radical and social-liberal

Action Party (1848) Dissident Left Historical Far Left Italian Radical Party Constitutional Democratic Party Democratic Liberal Party Italian Social Democratic Party Radical Party Democratic Alliance Republican Left Democratic Union The Network Italy
Italy
Work in Progress

Centrist and centrist-liberal

Historical Left Liberal Union Democratic Union for the Republic Pannella List Union for the Republic Italian Renewal The Democrats Segni Pact Democracy is Freedom – The Daisy Bonino List Bonino-Pannella List Alliance for Italy

Christian-democratic

Conservative Catholics Italian Catholic Electoral Union Italian People's Party (1919) Christian Democracy Italian People's Party (1994) Christian Democrats for the Republic Christian Democratic Centre United Christian Democrats European Democracy Christian Democracy for the Autonomies Liberal Populars Union of Democrats for Europe

Conservative-liberal

Moderate Party Historical Right Italian Liberal Party Union of the Centre Act to Stop the Decline

Liberal-conservative

Economic Party National Democratic Alliance Forza Italia The People of Freedom Future and Freedom New Centre-Right Conservatives and Reformists

National-conservative

Common Man's Front Monarchist National Party People's Monarchist Party Italian Democratic Party of Monarchist Unity National Democracy National Alliance The Right

Nationalist, fascist and post-fascist

Combatants' Party Italian Nationalist Association National Fascist Party Republican Fascist Party Italian Social Movement

Regionalist and federalist

Federalist Italian League Federalists and Liberal Democrats Autonomists for Europe Force of the South

Coalitions of parties

Leftist coalitions

Popular Democratic Front Alliance of Progressives

Centre-left electoral coalitions

The Olive Tree The Union Italy. Common Good

Centrist electoral coalitions

Pact for Italy New Pole for Italy With Monti for Italy

Centre-right electoral coalitions

Pole of Freedoms Pole of Good Government Pole for Freedoms House of Freedoms

Government-only coalitions

Centrist coalition Organic Centre-left Pentapartito Grand coalition

List of political parties in Italy 19th-century Italian political groups Early 20th-century Italian political parties 1950s–1990s Italian political parties Current Italian political parties

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