Hispanos of New Mexico
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The Hispanos of New Mexico, also known as Neomexicanos ( es, Neomexicano) or Nuevomexicanos, are an
ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousn ...
primarily residing in the US state of
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Albuquerque metropolitan area, Greater Albuqu ...

New Mexico
, as well as the southern portion of
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the , as well as the northeastern portion of the and the western edge of the . Colorado is the and U.S. state. The enumerated the ...

Colorado
. They are descended of the Spanish and Mexican settlers of New Mexico, with
mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a racial classification used to refer to a person of a combined Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. The term was used as an ethnic/racial category for mixed-ra ...
heritage from
Indigenous peoples of the Americas The Indigenous peoples of the Americas, also known as Amerindians or Indians, are the inhabitants of the before the arrival of the in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peoples. Although some of th ...
. They are descended from
Oasisamerica Oasisamerica is a term that was coined by Paul Kirchhoff (who also coined that of Mesoamerica) and published in a 1954 article, and is used by some scholars, primarily Mexican anthropologists, for the broad cultural area defining pre-Columbian ...

Oasisamerica
groups and the settlers of the
Viceroyalty of New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España ), was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, Imperio Español; la, Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the H ...
, the
First Mexican Republic The First Mexican Republic, known also as the First Federal Republic ( es, Primera República Federal), was a federated republic A republic ( la, res publica, links=yes, meaning "public affair") is a List of forms of government, form of gover ...
, and the
Centralist Republic of Mexico Centralisation or centralization (see spelling differences) is the process by which the activities of an organisation, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, framing strategy and policies become concentrated within a particu ...
from the historical region of
Santa Fe de Nuevo México Santa Fe de Nuevo México ( en, Holy Faith of New Mexico; shortened as Nuevo México or Nuevo Méjico, and translated as New Mexico in English) was a Kingdom of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also k ...
. This historical region makes up the present day
US state In the United States, a state is a Federated state, constituent Polity, political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic t ...
s of
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Albuquerque metropolitan area, Greater Albuqu ...

New Mexico
(''Nuevo México''), southern
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the , as well as the northeastern portion of the and the western edge of the . Colorado is the and U.S. state. The enumerated the ...

Colorado
, and parts of
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ' ...

Arizona
,
Texas Texas (, ; : ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the region of the . At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2020, it is the second-largest by both (after ) and (after ). Texas shares borders ...

Texas
, and
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Utah
. The descendants of these New Mexican settlers make up an ethnic community of more than 340,000 in New Mexico, with others throughout the historical Spanish territorial claim of ''Nuevo México''. Alongside
Californios Californios are Hispanic people native to the U.S. state of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and terr ...
and
Tejanos Tejanos (, ; singular: ''Tejano/a''; Spanish language, Spanish for "Texan") are the residents of the U.S. state, state of Texas who are culturally descended from the original Hispanic settlers from Spanish Texas, Tejas, Coahuila, and other north ...
, Neomexicanos are part of the larger
Hispano The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazon ...
community of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
, who have lived in the
American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣona ...
since the 16th century. These groups are different from the population of
Mexican Americans Mexican Americans ( es, mexicano-estadounidenses or ) are of ancestry. In 2019, Mexican Americans comprised 11.3% of the US population and 61.5% of all . In 2019, 71% of Mexican Americans were born in the United States, though they make up 53 ...

Mexican Americans
that arrived after the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. ...

Mexican–American War
and later
Mexican Revolution The Mexican Revolution ( es, Revolución Mexicana, 1910–1920) was a major revolution that was not a unified struggle, but an extended sequence of armed regional conflicts. It has been called "the defining event of modern Mexican history." It ...
. Neomexicanos speak
New Mexican English English in New Mexico refers to varieties of Western American English Western American English (also known as Western U.S. English) is a variety of American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United ...
, Neomexicano Spanish, or both bilingually, and identify with the culture of New Mexico displaying
patriotism Patriotism or national pride is the feeling of love, devotion, and sense of attachment to a homeland A homeland is the concept of the place where a cultural, national, or racial identity had formed. The definition can also mean simply on ...

patriotism
in regional
Americana Americana artifacts are related to the history, geography, folklore and cultural heritage of the United States of America The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Co ...

Americana
, pride for various cities and towns such as Albuquerque or Santa Fe, and expressing through
New Mexican cuisine New Mexican cuisine is the cuisine of the Southwestern US state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The ...
and
New Mexico music New Mexico music ( es, música nuevo mexicana) is a genre of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societie ...
, as well as in
Ranch A ranch (from es, rancho) is an area of land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists ...
ero and US Route 66
cruising Cruising may refer to: * Cruising, on a cruise ship *Cruising (driving), driving around for social purposes, especially by teenagers *Cruising (maritime), leisurely travel by boat, yacht, or cruise ship *Cruising for sex, the process of searching i ...
lifestyles. Alongside
Californios Californios are Hispanic people native to the U.S. state of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and terr ...
and
Tejanos Tejanos (, ; singular: ''Tejano/a''; Spanish language, Spanish for "Texan") are the residents of the U.S. state, state of Texas who are culturally descended from the original Hispanic settlers from Spanish Texas, Tejas, Coahuila, and other north ...
, they are part of the larger
Hispano The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano or ) refers to people, cultures, or countries related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazon ...
communities of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
, which have lived in the
American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣona ...
since the 16th century or earlier (since many individuals are from mestizo communities, and thus, also of indigenous descent). Hispanos historically identified strongly with their Spanish heritage, have pride for their varying levels of Indigenous ancestry, and focused on their New Mexican identity. Exact numbers for the population size of New Mexican Hispanos is difficult, as many also identify with
Chicano Chicano or Chicana is a chosen identity for many Mexican Americans Mexican Americans ( es, mexicano-estadounidenses or ) are Americans of Mexicans, Mexican ancestry. In 2019, Mexican Americans comprised 11.3% of the US population and 61.5% of ...
and
Mexican-American Mexican Americans ( es, mexicano-estadounidenses or ) are Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals Nationals may refer to: * People of a given nationality * A tournament or convention of national scope * Washington Nationals, a ...
movements. For most of its modern history, New Mexico existed on the periphery of the and later
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; ...

Mexico
(1821–1848), but was dominated by
Comancheria The Comancheria or Comanchería (Comanche language, Comanche: Nʉmʉnʉʉ Sookobitʉ, 'Comanche land') is the region of New Mexico, west Texas and nearby areas occupied by the Comanche before the 1860s. Geography The area was vaguely defined and ...

Comancheria
politically and economically from the 1750s to 1850s. Due to the Comanche, contact with the rest of Spanish America was limited, and New Mexican Spanish developed closer trading links with the Comanche than the rest of New Spain. In the meantime, some Spanish colonists coexisted with and intermarried with
Puebloan peoples The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the United States, Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural, material, and religious practices. Pueblo, which means "village" in Spanish, was a term o ...
and
Navajos The Navajo (; English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a Native American people of the Southwestern United States The southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region ...
, enemies of the Comanche. New Mexicans of all ethnicities were commonly enslaved by the Comanche and
Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans i ...

Apache
of
Apacheria Apachería was the term used to designate the region inhabited by the Apache people The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan ...
, while Native New Mexicans were commonly enslaved and adopted Spanish language and culture. These Genízaros served as house servants, sheep herders, and in other capacities in New Mexico including what is known today as Southern Colorado well into the 1800s. By the late 18th century, Genízaros and their descendants, often referred to as , comprised nearly one-third of the entire population of New Mexico. After the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. ...

Mexican–American War
, New Mexico and all its inhabitants came under the governance of the English-speaking United States, and for the next hundred years, English-speakers increased in number. By the 1980s, more and more Hispanos were using English instead of
New Mexican Spanish New Mexican Spanish ( es, español neomexicano, novomexicano) is a variety of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in Northern New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a U.S. state ...
at home.


Term

In New Mexico, the predominant term for this ethnic group has always been ', analogous to ' and '. In New Mexico, the Spanish-speaking population (of colonial descent) was always proportionally greater than those of California and Texas. The term is commonly used to differentiate those who settled the area early, around 1598 to 1848, from later Mexican migrants. It can also refer to anyone of "Spanish or Indo-Hispanic descent native to the American Southwest." Since the spread of the terms ''
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, cultures Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and B ...
'' and ''Latino'' since 1970 to encompass all peoples in the United States (and often beyond) of Spanish-speaking background, the terms ''Nuevomexicanos,'' ''Novomexicanos,'' and ''Neomexicanos'' are sometimes used in English to refer to this group, but this is less common in New Mexico.


History


Spanish governance

The first
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
settlers emigrated to New Mexico on July 11, 1598, when the explorer Don
Juan de Oñate Juan de Oñate y Salazar (; 1550–1626) was a Spanish conquistador is one of the most famous Portuguese conquerors, having expanded the Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Ove ...
came north from
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX; nah, Āltepētl Mēxihco) is the and largest city of , as well as the in , and is one of the country's . Mexico City is one of the most important cultural and financial center ...

Mexico City
to New Mexico with 500 Spanish settlers and soldiers and a livestock of 7,000 animals. The settlers founded '' San Juan de los Caballeros,'' the first Spanish settlement in what was called the Kingdom of New Mexico, after the Valley of Mexico. Oñate also conquered the territories of the
Pueblo peoples The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States The southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States tha ...
. He became the first governor of New Mexico. The exploitation of Spanish rule under Oñate caused nearly continuous attacks and reprisals from the nomadic Amer-Indian tribes on the borders, especially the
Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans i ...

Apache
,
Navajo The Navajo (; British English: Navaho; nv, Diné or ') are a of the . At more than 399,494 enrolled tribal members , the is the largest federally recognized tribe in the U.S. (the being the second largest); the Navajo Nation has the larges ...
, and
Comanche The Comanche or Nʉmʉnʉʉ ( com, Nʉmʉnʉʉ; "the people") are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribe from the Great Plains, Southern Plains of the present-day United States. Comanche people to ...

Comanche
peoples. There were also major clashes between the Franciscan missionaries (brought to New Mexico to convert the indigenous peoples to Christianity and Hispanicize them) and secular and religious authorities. The colonists exploited Indian labor, as was typical in other areas of the Spanish colonies in the Americas. In the 1650s, Governor Bernardo López de Mendizabal, and his subordinate Nicolas de Aguilar, enacted a law to force the settlers and Franciscans to pay Native Americans for their work. He opposed what he perceived to be the mistreatment of the Indians by the Franciscans and proposed to allow the Indians to preserve and to practice their culture, religion, and customs. The Franciscans protested the law and accused the governor before the Inquisition. Later he was tried in Mexico City. So, the Franciscans indirectly governed the New Mexico province. In 1680, the Native American groups that lived along the Rio Grande successfully rose against the Spanish colonizers in what became known as the Pueblo Revolt. When the Spanish returned to the province in 1692, Don Diego de Vargas became the new governor of New Mexico. He entered the former capital bearing an image of La Conquistadora. The Native Americans were so intrigued by the statue of the Virgin Mary that they are reputed to have laid down their arms at the sight of it. This ''Reconquista'' of New Mexico is reputed to have been bloodless and every year since then this statue of the Virgin Mary has been carried in procession through the City of Santa Fe to commemorate the event. At the time of Vargas's arrival, New Mexico was under the jurisdiction of the Royal Audiencia of Guadalajara and belonged to the
Viceroyalty of New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España ), was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, Imperio Español; la, Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the H ...
. However, in 1777 with the creation of the Provincias Internas it was included only in the jurisdiction of the Commandant-General. After the revolt, the Spanish issued substantial land grants to each Pueblo Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Amerindian and appointed a public defender to protect the rights of the Indians and to argue their legal cases in the Spanish courts.


Mexican governance

The mainland part of New Spain won independence from Spain in 1821, and New Mexico became part of the new nation of Mexico. The Spanish settlers of New Mexico, and their descendants, adapted somewhat to Mexican citizenship. The Hispanos chose to make New Mexico a territory of Mexico, rather than a state, in order to have more local control over its affairs. In 1836, after the Republic of Texas gained independence, Texas claimed part of the Province of New Mexico, and sought "if possible, to establish Texas jurisdiction over Santa Fe", the capital, which was disputed by Mexico. In 1841, the Texians sent an expedition to occupy the area, but it was captured by Mexican troops. The Revolt of 1837 (New Mexico), Revolt of 1837 in New Mexico caused the Hispanos to overthrow and execute the centrally appointed Mexican governor, demanding increased regional authority. This revolt was defeated by Manuel Armijo, a fellow Hispano appointed by
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; ...

Mexico
, which eased the people's concerns. The impetus for this revolt was the class antagonism present in New Mexican society. When central rule was reestablished, Armijo ruled the province as governor, though with greater autonomy. In the mid-1830s, New Mexico began to function as a trading hub between the United States, Central Mexico, and Mexican California. New Mexico grew economically and the United States began to take notice of the strategic position New Mexico played in the western trade routes. In 1846, during the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. ...

Mexican–American War
, the United States Army occupied the province, which caused the Taos Revolt a popular insurrection in January 1847 by Hispanos and Pueblo allies against the occupation. In two short campaigns, U.S. troops and militia crushed the rebellion. The rebels regrouped and fought three more engagements, but after being defeated, they abandoned open warfare. Mexico ceded the territories of the north to the United States with the so-called Mexican Cession. As a result, Texas gained control of the City of El Paso, which was formerly in New Mexico. However, in the Compromise of 1850 Texas gave up its claim to the other areas of New Mexico.


United States governance

After the Mexican–American War, Anglo Americans began migrating in large numbers to all of the newly acquired territory. Anglos began taking lands from both Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Native Americans and Hispanos by different means, most notably by squatting. Squatters often sold these lands to land speculators for huge profits, especially after the passing of the 1862 Homestead Act. Hispanos demanded that their lands be returned but governments did not respond favorably. For example, the Surveyor of General Claims Office in
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Albuquerque metropolitan area, Greater Albuqu ...

New Mexico
would at times take up to fifty years to process a claim, meanwhile, the lands were being grabbed up by the newcomers. One tactic used to defraud Hispanos from their lands was to demand that they present documentation proving ownership written in English language, English. Because the territory had previously been part of Mexico, only Spanish language, Spanish language ownership documentation existed. While the Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe, Atchison, Kansas, Atchison, and Topeka railroad was built in the 1890s, speculators known as the Santa Fe Ring, orchestrated schemes to remove natives from their lands. In response, Hispanos gathered to reclaim lands taken by Anglos. Hoping to scare off the new immigrants, they eventually used intimidation and Raid (military), raids to accomplish their goals. They sought to develop a class-based consciousness among local people through the everyday tactics of resistance to the economic and social order confronting common property land grant communities. They called themselves ''Las Gorras Blancas'' a term owing its origin to the white head coverings many wore. The New Mexico Territory played a role in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War, Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. Both Confederate States of America, Confederate and Union (American Civil War), Union governments claimed ownership and territorial rights over it. In 1861 the Confederacy claimed the southern tract as its own Arizona Territory (Confederate States of America), Arizona Territory and waged the ambitious New Mexico Campaign in an attempt to control the
American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣona ...
and to open up access to Union California. Confederate power in the New Mexico Territory was effectively broken in 1862 after the Battle of Glorieta Pass. The New Mexico Volunteer Infantry, with 157 Hispanic officers, was the Union unit with the most officers of that ethnic background. Along with Colonel Miguel E. Pino and Lieutenant Colonel Jose Maria Valdez, who belonged to the 2nd New Mexico Volunteer Infantry, the New Mexico Volunteer Infantry also included Colonel Diego Archuleta (eventually promoted to Brigadier General), the commanding officer of the First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry, Colonel Jose G. Gallegos commander of the Third New Mexico Volunteer Infantry, and Lieutenant Colonel Francisco Perea, who commanded Perea's Militia Battalion.MILITARY ORDER OF THE LOYAL LEGION OF THE UNITED STATES
/ref> After the Civil War, Congress passed the Peonage Act of 1867, aiming to abolish the historical system of peonage that had existed among the Hispano population. In January 1912, New Mexico became an American state, and English-speaking, Anglophones eventually became the majority population. The state's Hispanos became an economically disadvantaged population, becoming virtual second-class citizens compared to the Anglos. The Hispanos suffered discrimination from Anglophone Americans, who also questioned the loyalty of these new American citizens. The cultures of Hispanos and immigrant Anglophones eventually mixed to some degree, as was the case with immigrants in other parts of the United States.Phillip Gonzales and Ann Massmann, "Loyalty Questioned: Neomexicanos in the Great War." ''Pacific Historical Review'', Nov 2006, Vol. 75 Issue 4, pp 629–666Phillip B. Gonzales, "Spanish Heritage and Ethnic Protest in New Mexico: The Anti-Fraternity Bill of 1933," ''New Mexico Historical Review'', Fall 1986, Vol. 61 Issue 4, pp 281–299 The United States and the New Mexico State governments tried to incorporate the Hispanos into mainstream American life. Examples of this include: is the mixing of Hispanos' images with American patriots' symbols, the first translation of the national anthem into Spanish, and the recruitment of numerous Hispanos ranchers, horsemen, and farmers to fight for the U.S. in both the Spanish–American War, Spanish American and First World War, First World wars. One early contribution by the Hispanos to American society was their support for women's suffrage. Contributions from both sides helped to improve the conditions of citizenship in the community, but social inequality between the Anglos and Hispanos remained. Anglos and Hispanics cooperated because both prosperous and poor Hispanics could vote and they outnumbered the Anglos. Around 1920, the term "Spanish-American" replaced "Mexican" in polite society and in political debate. The new term served the interests of both groups. For Spanish speakers, it evoked Spain, not Mexico, recalling images of a romantic colonial past and suggesting a future of equality in Anglo-dominated America. For Anglos, on the other hand, it was a useful term that upgraded the state's image, for the old image as a "Mexican" land suggested violence and disorder, and had discouraged capital investment and set back the statehood campaign. The new term gave the impression that Spanish-Americans belonged to a true American political culture, making the established order appear all the more democratic.


Population

Currently, the majority of the Hispano population is distributed between New Mexico and Southern
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the , as well as the northeastern portion of the and the western edge of the . Colorado is the and U.S. state. The enumerated the ...

Colorado
, although other southwestern states have thousands of Hispanos with origins in New Mexico. Most of New Mexico's Hispanos, numbering in the hundreds of thousands, live in the northern half of the state, mainly Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe, Taos, New Mexico, Taos, and Española, New Mexico, Española, although they are distributed throughout the north of the state. Also there communities in the Albuquerque Albuquerque metropolitan area, metro and Albuquerque Basin, basin, in mountain ranges like the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Sangre de Cristo, Sandia–Manzano Mountains, Sandia–Manzano, Mogollon Mountains, Mogollon, and Jemez Mountains, Jemez, and along river valleys statewide such as Mimbres River, Mimbres, San Juan River (Colorado River tributary), San Juan, and Mesilla Valley, Mesilla. Most of Hispanos of New Mexico have significa The Hispano community in Southern Colorado is descended from Hispanos from New Mexico who migrated there in the second half of the 19th century. Several Hispano ethnographers, linguists, and folklorists studied both of these centers of population (particularly Rubén Cobos, Juan Bautista Rael and Aurelio Macedonio Espinosa Sr.).


New Mexican families

The following family names are listed in the New Mexico Office of the State Historian, ''Origins of New Mexico Families'' by Fray Angélico Chávez, and Beyond Origins of New Mexico Families by José Antonio Esquibel.


Genetics


Amerindian genes

According to DNA studies, Hispanos of New Mexico have significant proportions of Amerindian genes (between 30 and 40% of the Nuevomexicano genome) due to the interbreeding between Spanish and Native Americans that occurred during the colonial era, when many Spaniards and Criollo people, Criollos had Native American slaves (genízaros).Simon Romero (February 1, 2018
Familias de Nuevo México descubren que sus antepasados eran esclavos indígenas
Published by The New York Times.
Their Amerindian ancestors are mainly Pueblos, Navajos, and
Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans i ...

Apache
s, but also including
Comanche The Comanche or Nʉmʉnʉʉ ( com, Nʉmʉnʉʉ; "the people") are a Native Americans in the United States, Native American tribe (Native American), tribe from the Great Plains, Southern Plains of the present-day United States. Comanche people to ...

Comanche
s, Ute people, Utes, and Indigenous peoples of Mexico, Indigenous Mexicans.


Crypto-Judaism

According to the ''Kupersmit Research'', in 2015 there were about 24,000 Jews in New Mexico, 1,700 of whom were born in the state. Some researchers and historians believe that number would rise considerably if Anusim (or Crypto-Jews) were included in those estimates. In Old Town Albuquerque, the San Felipe de Neri Church, built in 1793, contains a Star of David on the left and right sides of the altar. Some observers believe that this is evidence of the influence of Crypto-Jews in New Mexico, but others think there is not enough to support that interpretation. Researchers have found cemetery headstones in Northern New Mexico with Hebrew and Jewish symbols alongside those with Catholic crosses. Since their maternal lines were not Jewish and they have not maintained Jewish practices, they would not be considered Jewish by Halakha, halachic standards, which require an unbroken matrilineal line. (The standards of Reconstructionist Judaism, Reconstructionist and Reform Judaism, Reform Judaism differ from Orthodox Judaism here; Reform Judaism requires a child to be born to at least one Jewish parent, and that the child must be raised as a Jew and continue to practice Judaism in order to be considered a Jew themselves, though this varies by country.) Genetic studies have been conducted on some Spanish New Mexicans. Michael Hammer, a research professor at the University of Arizona and an expert on Jewish genetics, said that fewer than 1% of non-Semites, but more than four times the entire Jewish population of the world, possessed the male-specific "Y-chromosomal Aaron, Cohanim marker" (this is not carried by all Jews, but is prevalent among Jews claiming descent from hereditary priests). Some 30 of 78 Hispanos tested in
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Albuquerque metropolitan area, Greater Albuqu ...

New Mexico
(38.5%) were found to carry the Cohanim marker. Bennett Greenspan, Family Tree DNA’s founder, whose recent ancestors were Ashkenazi Jews in Eastern Europe, also carries a Sephardic Y-chromosomal lineage, belonging to haplogroup J-M267. Greenspan's 67-marker STR matches include two Hispanic descendants of Juan Tenorio of Seville, Spain, one of whom is Manuel Tenorio, a Catholic from a New Mexican Hispano family. Other Y-DNA testing of Hispanic populations revealed between 10% and 15% of men living in New Mexico, south
Texas Texas (, ; : ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the region of the . At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2020, it is the second-largest by both (after ) and (after ). Texas shares borders ...

Texas
and northern
Mexico Mexico ( es, México ; Nahuan languages: ), officially the United Mexican States (; EUM ), is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; ...

Mexico
have a Y chromosome that can be traced to the Middle East. New Mexican Hispanos have been found to share Identity by descent, identical by descent Genealogical DNA test, autosomal DNA segments with Ashkenazi Jews, Syrian Jews, and Moroccan Jews in GEDmatch. However, Hispanos of New Mexico have no more Sephardic Jewish genes than the Hispanic American population.


Culture


New Mexican Spanish

It is commonly thought that Spanish is an official language alongside English because of its wide usage and legal promotion of Spanish in New Mexico; however, the state has no official language. New Mexico's laws are promulgated bilingually in Spanish and English. Although English is the state government's paper working language, government business is often conducted in Spanish, particularly at the local level. The original state constitution of 1912, renewed in 1931 and 1943, provided for a bilingual government with laws being published in both languages. The constitution does not identify any language as official.''Constitution of the State of New Mexico.''
Adopted January 21, 1911.
While the legislature permitted the use of Spanish there until 1935, in the 21st century all state officials are required to be fluent in English. Some scholars argue that, since not legal matters are published in both languages, New Mexico cannot be considered a true bilingual state. Juan Perea has countered with saying that the state was officially bilingual until 1953. With regard to the judiciary, witnesses have the right to testify in either of the two languages. Monolingual speakers of Spanish have the same right and obligation to be considered for jury duty as do speakers of English. In public education, the state has the constitutional obligation to provide for bilingual education and Spanish-speaking instructors in school districts where the majority of students are hispanophone. In 1995, the state adopted a State Bilingual Song, "New Mexico – Mi Lindo Nuevo México". Because of the relative isolation of these people from other Spanish-speaking areas over most of the area's 400-year history, they developed what is known as New Mexico Spanish. In particular the Spanish of Hispanos in Northern New Mexico and Colorado#South Central region, Southern Colorado has retained many elements of 16th- and 17th-century Spanish spoken by the colonists who settled the area. In addition, some unique vocabulary has developed here.Cobos, Rubén (2003) "Introduction," ''A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish'' (2nd ed.); Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press; p. ix; New Mexican Spanish also contains loan words from the Puebloan languages of the upper Rio Grande, Rio Grande Valley, Mexican-Spanish words ('), and borrowings from English. Grammatical changes include the loss of the second person plural verb form, changes in verb endings, particularly in the preterite, and partial merging of the second and third conjugations.Cobos, Rubén, ''op. cit.'', pp. x-xi.


Notable people


See also

* Hispanics and Latinos in New Mexico * Hispanos (Californios, Genízaros, and
Tejanos Tejanos (, ; singular: ''Tejano/a''; Spanish language, Spanish for "Texan") are the residents of the U.S. state, state of Texas who are culturally descended from the original Hispanic settlers from Spanish Texas, Tejas, Coahuila, and other north ...
) * Cuisine of the Southwestern United States * Floridanos *
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Albuquerque metropolitan area, Greater Albuqu ...

New Mexico
* Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico ** List of Spanish governors of New Mexico ** List of Mexican governors of New Mexico * History of New Mexico *
New Mexico music New Mexico music ( es, música nuevo mexicana) is a genre of music Music is the art of arranging sounds in time through the elements of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the universal cultural aspects of all human societie ...
*
New Mexican cuisine New Mexican cuisine is the cuisine of the Southwestern US state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The ...
*
New Mexican Spanish New Mexican Spanish ( es, español neomexicano, novomexicano) is a variety of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in Northern New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a U.S. state ...
* Spanish American


References

{{Authority control Neomexicanos, People in the colonial Southwest of North America People of New Spain People of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico