Hispanic and Latino Americans
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Hispanic and Latino Americans ( es, Estadounidenses hispanos y latinos; pt, Estadunidenses hispânicos e latinos) are
Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals of the United States of America.; ; Although direct citizens and nationals make up the majority of Americans, many dual citizens, expatriates, and permanent residents could also legally claim Ame ...
of
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...
and/or
Latin American Latin Americans ( es, Latinoamericanos; pt, Latino-americanos; ) are the citizenship, citizens of Latin American countries (or people with cultural, ancestral or national origins in Latin America). Latin American countries and their diasporas a ...
ancestry. More broadly, these demographics include all Americans who identify as
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, Spanish culture, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Spanish language, or Hispanidad. The term commonly applies to countries with a cultural and historical link to Spain and to Vic ...
or Latino regardless of ancestry.Mark Hugo Lopez, Jens Manuel Krogstad and Jeffrey S. Passel
Who Is Hispanic?
Pew Research Center (November 11, 2019).
As of 2020, the Census Bureau estimated that there were almost 65.3 million Hispanics and Latinos living in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
and its territories (which include
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico), is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...
). "Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States of America. People who identify as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. As one of the only two specifically designated categories of ethnicity in the United States (the other being "Not Hispanic or Latino"), Hispanics and Latinos form a
pan-ethnicity Panethnicity is a political neologism used to group various ethnic groups together based on their related cultural origins; geographic, linguistic, religious, or 'racial' (i.e. Phenotype, phenotypic) similarities are often used alone or in combin ...
incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic and Latino Americans are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban,
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...
,
Salvadoran Salvadorans (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Salvadoreños''), also known as Salvadorians (alternate spelling: Salvadoreans), are citizens of El Salvador, a country in Central America. Most Salvadorans live in El Salvador, although there is also a s ...
, Dominican, Brazilian, Guatemalan, Colombian, or
Venezuelan Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many Federal Dependencies of V ...
origin. The predominant origin of regional Hispanic and Latino populations varies widely in different locations across the country. In 2012, Hispanic Americans were the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States after
Asian Americans Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry (including naturalized Americans who are immigrants from specific regions in Asia Asia (, ) is one of the world's most notable geographical regions, which is either considered a cont ...
. Hispanics of Indigenous descent and Native Americans are the oldest ethnic groups to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Spain colonized large areas of what is today the
American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ...
and West Coast, as well as Florida. Its holdings included present-day California, Texas, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, and Florida, all of which constituted part of the
Viceroyalty of New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Amer ...
, based in
Mexico City Mexico City ( es, link=no, Ciudad de México, ; abbr.: CDMX; Nahuatl: ''Altepetl Mexico'') is the capital city, capital and primate city, largest city of Mexico, and the List of North American cities by population, most populous city in North Amer ...
. Later, this vast territory became part of Mexico after its independence from Spain in 1821 and until the end of the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the (''United States intervention in Mexico''), was an armed conflict between the United States and Second Federal Republic of Mexico, Mexico f ...
in 1848. Hispanic immigrants to the New York/ New Jersey metropolitan area derive from a broad spectrum of Hispanic countries.


Terminology

The terms "
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, Spanish culture, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Spanish language, or Hispanidad. The term commonly applies to countries with a cultural and historical link to Spain and to Vic ...
" and " Latino" refer to an
ethnicity An ethnic group or an ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, an ...
. The U.S. Census Bureau defines being Hispanic as being a member of an ethnicity, rather than being a member of a particular race and thus, people who are members of this group may also be members of any race.Ana Gonzales-Barrera & Mark Hugo Lopez
Is being Hispanic a matter of race, ethnicity or both?
Pew Research Center (June 15, 2015).
In a 2015 national survey of self-identified Hispanics, 56% said that being Hispanic is part of both their racial and ethnic background, while smaller numbers considered it part of their ethnic background only (19%) or racial background only (11%). Hispanics may be of any linguistic background; in a 2015 survey, 71% of American Hispanics agreed that it "is not necessary for a person to speak Spanish to be considered Hispanic/Latino". Hispanic and Latino people may share some commonalities in their language, culture, history, and heritage. According to the
Smithsonian Institution The Smithsonian Institution ( ), or simply the Smithsonian, is a group of museums and education and Research institute, research centers, the largest such complex in the world, created by the Federal government of the United States, U.S. govern ...
, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as
Brazilians Brazilians ( pt, Brasileiros, ) are the citizens of Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America South America is a continent entirely ...
, as well as those of Spanish-language origin. In the United States, many Hispanics are of Iberian (primarily Spanish) and Indigenous American ancestry (
mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a term used for racial classification to refer to a person of mixed Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. In certain regions such as Latin America, it may also r ...
). Others may have European, Middle Eastern (including Jewish), or Asian ancestry as well as Indigenous American ancestry. Many Hispanics from the Caribbean, as well as many Hispanics from other regions of the Hispanic world where African slavery was widespread, may also be of
sub-Saharan Africa Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area and regions of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara. These include West Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, and Southern Africa. Geopolitically, in addition to the List of sov ...
n descent. The difference between the terms ''Hispanic'' and ''Latino'' is ambiguous to some people. The US Census Bureau equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain or the Spanish- or Portuguese-speaking countries of the Americas. After the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the (''United States intervention in Mexico''), was an armed conflict between the United States and Second Federal Republic of Mexico, Mexico f ...
concluded in 1848, term ''Hispanic'' or ''Spanish American'' was primarily used to describe the Hispanos of New Mexico within the
American Southwest The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ...
. The 1970 United States Census controversially broadened the definition to "a person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race". This is now the common formal and colloquial definition of the term within the United States, outside of New Mexico.Cobos, Rubén (2003) "Introduction", ''A Dictionary of New Mexico & Southern Colorado Spanish'' (2nd ed.); Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico Press; p. ix; This definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U.S. Census Bureau and OMB, as the two agencies use both terms Hispanic and Latino interchangeably. The
Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisanism in the United States, nonpartisan American think tank (referring to itself as a "fact tank") based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends ...
believes that the term "Hispanic" is strictly limited to
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ''Plus ultra'' (Latin)(English: "Further Beyond") , national_anthem = (English: "Royal March") , i ...
,
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico), is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...
, and all countries where
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...
is the only official language whereas "Latino" includes all countries in
Latin America Latin America or * french: Amérique Latine, link=no * ht, Amerik Latin, link=no * pt, América Latina, link=no, name=a, sometimes referred to as LatAm is a large cultural region in the Americas where Romance languages — languages derived f ...
(even
Brazil Brazil ( pt, Brasil; ), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: ), is the largest country in both South America South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, ...
) regardless of the fact that Portuguese is its only official language, but it does not include Spain. The term Latino is a condensed form of ''"latinoamericano"'', the Spanish term for a Latin American, or someone who comes from Latin America. The term ''Latino'' has developed a number of definitions. This definition, as a "male Latin American inhabitant of the United States", was the original and is therefore the oldest definition which is used in the United States, it was first used in 1946. Under this definition a
Mexican American Mexican Americans ( es, mexicano-estadounidenses, , or ) are Americans of full or partial Mexicans, Mexican heritage. In 2019, Mexican Americans comprised 11.3% of the US population and 61.5% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans. In 2019, 71% ...
or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic and a Latino. A Brazilian American is also a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. But also by this definition,
Italian Americans Italian Americans ( it, italoamericani or ''italo-americani'', ) are Americans who have full or partial Italians, Italian ancestry. The largest concentrations of Italian Americans are in the urban Northeastern United States, Northeast and indus ...
are ''not'' considered "Latino", as they are for the most part descended from immigrants from Europe rather than Latin America, unless they happen to have had recent history in a Latin American country. Preference of use between the terms among Hispanics in the United States often depends on where users of the respective terms reside. Those in the Eastern United States tend to prefer the term ''Hispanic'', whereas those in the West tend to prefer ''Latino''. The U.S. ethnic designation ''Latino'' is abstracted from the longer form ''latinoamericano''. The element ''latino-'' is actually an indeclinable, compositional form in ''-o'' (i.e. an ''elemento compositivo'') that is employed to coin compounded formations (similar as ''franco-'' in ''francocanadiense'' 'French-Canadian′, or ''ibero-'' in ''iberorrománico'', etc.). The term '' Latinx'' (and similar
neologism A neologism from Ancient Greek, Greek νέο- ''néo''(="new") and λόγος /''lógos'' meaning "speech, utterance"is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not ...
'' Xicanx'') have gained some usage. The adoption of the ''X'' would be " flecting new consciousness inspired by more recent work by LGBTQI and feminist movements, some Spanish-speaking activists are increasingly using a yet more inclusive "x" to replace the "a" and "o", in a complete break with the
gender binary The gender binary (also known as gender binarism) is the classification of gender into two distinct, opposite forms of masculine and feminine, whether by social system, Culture, cultural belief, or both simultaneously. Most cultures use a gende ...
. Among the advocates of the term ''LatinX'', one of most frequently cited complaints of gender bias in the Spanish language is that a group of mixed or unknown gender would be referred to as ''Latinos'', whereas ''Latinas'' refers to a group of women only (but this is changed immediately to ''Latinos'', if even a single man joins this female group). A 2020 Pew Research Center survey found that about 3% of Hispanics use the term (mostly women), and only around 23% have even heard of the term. Of those, 65% said it should not be used to describe their ethnic group. Some have pointed out that the term “Hispanic” refers to a pan-ethnic identity, one that spans a range of races, national origins, and linguistic backgrounds. “Terms like Hispanic and Latino do not fully capture how we see ourselves”, says Geraldo Cadava, an associate professor of history and Hispanic studies at
Northwestern University Northwestern University is a private research university in Evanston, Illinois. Founded in 1851, Northwestern is the oldest chartered university in Illinois Illinois ( ) is a state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern Unite ...
. According to 2017
American Community Survey The American Community Survey (ACS) is a demographics survey program conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. It regularly gathers information previously contained only in the long form of the United States Census, decennial census, such as ancestry, ...
data, a small minority of immigrants from Brazil (2%),
Portugal Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic ( pt, República Portuguesa, links=yes ), is a Sovereign state, country whose mainland is located on the Iberian Peninsula of Southern Europe, Southwestern Europe, and whose territory also includes ...
(2%), and the Philippines (1%) self-identified as Hispanic.


History


16th and 17th centuries

Spanish explorers were pioneers in the territory of the present-day United States. The first confirmed European landing in the continental United States was by Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened '' La Florida''. In the next three decades, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the
Appalachian Mountains The Appalachian Mountains (french: Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a mountain range, system of mountains in eastern to northeastern North America. The Appalachians first formed roughly 480 million years ago during the Ordovician ...
, the
Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the List of longest rivers of the United States (by main stem), second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest Drainage system (geomorphology), drainage system in North America, second only to the Hudson B ...
, the
Grand Canyon The Grand Canyon (, yuf-x-yav, Wi:kaʼi:la, , Southern Paiute language: Paxa’uipi, ) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States. The Grand Canyon is long, up to wide and attains a depth of over a mi ...
and the
Great Plains The Great Plains (french: Grandes Plaines), sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of plain, flatland in North America. It is located west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains, much of it covered in prairie, step ...
. Spanish ships sailed along the Atlantic Coast, penetrating to present-day
Bangor, Maine Bangor ( ) is a city in the U.S. state of Maine and the county seat of Penobscot County, Maine, Penobscot County. The city proper has a population of 31,753, making it the state's 3rd-largest settlement, behind Portland, Maine, Portland (68,408) ...
, and up the
Pacific Coast Pacific coast may be used to reference any coastline that borders the Pacific Ocean. Geography Americas Countries on the western side of the Americas have a Pacific coast as their western or southwestern border, except for Panama, where the Pac ...
as far as
Oregon Oregon () is a U.S. state, state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington (state), Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of it ...
. From 1528 to 1536, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca and three fellows (including an African named Estevanico), from a Spanish expedition that foundered, journeyed from Florida to the
Gulf of California The Gulf of California ( es, Golfo de California), also known as the Sea of Cortés (''Mar de Cortés'') or Sea of Cortez, or less commonly as the Vermilion Sea (''Mar Bermejo''), is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean that separates the Baja Ca ...
. In 1540,
Hernando de Soto Hernando de Soto (; ; 1500 – 21 May, 1542) was a Spanish explorer Exploration refers to the historical practice of discovering remote lands. It is studied by geographers and historians. Two major eras of exploration occurred in human hi ...
undertook an extensive exploration of the present United States. Also in 1540, Francisco Vásquez de Coronado led 2,000 Spaniards and Mexican natives across today's
Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ) is a U.S. state, state in the Southwestern United States. It is the list of U.S. states and territories by area, 6th largest and the list of U.S. states and territories by population, 14 ...
–Mexico border and traveled as far as central
Kansas Kansas () is a U.S. state, state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. Its Capital city, capital is Topeka, Kansas, Topeka, and its largest city is Wichita, Kansas, Wichita. Kansas is a landlocked state bordered by Nebras ...
, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Other Spanish explorers of the US territory include, among others: Alonso Alvarez de Pineda, Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, Pánfilo de Narváez, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Gaspar de Portolà, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Tristán de Luna y Arellano, and Juan de Oñate, and non-Spanish explorers working for the Spanish Crown, such as Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In 1565, the Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at
St. Augustine, Florida St. Augustine ( ; es, San Agustín ) is a city in the Southeastern United States and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or parish (administrative division), civil parish ...
. Spanish missionaries and colonists founded settlements including in the present-day
Santa Fe, New Mexico Santa Fe ( ; , Spanish for 'Holy Faith'; tew, Oghá P'o'oge, Tewa for 'white shell water place'; tiw, Hulp'ó'ona, label=Tiwa language, Northern Tiwa; nv, Yootó, Navajo for 'bead + water place') is the capital of the U.S. state of New Mexico. ...
,
El Paso El Paso (; "the pass") is a city in and the county seat, seat of El Paso County, Texas, El Paso County in the western corner of the U.S. state of Texas. The 2020 population of the city from the United States Census Bureau, U.S. Census Bureau w ...
,
San Antonio ("Cradle of Freedom") , image_map = , mapsize = 220px , map_caption = Interactive map of San Antonio , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = United States , subdivision_type1= U.S. state, State , subdivision_name1 = Texas , s ...
,
Tucson , "(at the) base of the black ill , nicknames = "The Old Pueblo", "Optics Valley", "America's biggest small town" , image_map = , mapsize = 260px , map_caption = Interactive ...
,
Albuquerque Albuquerque ( ; ), ; kee, Arawageeki; tow, Vakêêke; zun, Alo:ke:k'ya; apj, Gołgéeki'yé. abbreviated ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico. Its nicknames, The Duke City and Burque, both reference its founding in ...
,
San Diego San Diego ( , ; ) is a city on the Pacific Ocean coast of Southern California located immediately adjacent to the Mexico–United States border. With a 2020 population of 1,386,932, it is the List of United States cities by population, eigh ...
,
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; es, Los Ángeles, link=no , ), often referred to by its initials L.A., is the largest city in the state of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located along the West Coast of ...
, and
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the commercial, financial, and cultural center of Northern California. The city proper is the List of Ca ...
.


18th and 19th centuries

As late as 1783, at the end of the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (April 19, 1775 – September 3, 1783), also known as the Revolutionary War or American War of Independence, was a major war of the American Revolution. Widely considered as the war that secured the independence of t ...
(a conflict in which Spain aided and fought alongside the rebels), Spain held claim to roughly half the territory of today's continental United States. From 1819 to 1848, the United States (through treaties, purchase, diplomacy, and the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the (''United States intervention in Mexico''), was an armed conflict between the United States and Second Federal Republic of Mexico, Mexico f ...
) increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring its three currently most populous states—
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located along the West Coast of the United States, Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territori ...
,
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2 ...
, and
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geo ...
.. Many Hispanic natives lived in the areas that the United States acquired, and a new wave of Mexican, Central American, Caribbean, and South American immigrants had moved to the United States for new opportunities. This was the beginning of a demographic that would rise dramatically over the years.Gutiérrez, David G. "An Historic Overview of Latino Immigration and the Demographic Transformation of the United States". National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, www.nps.gov/heritageinitiatives/latino/latinothemestudy/immigration.htm.


20th and 21st centuries

During the 20th and 21st centuries, Hispanic immigration to the United States increased markedly following changes to the
immigration law Immigration law refers to the national statutes, Primary and secondary legislation, regulations, and Precedent, legal precedents governing immigration into and deportation from a country. Strictly speaking, it is distinct from other matters such a ...
in 1965. During the World Wars, Hispanic Americans and immigrants had helped stabilize the American economy from falling due to the industrial boom in the Midwest in states such as Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. While a percentage of Americans had fled their jobs for the war, Hispanics had taken their jobs in the Industrial world. This can explain why there is such a high concentration of Hispanic Americans in Metro Areas such as the Chicago-Elgin-Naperville, Detroit-Warren-Dearborn, and Cleveland-Elyria areas. Hispanic contributions in the historical past and present of the United States are addressed in more detail below (See Notables and their contributions). To recognize the current and historic contributions of Hispanic Americans, on September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic Heritage Week, with
Congress A congress is a formal meeting of the Representative democracy, representatives of different countries, constituent states, organizations, trade unions, political party, political parties, or other groups. The term originated in Late Middle Eng ...
's authorization. In 1988, President
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician, actor, and union leader who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. He also served as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 ...
extended the observance to a month, designated
National Hispanic Heritage Month National Hispanic Heritage Month (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Mes nacional de la herencia hispana'') is annually celebrated from September 15 to October 15 in the United States for recognizing the contributions and influence of Hispanic and Latino ...
. Hispanic Americans became the largest minority group in 2004.


Demographics

As of 2020, Hispanics accounted for 19-20% of the US population, or 62-65 million people. The U.S. Census Bureau later estimated that Hispanics were under-counted by 5.0% or 3.3 million persons in the U.S. Census, which explains the 3 million range in the number above. In contrast, Whites were over-counted by about 3 million. The Hispanic growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007, period was 28.7%—about four times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 7.2%). The growth rate from July 1, 2005, to July 1, 2006, alone was 3.4%—about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 1.0%). Based on the 2010 census, Hispanics are now the largest minority group in 191 out of 366 metropolitan areas in the United States. The projected Hispanic population of the United States for July 1, 2050 is 132.8 million people, or 30.2% of the nation's total projected population on that date.


Geographic distribution

US Metropolitan Statistical Areas with over 1 million Hispanics (2014) States and territories with the highest proportion of Hispanics (2021) Of the nation's total Hispanic population, 49% (21.5 million) live in
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located along the West Coast of the United States, Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territori ...
or
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2 ...
. In 2022,
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
and
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk shaped building within the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate Geor ...
began receiving significant numbers of Latino migrants from the state of Texas, mostly originating from
Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and many Federal Dependencies of V ...
,
Ecuador Ecuador ( ; ; Quechuan languages, Quechua: ''Ikwayur''; Shuar language, Shuar: ''Ecuador'' or ''Ekuatur''), officially the Republic of Ecuador ( es, República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Quechuan ...
,
Colombia Colombia (, ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country in South America with insular regions in North America—near Nicaragua's Caribbean coast—as well as in the Pacific Ocean. The Colombian mainland is bordered by the Cari ...
, and
Honduras Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras, is a country in Central America. The republic of Honduras is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean ...
. Over half of the Hispanic population is concentrated in the
Southwest The points of the compass are a set of horizontal, Radius, radially arrayed compass directions (or Azimuth#In navigation, azimuths) used in navigation and cartography. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east ...
region, mostly composed of Mexican Americans.
California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located along the West Coast of the United States, Pacific Coast. With nearly 39.2million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territori ...
and
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2 ...
have some of the largest populations of Mexicans and Central American Hispanics in the United States. The
Northeast The points of the compass are a set of horizontal, Radius, radially arrayed compass directions (or Azimuth#In navigation, azimuths) used in navigation and cartography. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east ...
region is dominated by
Dominican Americans Dominican Americans ( es, domínico-americanos, ) are Americans who trace their ancestry to the Dominican Republic. The word may refer to someone born in the United States of People of the Dominican Republic, Dominican descent or to someone wh ...
and
Puerto Ricans Puerto Ricans ( es, Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are the people of Puerto Rico, the inhabitants, and citizens of the Puerto Rico, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and their descendants. Overview The culture held in common by most Puerto Ricans ...
, having the highest concentrations of both in the country. In the Mid Atlantic region, centered on the DC Metro Area,
Salvadoran Americans Salvadoran Americans ( or ) are Americans of full or partial El Salvador, Salvadoran descent. As of 2010, there are 2,195,477 Salvadoran Americans in the United States, the Hispanic and Latino Americans#National origin, fourth-largest Hispanic co ...
are the largest of Hispanic groups.
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geo ...
is dominated by
Cuban Americans Cuban Americans ( es, cubanoestadounidenses or ''cubanoamericanos'') are Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals of the United States of America.; ; Although direct citizens and nationals make up the majority of Americans, ...
and Puerto Ricans. In both the Great Lakes states and the
South Atlantic states The South Atlantic United States form one of the nine Census Bureau Divisions within the United States that are recognized by the United States Census Bureau. This region, U.S. Census Bureau Region 3, Division 5, corresponds to the Southern Colo ...
, Mexicans and Puerto Ricans dominate. Mexicans dominate in the rest of the country, including the
West West or Occident is one of the four cardinal directions or points of the compass. It is the opposite direction from east and is the direction in which the Sunset, Sun sets on the Earth. Etymology The word "west" is a Germanic languages, German ...
, South Central and
Great Plains The Great Plains (french: Grandes Plaines), sometimes simply "the Plains", is a broad expanse of plain, flatland in North America. It is located west of the Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains, much of it covered in prairie, step ...
states.


National origin

As of 2018, approximately 61.9% of the nation's Hispanic population were of Mexican origin (see table). Another 15.1% were of Puerto Rican origin, and with about 3.9% each of Cuban and
Salvadoran Salvadorans (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Salvadoreños''), also known as Salvadorians (alternate spelling: Salvadoreans), are citizens of El Salvador, a country in Central America. Most Salvadorans live in El Salvador, although there is also a s ...
and about 3.5% Dominican origins. The remainder were of other Central American or of South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain. Two thirds of all Hispanic Americans were born in the United States. There are few immigrants directly from Spain, since Spaniards have historically emigrated to Hispanic America rather than to English-speaking countries. Because of this, most Hispanics who identify themselves as ''Spaniard'' or ''Spanish'' also identify with Hispanic American national origin. In the 2017 Census estimate approximately 1.3 million Americans reported some form of "Spanish" as their ancestry, whether directly from Spain or not. In northern New Mexico and southern
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the wes ...
, there is a large portion of Hispanics who trace their ancestry to settlers from
New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Amer ...
(Mexico), and sometimes
Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = ''Plus ultra'' (Latin)(English: "Further Beyond") , national_anthem = (English: "Royal March") , i ...
itself, in the late 16th century through the 17th century. People from this background often self-identify as "
Hispanos Hispanos (from es, adj. prefix Hispano- relating to Spain, from la, Hispānus) are Hispanic residents of the United States who are culturally descended from the original Spanish language, Spanish-speaking settlers in the areas which were once ...
", "Spanish" or "Hispanic". Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Native Americans, creating a
mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a term used for racial classification to refer to a person of mixed Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. In certain regions such as Latin America, it may also r ...
population. Likewise, southern
Louisiana Louisiana , group=pronunciation (French: ''La Louisiane'') is a U.S. state, state in the Deep South and South Central United States, South Central regions of the United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 20th-smal ...
is home to communities of people of
Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Canarias, ), also known informally as the Canaries, are a Spanish autonomous community and archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster, or collecti ...
descent, known as Isleños, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry.
Californio Californio (plural Californios) is a term used to designate a Hispanic Californians, Hispanic Californian, especially those descended from Spanish and Mexican settlers of the 17th through 19th centuries. California's Spanish language, Spanish-s ...
s, Nuevomexicanos and
Tejano Tejanos (, ; singular: ''Tejano/a''; Spanish language, Spanish for "Texan", originally borrowed from the Caddo language, Caddo ''tayshas'') are the residents of the U.S. state, state of Texas who are culturally descended from the Mexican popul ...
s are Americans of
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...
and/or Mexican descent, with subgroups that sometimes call themselves Chicanos. Nuevomexicanos and Tejanos are distinct southwest Hispanic cultures with their own cuisines, dialects and musical traditions.
Nuyorican Nuyorican is a portmanteau of the terms "New York" and "Puerto Rican" and refers to the members or culture of the Puerto Rican migration to New York City, Puerto Ricans located in or around New York City, or of their descendants (especially t ...
s are Americans of Puerto Rican descent from the
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
area. There are close to two million Nuyoricans in the United States. Prominent Nuyoricans include Congresswoman
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (; ; born October 13, 1989), also known by her initials AOC, is an American politician and activist. She has served as the United States House of Representatives, U.S. representative for New York's 14th congressiona ...
, US Supreme Court Judge
Sonia Sotomayor Sonia Maria Sotomayor (, ; born June 25, 1954) is an American lawyer and jurist who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. She was Sonia Sotomay ...
, and singer
Jennifer Lopez Jennifer Lynn Affleck (' Lopez; born July 24, 1969), also known as J.Lo, is an American singer, actress and dancer. In 1991, she began appearing as a List of In Living Color cast members#Fly Girls (house dance troupe), Fly Girl dancer on the ...
.


Race

Hispanics come from multi-racial and multi-ethnic countries with diversity of origins; therefore, a Hispanic can be from any race or mix of races. The most common ancestries are: Indigenous American (Native Americans), European and African. Most Hispanics have mixed ancestry of different combinations and ratios, although non-mixed Hispanics of each race also exist in varied amounts on each country. Hispanic origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the Federal Statistical System of the United States, U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the Americans, Ame ...
. Depending on the regions within Hispanic America, a significant proportion of Hispanics have high to moderate levels Native Indigenous American ancestry. Similarly to Portuguese, English, German and many other European nations over the centuries, many Hispanics also have colonial era
New Christian New Christian ( es, Cristiano Nuevo; pt, Cristão-Novo; ca, Cristià Nou; lad, Christiano Muevo) was a socio-religious designation and legal distinction in the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire. The term was used from the 15th century ...
Sephardic Jewish ancestry. To a lesser extent, Hispanics possess at least partial ancestry of more recent post-colonial ancestry from Ashkenazi Jews, Levantine Arabs (Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian). Thus, as a whole, Hispanics are of mostly of a mixture of Iberian and Native Indigenous American ancestry, with degrees of admixture levels that vary from person to person, from varying global genetic sources. On the
2020 United States census The United States census of 2020 was the twenty-fourth decennial United States census. Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2020. Other than a pilot study during the 2000 United States census, 2000 census, this was the ...
, 20.3% of Hispanics identified selected "white" as their race. These white Hispanics make up 12,579,626 people or 3.8% of the population. The largest numbers of those who consider themselves white Hispanic Americans come from within the Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban,
Salvadorans Salvadorans (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Salvadoreños''), also known as Salvadorians (alternate spelling: Salvadoreans), are citizens of El Salvador, a country in Central America. Most Salvadorans live in El Salvador, although there is also a s ...
,
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...
and
Argentines Argentines (also known as Argentinians or Argentineans); in Spanish language, Spanish (Grammatical gender, masculine) or (Grammatical gender, feminine)) are people identified with the country of Argentina. This connection may be residential ...
communities. Over 42% of Hispanic Americans identify as " some other race". These "some other race" Hispanics are usually assumed to be mestizos or mulattos.
Mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a term used for racial classification to refer to a person of mixed Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. In certain regions such as Latin America, it may also r ...
is not a racial category in the U.S. Census, but signifies someone who is conscious of both their Native American and European ancestry. Of all Americans who checked the box "Some Other Race", 97 percent were Hispanic. Almost one-third of the multi-race respondents were Hispanics. Most of the multi-racial population in the Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan communities are of mixed European and Native American ancestry (
mestizo (; ; fem. ) is a term used for racial classification to refer to a person of mixed Ethnic groups in Europe, European and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous American ancestry. In certain regions such as Latin America, it may also r ...
), while most of the multiracial population in the Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Cuban communities are of mixed European, Native Indigenous American, Canary Islander and Sub-Saharan African. The largest numbers of black Hispanics are from the Spanish Caribbean islands, including the Cuban, Dominican, Panamanian and Puerto Rican communities. As Latinos, especially Mexicans and Central Americans, who are mainly of a mixed-race background, have moved further from the southwest, their presence might disrupt in the long term the traditional American view of race as a binary between Black and white. The few hundred thousand Asian Hispanics are of various backgrounds, among which include
Filipino mestizo In the Philippines, Filipino Mestizo ( es, mestizo (masculine) / mestiza (feminine); Filipino language, Filipino/ tl, Mestiso (masculine) / Mestisa (feminine)) or colloquially ''Tisoy'', is a name used to refer to people of mixed Ethnic group ...
s with Spanish background, Asians of Hispanic background (examples including Chinese Cubans, Korean Argentines
Japanese Peruvians Japanese Peruvians ( es, peruano-japonés or ''nipo-peruano''; ja, 日系ペルー人, ''Nikkei Perūjin'') are Peruvians, Peruvian citizens of Japanese people, Japanese origin or ancestry. Peru has the second largest ethnic Japanese populati ...
) and those of recent mixed Asian and Hispanic background. Note that
Filipinos Filipinos ( tl, Mga Pilipino) are the people who are citizens of or native to the Philippines. The majority of Filipinos today come from various Austronesian peoples, Austronesian ethnolinguistic groups, all typically speaking either Filipino l ...
are generally ''not'' counted as Hispanic, despite the fact that the Spanish colonized the Philippines and many Filipinos have Spanish names. Hispanic Americans are often racially of Native American ancestry mixed with Iberians. For example, of Hispanics deriving from northern Mexico, consider themselves white or acknowledge Native American ancestry with some European mixtures, while of those deriving from southern Mexican ancestry, the majority are Native American or of Native American and European ancestry. In Guatemala, Mayans are majority, while in El Salvador, people of Native American descent are the majority. In the Dominican Republic, the population is largely of inter-mixed ancestries. In Puerto Rico, people have some Native Indigenous American ancestry as well as European and Canary Islander ancestry. There's also a population of predominantly African descent as well as populations of Native American descent as well as those with intermixed ancestries. Cubans are mostly of Iberian and Canary Islander ancestry, with some heritage from Native Indigenous Caribbean. There are also populations of black Sub-Saharan ancestry and multi-racial people. The race and culture of each Hispanic country and their United States diaspora differs by history and geography. Welch and Sigelman found, as of the year 2000, lower interaction between Latinos of different nationalities (such as between Cubans and Mexicans) than between Latinos and non-Latinos. This is a reminder that while they are often treated as such, Latinos in the United States are not a monolith, and often view their own ethnic or national identity as vastly different than that of other Latinos. Persons of Mexican heritage represent the bulk of the U.S. Hispanic population. Most Mexican Americans already with a multi-generational presence in the USA predating the 1970s are of predominantly mixed Native Indigenous American groups and to a lesser extent Iberians, while most recent Mexican Americans that have migrated or descend from migrants to the United States post-1980s are of predominantly Native American descent with varying levels of European admixture. Official sources report that the racial makeup of Hispanic subgroups from the countries Uruguay, Cuba, and Chile have the highest proportion, for their respective countries, of Hispanics in the US self-identifying as white – though in raw numbers the highest number of white Hispanics in the United States are Mexican Americans. As a result of their racial diversity, Hispanics form an
ethnicity An ethnic group or an ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, an ...
sharing a language (
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...
) and cultural heritage, rather than a race. The phenomenon of biracial people who are predominantly of European descent identifying as white is not limited to Hispanics or Spanish speakers but is also common among English speakers as well: researchers found that most white Americans with less than 28 percent African-American ancestry say they are white; above that threshold, people tended to describe themselves as African-American.


Age

As of 2014, one third, or 17.9 million, of the Hispanic population was younger than 18 and a quarter, 14.6 million, were
Millennials Millennials, also known as Generation Y or Gen Y, are the Western world, Western demography, demographic Cohort (statistics), cohort following Generation X and preceding Generation Z. Researchers and popular media use the early 1980s as start ...
. This makes them more than half of the Hispanic population within the United States.


Education


Hispanic K–12 education

With the increasing Hispanic population in the United States, Hispanics have had a considerable impact on the K–12 system. In 2011–12, Hispanics comprised 24% of all enrollments in the United States, including 52% and 51% of enrollment in California and Texas, respectively.Santiago, D., Galdeano, E. C., & Taylor, M. (2015). The Condition of Latinos in Education: 2015 Factbook. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)77934-8 Further research shows the Hispanic population will continue to grow in the United States, implicating that more Hispanics will populate U.S. schools. The state of Hispanic education shows some promise. First, Hispanic students attending pre-K or kindergarten were more likely to attend full-day programs. Second, Hispanics in elementary education were the second largest group represented in gifted and talented programs. Third, Hispanics' average
NAEP The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the largest continuing and nationally representative assessment of what U.S. students know and can do in various subjects. NAEP is a congressionally mandated project administered by the ...
math and reading scores have consistently increased over the last 10 years. Finally, Hispanics were more likely than other groups, including white people, to go to college. However, their academic achievement in early childhood, elementary, and secondary education lag behind other groups. For instance, their average math and reading
NAEP The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the largest continuing and nationally representative assessment of what U.S. students know and can do in various subjects. NAEP is a congressionally mandated project administered by the ...
scores were lower than every other group, except African Americans, and have the highest dropout rate of any group, 13% despite decreasing from 24%. To explain these disparities, some scholars have suggested there is a Hispanic "Education Crisis" due to failed school and social policies. To this end, scholars have further offered several potential reasons including language barriers, poverty, and immigrant/nativity status resulting in Hispanics not performing well academically.


English language learners

Currently, Hispanic students make up 80% of English language learners in the United States. In 2008–2009, 5.3 million students were classified as English Language Learners (ELLs) in pre-K to 12th grade. This is a result of many students entering the education system at different ages, although the majority of ELLs are not foreign born. In order to provide English instruction for Hispanic students there have been a multitude of English Language programs. However, the great majority of these programs are English Immersion, which arguably undermines the students' culture and knowledge of their primary language. As such, there continues to be great debate within schools as to which program can address these language disparities.


Immigration status

Undocumented immigrants have not always had access to compulsory education in the United States. However, since the landmark Supreme Court case '' Plyler v. Doe'' in 1982, immigrants have received access to K-12 education. This significantly impacted all immigrant groups, including Hispanics. However, their academic achievement is dependent upon several factors including, but not limited to time of arrival and schooling in country of origin. Moreover, Hispanics' immigration/nativity status plays a major role regarding their academic achievement. For instance, first- and second- generation Hispanics outperform their later generational counterparts. Additionally, their aspirations appear to decrease as well. This has major implications on their postsecondary futures.


Hispanic higher education

Those with a bachelor's degree or higher ranges from 50% of Venezuelans compared to 18% for Ecuadorians 25 years and older. Amongst the largest Hispanic groups, those with a bachelor's or higher was 25% for Cubans, 16% of Puerto Ricans, 15% of Dominicans, and 11% for Mexicans. Over 21% of all second-generation Dominican Americans have college degrees, slightly below the national average (28%) but significantly higher than U.S.-born Mexican Americans (13%) and U.S.-born Puerto Rican Americans (12%). Hispanics make up the second or third largest ethnic group in
Ivy League The Ivy League is an American collegiate List of NCAA conferences, athletic conference comprising eight Private university, private Research university, research universities in the Northeastern United States. The term ''Ivy League'' is typi ...
universities, considered to be the most prestigious in the United States. Hispanic enrollment at Ivy League universities has gradually increased over the years. Today, Hispanics make up between 8% of students at
Yale University Yale University is a Private university, private research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Established in 1701 as the Collegiate School, it is the List of Colonial Colleges, third-oldest institution of higher education in the United Sta ...
to 15% at
Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in the City of New York) is a Private university, private research university in New York City. Established in 1754 as King's College on the grounds of Trinity ...
. For example, 18% of students in the
Harvard University Harvard University is a Private university, private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1636 as Harvard College and named for its first benefactor, the History of the Puritans in North America, Puritan cler ...
Class of 2018 are Hispanic. Hispanics have significant enrollment in many other top universities such as
University of Texas at El Paso The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) is a Public university, public research university in El Paso, Texas. It is a member of the University of Texas System. UTEP is the second-largest university in the United States to have a majority Mex ...
(70% of students),
Florida International University Florida International University (FIU) is a public university, public research university with its main campus in Miami-Dade County. Founded in 1965, the school opened its doors to students in 1972. FIU has grown to become the third-largest uni ...
(63%),
University of Miami The University of Miami (UM, UMiami, Miami, U of M, and The U) is a private university, private research university in Coral Gables, Florida. , the university enrolled 19,096 students in 12 colleges and schools across nearly 350 academic major ...
(27%), and MIT,
UCLA The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Los Angeles, California. UCLA's academic roots were established in 1881 as a Normal school, teachers colle ...
and UC-Berkeley at 15% each. At
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a Private university, private research university in Stanford, California. The campus occupies , among the largest in the United States, and enrolls over 17,000 students. S ...
, Hispanics are the third largest ethnic group behind non-Hispanic white people and Asians, at 18% of the student population.


Hispanic university enrollments

While Hispanics study in colleges and universities throughout the country, some choose to attend federally-designated
Hispanic-serving institution A Hispanic-serving institution (HSI) is defined in federal law as an accredited, degree-granting, public or private nonprofit institution of higher education with 25% or more total undergraduate Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic or Latino f ...
s, institutions that are accredited, degree-granting, public or private nonprofit institutions of higher education with 25 percent or more total undergraduate Hispanic full-time equivalent (FTE) student enrollment. There are over 270 institutions of higher education that have been designated as an HSI.


Health


Longevity

As of 2016, life expectancy for Hispanic Americans is 81.8 years, which is higher than the life expectancy for non-Hispanic white Americans (78.6 years). Research on the " Hispanic paradox"—the well-established apparent mortality advantage of Hispanic Americans compared to non-Hispanic white Americans, despite the latter's more advantaged socioeconomic status—has been principally explained by "(1) health-related migration to and from the US; and (2) social and cultural protection mechanisms, such as maintenance of healthy lifestyles and behaviors adopted in the countries of origin, and availability of extensive social networks in the US." The "salmon bias" hypothesis, which suggests that the Hispanic health advantage is attributable to higher rates of
return migration Return migration might refer to: *Repatriation, the voluntary or involuntary return of travellers and migrants to their place of origin *Circular migration, a phenomenon in human migration in which migrants repeatedly travel between origin and desti ...
among less-healthy migrants, has received some support in the scholarly literature. A 2019 study, examining the comparatively better health of foreign-born American Hispanics, challenged the hypothesis that a stronger orientation toward the family ( familism) contributed to this advantage. Some scholars have suggested that the Hispanic mortality advantage is likely to disappear due to the higher rates of
obesity Obesity is a medical condition, sometimes considered a disease, in which excess Adipose tissue, body fat has accumulated to such an extent that it may negatively affect health. People are classified as obese when their body mass index (BMI) ...
and
diabetes Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by a high blood sugar level ( hyperglycemia) over a prolonged period of time. Symptoms often include frequent urination, increased thirst and increase ...
among Hispanics relative to non-Hispanic white people, although lower rates of smoking (and thus smoking-attributable mortality) among Hispanics may counteract this to some extent.


Healthcare

As of 2017, about 19% of Hispanic Americans lack health insurance coverage, which is the highest of all ethnic groups except for Indigenous Americans and Alaska Natives. In terms of extending health coverage, Hispanics benefited the most among U.S. ethnic groups from the
Affordable Care Act The Affordable Care Act (ACA), formally known as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and colloquially known as Obamacare, is a landmark U.S. federal statute enacted by the 111th United States Congress and signed into law by Presid ...
(ACA); among non-elderly Hispanics, the uninsured rate declined from 26.7% in 2013 to 14.2% in 2017. Among the population of non-elderly uninsured Hispanic population in 2017, about 53% were non-citizens, about 39% were U.S.-born citizens, and about 9% were naturalized citizens. (The ACA does not help undocumented immigrants or legal immigrants with less than five years' residence in the United States gain coverage). According to a 2013 study, Mexican women have the highest uninsured rate (54.6%) as compared to other immigrants (26.2%), black (22.5%) and non-Hispanic white (13.9%). According to the study, Mexican women are the largest female immigrant group in the United States and are also the most at risk for developing preventable health conditions. Multiple factors such as limited access to health care, legal status and income increase the risk of developing preventable health conditions because many undocumented immigrants postpone routine visits to the doctor until they become seriously ill.


Mental health


Family separation

Some families who are in the process of illegally crossing borders can suffer being caught and separated by border patrol agents. Migrants are also in danger of separation if they do not bring sufficient resources such as water for all members to continue crossing. Once illegal migrants have arrived to the new country, they may fear workplace raids where illegal immigrants are detained and deported. Family separation puts U.S born children, undocumented children and their illegal immigrant parents at risk for depression and family maladaptive syndrome. The effects are often long-term and the impact extends to the community level. Children may experience emotional traumas and long-term changes in behaviors. Additionally, when parents are forcefully removed, children often develop feelings of abandonment and they might blame themselves for what has happened to their family. Some children that are victims to illegal border crossings that result in family separation believe in the possibility of never seeing their parents again. These effects can cause negative parent-child attachment. Reunification may be difficult because of immigration laws and re-entry restrictions which further affect the mental health of children and parents. Parents who leave their home country also experience negative mental health experiences. According to a study published in 2013, 46% of Mexican migrant men who participated in the study reported elevated levels of depressive symptoms.Letiecq, B., L., Grzywacz, J., G., Gray, K., M., Eudave, Y., M.(2014). Depression among Mexican men on the migration frontier: the role of family separation and other structural and situational stressors. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 16, 1193–1200 In recent years, the length of stay for migrants has increased, from 3 years to nearly a decade. Migrants who were separated from their families, either married or single, experienced greater depression than married men accompanied by their spouses. Furthermore, the study also revealed that men who are separated from their families are more prone to harsher living conditions such as overcrowded housing and are under a greater deal of pressure to send remittance to support their families. These conditions put additional stress on the migrants and often worsen their depression. Families who migrated together experience better living conditions, receive emotional encouragement and motivation from each other, and share a sense of solidarity. They are also more likely to successfully navigate the employment and health care systems in the new country, and are not pressured to send remittances back home.


Discrimination

It is reported that 31% of Hispanics have reported personal experiences with
discrimination Discrimination is the act of making unjustified distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discriminated on the basis of Racial discrimination, r ...
whilst 82% of Hispanics believe that discrimination plays a crucial role in whether or not they will find success while they are living in the United States.Torres, S., A., Santiago, C., D., Walts, K., K., Richards, M., H. (2018). Immigration policy, practices and procedures: the impact on the mental health of Mexican and central American youth and families. American Psychologist, 1-12. The current legislation on immigration policies also plays a crucial role in creating a hostile and discriminatory environment for immigrants. In order to measure the discrimination which immigrants are being subjected to, researchers must take into account the immigrants' perception that they are being targeted for discrimination and they must also be aware that instances of discrimination can also vary based on: personal experiences, social attitudes and ethnic group barriers. The immigrant experience is associated with lower self-esteem, internalized symptoms and behavioral problems amongst Mexican youth. It is also known that more time which is spent living in the United States is associated with increased feelings of distress, depression and
anxiety Anxiety is an emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner wikt:turmoil, turmoil and includes feelings of dread over Anticipation, anticipated events. Anxiety is different than fear in that the former is defined as the anticipa ...
. Like many other Hispanic groups that migrate to the United States, these groups are often stigmatized. An example of this stigmatization occurred after
9/11 The September 11 attacks, commonly known as 9/11, were four coordinated Suicide attack, suicide List of terrorist incidents, terrorist attacks carried out by al-Qaeda against the United States on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. That morning, ...
, when people who were considered threats to national security were frequently described with terms like migrant and the "Hispanic Other" along with other terms like refugee and asylum seeker.


Vulnerabilities

The
Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 The Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA or IIRAIRA), Division C of , made major changes to the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). IIRIRA's changes became effective on April 1, 1997. Former United Stat ...
significantly changed how the United States dealt with immigration. Under this new law, immigrants who overstayed their visas or were found to be in the United States illegally were subject to be detained and/or deported without legal representation. Immigrants who broke these laws may not be allowed back into the country. Similarly, this law made it more difficult for other immigrants who want to enter the U.S or gain legal status. These laws also expanded the types of offenses that can be considered worthy of deportation for documented immigrants.Torres, S., A., Santiago, C., D., Walts, K., K., Richards, M., H.(2018). Immigration policy, practices and procedures: the impact on the mental health of Mexican and central American youth and families. American Psychologist, 1-12. Policies enacted by future presidents further limit the number of immigrants entering the country and their expedited removal. Many illegal immigrant families cannot enjoy doing everyday activities without exercising caution because they fear encountering immigration officers which limits their involvement in community events. Undocumented families also do not trust government institutions and services. Because of their fear of encountering immigration officers, illegal immigrants often feel ostracized and isolated which can lead to the development of mental health issues such as depression and anxiety. The harmful effects of being ostracized from the rest of society are not limited to just that of undocumented immigrants but it affects the entire family even if some of the members are of legal status. Children often reported having been victims of bullying in school by classmates because their parents are undocumented. This can cause them to feel isolated and develop a sense of inferiority which can negatively impact their academic performance.


Stress

Despite the struggles Hispanic families encounter, they have found ways to keep motivated. Many immigrants use religion as a source of motivation. Mexican immigrants believed that the difficulties they face are a part of God's bigger plan and believe their life will get better in the end. They kept their faith strong and pray every day, hoping that God will keep their families safe.Hinojos, B.(2013). Stressors and Coping Strategies of Undocumented Latinos in Therapy. Public Access Theses and Dissertations from the College of Education and Human Sciences. Retrieved from: https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1189&context=cehsdiss Immigrants participate in church services and bond with other immigrants that share the same experiences. Undocumented Hispanics also find support from friends, family and the community that serve as coping mechanisms. Some Hispanics state that their children are the reason they have the strength to keep on going. They want their children to have a future and give them things they are not able to have themselves. The community is able to provide certain resources that immigrant families need such as tutoring for their children, financial assistance and counseling services. Some identified that maintaining a positive mental attitude helped them cope with the stresses they experience. Many immigrants refuse to live their life in constant fear which leads to depression in order to enjoy life in the United States. Since many immigrants have unstable sources of income, many plan ahead in order to prevent future financial stress. They put money aside and find ways to save money instead of spend it such as learning to fix appliances themselves.


Poverty

Many Hispanic families migrate to find better economic opportunities in order to send remittances back home. Being undocumented limits the possibilities of jobs that immigrants undertake and many struggle to find a stable job. Many Hispanics report that companies turned them down because they do not have a Social Security number. If they are able to obtain a job, immigrants risk losing it if their employer finds out they are unable to provide proof of residency or citizenship. Many look towards agencies that do not ask for identification, but those jobs are often unreliable. In order to prevent themselves from being detained and deported, many have to work under exploitation. In a study, a participant reported "If someone knows that you don't have the papers ... that person is a danger. Many people will con them ... if they know you don't have the papers, with everything they say 'hey I'm going to call immigration on you.'". These conditions lower the income that Hispanic families bring to their household and some find living each day very difficult. When an undocumented parent is deported or detained, income will be lowered significantly if the other parent also supports the family financially. The parent who is left has to look after the family and might find working difficult to manage along with other responsibilities. Even if families aren't separated, Hispanics are constantly living in fear that they will lose their economic footing. Living in poverty has been linked to depression, low self-esteem, loneliness, crime activities and frequent drug use among youth. Families with low incomes are unable to afford adequate housing and some of them are evicted. The environment in which the children of undocumented immigrants grow up in is often composed of poor air quality, noise, and toxins which prevent healthy development. Furthermore, these neighborhoods are prone to violence and gang activities, forcing the families to live in constant fear which can contribute to the development of PTSD, aggression and depression.


Economic outlook


Median income

In 2017, the US Census reported the median household incomes of Hispanic Americans to be $50,486. This is the third consecutive annual increase in median household income for Hispanic-origin households.


Poverty

According to the US Census, the poverty rate Hispanics was 18.3 percent in 2017, down from 19.4 percent in 2016. Hispanics accounted for 10.8 million individuals in poverty. In comparison, the average poverty rates in 2017 for non-Hispanic white Americans was 8.7 percent with 17 million individuals in poverty, Asian Americans was 10.0 percent with 2 million individuals in poverty, and African Americans was 21.2 percent with 9 million individuals in poverty. Among the largest Hispanic groups during 2015 was: Honduran Americans & Dominican Americans (27%), Guatemalan Americans (26%), Puerto Ricans (24%), Mexican Americans (23%), Salvadoran Americans (20%), Cuban Americans and Venezuelan Americans (17%), Ecuadorian Americans (15%), Nicaraguan Americans (14%), Colombian Americans (13%), Argentinian Americans (11%) and Peruvian Americans (10%). Poverty affects many underrepresented students as racial/ethnic minorities tend to stay isolated within pockets of low-income communities. This results in several inequalities, such as "school offerings, teacher quality, curriculum, counseling and all manner of things that both keep students engaged in school and prepare them to graduate". In the case of Hispanics, the poverty rate for Hispanic children in 2004 was 28.6 percent. Moreover, with this lack of resources, schools reproduce these inequalities for generations to come. In order to assuage poverty, many Hispanic families can turn to social and community services as resources.


Cultural matters

The geographic, political, social, economic and racial diversity of Hispanic Americans makes all Hispanics very different depending on their family heritage and/or national origin. Many times, there are many cultural similarities between Hispanics from neighboring countries than from more distant countries, ie Spanish Caribbean, Southern Cone, Central America etc. Yet several features tend to unite Hispanics from these diverse backgrounds.


Language


Spanish

As one of the most important uniting factors of Hispanic Americans,
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...
is an important part of Hispanic culture. Teaching Spanish to children is often one of the most valued skills taught amongst Hispanic families. Spanish is not only closely tied with the person's family, heritage, and overall culture, but valued for increased opportunities in business and one's future professional career. A 2013 Pew Research survey showed that 95% of Hispanics adults said "it's important that future generations of Hispanics speak Spanish". Given the United States' proximity to other Spanish-speaking countries, Spanish is being passed on to future American generations. Amongst second-generation Hispanics, 80% speak fluent Spanish, and amongst third-generation Hispanics, 40% speak fluent Spanish. Spanish is also the most popular language taught in the United States. Hispanics have revived the
Spanish language in the United States Spanish language, Spanish is the second most spoken language in the United States. There are over 41 million people aged five or older who speak Spanish at home, and the United States has the second largest Spanish-speaking population in the wor ...
, first brought to
North America North America is a continent in the Northern Hemisphere and almost entirely within the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southeast by South America and the Car ...
during the Spanish colonial period in the 16th century. Spanish is the oldest European language in the United States, spoken uninterruptedly for four and a half centuries, since the founding of
Saint Augustine, Florida St. Augustine ( ; es, San Agustín ) is a city in the Southeastern United States and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or parish (administrative division), civil parish ...
in 1565. Today, 90% of all Hispanics speak English, and at least 78% speak fluent Spanish. Additionally, 2.8 million non-Hispanic Americans also speak Spanish at home for a total of 41.1 million. With 40% of Hispanic Americans being immigrants, and with many of the 60% who are US-born being the children or grandchildren of immigrants,
bilingualism Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a group of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. More than half of all ...
is the norm in the community at large. At home, at least 69% of all Hispanics over the age of five are bilingual in English and Spanish, whereas up to 22% are monolingual English-speakers, and 9% are monolingual Spanish speakers. Another 0.4% speak a language other than English and Spanish at home. [There were 39.5 million Hispanic and Latino Americans aged 5 or more in 2006. 8.5 million of them, or 22%, spoke only English at home, and another 156,000, or 0.4%, spoke neither English nor Spanish at home. The other 30.8 million, or 78%, spoke Spanish at home. Of these, 3.7 million spoke no English, while the overwhelming majority, 27.2 million, did, at these levels: 15.5 million "very well", 5.8 million "well", and 5.9 million "not well". These 27.2 million bilingual speakers represented 69% of all (39.5 million) Hispanic and Latino Americans aged five or over in 2006, while the 3.7 million monolingual Spanish-speakers represented 9%.]


American Spanish dialects

The Spanish dialects spoken in the United States differ depending on the country of origin of the person or the person's family heritage. However, generally, Spanish spoken in the
Southwest The points of the compass are a set of horizontal, Radius, radially arrayed compass directions (or Azimuth#In navigation, azimuths) used in navigation and cartography. A compass rose is primarily composed of four cardinal directions—north, east ...
is
Mexican Spanish Mexican Spanish ( es, español mexicano) is the variety of Dialect, dialects and Sociolect, sociolects of the Spanish language spoken in Mexican territory. Mexico has the largest number of Spanish speakers, with more than twice as many as in a ...
or Chicano Spanish. A variety of Spanish native to the Southwest spoken by descendants of the early Spanish colonists in
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Albuquerque metropolitan area, Tiguex , Offi ...
and
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain states, Mountain West subregion of the Western United States. It encompasses most of the Southern Rocky Mountains, as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the wes ...
is known as Traditional
New Mexican Spanish New Mexican Spanish ( es, español neomexicano, novomexicano) refers to a variety of Spanish language in the United States, Spanish spoken in the United States in New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado. It includes a Traditio ...
. One of the major distinctions of Traditional New Mexican Spanish is its use of distinct vocabulary and grammatical forms that make
New Mexican Spanish New Mexican Spanish ( es, español neomexicano, novomexicano) refers to a variety of Spanish language in the United States, Spanish spoken in the United States in New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado. It includes a Traditio ...
unique amongst Spanish dialects. The Spanish spoken in the East Coast is generally
Caribbean Spanish * Caribbean Spanish ( es, español caribeño, ) is the general name of the Spanish dialects spoken in the Caribbean region. The Spanish language was introduced to the Caribbean in 1492 with the voyages of Christopher Columbus. It resembles the S ...
and is heavily influenced by the Spanish of
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is an island country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called ...
, the
Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, República Dominicana, ) is a country located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles The Greater Antilles ( es, Grandes Antillas or Antillas Mayores; french: Grandes Antilles; ht, Gwo Zant ...
, and
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico), is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...
. Isleño Spanish, descended from
Canarian Spanish Canarian Spanish (Spanish terms in descending order of frequency: , , , or ) is a variant of standard Spanish language, Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands by the Canary Islanders. The variant is similar to the Andalusian Spanish variety spoken ...
, is the historic Spanish dialect spoken by the descendants of the earliest Spanish colonists beginning in the 18th century in
Louisiana Louisiana , group=pronunciation (French: ''La Louisiane'') is a U.S. state, state in the Deep South and South Central United States, South Central regions of the United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 20th-smal ...
. Spanish spoken elsewhere throughout the country varies, although is generally
Mexican Spanish Mexican Spanish ( es, español mexicano) is the variety of Dialect, dialects and Sociolect, sociolects of the Spanish language spoken in Mexican territory. Mexico has the largest number of Spanish speakers, with more than twice as many as in a ...
. Heritage Spanish speakers tend to speak Spanish with near-native level phonology, but a more limited command of morphosyntax. Hispanics who speak Spanish as a second language often speak with English accents.


Spanglish and English dialects

Hispanics have influenced the way Americans speak with the introduction of many Spanish words into the English language. Amongst younger generations of Hispanics,
Spanglish Spanglish (a portmanteau of the words "Spanish" and "English") is any language variety (such as a Language contact, contact dialect, Mixed language, hybrid language, pidgin, or creole language) that results from conversationally combining Span ...
, a term for any mix of Spanish and English, is common in speaking. As they are fluent in both languages, speakers will often switch between Spanish and English throughout the conversation. Spanglish is particularly common in Hispanic-majority cities and communities such as
Miami Miami ( ), officially the City of Miami, known as "the 305", "The Magic City", and "Gateway to the Americas", is a East Coast of the United States, coastal metropolis and the County seat, county seat of Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade C ...
,
Hialeah Hialeah ( ; ) is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. With a population of 223,109 as of the 2020 United States census, 2020 census, Hialeah is the sixth-largest city in Florida. It is the second largest city by population in the Mi ...
,
San Antonio ("Cradle of Freedom") , image_map = , mapsize = 220px , map_caption = Interactive map of San Antonio , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name = United States , subdivision_type1= U.S. state, State , subdivision_name1 = Texas , s ...
,
Los Angeles Los Angeles ( ; es, Los Ángeles, link=no , ), often referred to by its initials L.A., is the largest city in the state of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located along the West Coast of ...
and parts of
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
. Hispanics have also influenced the way English is spoken in the United States. In Miami, for example, the Miami dialect has evolved as the most common form of English spoken and heard in Miami today. This is a native dialect of English, and was developed amongst second and third generations of
Cuban American Cuban Americans ( es, cubanoestadounidenses or ''cubanoamericanos'') are Americans who trace their cultural heritage to Cuba regardless of phenotype or ethnic origin. The word may refer to someone born in the United States of Cubans, Cuban desc ...
s in Miami. Today, it is commonly heard everywhere throughout the city.
Gloria Estefan Gloria Estefan (; born Gloria María Milagrosa Fajardo García; born 1 September 1957) is a Cuban-American singer, actress, and businesswoman. Estefan is a seven-time Grammy Award winner, a Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient, and has be ...
and
Enrique Iglesias Enrique Miguel Iglesias Preysler (; (born 8 May 1975) is a Spanish singer and songwriter. He started his recording career in the mid-1990s on the Mexican indie label Fonovisa and became the bestselling Spanish-language act of the decade. By th ...
are examples of people who speak with the Miami dialect. Another major English dialect, is spoken by
Chicano Chicano or Chicana is a chosen identity for many Mexican Americans in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, ...
s and
Tejano Tejanos (, ; singular: ''Tejano/a''; Spanish language, Spanish for "Texan", originally borrowed from the Caddo language, Caddo ''tayshas'') are the residents of the U.S. state, state of Texas who are culturally descended from the Mexican popul ...
s in the
Southwestern United States The Southwestern United States, also known as the American Southwest or simply the Southwest, is a geographic and cultural region of the United States that generally includes Arizona Arizona ( ; nv, Hoozdo Hahoodzo ; ood, Alĭ ṣonak ...
, called Chicano English.
George Lopez George Edward Lopez (born April 23, 1961) is an American comedian and actor. He is known for starring in his George Lopez (TV series), self-produced ABC sitcom. His stand-up comedy examines race and ethnic relations, including Chicano, Mexica ...
and
Selena Selena Quintanilla Pérez (; April 16, 1971 – March 31, 1995), known Mononymous person, mononymously as Selena, was an American Tejano music, Tejano singer. Called the "Honorific nicknames in popular music#S, Queen of Tejano music", her con ...
are examples of speakers of Chicano English. An English dialect spoken by Puerto Ricans and other Hispanic groups is called New York Latino English;
Jennifer Lopez Jennifer Lynn Affleck (' Lopez; born July 24, 1969), also known as J.Lo, is an American singer, actress and dancer. In 1991, she began appearing as a List of In Living Color cast members#Fly Girls (house dance troupe), Fly Girl dancer on the ...
and Cardi B are examples of people who speak with the New York Latino dialect. When speaking in English, American Hispanics may often insert Spanish tag and filler items such as , , and , into sentences as a marker of ethnic identity and solidarity. The same often occurs with grammatical words like .


Religion

According to a Pew Center study which was conducted in 2019, the majority of Hispanic Americans are
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of ...
(72%), Among American Hispanics, as of 2018–19, 47% are
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics worldwide . It is among the world's oldest and largest international institutions, and has played a ...
, 24% are
Protestant Protestantism is a branch of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jesus, Jesus of Na ...
, 1% are
Mormon Mormons are a Religious denomination, religious and cultural group related to Mormonism, the principal branch of the Latter Day Saint movement started by Joseph Smith in upstate New York during the 1820s. After Smith's death in 1844, the mov ...
, less than 1% are Orthodox Christian, 3% are members of non-Christian faiths, and 23% are unaffiliated.In U.S., Decline of Christianity Continues at Rapid Pace
Pew Research Center (October 17, 2019).
The proportion of Hispanics who are Catholic has dropped from 2009 (when it was 57%), while the proportion of unaffiliated Hispanics has increased since 2009 (when it was 15%). Among Hispanic Protestant community, most are
evangelical Evangelicalism (), also called evangelical Christianity or evangelical Protestantism, is a worldwide Interdenominationalism, interdenominational movement within Protestantism, Protestant Christianity that affirms the centrality of being "bor ...
, but some belong to mainline denominations.The Shifting Religious Identity of Latinos in the United States
Pew Research Center (May 7, 2014).
Compared to Catholic, unaffiliated, and mainline Protestant Hispanics; Evangelical Protestant Hispanics are substantially more likely to attend services weekly, pray daily, and adhere to biblical liberalism. As of 2014, about 67% of Hispanic Protestants and about 52% of Hispanic Catholics were renewalist, meaning that they described themselves as Pentecosal or
charismatic Christian Charismatic Christianity (also known as Spirit-filled Christianity by its supporters) is a form of Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testam ...
s (in the Catholic tradition, called
Catholic charismatic renewal The Catholic Charismatic Renewal is a movement within the Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3&n ...
). Catholic affiliation is much higher among first-generation Hispanic immigrants than it is among second and third-generation Hispanic immigrants, who exhibit a fairly high rate of conversion to Protestantism or the unaffiliated camp. According to
Andrew Greeley Andrew M. Greeley (February 5, 1928 – May 29, 2013) was an American Catholic priest, sociologist, journalist and popular novelist. Greeley was a professor of sociology Sociology is a social science that focuses on society, human socia ...
, as many as 600,000 American Hispanics leave Catholicism for Protestant churches every year, and this figure is much higher in
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish language, Spanish: ''Texas'', ''Tejas'') is a state in the South Central United States, South Central region of the United States. At 268,596 square miles (695,662 km2), and with more than 29.1 million residents in 2 ...
and
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geo ...
. Hispanic Catholics are developing youth and social programs to retain members. Hispanics make up a substantial proportion (almost 40%) of Catholics in the United States,Elizabeth Dias
"U.S. Catholic Bishops Elect Hispanic Immigrant as Leader"
''The New York Times'' (November 12, 2019).
although the number of American Hispanic
priests A priest is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deity, deities. They also have the authority or power to administer religious rites; in p ...
is low relative to Hispanic membership in the church. In 2019, José Horacio Gómez,
Archbishop of Los Angeles The Archdiocese of Los Angeles ( la, Archidiœcesis Angelorum in California, es, Arquidiócesis de Los Ángeles) is an ecclesiastical territory or archdiocese of the Catholic Church (Catholic particular churches and liturgical rites, particularly ...
and a naturalized American citizen born in Mexico, was elected as president of the
US Conference of Catholic Bishops The United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) is the episcopal conference of the Catholic Church in the United States. Founded in 1966 as the joint National Conference of Catholic Bishops (NCCB) and United States Catholic Conference ( ...
.


Media

The United States is home to thousands of Spanish-language
media Media may refer to: Communication * Media (communication), tools used to deliver information or data ** Advertising media, various media, content, buying and placement for advertising ** Broadcast media, communications delivered over mass el ...
outlets, which range in size from giant commercial and some non-commercial broadcasting networks and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power
AM radio AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting Radio broadcasting is transmission of audio signal, audio (sound), sometimes with related metadata, by radio waves to radio receivers belonging to a public audience. In terrestrial radio broadcasting ...
stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds. There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting US Hispanic consumers. Some of the outlets are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively. Increased use of Spanish-language media leads to increased levels of group consciousness, according to survey data. The differences in attitudes are due to the diverging goals of Spanish-language and English-language media. The effect of using Spanish-language media serves to promote a sense of group consciousness among Hispanics by reinforcing roots in the Hispanic world and the commonalities among Hispanics of varying national origin. The first Hispanic-American owned major
film studio A film studio (also known as movie studio or simply studio) is a major entertainment company or motion picture company that has its own privately owned studio facility or facilities that are used to make films, which is handled by the production ...
in the United States is based in
Atlanta, Georgia Atlanta ( ) is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. It is the county seat, seat of Fulton County, Georgia, Fulton County, the mos ...
. In 2017, Ozzie and Will Areu purchased Tyler Perry's former studio to establish Areu Bros. Studios.


Radio

Spanish language radio is the largest non-English broadcasting media. While other foreign language broadcasting declined steadily, Spanish broadcasting grew steadily from the 1920s to the 1970s. The 1930s were boom years. The early success depended on the concentrated geographical audience in Texas and the Southwest. American stations were close to Mexico which enabled a steady circular flow of entertainers, executives and technicians, and stimulated the creative initiatives of Hispanic radio executives, brokers, and advertisers. Ownership was increasingly concentrated in the 1960s and 1970s. The industry sponsored the now-defunct trade publication ''Sponsor'' from the late 1940s to 1968. Spanish-language radio has influenced American and Hispanic discourse on key current affairs issues such as citizenship and immigration.


Networks

Notable Hispanic-oriented media outlets include: *
CNN en Español CNN en Español is a Pan-American Spanish-language Spanish ( or , Castilian) is a Romance languages, Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from colloquial Latin spoken on the Iberian peninsula. Today, it is a wor ...
, a Spanish-language news network based in
Atlanta, Georgia Atlanta ( ) is the capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Georgia (U.S. state), most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia (U.S. state), Georgia. It is the county seat, seat of Fulton County, Georgia, Fulton County, the mos ...
; *
ESPN Deportes ESPN Deportes (, ''ESPN Sports'') is an American multinational Spanish language, Spanish-language pay television List of sports television channels, sports channel owned by ESPN Inc., a joint venture between The Walt Disney Company (which owns a ...
and Fox Deportes, two Spanish-language sports television networks. *
Telemundo Telemundo (; formerly NetSpan) is an American Spanish-language Terrestrial television, terrestrial television network owned by NBCUniversal Television and Streaming#NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises, NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises, a divi ...
, the second-largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally; **
TeleXitos TeleXitos is an American Spanish language Spanish ( or , Castilian) is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from colloquial Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languag ...
an American Spanish language digital multicast television network owned by NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises. ** Universo, a cable network that produces content for U.S.-born Hispanic audiences; * Univisión, the largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally. It is the country's fourth-largest network overall; ** UniMás, an American Spanish language free-to-air television network owned by Univision Communications. ** Fusion TV, an English television channel targeting Hispanic audiences with news and satire programming; ** Galavisión, a Spanish-language television channel targeting Hispanic audiences with general entertainment programming; *
Estrella TV Estrella TV () is an American Spanish-language broadcast television network A television network or television broadcaster is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, where a central operation provides pr ...
, an American Spanish-language broadcast television network owned by the Estrella Media. * V-me, a Spanish-language television network; **
Primo TV Primo TV is an American English-language children's television channel operated by V-me Media aimed at the 6-18-year-old Latino market in the United States. The channel launched exclusively through Comcast Xfinity cable systems on January 16, 201 ...
, an English-language cable channel aimed at Hispanic youth.; * Azteca América, a Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally; * Fuse, a former music channel that merged with the Hispanic-oriented NuvoTV in 2015. ** FM, a music-centric channel that replaced NuvoTV following the latter's merger with Fuse in 2015. * 3ABN Latino, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in West Frankfort, Illinois; * TBN Enlace USA, a Spanish-language Christian television network based in
Tustin, California Tustin is a city located in Orange County, California, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. In 2020, Tustin had a population of 80,276. The city is located next to the county seat, Santa Ana, California, Santa Ana, and does not include the un ...
;


Print

* '' La Opinión'', a Spanish-language daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the six counties of
Southern California Southern California (commonly shortened to SoCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the southern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, located ...
. It is the largest Spanish-language newspaper in the United States * ''
El Nuevo Herald ''El Nuevo Herald'' is a newspaper published daily in Spanish language, Spanish in Southeast Florida, United States. Its headquarters is in Doral, Florida, Doral. ''El Nuevo Heralds sister paper is the ''Miami Herald'', also produced by the McClat ...
'' and ''Diario Las Américas'', Spanish-language daily newspapers serving the greater
Miami, Florida Miami ( ), officially the City of Miami, known as "the 305", "The Magic City", and "Gateway to the Americas", is a East Coast of the United States, coastal metropolis and the County seat, county seat of Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade C ...
, market * '' El Tiempo Latino'' a Spanish-language free-circulation weekly newspaper published in
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk shaped building within the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate Geor ...
* '' Latina'', a magazine for
bilingual Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a group of speakers. It is believed that multilingual speakers outnumber monolingual speakers in the world's population. More than half of all E ...
, bicultural Hispanic women * '' People en Español'', a Spanish-language magazine counterpart of ''
People A person (plural, : people) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of pr ...
'' * '' Vida Latina'', a Spanish-language entertainment magazine distributed throughout the
Southern United States The Southern United States (sometimes Dixie, also referred to as the Southern States, the American South, the Southland, or simply the South) is a geographic and cultural List of regions of the United States#Official regions of the United Stat ...


Sports and music

Because of different cultures throughout the Hispanic world, there are various music forms throughout Hispanic countries, with different sounds and origins. Many Hispanics prefer musical genres from their home countries than music from the United States. Mostly, the recent arrivals listened to Spanish music, while Hispanics who been in the United States for generations tend to listen more to English music.
Reggaeton Reggaeton (, ), also known as reggaetón and reguetón (), is a music style that originated in Panama during the late 1980s. It was later popularized in Puerto Rico. It has evolved from dancehall and has been influenced by American Hip hop m ...
and Hip hop are genres that are most popular to Hispanic youth in the United States.
Soccer Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of 11 Football player, players who primarily use their feet to propel the Ball (association football), ball around a rectangular field ca ...
is a common sport for Hispanics from outside of the Caribbean region, particularly immigrants.
Baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball sport played between two team sport, teams of nine players each, taking turns batting (baseball), batting and Fielding (baseball), fielding. The game occurs over the course of several Pitch ...
is a common among Caribbean Hispanics. Other popular sports include
Boxing Boxing (also known as "Western boxing" or "pugilism") is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves and other protective equipment such as hand wraps and mouthguards, throw punches at each other for a predetermine ...
,
Football Football is a family of team sports that involve, to varying degrees, Kick (football), kicking a Football (ball), ball to score a Goal (sport), goal. Unqualified, Football (word), the word ''football'' normally means the form of football tha ...
, and
Basketball Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball (approximately in diameter) through the defender' ...
.


Cuisine

Hispanic food, particularly Mexican food, has influenced
American cuisine American cuisine consists of the cooking style and traditional dishes prepared in the United States. It has been significantly influenced by Europeans, indigenous Native Americans, Africans, Asians, Pacific Islanders, and many other cultures an ...
and eating habits.
Mexican cuisine Mexican cuisine consists of the cooking cuisines and traditions of the modern country of Mexico. Its earliest roots lie in Mesoamerican Cuisine, Mesoamerican cuisine. Its ingredients and methods begin with the first agricultural communities su ...
has become so mainstream in American culture that many no longer see it as an ethnic food. Across the United States,
tortilla A tortilla (, ) is a thin, circular unleavened flatbread originally made from masa, maize hominy meal, and now also from wheat flour. The Aztecs and other Nahuatl speakers called tortillas ''tlaxcalli'' (). First made by the indigenous peoples ...
s and salsa are arguably becoming as common as hamburger buns and
ketchup Ketchup or catsup is a table condiment with a sweet and tangy flavor. The unmodified term ("ketchup") now typically refers to tomato ketchup, although early recipes used egg whites, mushroom ketchup, mushrooms, oysters, grapes, mussels, or wal ...
.
Tortilla chip A tortilla chip is a snack food made from corn tortillas, which are cut into triangles and then fried or baked (alternatively they may be discs pressed out of corn masa then fried or baked). Corn tortillas are made of Nixtamalization , nixtamal ...
s have surpassed
potato chip A potato chip (North American English; often just chip) or crisp (British and Irish English) is a thin slice of potato that has been either deep frying, deep fried, baking, baked, or air frying, air fried until crunchy. They are commonly serve ...
s in annual sales, and
plantain chips Fried plantain is a dish cooked wherever plantain (cooking), plantains grow, from West Africa to East Africa as well as Central America, the tropical region of northern South America and the Caribbean countries like Haiti to Cuba and in many p ...
popular in
Caribbean The Caribbean (, ) ( es, El Caribe; french: la Caraïbe; ht, Karayib; nl, De Caraïben) is a region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean ...
cuisines have continued to increase sales.
Tropical fruit A tropical The tropics are the regions of Earth surrounding the Equator. They are defined in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the Northern Hemisphere at N and the Tropic of Capricorn in the Southern Hemisphere at S. The tropics are also ...
, such as
mango A mango is an edible drupe, stone fruit produced by the tropical tree ''Mangifera indica''. It is believed to have originated in the region between northwestern Myanmar, Bangladesh, and northeastern India. ''M. indica'' has been cultivated in ...
,
guava Guava () is a common tropical fruit cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions. The common guava ''Psidium guajava'' (lemon guava, apple guava) is a small tree in the myrtle family (biology), family (Myrtaceae), native to Mexico, Cent ...
and passion fruit (maracuyá), have become more popular and are now common flavors in desserts, candies and food dishes in the United States. Due to the large Mexican-American population in the Southwestern United States, and its proximity to
Mexico Mexico (Spanish language, Spanish: México), officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the so ...
, Mexican food there is believed to be some of the best in the United States.
Cubans Cubans ( es, Cubanos) are people born in Cuba and people with Cuban citizenship. Cuba is a multi-ethnic nation, home to people of different ethnic, religious and national backgrounds. Racial and ethnic groups Census The population of Cuba wa ...
brought
Cuban cuisine Cuban cuisine is largely based on Spanish cuisine Spanish cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from Spain. Olive oil (of which Spain is the world's largest producer) is heavily used in Spanish cuisine. It forms the base o ...
to
Miami Miami ( ), officially the City of Miami, known as "the 305", "The Magic City", and "Gateway to the Americas", is a East Coast of the United States, coastal metropolis and the County seat, county seat of Miami-Dade County, Florida, Miami-Dade C ...
and today, cortaditos, pastelitos de guayaba and
empanada An empanada is a type of baked or fried turnover (food), turnover consisting of pastry and stuffing, filling, common in Culture of Spain, Spanish, other Southern European, Latin American culture, Latin American, and Iberian-influenced cultures ...
s are common mid-day snacks in the city. Cuban culture has changed Miami's coffee drinking habits, and today a café con leche or a cortadito is commonly had at one of the city's numerous coffee shops. The Cuban sandwich, developed in Miami, is now a staple and icon of the city's cuisine and culture.


Familial situations


Family life and values

Hispanic culture places a strong value on family, and is commonly taught to Hispanic children as one of the most important values in life. Statistically, Hispanic families tend to have larger and closer knit families than the American average. Hispanic families tend to prefer to live near other family members. This may mean that three or sometimes four generations may be living in the same household or near each other, although four generations is uncommon in the United States. The role of
grandparent Grandparents, individually known as grandmother and grandfather, are the parents of a person's father or mother – paternal or maternal. Every sexually-reproducing living organism who is not a genetic chimera has a maximum of four genetics, ge ...
s is believed to be very important in the upbringing of children. Hispanics tend to be very group-oriented, and an emphasis is placed on the well-being of the family above the individual. The extended family plays an important part of many Hispanic families, and frequent social, family gatherings are common. Traditional rites of passages, particularly
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus (Romulus and Remus, legendary) , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan c ...
sacrament A sacrament is a Christianity, Christian Rite (Christianity), rite that is recognized as being particularly important and significant. There are various views on the existence and meaning of such rites. Many Christians consider the sacraments ...
s: such as
baptism Baptism (from grc-x-koine, βάπτισμα, váptisma) is a form of ritual purification—a characteristic of many religions throughout time and geography. In Christianity, it is a Christian sacrament of initiation and adoption, almost i ...
s, birthdays,
First Holy Communion First Communion is a ceremony in some Christianity, Christian traditions during which a person of the church first receives the Eucharist. It is most common in many parts of the Latin Church tradition of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism, Lutheran ...
s, quinceañeras,
Confirmation In Christian denominations that practice infant baptism, confirmation is seen as the sealing of the covenant (religion), covenant created in baptism. Those being confirmed are known as confirmands. For adults, it is an wikt:affirmation, affirma ...
s,
graduation Graduation is the awarding of a diploma to a student by an educational institution. It may also refer to the ceremony that is associated with it. The date of the graduation ceremony is often called graduation day. The graduation ceremony is al ...
s and
wedding A wedding is a ceremony where two people are united in marriage. Wedding traditions and customs vary greatly between cultures, ethnic groups, religions, countries, and social classes. Most wedding ceremonies involve an exchange of marriage vo ...
s are all popular moments of family gatherings and celebrations in Hispanic families. Education is another important priority for Hispanic families. Education is seen as the key towards continued
upward mobility Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households or other categories of people within or between Social stratification, social strata in a society. It is a change in social status relative to one's current social location ...
in the United States among Hispanic families. A 2010 study by the Associated Press showed that Hispanics place a higher emphasis on education than the average American. Hispanics expect their children to graduate university. Hispanic youth today stay at home with their parents longer than before. This is due to more years spent studying and the difficulty of finding a paid job that meets their aspirations.


Intermarriage

Hispanic Americans, like many immigrant groups before them, are out-marrying at high rates. Out-marriages comprised 17.4% of all existing Hispanic marriages in 2008.Pew Social Trends: "Marrying Out"
June 15, 2010
The rate was higher for newlyweds (which excludes immigrants who are already married): Among all newlyweds in 2010, 25.7% of all Hispanics married a non-Hispanic (this compares to out-marriage rates of 9.4% of white people, 17.1% of black people, and 27.7% of Asians). The rate was larger for native-born Hispanics, with 36.2% of native-born Hispanics (both men and women) out-marrying compared to 14.2% of foreign-born Hispanics.Pew Research Social & Demographic Trends: "The Rise of Intermarriage - Rates, Characteristics Vary by Race and Gender" by Wendy Wang
February 16, 2012
The difference is attributed to recent immigrants tending to marry within their immediate immigrant community due to commonality of language, proximity, familial connections, and familiarity. In 2008, 81% of Hispanics who married out married non-Hispanic white people, 9% married non-Hispanic black people, 5% non-Hispanic Asians, and the remainder married non-Hispanic, multi-racial partners. Of approximately 275,500 new interracial or interethnic marriages in 2010, 43.3% were white-Hispanic (compared to white-Asian at 14.4%, white-black at 11.9%, and other combinations at 30.4%; "other combinations" consists of pairings between different minority groups and multi-racial people). Unlike those for marriage to black people and Asians, intermarriage rates of Hispanics to white people do not vary by gender. The combined median earnings of white/Hispanic couples are lower than those of white/white couples but higher than those of Hispanic/Hispanic couples. 23% of Hispanic men who married white women have a college degree compared to only 10% of Hispanic men who married a Hispanic woman. 33% of Hispanic women who married a white husband are college-educated compared to 13% of Hispanic women who married a Hispanic man. Attitudes among non-Hispanics toward intermarriage with Hispanics are mostly favorable, with 81% of white people, 76% of Asians and 73% of black people "being fine" with a member of their family marrying a Hispanic and an additional 13% of white people, 19% of Asians and 16% of black people "being bothered but accepting of the marriage". Only 2% of white people, 4% of Asians, and 5% of black people would not accept a marriage of their family member to a Hispanic. Hispanic attitudes toward intermarriage with non-Hispanics are likewise favorable, with 81% "being fine" with marriages to white people and 73% "being fine" with marriages to black people. A further 13% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a white and 22% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a black. Only 5% of Hispanics objected outright marriage of a family member to a non-Hispanic black and 2% to a non-Hispanic white. Unlike intermarriage with other racial groups, intermarriage with non-Hispanic black people varies by nationality of origin. Puerto Ricans have by far the highest rates of intermarriage with black people, of all major Hispanic national groups, who also has the highest overall intermarriage rate among Hispanics. Cubans have the highest rate of intermarriage with non-Hispanic white people, of all major Hispanic national groups, and are the most assimilated into white American culture.


Cultural adjustment

As Hispanic migrants become the norm in the United States, the effects of this migration on the identity of these migrants and their kin becomes most evident in the younger generations. Crossingthe borders changes the identities of both the youth and their families. Often "one must pay special attention to the role expressive culture plays as both entertainment and as a site in which identity is played out, empowered, and reformed" because it is "sometimes in opposition to dominant norms and practices and sometimes in conjunction with them".Hondagneu-Sotelo, Pierrette. 2004. Gender and the Latino experience in Late-Twentieth-Century America. In The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States since 1960. D.G. Gutiérrez, ed. New York: Columbia University Press. The exchange of their culture of origin with American culture creates a dichotomy within the values that the youth find important, therefore changing what it means to be Hispanic in the global sphere.


Transnationalism

Along with feeling that they are neither from the country of their ethnic background nor the United States, a new identity within the United States is formed called '' latinidad''. This is especially seen in cosmopolitan social settings like New York City, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Underway is "the intermeshing of different Latino subpopulations has laid the foundations for the emergence and ongoing evolution of a strong sense of ''latinidad"'' which establishes a "sense of cultural affinity and identity deeply rooted in what many Hispanics perceive to be a shared historical, spiritual, aesthetic and linguistic heritage, and a growing sense of cultural affinity and solidarity in the social context of the United States." This unites Hispanics as one, creating cultural kin with other Hispanic ethnicities.


Gender roles

In Hispanic culture, the role of a man is to be the sole breadwinner for his family, he must work hard to provide. Hispanic men demand respect and obedience and carry the responsibility of being the head of the family, in which he is tasked with keeping his family composed and honorable in the eyes of society. A man feels pressure from his community to prove his manhood and manliness, leading the male to exemplify behaviors of
machismo Machismo (; ; ; ) is the sense of being "masculinity, manly" and self-reliant, a concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity". Machismo is a term originating in the early 1930s and 1940s best de ...
. There are two sides to machismo, the man who has a strong work ethic and lives up to his responsibilities, or the man who heavily drinks and therefore displays acts of unpleasant behavior towards his family. To display machismo is to assert male dominance in all spheres, especially in a man's relationship with his female partner; the concept is enforced through convincing males into comporting themselves with a ''
macho Machismo (; ; ; ) is the sense of being "masculinity, manly" and self-reliant, a concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity". Machismo is a term originating in the early 1930s and 1940s best de ...
'' (literally, "male" or "masculine") archetype in order to establish respect, dominance, and manliness in their social ambits. The traditional roles of women in a Hispanic community are of housewife and mother, a woman's role is to cook, clean, and care for her children and husband; putting herself and her needs last. The typical structure of a Hispanic family forces women to defer authority to her husband, allowing him to make the important decisions, that both the woman and children must abide by. A woman must not question her husband's authority nor go against him, a woman is expected to remain submissive, take orders, and tolerate any behavior displayed by her husband. In traditional Hispanic households, women and young girls are homebodies or ''muchachas de la casa'' ("girls of the house"), showing that they abide "by the cultural norms ... frespectability, chastity, and family honor svalued by the ispaniccommunity". A woman occupied with all the tasks required to support her household and family is often unable to work or become educated, being outside the home is deemed unacceptable and wrong. Migration to the United States can change the identity of Hispanic youth in various ways, including how they carry their gendered identities. However, when Hispanic women come to the United States, they tend to adapt to the perceived social norms of this new country and their social location changes as they become more independent and able to live without the financial support of their families or partners. The unassimilated community views these adapting women as being ''de la calle'' ("of r fromthe street"), transgressive, and sexually promiscuous. A women's motive for pursuing an education or career is to prove she can care and make someone of herself, breaking the traditional gender role that a Hispanic woman can only serve as a mother or housewife, thus changing a woman's role in society. Some Hispanic families in the United States "deal with young women's failure to adhere to these culturally prescribed norms of proper gendered behavior in a variety of ways, including sending them to live in ... he sending countrywith family members, regardless of whether or not ... he young womenare sexually active". Now there has been a rise in the Hispanic community where both men and women are known to work and split the household chores among themselves; women are encouraged to gain an education, degree, and pursue a career; men and women are both beginning to be seen as equal members in the Hispanic community.


Sexuality

In Hispanic culture it is expected for men to partake only in heterosexual relationships, some men often seek multiple female partners to further prove their sexuality and masculinity. A man is expected to lead a heterosexual life while upholding traditional values. The Hispanic community rejects men who identify themselves as homosexuals, homophobia is deeply embedded in these communities, forcing gay men to hide and remain ashamed of their sexuality. Due to the homophobia present in the Hispanic community, gay men feel a high sense of shame and guilt which leads to risky sexual behavior, leaving them at a risk for HIV and other STDs. The socially constructed behaviors of
machismo Machismo (; ; ; ) is the sense of being "masculinity, manly" and self-reliant, a concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity". Machismo is a term originating in the early 1930s and 1940s best de ...
reinforce only traditional gender roles and sexual preferences; while simultaneously upholding homophobia and prejudice for those that identify as lesbians and gay men. With the
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptized Catholics Catholic Church by country, worldwide . It is am ...
remaining a large influence on the Hispanic culture, the subject of promiscuity and sexuality is often considered taboo. There is a lack of conversation and communication regarding sexuality and sexual behavior in these communities, leaving Hispanic adolescents at a higher risk of STDs and unwanted pregnancies. It is believed that women should not participate in or know about sexual behaviors which produce a sense of naivety regarding the topic and results in discomfort and embarrassment. It is taught in many Hispanic cultures that the best way to remain pure of sin and not become pregnant is to remain celibate and heterosexual until marriage. All are to be straight and women are to be virgins. A woman must carry herself like Mary in order to receive respect and keep the family's honor. Marianismo dictates the traditional role of a Hispanic women, a woman is expected to remain sexually pure, submissive, and is seen as an object of pleasure for men. The Catholic religion preaches for heterosexual marriages and the preservation of family; and condemns and stigmatizes homosexual or bisexual relationships. Latino sexual minorities who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender often do not reveal their sexual preferences out of fear of being excluded or rejected by their community.


Relations towards other minority groups

As a result of the rapid growth of the Hispanic population, there has been some tension with other minority populations, especially the
African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans and Afro-Americans) are an Race and ethnicity in the United States, ethnic group consisting of Americans with partial or total ancestry from sub-Saharan Africa. The term "African American ...
population, as Hispanics have increasingly moved into once exclusively black areas. There has also been increasing cooperation between minority groups to work together to attain political influence. * A 2007
UCLA The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Los Angeles, California. UCLA's academic roots were established in 1881 as a Normal school, teachers colle ...
study reported that 51% of black people felt that Hispanics were taking jobs and political power from them and 44% of Hispanics said they feared African-Americans, identifying them (African-Americans) with high crime rates. That said, large majorities of Hispanics credited American black people and the civil rights movement with making life easier for them in the United States. * A
Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisanism in the United States, nonpartisan American think tank (referring to itself as a "fact tank") based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends ...
poll from 2006 showed that black people overwhelmingly felt that Hispanic immigrants were hard working (78%) and had strong family values (81%); 34% believed that immigrants took jobs from Americans, 22% of black people believed that they had directly lost a job to an immigrant, and 34% of black people wanted immigration to be curtailed. The report also surveyed three cities:
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive Map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = List of sovereign states, Count ...
(with its well-established Hispanic community);
Washington, D.C. ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument The Washington Monument is an obelisk shaped building within the National Mall in Washington, D.C., built to commemorate Geor ...
(with a less-established but quickly growing Hispanic community); and
Raleigh-Durham The Research Triangle, or simply The Triangle, are both common nicknames for a metropolitan area in the Piedmont Piedmont ( ; it, Piemonte, ) is a region of Northwest Italy, one of the regions of Italy, 20 regions of the country. It borders ...
(with a very new but rapidly growing Hispanic community). The results showed that a significant proportion of black people in those cities wanted immigration to be curtailed: Chicago (46%), Raleigh-Durham (57%), and Washington, DC (48%). * Per a 2008
University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public university, public land-grant university, land-grant research university in Berkeley, California. Established in 1868 as the University of Californi ...
Law School research brief, a recurring theme to black/Hispanic tensions is the growth in "contingent, flexible, or contractor labor", which is increasingly replacing long term steady employment for jobs on the lower-rung of the pay scale (which had been disproportionately filled by black people). The transition to this employment arrangement corresponds directly with the growth in the Hispanic immigrant population. The perception is that this new labor arrangement has driven down wages, removed benefits, and rendered temporary, jobs that once were stable (but also benefiting consumers who receive lower-cost services) while passing the costs of labor (healthcare and indirectly education) onto the community at large. * A 2008 Gallup poll indicated that 60% of Hispanics and 67% of black people believe that good relations exist between US black people and HispanicsGallup: "White people May Exaggerate Black-Hispanic Tensions" by Lydia Saad
July 17, 2008
while only 29% of black people, 36% of Hispanics and 43% of white people, say black–Hispanic relations are bad. * In 2009, in
Los Angeles County Los Angeles County, officially the County of Los Angeles, and sometimes abbreviated as L.A. County, is the List of the most populous counties in the United States, most populous county in the United States and in the U.S. state of California, ...
, Hispanics committed 30% of the hate crimes against black victims and black people committed 70% of the hate crimes against Hispanics.


Politics


Political affiliations

Hispanics differ on their political views depending on their location and background. The majority (57%) either identify as or support the Democrats, and 23% identify as Republicans. This 34-point gap as of December 2007 was an increase from the gap of 21 points 16 months earlier. While traditionally a key Democratic Party constituency at-large, beginning in the early 2010s, Hispanics have begun to split between the Democrats and the Republican Party. In a 2022 study, it was found that 64% of Latinos surveyed had positive attitudes towards President Obama’s executive actions on immigration, which was notably four percentage points lower than that of non-Hispanic Black respondents. It was also noted that support for undocumented immigrants was lowest among Latinos living in developing 'bedroom communities' or newly built suburbs designed for commuters. This was also the case for Latinos of affluent income levels, however they were still most likely to display a positive attitude towards undocumented immigrants, especially when compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Cuban Americans, Colombian Americans, Chilean Americans, and Venezuelan Americans tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans. Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans tend to favor progressive political ideologies and support the Democrats. However, because the latter groups are far more numerous—as, again, Mexican Americans alone are 64% of Hispanics—the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position with the ethnic group overall. Some political organizations associated with Hispanic Americans are
League of United Latin American Citizens The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) is the largest and oldest Hispanic and Latin-American civil rights Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, ...
(LULAC), the National Council of La Raza (NCLR), the
United Farm Workers The United Farm Workers of America, or more commonly just United Farm Workers (UFW), is a labor union for farmworkers in the United States. It originated from the merger of two workers' rights organizations, the Agricultural Workers Organizing ...
, the Cuban American National Foundation and the National Institute for Latino Policy.


Political impact

The United States has a population of over 60 million of Hispanic Americans, of whom 27 million are citizens eligible to vote (13% of total eligible voters); therefore, Hispanics have a very important effect on presidential elections since the vote difference between two main parties is usually around 4%.


Elections of 1996-2006

In the 1996 presidential election, 72% of Hispanics backed President
Bill Clinton William Jefferson Clinton (Birth name, né Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd president of the United States from 1993 to 2001. He previously served as governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981 ...
. In
2000 File:2000 Events Collage.png, From left, clockwise: Protests against Bush v. Gore after the 2000 United States presidential election; Heads of state meet for the Millennium Summit; The International Space Station in its infant form as seen from ST ...
, the Democratic total fell to 62%, and went down again in
2004 2004 was designated as an International Year of Rice by the United Nations, and the International Year to Commemorate the Struggle Against Slavery and its Abolition (by UNESCO). Events January * January 3 – Flash Airlines Flight ...
, with Democrat
John Kerry John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American attorney, politician and diplomat who currently serves as the first United States special presidential envoy for climate. A member of the Forbes family and the Democratic Party (Unite ...
winning Hispanics 54-44 against Bush. Hispanics in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida. California Hispanics voted 63–32 for Kerry in 2004, and both Arizona and New Mexico Hispanics by a smaller 56–43 margin. Texas Hispanics were split nearly evenly, favoring Kerry 50–49 over their favorite son candidate and Florida Hispanics (who are mostly Cuban American) backed Bush, by a 54–45 margin. In the 2006 midterm election, however, due to the unpopularity of the
Iraq War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Iraq War , partof = the Iraq conflict (2003–present), Iraq conflict and the War on terror , image = Iraq War montage.png , image_size = 300px , caption ...
, the heated debate concerning illegal Hispanic immigration and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Hispanics went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years. Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69–30 margin, with Florida Hispanics for the first time split evenly. The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Hispanic politics. Democrat Ciro Rodriguez's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Hispanic voters; majority-Hispanic counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez and majority European-American counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla.


Elections 2008-2012

In the 2008 Presidential election's
Democratic primary This is a list of Democratic Party presidential primaries. 1912 This was the first time that candidates were chosen through primaries. New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856February 3, 1924) was an ...
, Hispanics participated in larger numbers than before, with
Hillary Clinton Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton ( Rodham; born October 26, 1947) is an American politician, diplomat, and former lawyer who served as the 67th United States secretary of state, United States Secretary of State for President Barack Obama from 2009 ...
receiving most of the group's support. Pundits discussed whether Hispanics would not vote for
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party, Obama was the first Af ...
because he was African-American. Hispanics voted 2 to 1 for Mrs. Clinton, even among the younger demographic. In other groups, younger voters went overwhelmingly for Obama."The Hispanic Vote in the 2008 Democratic Presidential Primaries"
February 21, 2008, Pew Hispanic Center
Among Hispanics, 28% said race was involved in their decision, as opposed to 13% for (non-Hispanic) white people. Obama defeated Clinton. In the matchup between Obama and Republican candidate
John McCain John Sidney McCain III (August 29, 1936 – August 25, 2018) was an American politician and United States Navy officer who served as a United States senator from Arizona from 1987 until his death in 2018. He previously served two terms ...
, Hispanics supported Obama with 59% to McCain's 29% in the June 30 Gallup tracking poll. This was higher than expected, since McCain had been a leader of the comprehensive immigration reform effort (John McCain was born in
Panama Panama ( , ; es, link=no, Panamá ), officially the Republic of Panama ( es, República de Panamá), is a List of transcontinental countries#North America and South America, transcontinental country spanning the Central America, southern ...
to parents who were serving in the US Navy, but raised in the United States). However, McCain had retreated from reform during the Republican primary, damaging his standing among Hispanics. Obama took advantage of the situation by running ads in Spanish highlighting McCain's reversal. In the general election, 67% of Hispanics voted for Obama. with a relatively strong turnout in states such as Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada and
Virginia Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States, between the East Coast of the United Stat ...
, helping Obama carry those formerly Republican states. Obama won 70% of non-Cuban Hispanics and 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban Americans who have a strong presence in Florida. The relative growth of non-Cuban vs Cuban Hispanics also contributed to his carrying Florida's Hispanics with 57% of the vote. While employment and the economy were top concerns for Hispanics, almost 90% of Hispanic voters rated immigration as "somewhat important" or "very important" in a poll taken after the election.Page 1
/ref> Republican opposition to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 had damaged the party's appeal to Hispanics, especially in
swing state In American politics, the term swing state (also known as battleground state or purple state) refers to any state that could reasonably be won by either the Democratic or Republican candidate in a statewide election, most often referring to Unit ...
s such as Florida, Nevada and New Mexico. In a
Gallup poll Gallup, Inc. is an American analytics and advisory company based in Washington, D.C. Founded by George Gallup in 1935, the company became known for its public opinion polls conducted worldwide. Starting in the 1980s, Gallup transitioned its bu ...
of Hispanic voters taken in the final days of June 2008, only 18% of participants identified as Republicans. Hispanics voted even more heavily for Democrats in the 2012 election with the Democratic incumbent Barack Obama receiving 71% and the Republican challenger
Mitt Romney Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American politician, businessman, and lawyer serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States senator from Utah since January 2019, succeeding O ...
receiving about 27% of the vote. Some Hispanic leaders were offended by remarks Romney made during a fundraiser, when he suggested that cultural differences and "the hand of providence" help explain why Israelis are more economically successful than Palestinians, and why similar economic disparities exist between other neighbors, such as the United States and Mexico, or Chile and Ecuador. A senior aide to Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas called the remarks racist, as did American political scientist Angelo Falcón, president of the National Institute of Latino Policy.
Mitt Romney Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American politician, businessman, and lawyer serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States senator from Utah since January 2019, succeeding O ...
father was born to American parents in a Mormon colony in Chihuahua,
Mexico Mexico (Spanish language, Spanish: México), officially the United Mexican States, is a List of sovereign states, country in the southern portion of North America. It is borders of Mexico, bordered to the north by the United States; to the so ...
.


Elections 2014–present

"More convincing data" from the
2016 United States presidential election The 2016 United States presidential election was the 58th quadrennial United States presidential election, presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 2016. The Republican Party (United States), Republican ticket of businessman Donald ...
from the polling firm Latino Decisions indicates that Clinton received a higher share of the Hispanic vote, and Trump a lower share, than the Edison exit polls showed. Using wider, more geographically and linguistically representative sampling, Latino Decisions concluded that Clinton won 79% of Hispanic voters (also an improvement over Obama's share in 2008 and 2012), while Trump won only 18% (lower than previous Republicans such as Romney and McCain). Additionally, the 2016 Cooperative Congressional Election Study found that Clinton's share of the Hispanic vote was one percentage point higher than Obama's in 2012, while Trump's was seven percentage points lower than Romney's. On June 26, 2018,
Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez (; ; born October 13, 1989), also known by her initials AOC, is an American politician and activist. She has served as the United States House of Representatives, U.S. representative for New York's 14th congressiona ...
, a
millennial Millennials, also known as Generation Y or Gen Y, are the Western world, Western demography, demographic Cohort (statistics), cohort following Generation X and preceding Generation Z. Researchers and popular media use the early 1980s as start ...
, won the Democratic
primary Primary or primaries may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Music Groups and labels * Primary (band), from Australia * Primary (musician), hip hop musician and record producer from South Korea * Primary Music, Israeli record label Works * ...
in
New York's 14th congressional district New York's 14th congressional district is a congressional district for the United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives, often referred to as the House of Representatives, the U.S. House, or simply ...
covering parts of
The Bronx The Bronx () is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Bronx County, in the U.S. state, state of New York (state), New York. It is south of Westchester County, New York, Westchester County; north and east of the ...
and
Queens Queens is a Boroughs of New York City, borough of New York City, coextensive with Queens County, in the U.S. state of New York (state), New York. Located on Long Island, it is the largest New York City borough by area. It is bordered by the boro ...
in
New York City New York, often called New York City or NYC, is the List of United States cities by population, most populous city in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the L ...
, defeating the incumbent, Democratic Caucus Chair
Joe Crowley Joseph Crowley (born March 16, 1962) is an American politician and consultant who served as U.S. Representative from New York's 14th congressional district from 1999 to 2019. He was defeated by Democratic primary challenger Alexandria Ocasio ...
, in what has been described as the biggest upset victory in the 2018 midterm election season and at the age of 29 years, became the youngest woman ever elected to Congress. She is a member of the
Democratic Socialists of America The Democratic Socialists of America (DSA) is a left-wing Left-wing politics describes the range of Ideology#Political%20ideologies, political ideologies that support and seek to achieve social equality and egalitarianism, often in ...
and has been endorsed by various politically progressive organizations and individuals. According to a
Pew Research Center The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisanism in the United States, nonpartisan American think tank (referring to itself as a "fact tank") based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends ...
report, the 2020 election will be the first one when Hispanics are the largest racial or ethnic minority group in the electorate. A record 32 million Hispanics were projected to be eligible to vote in the presidential election, many of them first-time voters. On September 15, 2020, President Donald J. Trump announces his intent to nominate and appoint Eduardo Verastegui, to be a member of the President's Advisory Commission on Hispanic Prosperity if re-elected after days of the Democratic convention. Hispanic communities across the United States were long held as a single voting bloc, but
economic An economy is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services. In general, it is defined as a social domain that emphasize the practices, discourses, and material expressions associated with ...
,
geographic Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia''. Combination of Greek words ‘Geo’ (The Earth) and ‘Graphien’ (to describe), literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, i ...
and
cultural Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior, institutions, and Social norm, norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, customs, capabilities, and habits of the ...
differences show stark divides in how Hispanic Americans have cast their ballots in 2020. Hispanics helped deliver Florida to Donald Trump in part because of
Cuban Americans Cuban Americans ( es, cubanoestadounidenses or ''cubanoamericanos'') are Americans Americans are the citizens and nationals of the United States of America.; ; Although direct citizens and nationals make up the majority of Americans, ...
and
Venezuelan Americans Venezuelan Americans ( es, link=no, venezolano-americanos or ) are Americans who trace their heritage, or part of their heritage, to the nation of Venezuela Venezuela (; ), officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela ( es, link=no, R ...
(along with smaller populations such as Nicaraguan Americans and Chilean Americans); President Trump's reelection campaign ran pushing a strong anti-
socialism Socialism is a left-wing Economic ideology, economic philosophy and Political movement, movement encompassing a range of economic systems characterized by the dominance of social ownership of the means of production as opposed to Private prop ...
message as a strategy in Florida, to their success. However the perceived anti-immigrant rhetoric resonated with Arizona and the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The novel virus was first identif ...
(Arizona being one of the states hardest hit by the
COVID-19 pandemic in the United States The COVID-19 pandemic in the United States is a part of the worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the United States, it has resulted in confirmed ...
). The takeaway may be this may be the last election cycle that the " Hispanic vote" as a whole is more talked about instead of particular communities within it, such as Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Mexican Americans and so on. In Texas like in Arizona the Hispanic community mainly being Mexican American; one in three Texan voters is now Hispanic. Biden did win the Hispanic vote in those states. But in Texas, 41 percent to 47 percent of Hispanic voters backed Trump in several heavily Hispanic border counties in the Rio Grande Valley region, a Democratic stronghold. In Florida, Trump won 45 percent of the Hispanic vote, an 11-point improvement from his 2016 performance reported NBC News. Recognizing Hispanics as a population that can not only make a differences in swing states like Arizona and Texas or Florida, but also really across the country, even in places like
Wisconsin Wisconsin () is a U.S. state, state in the Upper Midwest, upper Midwestern United States. Wisconsin is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 25th-largest state by total area and the List of U.S. states and territories by populatio ...
,
Michigan Michigan () is a U.S. state, state in the Great Lakes region, Great Lakes region of the Upper Midwest, upper Midwestern United States. With a population of nearly 10.12 million and an area of nearly , Michigan is the List of U.S. states and ...
and
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania (; (Pennsylvania Dutch language, Pennsylvania Dutch: )), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a U.S. state, state spanning the Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic, Northeastern United States, Northeastern, Appa ...
, the number of Hispanic eligible voters may be the reason for the thin margins. In 1984, 37 percent of Hispanics voted for
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician, actor, and union leader who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. He also served as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 ...
and 40 percent voted for
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party, Bush family, and son of the 41st ...
in 2004. In Florida, even though Trump won Florida and gained Hispanic voters, Biden kept 53% of the Hispanic vote and Trump 45%. According to NBC News exit polls, 55% of Cuban Americans, 30% of Puerto Ricans and 48% of other Hispanics voted for Trump. Subsections of Hispanic voters have a range of historical influences vying to affect their votes. Cuban American voters, mostly concentrated in south Florida, tend to vote Republican in part because of their anathema for socialism, the party of
Fidel Castro Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (; ; 13 August 1926 – 25 November 2016) was a Cuban revolutionary and politician who was the leader of Cuba from 1959 to 2008, serving as the prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and President of Cuba, preside ...
's government that many of their families fled. Mexican Americans, however, have no such historical relationship with either party. Puerto Rican voters who have left the island might be influenced by the territory's move towards statehood, as a referendum for Trump's relief effort after
Hurricane Maria Hurricane Maria was a deadly Category 5 hurricane A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm, storm system characterized by a Low-pressure area, low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, Beaufort scale, s ...
, or regarding how it is taxed. Nationwide, Hispanics cast 16.6 million votes in 2020, an increase of 30.9% over the 2016 presidential election. After representative Filemon Vela Jr. resigned, Mayra Flores won a
special election A by-election, also known as a special election in the United States and the Philippines, a bye-election in Republic of Ireland, Ireland, a bypoll in India, or a Zimni election (Urdu: ضمنی انتخاب, supplementary election) in Pakistan, is ...
to succeed him, she won the election to the
United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives, often referred to as the House of Representatives, the U.S. House, or simply the House, is the Lower house, lower chamber of the United States Congress, with the United States Senate, Senate being ...
in June 2022. She will be the first Mexican-born woman to serve in the
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature of the federal government of the United States. It is Bicameralism, bicameral, composed of a lower body, the United States House of Representatives, House of Representatives, and an upper body, ...
.Svitek, Patrick
Republicans flip U.S. House seat in South Texas, historically a Democratic stronghold
, ''
Texas Tribune ''The Texas Tribune'' is a news website headquartered in Austin, Texas. It aims to promote civic engagement through original, explanatory journalism and public events. Its website and content in various delivery platforms serve as an alternativ ...
'', June 14, 2022.


Notable contributions

Hispanic Americans have made distinguished contributions to the United States in all major fields, such as
politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political), power relations among individuals, such as the distribution of res ...
, the
military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, with its members identifiable by their distinct ...
,
music Music is generally defined as the The arts, art of arranging sound to create some combination of Musical form, form, harmony, melody, rhythm or otherwise Musical expression, expressive content. Exact definition of music, definitions of mu ...
,
film A film also called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, picture, photoplay or (slang) flick is a work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere ...
,
literature Literature is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expanded to ...
,
sports Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain, or improve physical ability and Skill, skills while providing enjoyment to participants and, in some cases, entertainment to specta ...
,
business Business is the practice of making one's living or making money by producing or Trade, buying and selling Product (business), products (such as goods and Service (economics), services). It is also "any activity or enterprise entered into for pr ...
and
finance Finance is the study and discipline of money, currency and capital assets. It is related to, but not synonymous with economics, the study of Production (economics), production, Distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumption (economics) ...
, and
science Science is a systematic endeavor that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe. Science may be as old as the human species, and some of the earli ...
.


Arts and entertainment

In 1995, the American Latino Media Arts Award, or
ALMA Award The American Latino Media Arts Award or ALMA Award, formerly known as Latin Oscars Award, is an award highlighting the best American Latino contributions to music, television, and film. The awards promote fair and accurate portrayals of Latino ...
was created. It is a distinction given to Hispanic performers (actors, film and television directors and musicians) by the National Council of La Raza. The number of Latin nominees at the Grammy Awards lag behind. Talking to ''
People A person (plural, : people) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousness, and being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of pr ...
'' magazine ahead of music's biggest night in 2021, Grammy nominees
J Balvin José Álvaro Osorio Balvín (born 7 May 1985), known professionally as J Balvin, is a Colombian singer and songwriter. He has been referred to as the " Prince of Reggaeton" (from Spanish: "Príncipe del Reggaetón"), and is one of the best-sell ...
and
Ricky Martin Enrique Martín Morales (born December 24, 1971), known professionally as Ricky Martin, is a Puerto Rican singer, songwriter, and actor. He is known for his musical versatility, with his Ricky Martin albums discography, discography spanning ...
reflected on what it is mean to continue to represent Hispanics at awards shows like the Grammys. Martin, who served as a pioneer for the "Latin crossover" in the '90s told "When you get nominated, it's the industry telling you, 'Hey Rick, you did a good job this year, congratulations.' Yes, I need that", the 49-year-old says. "When you walk into the studio, you say, 'This got a Grammy potential.' You hear the songs that do and the ones that don't. It's inevitable." Like
Selena Gomez Selena Marie Gomez ( ; born July 22, 1992) is an American singer, actress and producer. Gomez began her acting career on the children's television series ''Barney & Friends'' (2002–2004). As a teenager, she rose to prominence for starring a ...
tapping into her roots, the influence Hispanics and reggaetón are having on the mainstream is undeniable.


Music

There are many Hispanic American musicians that have achieved international fame, such as Christopher Rios better known by his stage name Big Pun,
Jennifer Lopez Jennifer Lynn Affleck (' Lopez; born July 24, 1969), also known as J.Lo, is an American singer, actress and dancer. In 1991, she began appearing as a List of In Living Color cast members#Fly Girls (house dance troupe), Fly Girl dancer on the ...
,
Joan Baez Joan Chandos Baez (; born January 9, 1941) is an American singer, songwriter, musician, and activist. Her contemporary folk music often includes songs of protest and social justice. Baez has performed publicly for over 60 years, releasing more ...
,
Selena Gomez Selena Marie Gomez ( ; born July 22, 1992) is an American singer, actress and producer. Gomez began her acting career on the children's television series ''Barney & Friends'' (2002–2004). As a teenager, she rose to prominence for starring a ...
,
Demi Lovato Demetria Devonne Lovato ( ; born August 20, 1992), known as Demi Lovato, is an American singer, songwriter, and actress. After appearing on the children's television series ''Barney & Friends'' (2002–2004), Lovato rose to prominence for pl ...
, Fergie, Pitbull,
Victoria Justice Victoria Dawn Justice (born February 19, 1993) is an American actress and singer. She has received several accolades, including two Young Artist Award, Young Artist Awards and nominations for three Imagen Awards, an NAACP Image Awards, NAACP Im ...
,
Linda Ronstadt Linda Maria Ronstadt (born July 15, 1946) is a retired American singer who performed and recorded in diverse genres including rock, country, light opera, the Great American Songbook, and Latin. She has earned 11 Grammy Awards, three American Mu ...
, Zack de la Rocha,
Gloria Estefan Gloria Estefan (; born Gloria María Milagrosa Fajardo García; born 1 September 1957) is a Cuban-American singer, actress, and businesswoman. Estefan is a seven-time Grammy Award winner, a Presidential Medal of Freedom recipient, and has be ...
,
Celia Cruz Úrsula Hilaria Celia de la Caridad Cruz Alfonso (21 October 1925 – 16 July 2003), known as Celia Cruz, was a naturalized Cuban-American singer and one of the most popular Latin artists of the 20th century. Cruz rose to fame in Cuba during ...
,
Tito Puente Ernest Anthony Puente Jr. (April 20, 1923 – June 1, 2000), commonly known as Tito Puente, was an American musician, songwriter, bandleader, and record producer of Puerto Rican descent. He is best known for dance-oriented mambo (music) , mambo ...
,
Kat DeLuna Kathleen Emperatriz DeLuna (born November 26, 1987) is an American singer. DeLuna began pursuing a career as a singer when she was a teenager and later signed with Epic Records Epic Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music ...
,
Selena Selena Quintanilla Pérez (; April 16, 1971 – March 31, 1995), known Mononymous person, mononymously as Selena, was an American Tejano music, Tejano singer. Called the "Honorific nicknames in popular music#S, Queen of Tejano music", her con ...
,
Ricky Martin Enrique Martín Morales (born December 24, 1971), known professionally as Ricky Martin, is a Puerto Rican singer, songwriter, and actor. He is known for his musical versatility, with his Ricky Martin albums discography, discography spanning ...
,
Marc Anthony Marco Antonio Muñiz Rivera (born September 16, 1968), known professionally as Marc Anthony, is an American singer, songwriter, and actor. He is the top selling tropical salsa music, salsa artist of all time. A three-time Grammy Award and six-t ...
,
Carlos Santana Carlos Humberto Santana Barragán (; born July 20, 1947) is an American guitarist who rose to fame in the late 1960s and early 1970s with his band Santana (band), Santana, which pioneered a fusion of Rock and roll and Latin jazz, Latin Americ ...
,
Christina Aguilera Christina María Aguilera (; ; born December 18, 1980) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and television personality. Known for her four-octave vocal range and ability to sustain high notes, she has been referred to as the "Honorific ...
,
Bruno Mars Peter Gene Hernandez (born October 8, 1985), known professionally as Bruno Mars, is an American singer, songwriter, and record producer. He is known for his stage performances, retro Retro style is imitative or consciously derivative of lif ...
,
Mariah Carey Mariah Carey (; born March 27, 1969) is an American singer, songwriter, actress, and record producer. Referred to as the "Honorific nicknames in popular music, Songbird Supreme", she is noted for her five-octave vocal range, melismatic singi ...
, Jerry García,
Dave Navarro David Michael Navarro (born June 7, 1967) is an American guitarist. He is best known as a member of the rock band Jane's Addiction, with whom he has recorded four studio albums. Between 1993 and 1998, Navarro was the guitarist of the Red Hot Ch ...
, Santaye, Elvis Crespo,
Romeo Santos Anthony "Romeo" Santos (born July 21, 1981) is an American singer, songwriter, record producer and actor who is best known as the frontman and lead vocalist of the bachata group Aventura. In 2002, the song " Obsesión" reached number one in I ...
,
Tom Araya Tomás Enrique Araya Díaz (; born June 6, 1961) is a Chilean American musician, best known as the vocalist and bassist of American thrash metal band Slayer. Araya is ranked 58th by ''Hit Parader'' on their list of the 100 Greatest Metal Vocalis ...
,
Becky G Rebbeca Marie Gomez (born March 2, 1997), known professionally as Becky G, is an American singer and actress. She first gained recognition in 2011 when she began posting videos of herself covering popular songs online. One of her videos caught t ...
, Juan Luis Guerra, Cardi B, Giselle Bellas,
Bad Bunny Benito Antonio Martínez Ocasio (born March 10, 1994), known professionally as Bad Bunny, is a Puerto Rican rapper and singer. His musical style is defined as Latin trap and reggaeton. He rose to prominence in 2016 with his song "Diles", wh ...
, all of the members of
all-female band An all-female band is a musical group in popular music Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be enjoyed and performed by people with litt ...
Go Betty Go,
Camila Cabello Karla Camila Cabello Estrabao (; ; born March 3, 1997) is a Cuban-born American singer and songwriter. She rose to prominence as a member of the girl group Fifth Harmony, which became one of the best-selling girl groups of all time. While i ...
, and two members of girl group
Fifth Harmony Fifth Harmony, often shortened to 5H, was an American girl group based in Miami, composed of Ally Brooke, Normani, Dinah Jane, Lauren Jauregui, and previously Camila Cabello until her departure from the group in December 2016. The group signe ...
: Lauren Jauregui and Ally Brooke. Hispanic music imported from Cuba ( chachachá, mambo, and
rhumba Rhumba, also known as ballroom rumba, is a genre of ballroom music and ballroom dance, dance that appeared in the East Coast of the United States during the 1930s. It combined American big band music with Afro-Cuban rhythms, primarily the son cub ...
) and Mexico (
ranchera Ranchera () or canción ranchera is a genre of traditional music of Mexico. It dates to before the years of the Mexican Revolution. Rancheras today are played in virtually all regional Mexican music styles. Drawing on rural traditional folk music ...
and
mariachi Mariachi (, , ) is a genre of regional Mexican music that dates back to at least the 18th century, evolving over time in the countryside of various regions of western Mexico. The usual mariachi group today consists of as many as eight violins, t ...
) had brief periods of popularity during the 1950s. Examples of artists include
Celia Cruz Úrsula Hilaria Celia de la Caridad Cruz Alfonso (21 October 1925 – 16 July 2003), known as Celia Cruz, was a naturalized Cuban-American singer and one of the most popular Latin artists of the 20th century. Cruz rose to fame in Cuba during ...
, who was a Cuban-American singer and the most popular Latin artist of the 20th century, gaining twenty-three
gold album Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music Sound recording, recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units. The threshold quantity varies by type (such as album, single, music video) and by nation o ...
s during her career. Bill Clinton awarded her the National Medal of Arts in 1994. Among the Hispanic American musicians who were pioneers in the early stages of
rock and roll Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll, rock 'n' roll, or rock 'n roll) is a Genre (music), genre of popular music that evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s. It Origins of rock and roll, originated from Africa ...
were
Ritchie Valens Richard Steven Valenzuela (May 13, 1941 – February 3, 1959), known professionally as Ritchie Valens, was an American guitarist, singer and songwriter. A rock and roll pioneer and a forefather of the Chicano rock movement, Valens was killed i ...
, who scored several hits, most notably " La Bamba" and Herman Santiago, who wrote the lyrics to the iconic rock and roll song " Why Do Fools Fall in Love". Songs that became popular in the United States and are heard during the holiday/Christmas season include "¿Dónde Está Santa Claus?", a novelty Christmas song with 12-year-old Augie Ríos which was a hit record in 1959 and featured the Mark Jeffrey Orchestra; and " Feliz Navidad" by José Feliciano. Miguel del Aguila wrote 116 works and has three Latin Grammy nominations. In 1986, ''
Billboard A billboard (also called a hoarding in the UK and many other parts of the world) is a large outdoor advertising structure (a billing board), typically found in high-traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large advertis ...
'' magazine introduced the
Hot Latin Songs The ''Billboard'' Hot Latin Songs (formerly Hot Latin Tracks and Hot Latin 50) is a record chart in the United States for Latin music, Latin songs, published weekly by Billboard (magazine), ''Billboard'' magazine. Since October 2012, chart ranking ...
chart which ranks the best-performing songs on Spanish-language radio stations in the United States. Seven years later, ''Billboard'' initiated the
Top Latin Albums Top Latin Albums is a record chart published by Billboard (magazine), ''Billboard'' magazine and is labeled as the most important music chart for Spanish language, full-length albums in the United States, American music market. Like all ''Billboard ...
which ranks top-selling Latin albums in the United States. Similarly, the
Recording Industry Association of America The Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) is a Trade association, trade organization that represents the music industry, music recording industry in the United States. Its members consist of record labels and distributors that the RIA ...
incorporated "Los Premios de Oro y Platino" (The Gold and Platinum Awards) to certify Latin recordings which contains at least 50% of its content recorded in Spanish. In 1989, Univision established the Lo Nuestro Awards which became the first award ceremony to recognize the most talented performers of Spanish-language music and was considered to be the "Hispanic
Grammys The Grammy Awards (stylized as GRAMMY), or simply known as the Grammys, are awards presented by the Recording Academy of the United States to recognize "outstanding" achievements in the music industry. They are regarded by many as the most pres ...
". In 2000, the
Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences The Latin Recording Academy ( es, Academia Latina de la Grabación; pt, Academia Latina da Gravação), formally known as the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences, is a multinational membership-based association composed of Latin music, Lat ...
(LARAS) established the
Latin Grammy Award The Latin Grammy Awards are an award by The Latin Recording Academy to recognize outstanding achievement in the Latin music (genre), Latin music industry. The Latin Grammy honors works recorded in Spanish language, Spanish or Portuguese languag ...
s to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish and Portuguese. Unlike
The Recording Academy The Recording Academy (formally the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences; abbreviated NARAS) is an American Learned society, learned academy of musicians, producers, recording engineers, and other musical professionals. It is famous f ...
, LARAS extends its membership internationally to
Hispanophone Hispanophone and Hispanic refers to anything relating to the Spanish language Spanish ( or , Castilian) is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from colloquial Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical lang ...
and
Lusophone Lusophones ( pt, Lusófonos) are peoples that speak Portuguese as a native or as common second language and nations where Portuguese features prominently in society. Comprising an estimated 270 million people spread across 10 sovereign countri ...
communities worldwide beyond the Americas, particularly the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula (), ** * Aragonese language, Aragonese and Occitan language, Occitan: ''Peninsula Iberica'' ** ** * french: Péninsule Ibérique * mwl, Península Eibérica * eu, Iberiar penintsula also known as Iberia, is a pe ...
.
Becky G Rebbeca Marie Gomez (born March 2, 1997), known professionally as Becky G, is an American singer and actress. She first gained recognition in 2011 when she began posting videos of herself covering popular songs online. One of her videos caught t ...
won favorite female Latin artist, a brand new category at the AMAs in 2020. For the
63rd Annual Grammy Awards The 63rd Annual Grammy Awards ceremony was held in and around the Los Angeles Convention Center in Los Angeles on March 14, 2021. It recognized the best recordings, compositions, and artists of the eligibility year, running from September 1, 201 ...
, the academy announced several changes for different categories and rules: the category Latin Pop Album has been renamed Best Latin Pop or Urban Album, while Latin Rock, Urban or Alternative Album has been renamed Best Latin Rock or Alternative Album.


Film, radio, television, and theatre

American cinema The cinema of the United States, consisting mainly of major film studios (also known as Hollywood) along with some independent film, has had a large effect on the film industry, global film industry since the early 20th century. The dominant ...
has often reflected and propagated negative stereotypes towards foreign nationals and ethnic minorities. For example, Hispanics are largely depicted as sexualized figures such as the Hispanic
macho Machismo (; ; ; ) is the sense of being "masculinity, manly" and self-reliant, a concept associated with "a strong sense of masculine pride: an exaggerated masculinity". Machismo is a term originating in the early 1930s and 1940s best de ...
or the Hispanic vixen,
gang A gang is a group or society A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typically subject to the same political Politi ...
members, (illegal)
immigrant Immigration is the international movement of people to a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle as Permanent residency, permanent residents or Naturalization, naturalize ...
s, or
entertainer An entertainer is someone who provides entertainment in various different forms. Types of entertainers * Acrobat * Actor * Archimime * Athlete * Barker (occupation), Barker * Beatboxer * Benshi * Bouffon * Circus arts, Circus performer * Clo ...
s. However representation in Hollywood has enhanced in latter times of which it gained noticeable momentum in the 1990s and does not emphasize oppression, exploitation, or resistance as central themes. According to Ramírez Berg, third wave films "do not accentuate
Chicano Chicano or Chicana is a chosen identity for many Mexican Americans in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, ...
oppression or resistance; ethnicity in these films exists as one fact of several that shape characters' lives and stamps their personalities". Filmmakers like
Edward James Olmos Edward James Olmos (born February 24, 1947) is an American actor, director, producer, and activist. He is best known for his roles as Lieutenant Martin "Marty" Castillo in ''Miami Vice'' (1984–1989), ''American Me'' (1992) (which he also dir ...
and
Robert Rodriguez Robert Anthony Rodriguez (; born June 20, 1968) is an American filmmaker, composer, and visual effects supervisor. He shoots, edits, produces, and scores many of his films in Mexico and in his home state of Texas. Rodriguez directed the 1992 a ...
were able to represent the Hispanic American experience like none had on screen before, and actors like
Hilary Swank Hilary Ann Swank (born July 30, 1974) is an American actress and film producer. She first became known in 1992 for her role on the television series '' Camp Wilder'' and made her film debut with a minor role in ''Buffy the Vampire Slayer '' ...
, Michael Peña,
Jordana Brewster Jordana Brewster (born April 26, 1980) is a Panamanian-American actress. Best known for her role as Mia Toretto in the ''Fast & Furious'' franchise, she made her acting debut in an episode of ''All My Children'' in 1995 and next took on the recu ...
, Ana de Armas,
Jessica Alba Jessica Marie Alba ( ; born April 28, 1981) is an American actress and businesswoman. She began her television and movie appearances at age 13 in ''Camp Nowhere'' and ''The Secret World of Alex Mack'' (1994), and rose to prominence at age 19 as ...
, Natalie Martinez and Jenna Ortega have become successful. In the last decade, minority filmmakers like Chris Weitz, Alfonso Gomez-Rejon and
Patricia Riggen Patricia Riggen (born June 2, 1970) is a Mexican film director. She is best known for directing the 2007 film ''Under the Same Moon'' and the 2011 Disney Channel original film ''Lemonade Mouth (film), Lemonade Mouth''. Early life and career beg ...
have been given applier narratives. Portrayal in films of them include '' La Bamba'' (1987), ''
Selena Selena Quintanilla Pérez (; April 16, 1971 – March 31, 1995), known Mononymous person, mononymously as Selena, was an American Tejano music, Tejano singer. Called the "Honorific nicknames in popular music#S, Queen of Tejano music", her con ...
'' (1997), ''
The Mask of Zorro ''The Mask of Zorro'' is a 1998 American swashbuckler film based on the character of the masked vigilante Zorro Zorro (Spanish language, Spanish for 'fox') is a fictional character created in 1919 by American pulp magazine, pulp writ ...
'' (1998), '' Goal II: Living the Dream'' (2007), ''
The 33 ''The 33'' ( es, Los 33) is a 2015 biographical disaster- survival drama film directed by Patricia Riggen and written by Mikko Alanne, Craig Borten, Michael Thomas, and José Rivera. The film is based on the real events of the 2010 Copia ...
'' (2015), '' Ferdinand'' (2017), '' Dora and the Lost City of Gold'' (2019), and Josefina López's '' Real Women Have Curves'', originally a play which premiered in 1990 and was later released as a film in 2002. Hispanics have also contributed some prominent actors and others to the
film industry The film industry or motion picture industry comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e., film production company, production companies, film studios, cinematography, animation, film production, screenwriting, pre ...
. Of Puerto Rican origin: José Ferrer (the first Hispanic actor to win an acting
Academy Award The Academy Awards, better known as the Oscars, are awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international film industry. The awards are regarded by many as the most prestigious, significant awards in the entertainment ind ...
for his role in ''
Cyrano de Bergerac Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac ( , ; 6 March 1619 – 28 July 1655) was a French novelist A novelist is an author or writer of novels, though often novelists also write in other genres of both fiction and non-fiction. Some novelists are pr ...
''), Auliʻi Cravalho, Rita Moreno, Chita Rivera,
Raul Julia Raúl Rafael Carlos Juliá y Arcelay (March 9, 1940 – October 24, 1994) was a Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican actor. Born in San Juan, Puerto Rico, he took an interest in acting while still in school and pursued the career upon completion of his st ...
,
Rosie Perez Rosa Perez (born September 6, 1964) is an American actress, choreographer, dancer, and activist. Her breakthrough came with her portrayal of Tina in the film '' Do the Right Thing'' (1989), followed by '' White Men Can't Jump'' (1992). Perez's pe ...
, Rosario Dawson, Esai Morales, Aubrey Plaza,
Jennifer Lopez Jennifer Lynn Affleck (' Lopez; born July 24, 1969), also known as J.Lo, is an American singer, actress and dancer. In 1991, she began appearing as a List of In Living Color cast members#Fly Girls (house dance troupe), Fly Girl dancer on the ...
,
Joaquin Phoenix Joaquin Rafael Phoenix (; né Bottom; born October 28, 1974) is an American actor. He is known for playing dark and unconventional characters in independent films. He has received List of awards and nominations received by Joaquin Phoenix, vari ...
and
Benicio del Toro Benicio Monserrate Rafael del Toro Sánchez (born February 19, 1967) is a Puerto Rican actor and producer. He has garnered critical acclaim and numerous accolades, including an Academy Award, a BAFTA Award, a Golden Globe Award, two Screen ...
. Of Mexican origin:
Emile Kuri Emile Kuri (June 11, 1907 – October 10, 2000) was a Mexican-born American set decorator of Lebanese people, Lebanese parentage. He won two Academy Awards and was nominated for six more in the category Academy Award for Best Art Direction, ...
(the first Hispanic to win an Academy Award – for Best Production Design – in 1949),
Ramon Novarro José Ramón Gil Samaniego (February 6, 1899 – October 30, 1968), known professionally as Ramon Novarro, was a Mexican-American actor. He began his career in silent films in 1917 and eventually became a leading man and one of the top box ...
, Dolores del Río, Lupe Vélez,
Anthony Quinn Manuel Antonio Rodolfo Quinn Oaxaca (April 21, 1915 – June 3, 2001), known professionally as Anthony Quinn, was a Mexican Americans, Mexican-American actor. He was known for his portrayal of earthy, passionate characters "marked by a bru ...
, Ricardo Montalbán, Katy Jurado, Adrian Grenier, Jay Hernandez,
Salma Hayek Salma Hayek Pinault ( , ; born Salma Valgarma Hayek Jiménez; September 2, 1966) is a Mexican and American actress and film producer. She began her career in Mexico with starring roles in the telenovela ''Teresa (1989 TV series), Teresa'' (19 ...
,
Danny Trejo Danny Trejo ( ; born May 16, 1944) is an American actor. He has appeared in films including Desperado (film), ''Desperado'', Heat (1995 film), ''Heat'', and the ''From Dusk till Dawn (franchise), From Dusk Till Dawn'' film series. With frequen ...
,
Jessica Alba Jessica Marie Alba ( ; born April 28, 1981) is an American actress and businesswoman. She began her television and movie appearances at age 13 in ''Camp Nowhere'' and ''The Secret World of Alex Mack'' (1994), and rose to prominence at age 19 as ...
, Tessa Thompson, and
Kate del Castillo Kate del Castillo Negrete Trillo () is a Mexican-American actress. At the age of 19, del Castillo became known for her lead role in the telenovela ''Muchachitas'' for Televisa in 1991. Afterwards, she continued her career in film and television ...
. Of
Cuba Cuba ( , ), officially the Republic of Cuba ( es, República de Cuba, links=no ), is an island country comprising the island of Cuba, as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called ...
n origin:
Cesar Romero Cesar Julio Romero Jr. (February 15, 1907 – January 1, 1994) was an American actor and activist. He was active in film, radio, and television for almost sixty years. His wide range of screen roles included Latin lovers, historical figures in c ...
,
Mel Ferrer Melchor Gastón Ferrer (August 25, 1917 – June 2, 2008) was an American actor, director, producer and screenwriter. He achieved prominence on Broadway before scoring notable film hits with '' Scaramouche'', '' Lili'' and '' Knights of the R ...
, Andy García,
Cameron Diaz Cameron Michelle Diaz (born August 30, 1972) is an American actress. With a variety of works in film, she is widely recognised for her work in romantic comedies Romantic comedy (also known as romcom or rom-com) is a subgenre of comedy and ...
, María Conchita Alonso, William Levy, and
Eva Mendes Eva de la Caridad Méndez (, ; born March 5, 1974), known professionally as Eva Mendes, is an American actress, model and fashion designer. Her acting career began in the late 1990s, with a series of roles in films such as '' Children of the Cor ...
. Of Dominican origin: Maria Montez and Zoe Saldana. Of partial
Spanish Spanish might refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards are a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language, spoken in Spain and many Latin American countries **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Cana ...
origin:
Rita Hayworth Rita Hayworth (born Margarita Carmen Cansino; October 17, 1918May 14, 1987) was an American actress, dancer and producer. She achieved fame during the 1940s as one of the era's top stars, appearing in 61 films over 37 years. The press coined th ...
,
Martin Sheen Ramón Antonio Gerardo Estévez (born August 3, 1940), known professionally as Martin Sheen, is an American actor. He first became known for his roles in the films ''The Subject Was Roses (film), The Subject Was Roses'' (1968) and ''Badlands (f ...
. Other outstanding figures are: Anita Page (of
Salvadoran Salvadorans (Spanish language, Spanish: ''Salvadoreños''), also known as Salvadorians (alternate spelling: Salvadoreans), are citizens of El Salvador, a country in Central America. Most Salvadorans live in El Salvador, although there is also a s ...
origin), Fernando Lamas, Carlos Thompson, Alejandro Rey and Linda Cristal (of
Argentine Argentines (mistakenly translated Argentineans in the past; in Spanish language, Spanish (Grammatical gender, masculine) or (Grammatical gender, feminine)) are people identified with the country of Argentina. This connection may be resident ...
origin),
Raquel Welch Jo Raquel Welch ( Tejada; September 5, 1940) is an American actress. She first won attention for her role in ''Fantastic Voyage'' (1966), after which she won a contract with 20th Century Fox. They lent her contract to the British studio Hammer ...
(of
Bolivia , image_flag = Bandera de Bolivia (Estado).svg , flag_alt = Horizontal tricolor (red, yellow, and green from top to bottom) with the coat of arms of Bolivia in the center , flag_alt2 = 7 × 7 square p ...
n origin),
John Leguizamo John Alberto Leguizamo Peláez (; ; born July 22, 196013:04) is an American actor, comedian, and film producer. He has appeared in over 100 films, produced over 20 films and documentaries, made over 30 television appearances, and has produced ...
(of
Colombia Colombia (, ; ), officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country in South America with insular regions in North America—near Nicaragua's Caribbean coast—as well as in the Pacific Ocean. The Colombian mainland is bordered by the Cari ...
n origin), Oscar Isaac (of
Guatemala Guatemala ( ; ), officially the Republic of Guatemala ( es, República de Guatemala, links=no), is a country in Central America. It is bordered to the north and west by Mexico Mexico (Spanish language, Spanish: México), officially th ...
n origin), and Pedro Pascal (of
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America. It is the southernmost country in the world, and the closest to Antarctica, occupying a long and narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east a ...
an origin). In stand-up comedy,
Cristela Alonzo Cristela Alonzo (born ) is an American comedian, actress, writer and producer, who created and starred in the American Broadcasting Company, ABC sitcom ''Cristela.'' This made her the first Latina woman to create, produce, write, and star in her ...
, Anjelah Johnson, Paul Rodríguez,
Greg Giraldo Gregory Carlos Giraldo (December 10, 1965 – September 29, 2010) was an American stand-up comedian, television personality, and lawyer. He is remembered for his appearances on Comedy Central's televised Comedy Central Roast, roast specials, ...
,
Cheech Marin :''The surname'' Marín, Pontevedra, Marin ''is of Spanish language origin. In Spanish, it is spelled'' w:es:Marín, Marín'', with an acute accent on the'' í. Richard Anthony "Cheech" Marin (born July 13, 1946) is an American actor, musician, c ...
,
George Lopez George Edward Lopez (born April 23, 1961) is an American comedian and actor. He is known for starring in his George Lopez (TV series), self-produced ABC sitcom. His stand-up comedy examines race and ethnic relations, including Chicano, Mexica ...
,
Freddie Prinze Frederick James Prinze Sr. (born Frederick Karl Pruetzel; June 22, 1954 – January 29, 1977) was an American stand-up comedian and actor. Prinze was the star of the NBC-TV sitcom '' Chico and the Man'' from 1974 until his suicide in 1977. Prin ...
,
Jade Esteban Estrada Jade Esteban Estrada (born September 17, 1975) is an American singer, actor, stand-up comedian, journalist and human rights activist. ''Out Magazine'' called him "the first gay Latin star." Biography Born to David Gonzales Estrada and Aurora ( ...
,
Carlos Mencia Ned Arnel "Carlos" Mencía (born October 22, 1967) is a Honduran-American comedian, writer, and actor. His style of comedy is often political and involves issues of race relations, Latin American culture, criminal justice, and social class. He i ...
, John Mendoza, Gabriel Iglesias and others are prominent. Some of the Hispanic actors who achieved notable success in U.S. television include
Desi Arnaz Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III (March 2, 1917 – December 2, 1986) was a Cuban-born American actor, bandleader, and film and television producer. He played Lucy and Ricky Ricardo, Ricky Ricardo on the American television sitcom ''I Lov ...
, Lynda Carter,
Jimmy Smits Jimmy L. Smits (born July 9, 1955) is an American actor. He is best known for playing attorney Victor Sifuentes on the 1980s-1990s legal drama ''L.A. Law'', New York Police Department, NYPD Detective Bobby Simone on the 1990s-2000s police drama ...
, Charo, Jencarlos Canela, Christian Serratos, Carlos Pena Jr.,
Eva Longoria Eva Jacqueline Longoria Bastón ( Longoria; March 15, 1975) is an American actress, Television producer, producer, and Television director, director. After a number of guest roles on several television series, she was recognized for her portray ...
, Sofía Vergara, Ricardo Antonio Chavira, Jacob Vargas,
Benjamin Bratt Benjamin Bratt (born December 16, 1963) is an American actor and producer who has worked in film and on television. He had supporting roles in the 1990s in such box office hits as Demolition Man (film), ''Demolition Man'' (1993), Clear and Prese ...
, Ricardo Montalbán, Hector Elizondo, Mario Lopez,
America Ferrera America Georgina Ferrera (; born April 18, 1984) is an American actress. Born in Los Angeles to Hondurans, Honduran parents, Ferrera developed an interest in acting at a young age, performing in several stage productions at her school. She made ...
, Karla Souza,
Diego Boneta Diego Andrés González Boneta (born November 29, 1990) is an American actor, producer and singer. He gained wider recognition after starring in ''Rock of Ages (2012 film), Rock of Ages'' (2012) alongside Tom Cruise and the ''Netflix'' biographi ...
, Erik Estrada, Cote de Pablo,
Freddie Prinze Frederick James Prinze Sr. (born Frederick Karl Pruetzel; June 22, 1954 – January 29, 1977) was an American stand-up comedian and actor. Prinze was the star of the NBC-TV sitcom '' Chico and the Man'' from 1974 until his suicide in 1977. Prin ...
, Lauren Vélez, Isabella Gomez, Justina Machado, Tony Plana
Stacey Dash Stacey Lauretta Dash (born January 20, 1967) is an American actress. Dash played Dionne Marie Davenport in the 1995 feature film '' Clueless'' and its television series of the same name. She has also appeared in the films '' Moving'', '' Mo' Mo ...
, and
Charlie Sheen Carlos Irwin Estévez (born September 3, 1965), known professionally as Charlie Sheen, is an American actor. He has appeared in films such as ''Platoon (film), Platoon'' (1986), ''Wall Street (1987 film), Wall Street'' (1987), ''Young Guns (fi ...
. Kenny Ortega is an
Emmy Award The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are an extensive range of awards for artistic and technical merit for the American and international television industry. A number of annual Emmy Award ceremonies are held throughout the calendar year, each with the ...
-winning producer, director and choreographer who has choreographed many major television events such as
Super Bowl XXX Super Bowl XXX was an American football game between the National Football Conference (NFC) champion 1995 Dallas Cowboys season, Dallas Cowboys and the American Football Conference (AFC) champion 1995 Pittsburgh Steelers season, Pittsburgh Stee ...
, the 72nd Academy Awards and
Michael Jackson Michael Joseph Jackson (August 29, 1958 – June 25, 2009) was an American singer, songwriter, dancer, and philanthropist. Dubbed the "Honorific nicknames in popular music, King of Pop", he is regarded as Cultural impact of Michael Jackson, ...
's memorial service. Hispanics are underrepresented in U.S. television, radio, and film. This is combatted by organizations such as the Hispanic Organization of Latin Actors (HOLA), founded in 1975; and National Hispanic Media Coalition (NHMC), founded in 1986. Together with numerous Hispanic civil rights organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks in 1999, after discovering that there were no Hispanic on any of their new
prime time Prime time or the peak time is the block of broadcast programming taking place during the middle of the evening for a television show. It is mostly targeted towards adults (and sometimes families). It is used by the major television networks to ...
series that year. This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with ABC,
CBS CBS Broadcasting Inc., commonly shortened to CBS, the abbreviation of its former legal name Columbia Broadcasting System, is an American commercial broadcast television Television, sometimes shortened to TV, is a telecommunication m ...
,
Fox Foxes are small to medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae. They have a flattened skull, upright, triangular ears, a pointed, slightly upturned snout, and a long bushy tail (or ''brush''). Twelve sp ...
and NBC that have since increased the hiring of Hispanic talent and other staff in all of the networks.
Latino Public Broadcasting Latino Public Broadcasting (LPB) is a non-profit organization that is funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting with the purpose of addressing issues of cultural significance to the Hispanic and Latino Americans, Latino population in the ...
(LPB) funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Hispanic Americans. These programs are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States. The
72nd Primetime Emmy Awards The 72nd Primetime Emmy Awards honored the best in United States, American prime time television programming from June 1, 2019, until May 31, 2020, as chosen by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. The ceremony was originally to be held ...
was criticized by Hispanics; there were no major nominations for Hispanic performers, despite the
Academy of Television Arts & Sciences The Academy of Television Arts & Sciences (ATAS), also colloquially known as the Television Academy, is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the Television in the United States, television industry in the United St ...
publicizing their improved diversity in 2020. While there was a record number of black nominees, there was only one individual Hispanic nomination. Hispanic representation groups said the greater diversity referred only to more African American nominees. When the ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a ...
'' reported the criticism using the term "black", it was itself criticized for erasing Afro-Hispanics, a discussion that then prompted more investigation into this under-represented minority ethnic group in Hollywood.
John Leguizamo John Alberto Leguizamo Peláez (; ; born July 22, 196013:04) is an American actor, comedian, and film producer. He has appeared in over 100 films, produced over 20 films and documentaries, made over 30 television appearances, and has produced ...
boycotted the Emmys because of its lack of Hispanic nominees.


Fashion

In the world of fashion, notable Hispanic designers include Oscar de la Renta, Carolina Herrera, Narciso Rodriguez, Manuel Cuevas, Maria Cornejo, among others. Christy Turlington, Lais Ribeiro, Adriana Lima, Gisele Bündchen and Lea T achieved international fame as models.


Artists

Notable Hispanic artists include
Jean-Michel Basquiat Jean-Michel Basquiat (; December 22, 1960 – August 12, 1988) was an American artist who rose to success during the 1980s as part of the Neo-expressionism movement. Basquiat first achieved fame as part of the graffiti duo SAMO, alongside Al ...
, Carmen Herrera, Gronk, Luis Jiménez, Félix González-Torres, Ana Mendieta, Joe Shannon,
Richard Serra Richard Serra (born November 2, 1938) is an American artist known for his large-scale sculptures made for site-specific landscape, Urban area, urban, and Architecture, architectural settings. Serra's sculptures are notable for their material q ...
, Abelardo Morell, Bill Melendez, María Magdalena Campos Pons, Sandra Ramos, Myrna Báez and Soraida Martinez.


Business and finance

The total number of Hispanic-owned businesses in 2002 was 1.6 million, having grown at triple the national rate for the preceding five years. Hispanic business leaders include Cuban immigrant Roberto Goizueta, who rose to head of
The Coca-Cola Company The Coca-Cola Company is an American multinational corporation, multinational Drink industry, beverage corporation founded in 1892, best known as the producer of Coca-Cola. The Coca-Cola Company also manufactures, sells, and markets other non-a ...
. Advertising Mexican-American magnate
Arte Moreno Arturo "Arte" Moreno (born August 14, 1946) is an American businessman. On May 15, 2003, he became the first Mexican-American to own a major sports team in the United States when he purchased the Anaheim Angels baseball team from the Walt Disney ...
became the first Hispanic to own a major league team in the United States when he purchased the
Los Angeles Angels The Los Angeles Angels are an American professional baseball team based in the Greater Los Angeles, Los Angeles metropolitan area. The Angels compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the American League (AL) American League W ...
baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball sport played between two team sport, teams of nine players each, taking turns batting (baseball), batting and Fielding (baseball), fielding. The game occurs over the course of several Pitch ...
club. Also a major sports team owner is Mexican-American Linda G. Alvarado, president and CEO of Alvarado Construction, Inc. and co-owner of the
Colorado Rockies The Colorado Rockies are an American professional baseball team based in Denver. The Rockies compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) National League West, West division. The team plays its home baseba ...
baseball team. There are several Hispanics on the
Forbes 400 The ''Forbes'' 400 or 400 Richest Americans is a list published by ''Forbes'' magazine of the wealthiest 400 Citizenship of the United States, American citizens who own assets in the U.S., ranked by net worth. The 400 was started by Malcolm F ...
list of richest Americans. Alejandro Santo Domingo and his brother Andres Santo Domingo inherited their fathers stake in
SABMiller SABMiller plc was a South African multinational brewing and beverage company headquartered in Woking, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales ...
, now merged with
Anheuser-Busch InBev Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV, commonly known as AB InBev, is an American-Belgian Multinational corporation, multinational Drink industry, drink and brewing company, brewing company based in Leuven, Belgium. AB InBev has a global functional manag ...
. The brothers are ranked No. 132 and are each worth $4.8bn. Jorge Perez founded and runs The Related Group. He built his career developing and operating low-income multifamily apartments across Miami."Related's Jorge Pérez puts his stamp on the skyline".
The Real Deal. Retrieved January 15, 2017.
He is ranked No. 264 and is worth $3bn. The largest Hispanic-owned food company in the United States is
Goya Foods Goya Foods, Inc. is an American producer of a brand of foods sold in the United States and many Spanish-speaking countries. It has facilities in the United States, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and Spain. It is under third-generation ownersh ...
, because of World War II hero Joseph A. Unanue, the son of the company's founders. Angel Ramos was the founder of
Telemundo Telemundo (; formerly NetSpan) is an American Spanish-language Terrestrial television, terrestrial television network owned by NBCUniversal Television and Streaming#NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises, NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises, a divi ...
, Puerto Rico's first television station and now the second largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with an average viewership over one million in primetime. Samuel A. Ramirez Sr. made
Wall Street Wall Street is an eight-block-long street in the Financial District, Manhattan, Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City. It runs between Broadway (Manhattan), Broadway in the west to South Street (Manhattan), South Street and ...
history by becoming the first Hispanic to launch a successful investment banking firm, Ramirez & Co. Nina Tassler is president of
CBS CBS Broadcasting Inc., commonly shortened to CBS, the abbreviation of its former legal name Columbia Broadcasting System, is an American commercial broadcast television Television, sometimes shortened to TV, is a telecommunication m ...
Entertainment since September 2004. She is the highest-profile Hispanic in
network television Network, networking and networked may refer to: Science and technology * Network theory, the study of graphs as a representation of relations between discrete objects * Network science, an academic field that studies complex networks Mathematics ...
and one of the few executives who has the power to approve the airing or renewal of series.


Government and politics

As of 2007, there were more than five thousand elected officeholders in the United States who were of Hispanic origin. In the
House of Representatives House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies in many countries and sub-national entitles. In many countries, the House of Representatives is the lower house of a bicameral Bicameralism is a type of legislature, one divided ...
, Hispanic representatives have included Ladislas Lazaro, Antonio M. Fernández, Henry B. Gonzalez,
Kika de la Garza Eligio "Kika" de la Garza II (September 22, 1927March 13, 2017) was an American politician who served as the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic representative for the Texas's 15th congressional district, 15th congressional district of Te ...
, Herman Badillo,
Romualdo Pacheco José Antonio Romualdo Pacheco (October 31, 1831January 23, 1899) was a Californio statesman and diplomat. A Republican Party (United States), Republican, he is best known as the only Hispanics and Latinos in California, Hispanic person to serve ...
and Manuel Lujan Jr., out of almost two dozen former representatives. Current representatives include Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Jose E. Serrano, Luis Gutiérrez,
Nydia Velázquez Nydia Margarita Velázquez Serrano (born March 28, 1953) is a politician serving in the United States House of Representatives since 1993. A Democratic Party (United States), Democrat from New York (state), New York, Velázquez chaired the Congr ...
, Xavier Becerra,
Lucille Roybal-Allard Lucille Elsa Roybal-Allard (born June 12, 1941) is an American politician serving as the U.S. representative for since 2013. A member of the Democratic Party, she first entered Congress in 1993. Her district, numbered as the 33rd until 2003 ...
, Loretta Sanchez, Rubén Hinojosa, Mario Díaz-Balart, Raul Grijalva, Ben R. Lujan, Jaime Herrera Beutler, Raul Labrador and Alex Mooney—in all, they number thirty. Former senators are Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo,
Mel Martinez Mel, Mels or MEL may refer to: Biology * Mouse erythroleukemia cell line (MEL) * National Herbarium of Victoria, a herbarium with the Index Herbariorum code MEL People * Mel (given name), the abbreviated version of several given names (including ...
, Dennis Chavez, Joseph Montoya and
Ken Salazar Kenneth Lee Salazar (born March 2, 1955) is an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat who is the List of ambassadors of the United States to Mexico, United States ambassador to Mexico. He previously served as the 50th United States Secretary o ...
. As of January 2011, the U.S. Senate includes Hispanic members
Bob Menendez Robert Menendez (; born January 1, 1954) is an American lawyer and politician serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, senior United States senator from New Jersey, a seat he has held since 2006. Gale (publisher), Gale Biography I ...
, a Democrat and Republicans
Ted Cruz Rafael Edward "Ted" Cruz (; born December 22, 1970) is an American politician and attorney serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, junior United States Senate, United States Senator from Texas since 2013. A member of the Repub ...
and
Marco Rubio Marco Antonio Rubio (born May 28, 1971) is an American politician and lawyer serving as the Seniority in the United States Senate, senior United States Senate, United States senator from Florida, a seat he has held since 2011. A member of the ...
, all Cuban Americans. Numerous Hispanics hold elective and appointed office in
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, U ...
and
local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. This particular usage of the word government refers specifically to a level of administration that is both geographically-loca ...
throughout the United States. Current Hispanic Governors include Republican
Nevada Nevada ( ; ) is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States, Western region of the United States. It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast, and Utah to the east. N ...
Governor
Brian Sandoval Brian Edward Sandoval (; born August 5, 1963) is an American politician, academic administrator, and former federal judge who served as the List of governors of Nevada, 29th Governor of Nevada from 2011 to 2019. A graduate of the University of N ...
and Republican
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe, New Mexico, Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque, New Mexico, Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Albuquerque metropolitan area, Tiguex , Offi ...
Governor Susana Martinez; upon taking office in 2011, Martinez became the first Hispanic woman governor in the history of the United States. Former Hispanic governors include Democrats Jerry Apodaca, Raul Hector Castro, and
Bill Richardson William Blaine Richardson III (born November 15, 1947) is an American politician, author, and diplomat who served as the List of governors of New Mexico, 30th governor of New Mexico from 2003 to 2011. He was also the United States Ambassador to ...
, as well as Republicans Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo,
Romualdo Pacheco José Antonio Romualdo Pacheco (October 31, 1831January 23, 1899) was a Californio statesman and diplomat. A Republican Party (United States), Republican, he is best known as the only Hispanics and Latinos in California, Hispanic person to serve ...
and
Bob Martinez Robert Martinez (born December 25, 1934) is an American retired politician who served as the 40th governor of Florida A governor is an politician, administrative leader and head of a polity or Region#Political_regions, political region, rank ...
. Since 1988, when
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician, actor, and union leader who served as the 40th president of the United States from 1981 to 1989. He also served as the 33rd governor of California from 1967 ...
appointed Lauro Cavazos the
Secretary of Education An education ministry is a national or subnational government agency politically responsible for education. Various other names are commonly used to identify such agencies, such as Ministry of Education, Department of Education, and Ministry of Pub ...
, the first Hispanic
United States Cabinet The Cabinet of the United States is a body consisting of the vice president of the United States and the heads of the Federal government of the United States, executive branch's United States federal executive departments, departments in the fed ...
member, Hispanic Americans have had an increasing presence in presidential administrations. Hispanics serving in subsequent cabinets include
Ken Salazar Kenneth Lee Salazar (born March 2, 1955) is an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat who is the List of ambassadors of the United States to Mexico, United States ambassador to Mexico. He previously served as the 50th United States Secretary o ...
, current Secretary of the Interior;
Hilda Solis Hilda Lucia Solis (; born October 20, 1957) is an American politician and a member of the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors for the 1st district. Solis previously served as the 25th United States Secretary of Labor from 2009 to 2013, as par ...
, current
United States Secretary of Labor The United States Secretary of Labor is a member of the Cabinet of the United States, and as the head of the United States Department of Labor, controls the department, and enforces and suggests laws involving Trade union, unions, the workplace ...
;
Alberto Gonzales Alberto R. Gonzales (born August 4, 1955) is an American lawyer who served as the 80th United States Attorney General The United States attorney general (AG) is the head of the United States Department of Justice, and is the chief law enforc ...
, former
United States Attorney General The United States attorney general (AG) is the head of the United States Department of Justice, and is the chief law enforcement officer of the federal government of the United States. The attorney general serves as the principal advisor to the p ...
; Carlos Gutierrez,
Secretary of Commerce The United States secretary of commerce (SecCom) is the head of the United States Department of Commerce. The secretary serves as the principal advisor to the president of the United States on all matters relating to commerce. The secretary rep ...
; Federico Peña, former Secretary of Energy; Henry Cisneros, former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; Manuel Lujan Jr., former Secretary of the Interior; and Bill Richardson, former Secretary of Energy and Ambassador to the United Nations. Rosa Rios is the current US Treasurer, including the latest three, were Hispanic women. In 2009,
Sonia Sotomayor Sonia Maria Sotomayor (, ; born June 25, 1954) is an American lawyer and jurist who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. She was Sonia Sotomay ...
became the first
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of ju ...
Associate Justice Associate justice or associate judge (or simply associate) is a judicial panel member who is not the Chief Justice, chief justice in some jurisdictions. The title "Associate Justice" is used for members of the Supreme Court of the United States ...
of Hispanic origin. The Congressional Hispanic Caucus (CHC), founded in December 1976, and the Congressional Hispanic Conference (CHC), founded on March 19, 2003, are two organizations that promote policy of importance to Americans of Hispanic descent. They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic Caucus is composed entirely of Democratic representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic Conference is composed entirely of Republican representatives. Groups like the United States Hispanic Leadership Institute (USHLI) work to achieve the promises and principles of the United States by "promoting education, research, and leadership development, and empowering Hispanics and similarly disenfranchised groups by maximizing their civic awareness, engagement, and participation".


Literature and journalism


Writers and their works

* Julia Álvarez ('' How the García Girls Lost Their Accents'') * Rudolfo Anaya (''
Bless Me, Ultima ''Bless Me, Ultima'' is a coming-of-age novel by Rudolfo Anaya centering on Antonio Márez y Luna and his mentorship under his ''curandero, curandera'' and protector, Ultima. It has become the most widely read and critically acclaimed novel in th ...
'' and ''Heart of Aztlan'') * Marie Arana ('' American Chica'', '' Bolívar: American Liberator'' and '' Silver, Sword, and Stone'' * Sandra Cisneros (''The House on Mango Street'' and ''Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories'') * Junot Díaz (''The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao'') * Cecilia Domeyko (''Sacrifice on the Border'') * Ernest Fenollosa (art historian, ''Masters of Ukiyoe'') * Rigoberto González (''Butterfly Boy: Memories of a Chicano Mariposa'') * Oscar Hijuelos (''The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love'') * Jorge Majfud (''Crisis (novel by Jorge Majfud), Crisis'' and ''La frontera salvaje''). * Micol Ostow (''"Mind Your Manners, Dick and Jane"'', ''"Emily Goldberg Learns to Salsa"'') * Benito Pastoriza Iyodo (''A Matter of Men'' and ''September Elegies'') * Alberto Alvaro Rios (''Capirotada'', ''Elk Heads on the Wall'' and ''The Iguana Killer'') * Tomas Rivera (''...And the Earth did Not Devour Him'') * Richard Rodríguez (Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez, ''Hunger of Memory'') * George Santayana (novelist and philosopher: "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it") * Sergio Troncoso (''From This Wicked Patch of Dust'' and ''The Last Tortilla and Other Stories'') * Alisa Valdes-Rodriguez (''Haters (novel), Haters'') * Victor Villaseñor (''Rain of Gold'') * Oscar Zeta Acosta (''The Revolt of the Cockroach People'')


Journalists

* Cecilia Vega American journalist, currently serving as chief White House correspondent for ABC News. * Jorge Ramos (news anchor), Jorge Ramos has won eight Emmy Awards and the Maria Moors Cabot Award for excellence in journalism. In 2015, Ramos was one of five selected as ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine's World's Most Influential People. * José Díaz-Balart is currently the anchor for Noticias Telemundo, as well as anchor of NBC Nightly News on Saturdays. * Paola Ramos (journalist), Paola Ramos, correspondent for ''Vice (magazine), Vice'' and is a contributor to
Telemundo Telemundo (; formerly NetSpan) is an American Spanish-language Terrestrial television, terrestrial television network owned by NBCUniversal Television and Streaming#NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises, NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises, a divi ...
and MSNBC. * Ana Cabrera currently works as a television news anchor for CNN in Manhattan. * Natalie Morales (journalist), Natalie Morales is the ''Today (U.S. TV program), Today Show'' West Coast anchor and appears on other programs including ''Dateline NBC'' and ''NBC Nightly News''. * María Elena Salinas
CBS CBS Broadcasting Inc., commonly shortened to CBS, the abbreviation of its former legal name Columbia Broadcasting System, is an American commercial broadcast television Television, sometimes shortened to TV, is a telecommunication m ...
News contributor called the "Voice of Hispanic America" by ''The New York Times'' * Morgan Radford, reporter employed by NBC News and MSNBC, was a production assistant for ESPN. * Geraldo Rivera has won a Peabody Award and appears regularly on Fox News programs such as ''The Five (talk show), The Five''. * John Quiñones, co-anchor of the ABC News program, Primetime (U.S. TV program), ''Primetime'' and now hosts ''What Would You Do?'' * Rubén Salazar, reporter for the ''
Los Angeles Times The ''Los Angeles Times'' (abbreviated as ''LA Times'') is a daily newspaper A newspaper is a Periodical literature, periodical publication containing written News, information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a ...
'' and news director for KMEX, which was a Spanish language station. * Maria Elvira Salazar, journalist and broadcast television anchor who worked for
Telemundo Telemundo (; formerly NetSpan) is an American Spanish-language Terrestrial television, terrestrial television network owned by NBCUniversal Television and Streaming#NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises, NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises, a divi ...
,
CNN en Español CNN en Español is a Pan-American Spanish-language Spanish ( or , Castilian) is a Romance languages, Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from colloquial Latin spoken on the Iberian peninsula. Today, it is a wor ...
and Noticiero Univision. * Michele Ruiz, former Los Angeles news anchor for KNBC-TV. * Giselle Fernández, reporting and guest anchoring for ''CBS Early Show'', ''CBS Evening News'', ''NBC Today'', ''NBC Nightly News''; regular host for ''Access Hollywood''. * Elizabeth Pérez, television journalist for
CNN en Español CNN en Español is a Pan-American Spanish-language Spanish ( or , Castilian) is a Romance languages, Romance language of the Indo-European language family that evolved from colloquial Latin spoken on the Iberian peninsula. Today, it is a wor ...
. Political strategists * Mercedes Schlapp, American lobbyist and columnist for Fox News, including ''U.S. News & World Report'' and ''The Washington Times''. * Geovanny Vicente, political strategist, international consultant and columnist who writes for CNN.


Military

Hispanics have participated in the military of the United States and in every major List of United States military history events, military conflict from the American Revolution onward. 11% to 13% military personnel now are Hispanics and they have been deployed in the
Iraq War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Iraq War , partof = the Iraq conflict (2003–present), Iraq conflict and the War on terror , image = Iraq War montage.png , image_size = 300px , caption ...
, the War in Afghanistan (2001–present), Afghanistan War, and U.S. military missions and bases elsewhere. Hispanics have not only distinguished themselves in the battlefields but also reached the high echelons of the military, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign posts. Up to now, 43 Hispanics have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the Medal of Honor (also known as the ''Congressional Medal of Honor''). The following is a list of some notable Hispanics in the military:


American Revolution

* Bernardo de Gálvez (1746–1786) – Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who aided the American Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led Spanish forces against Kingdom of Great Britain, Britain in the Revolutionary War; since 2014, a posthumous honorary citizen of the United States * Lieutenant Jordi Farragut, Jorge Farragut Mesquida (1755–1817) – participated in the American Revolution as a lieutenant in the South Carolina Navy


American Civil War

* Admiral David Farragut – promoted to vice admiral on December 21, 1864, and to full admiral on July 25, 1866, after the war, thereby becoming the first person to be named full admiral in the Navy's history. *Rear Admiral Cipriano Andrade – Mexican Rear admiral, Navy rear admiral who fought for the Union. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. * Colonel Ambrosio José Gonzales – Cuban officer active during the bombardment of Fort Sumter; because of his actions, was appointed Colonel of artillery and assigned to duty as Chief of Artillery in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida. * Brigadier General Diego Archuleta (1814–1884) – member of the Mexican Army who fought against the United States in the Mexican–American War. During the American Civil War, he joined the Union Army (US Army) and became the first Hispanic to reach the military rank of brigadier general. He commanded The First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Valverde. He was later appointed an Indian (Native Americans) Agent by Abraham Lincoln."Hispanics Firsts"; by: Nicolas Kanellos; pp. 210–211; Publisher: Visible Ink Press; * Colonel Carlos de la Mesa – grandfather of Major General (United States), Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr. commanding general of the 1st Infantry Division (United States), First Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily, and later the commander of the 104th Infantry Division (United States), 104th Infantry Division during World War II. Colonel Carlos de la Mesa was a Spanish people, Spanish national who fought at Battle of Gettysburg, Gettysburg for the Union Army in the Spanish Company of the "Garibaldi Guard" of the 39th New York State Volunteers. * Colonel Federico Fernández Cavada – commanded the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer infantry regiment when it took the field in the Peach Orchard at Gettysburg"The Civil War, 1840s-1890s"; by Roger E. Hernandez, Roger E. Hernndez; ; * Colonel Miguel E. Pino – commanded the 2nd Regiment of New Mexico Volunteers, which fought at the Battle of Valverde in February and the Battle of Glorieta Pass and helped defeat the attempted invasion of New Mexico by the Confederate Army * Colonel Santos Benavides – commanded his own regiment, the "Benavides Regiment"; highest ranking Mexican-American in the Confederate Army * Major Salvador Vallejo – officer in one of the California units that served with the Union Army in the West * Captain Adolfo Fernández Cavada – served in the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers at Gettysburg with his brother, Colonel Federico Fernandez Cavada; served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac from Fredericksburg to Gettysburg; "special aide-de-camp" to General Andrew A. Humphreys *Captain Rafael Chacón – Mexican American leader of the Union New Mexico Volunteers. * Captain Roman Anthony Baca – member of the Union forces in the New Mexico Volunteers; spy for the Union Army in Texas * Lieutenant Augusto Rodríguez (soldier), Augusto Rodriguez – Puerto Rican people, Puerto Rican native; officer in the 15th Connecticut Infantry Regiment, 15th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, of the Union Army; served in the defenses of Washington, D.C., and led his men in the Battles of Battle of Fredericksburg, Fredericksburg and Battle of Wyse Fork, Wyse Fork"The Puerto Rican Diaspora: historical perspectives"; By Carmen Teresa Whalen, Víctor Vázquez-Hernandez; page 176; Publisher: Temple University Press; ; * Lola Sánchez (Confederate spy), Lola Sánchez – Cuban-born woman who became a Confederate spy; helped the Confederates obtain a victory against the Union forces in the "Battle of Horse Landing" * Loreta Janeta Velázquez, also known as "Lieutenant Harry Buford" – Cuban people, Cuban woman who donned Confederate garb and served as a Confederate officer and spy during the American Civil War


World War I

* Major General Luis R. Esteves, United States Army – in 1915, became the first Hispanic to graduate from the United States Military Academy ("West Point"); organized the Puerto Rican National Guard * Private Marcelino Serna – undocumented Mexican people, Mexican immigrant who joined the United States Army and became the most decorated soldier from Texas in World War I; first Hispanic to be awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (United States), Distinguished Service Cross


World War II

* Lieutenant General Pedro del Valle – first Hispanic to reach the rank of Lieutenant general (United States), lieutenant general; played an instrumental role in the seizure of Guadalcanal and Okinawa as commanding general of the 1st Marine Division (United States), U.S. 1st Marine Division during World War II * Lieutenant General Elwood Richard Quesada, Elwood R. Quesada (1904–1993) – commanding general of the 9th Fighter Command, where he established advanced headquarters on the Normandy beachhead on Normandy Landings, D-Day plus one, and directed his planes in Military aviation, aerial cover and Close air support, air support for the Allied invasion of the European continent during World War II. He was the foremost proponent of "the inherent flexibility of air power", a principle he helped prove during the war. * Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen Sr. (1888–1969) – commanding general of the 1st Infantry Division (United States), 1st Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily during World War II; commander of the 104th Infantry Division (United States), 104th Infantry Division * Colonel Virgil R. Miller – regimental commander of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team (United States), 442d Regimental Combat Team, a unit composed of "Nisei" (second generation Americans of Japanese descent), during World War II; led the 442nd in its rescue of the Lost Texas Battalion of the 36th Infantry Division (United States), 36th Infantry Division, in the forests of the Vosges Mountains in northeastern France * Captain Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano (1913–1980) – served in World War II; first Hispanic submarine commander * First Lieutenant Oscar Francis Perdomo – of the 464th Fighter Squadron, 507th Fighter Group; the last "Ace in a Day" for the United States in World War II * CWO2 Joseph B. Aviles Sr. – member of the United States Coast Guard; first Hispanic American to be promoted to chief petty officer; received a wartime promotion to chief warrant officer (November 27, 1944), thus becoming the first Hispanic American to reach that level as well * Sergeant First Class Agustín Ramos Calero – most decorated Hispanic soldier in the European Theatre of World War II * PFC Guy Gabaldon, United States Marine Corps – captured over a thousand prisoners during the World War II Battle of Saipan * Tech4 Carmen Contreras-Bozak – first Latinas and World War II, Hispanic woman to serve in the United States Women's Army Corps, where she served as an interpreter and in numerous administrative positions


Korean War

* Major General Salvador E. Felices, United States Air Force – flew in 19 combat missions over North Korea during the Korean War in 1953. In 1957, he participated in "Operation Power Flite", a historic project that was given to the 15th Expeditionary Mobility Task Force, Fifteenth Air Force by the Strategic Air Command headquarters. Operation Power Flite was the first around the world non-stop flight by an Jet aircraft, all-jet aircraft. * First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez – the only Hispanic graduate of the United States Naval Academy ("Annapolis") to be awarded the Medal of Honor * Sergeant First Class Modesto Cartagena – member of the 65th Infantry Regiment, an all- Puerto Rican regiment also known as "The Borinqueneers", during World War II and the Korean War; most decorated Puerto Rican soldier in history


Cuban Missile Crisis

* Admiral Horacio Rivero, Jr. – second Hispanic four-star admiral; commander of the American fleet sent by President John F. Kennedy to set up a quarantine (blockade) of the Soviet Union, Soviet ships during the Cuban Missile Crisis


Vietnam War

* Sergeant First Class Jorge Otero Barreto a.k.a. "The Puerto Rican John Rambo, Rambo"– the most decorated Hispanic American soldier in the Vietnam War


After Vietnam

* Lieutenant General Ricardo Sanchez – top commander of the Coalition forces during the first year of the occupation of Iraq, 2003–2004, during the
Iraq War {{Infobox military conflict , conflict = Iraq War , partof = the Iraq conflict (2003–present), Iraq conflict and the War on terror , image = Iraq War montage.png , image_size = 300px , caption ...
* Lieutenant General Edward D. Baca – in 1994, became the first Hispanic Chief of the National Guard Bureau * Vice Admiral Antonia Novello, M.D., United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Public Health Service Commissioned Corps – in 1990, became the first Hispanic (and first female) U.S. Surgeon General * Vice Admiral Richard Carmona, M.D., United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, Public Health Service Commissioned Corps – served as the 17th Surgeon General of the United States, under President
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. A member of the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party, Bush family, and son of the 41st ...
* Brigadier General Joseph V. Medina, USMC – made history by becoming the first Marine Corps officer to take command of a Flotilla, naval flotilla * Rear Admiral Ronald J. Rábago – first person of Hispanic descent to be promoted to rear admiral (lower half) in the United States Coast Guard * Captain Linda Garcia Cubero, United States Air Force – in 1980, became the first Hispanic woman graduate of the United States Air Force * Major General Erneido Oliva – deputy commanding general of the D.C. National Guard * Brigadier General Carmelita Vigil-Schimmenti, United States Air Force – in 1985 became the first Hispanic female to attain the rank of brigadier general in the Air Force * Brigadier General Angela Salinas – on August 2, 2006, became the first Hispanic female to obtain a general rank in the Marines * Chief Master Sergeant Ramón Colón-López – pararescueman; in 2007, was the only Hispanic among the first six airmen to be awarded the newly created Air Force Combat Action Medal * Specialist Hilda Clayton (1991–2013) – combat photographer with 55th Signal Company who captured the explosion that killed her and four Afghan soldiers.


Medal of Honor

The following 43 Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor: Philip Bazaar, Joseph H. De Castro, John Ortega, France Silva, David B. Barkley, Lucian Adams, Rudolph B. Davila, Marcario Garcia, Harold Gonsalves, David M. Gonzales, Silvestre S. Herrera, Jose M. Lopez, Joe P. Martinez, Manuel Perez Jr., Cleto L. Rodriguez, Alejandro R. Ruiz, Jose F. Valdez, Ysmael R. Villegas, Fernando Luis García, Edward Gomez, Ambrosio Guillen, Rodolfo P. Hernandez, Baldomero Lopez, Benito Martinez (soldier), Benito Martinez, Eugene Arnold Obregon, Joseph C. Rodriguez, John P. Baca, Roy P. Benavidez, Emilio A. De La Garza, Ralph E. Dias, Daniel D. Fernández, Daniel Fernandez, Alfredo Cantu Gonzalez, Alfredo Cantu "Freddy" Gonzalez, Jose Francisco Jimenez, Miguel Keith, Carlos Lozada (Medal of Honor), Carlos James Lozada, Alfred V. Rascon, Louis R. Rocco, Euripides Rubio, Hector Santiago-Colon, Elmelindo Rodrigues Smith, Jay R. Vargas, Humbert Roque Versace and Maximo Yabes.


National intelligence

* In the spy arena, Jose Rodriguez (intelligence), José Rodríguez, a native of Puerto Rico, was the deputy director of operations and subsequently Director of the National Clandestine Service (D/NCS), two senior positions in the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), between 2004 and 2007. * Lieutenant Colonel Mercedes O. Cubria (1903–1980), a.k.a. ''La Tía'' (The Aunt), was the first Cuban-born female officer in the United States Army. She served in the Women's Army Corps during World War II and in the United States Army during the Korean War, and was recalled into service during the Cuban Missile Crisis. In 1988, she was posthumously inducted into the Military Intelligence Hall of Fame.


Science and technology

Among Hispanic Americans who have excelled in science are Luis Walter Álvarez, Nobel Prize–winning physicist of Spanish descent, and his son Walter Alvarez, a geologist. They first proposed that an asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula caused the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, extinction of the dinosaurs. Mario J. Molina won the Nobel Prize in chemistry and currently works in the chemistry department at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Victor Manuel Blanco is an astronomer who in 1959 discovered "Blanco 1", a galactic cluster. F. J. Duarte is a laser physicist and author; he received the ''Engineering Excellence Award'' from the prestigious Optical Society of America for the invention of the N-Slit interferometer, N-slit laser interferometer. Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa is the director of the Pituitary Surgery Program at Johns Hopkins Hospital and the director of the Brain Tumor Stem Cell Laboratory at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Physicist Albert Baez made important contributions to the early development of X-ray microscopes and later X-ray telescopes. His nephew John Carlos Baez is also a noted mathematical physicist. Francisco J. Ayala is a biologist and philosopher, former president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and has been awarded the National Medal of Science and the Templeton Prize. Peruvian-American biophysicist Carlos Bustamante (biophysicist), Carlos Bustamante has been named a Searle Scholar and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation Fellow. Luis von Ahn is one of the pioneers of crowdsourcing and the founder of the companies reCAPTCHA and Duolingo. Colombian-American Ana Maria Rey received a MacArthur Fellowship for her work in atomic physics in 2013. Dr. Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas discovered the bacteria that cause dental cavity. Dr. Gualberto Ruaño is a biotechnology pioneer in the field of personalized medicine and the inventor of molecular diagnostic systems, Coupled Amplification and Sequencing (CAS) System, used worldwide for the management of viral diseases. Fermín Tangüis was an agriculturist and scientist who developed the Tangüis Cotton in Peru and saved that nation's cotton industry. Severo Ochoa, born in Spain, was a co-winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Sarah Stewart (cancer researcher), Sarah Stewart, a Mexican-American Microbiologist, is credited with the discovery of the Polyomavirus and successfully demonstrating that cancer causing viruses could be transmitted from animal to animal. Mexican-American psychiatrist Dr. Nora Volkow, whose brain imaging studies helped characterize the mechanisms of drug addiction, is the current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr. Helen Rodríguez Trías, an early advocate for women's reproductive rights, helped drive and draft U.S. federal sterilization guidelines in 1979. She was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Bill Clinton, and was the first Hispanic president of the American Public Health Association. Some Hispanics have made their names in astronautics, including several NASA astronauts: Franklin Chang-Diaz, the first Hispanic NASA astronaut, is co-recordholder for the most flights in outer space, and is the leading researcher on the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket, plasma engine for rockets; France A. Córdova, former NASA chief scientist; Juan R. Cruz, NASA aerospace engineer; Lieutenant Carlos I. Noriega, NASA mission specialist and computer scientist; Dr. Orlando Figueroa, mechanical engineer and director of Mars exploration in NASA; Amri Hernández-Pellerano, engineer who designs, builds and tests the electronics that will regulate the solar array power in order to charge the spacecraft battery and distribute power to the different loads or users inside various spacecraft at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Olga D. González-Sanabria won an R&D 100 Award for her role in the development of the "Long Cycle-Life Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries" which help enable the International Space Station power system. Mercedes Reaves, research engineer and scientist who is responsible for the design of a viable full-scale solar sail and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA Langley Research Center. Dr. Pedro Rodriguez (NASA), Pedro Rodríguez, inventor and mechanical engineer who is the director of a test laboratory at NASA and of a portable, battery-operated lift seat for people suffering from knee arthritis. Dr. Felix Soto Toro, electrical engineer and astronaut applicant who developed the Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (ASPTMS) (Electronic 3D measuring system); Ellen Ochoa, a pioneer of spacecraft technology and astronaut; Joseph M. Acaba, Joseph Acaba, Fernando Caldeiro, Sidney M. Gutierrez, Sidney Gutierrez, José M. Hernández, Michael López-Alegría, John D. Olivas, John Olivas and George D. Zamka, George Zamka, who are current or former astronauts.


Sports


Football

There have been far fewer American football, football and basketball players, let alone star players, but Tom Flores was the first Hispanic head coach and the first Hispanic quarterback in American professional football, and won Super Bowls as a player, as assistant coach and as head coach for the Oakland Raiders. Anthony Múñoz is enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, ranked No. 17 on Sporting News's 1999 list of the 100 greatest football players, and was the highest-ranked offensive lineman. Jim Plunkett won the Heisman Trophy and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, and Joe Kapp is inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame and College Football Hall of Fame. Steve Van Buren, Martin Gramatica, Victor Cruz (American football), Victor Cruz, Tony Gonzalez, Ted Hendricks, Marc Bulger, Tony Romo and Mark Sanchez can also be cited among successful Hispanics in the National Football League (NFL).


Baseball

Hispanics have played in the Major Leagues since the very beginning of organized baseball, with Cuban player Steve Bellán, Esteban Bellán being the first (1873). The large number of Hispanic American stars in Major League Baseball (MLB) includes players like Ted Williams (considered by many to be the greatest hitter of all time), Sammy Sosa, Alex Rodriguez, Alex Rios, Miguel Cabrera, Lefty Gómez, Dolf Luque, Adolfo Luque, Iván Rodríguez, Carlos González (baseball), Carlos González, Roberto Clemente, Adrián González, José Fernández (pitcher), Jose Fernandez, David Ortiz, Juan Marichal, Fernando Valenzuela, Nomar Garciaparra, Albert Pujols, Omar Vizquel, managers Mike González (catcher), Miguel Angel Gonzalez (the first Hispanic Major League manager), Al López, Ozzie Guillén and Felipe Alou, and General Manager Omar Minaya. Hispanics in the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum, MLB Hall of Fame include Roberto Alomar, Luis Aparicio, Rod Carew, Orlando Cepeda, Juan Marichal, Pedro Martínez, Tony Pérez, Iván Rodríguez, Ted Williams, Reggie Jackson, Mariano Rivera, Edgar Martínez, Edgar Martinez and Roberto Clemente. Afro-Latin Americans, Afro-Hispanic players Martín Dihigo, Martin Dihigo, José Méndez, Jose Mendez and Cristóbal Torriente are Hispanic Hall of Famers who played in the Negro league baseball, Negro leagues.


Basketball

Trevor Ariza, Mark Aguirre, Carmelo Anthony, Manu Ginóbili, Carlos Arroyo, Gilbert Arenas, Rolando Blackman, Pau Gasol, José Calderón (basketball), Jose Calderon, José Juan Barea and Charlie Villanueva can be cited in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Dick Versace made history when he became the first person of Hispanic heritage to coach an NBA team. Rebecca Lobo was a major star and champion of collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)) and Olympic Games, Olympic basketball and played professionally in the Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA). Diana Taurasi became just the seventh player ever to win an NCAA title, a WNBA title and as well an Olympic gold medal. Orlando Antigua became in 1995 the first Hispanic and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters.


Tennis

Tennis players includes legend Pancho Gonzales and Olympic tennis champions and professional players Mary Joe Fernández and Gigi Fernández and 2016 Puerto Rican Gold Medalist Monica Puig.


Soccer

Hispanics are present in all major American sports and leagues, but have particularly influenced the growth in popularity of soccer in the United States. Soccer is the most popular sport across the Spanish-speaking world, and Hispanics brought the heritage of soccer playing to the United States. Major League Soccer teams such as Chivas USA, LA Galaxy and the Houston Dynamo, for example, have a fanbase composed primarily of Mexican Americans. Association football players in the Major League Soccer (MLS) includes several like Tab Ramos, Claudio Reyna, Omar Gonzalez, Marcelo Balboa and Carlos Bocanegra.


Swimming

Swimmers Ryan Lochte (the second-most decorated swimmer in Olympic history measured by total number of medals) and Dara Torres (one of three women with the most Olympic women's swimming medals), both of Cuban ancestry, have won multiple medals at various Olympic Games over the years. Torres is also the first American swimmer to appear in five Olympic Games. Maya DiRado, of Argentine ancestry, won four medals at the 2016 games, including two gold medals.


Other sports

Boxing Boxing (also known as "Western boxing" or "pugilism") is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves and other protective equipment such as hand wraps and mouthguards, throw punches at each other for a predetermine ...
's first Hispanic American world champion was Solly Smith. Some other champions include Oscar De La Hoya, Miguel Cotto, Bobby Chacon, Brandon Ríos, Michael Carbajal, John Ruiz, Andy Ruiz Jr. and Mikey Garcia. Ricco Rodriguez, Tito Ortiz, Diego Sanchez, Nick Diaz, Nate Diaz, Dominick Cruz, Frank Shamrock, Gilbert Melendez, Roger Huerta, Carlos Condit, Tony Ferguson, Jorge Masvidal, Kelvin Gastelum, Henry Cejudo and UFC Heavy Weight Champion Cain Velasquez have been competitors in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) of mixed martial arts. In 1991, Bill Guerin whose mother is Nicaraguan became the first Hispanic player in the National Hockey League (NHL). He was also selected to four National Hockey League All-Star Game, NHL All-Star Games. In 1999, Scott Gomez won the Calder Memorial Trophy, NHL Rookie of the Year Award. Figure skater Rudy Galindo; golfers Juan "Chi-Chi" Rodríguez, Chi Chi Rodríguez, Nancy López and Lee Trevino; softball player Lisa Fernández; and Paul Rodriguez (skateboarder), Paul Rodríguez Jr., X Games professional skateboarder, are all Hispanic Americans who have distinguished themselves in their sports. In gymnastics, Laurie Hernandez, who is of Puerto Rican ancestry, was a gold medalist at the 2016 Games. In sports entertainment we find the Professional wrestling, professional wrestlers Hulk Hogan, Alberto Del Rio, Rey Mysterio, Jr., Rey Mysterio, Eddie Guerrero, Seth Rollins, Tyler Black and Melina Perez, Melina Pérez and executive Vickie Guerrero.


Hispanophobia

In countries where the majority of the population is descended from immigrants, such as the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...
, opposition to immigration sometimes takes the form of Nativism (politics), nativism, racism and xenophobia. Throughout History of the United States, US history, Hispanophobia has existed to varying degrees, and it was largely based on
ethnicity An ethnic group or an ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish them from other groups. Those attributes can include common sets of traditions, an ...
, Race (human categorization), race (see Racism in the United States), culture, Anti-Catholicism (see Anti-Catholicism in the United States), economic and social conditions in Hispanic America, and opposition to the use of the Spanish language. In 2006, ''Time'' magazine reported that the number of hate groups in the United States increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily as a result of anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment. According to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) statistics, the number of anti-Hispanic hate crimes increased by 35 percent since 2003 (albeit from a low level). In California, the state with the largest Hispanic population, the number of hate crimes which were committed against Hispanics almost doubled. In 2009, the FBI reported that 4,622 of the 6,604 hate crimes which were recorded in the United States were anti-Hispanic, comprising 70.3% of all recorded hate crimes, the highest percentage of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009. This percentage is contrasted by the fact that 34.6% of all of the hate crimes which were recorded in 2009 were anti-black, 17.9% of them were Homophobia, anti-homosexual, 14.1% of them were Antisemitism, anti-Jewish, and 8.3% of them were anti-white.


See also

Places of settlement in United States: * List of U.S. communities with Hispanic- or Latino-majority in the 2010 census * List of U.S. cities with large Hispanic and Latino populations * List of U.S. cities by Spanish-speaking population * Hispanics and Latinos in New Jersey * Hispanics and Latinos in Massachusetts * Hispanics and Latinos in Washington, D.C. * Hispanics and Latinos in California * Hispanics and Latinos in Arizona * Hispanics and Latinos in New Mexico * Hispanics and Latinos in Texas * Hispanics and Latinos in Nevada * Hispanics and Latinos in Florida * Hispanics and Latinos in New York Diaspora: *
Hispanic The term ''Hispanic'' ( es, hispano) refers to people, Spanish culture, cultures, or countries related to Spain, the Spanish language, or Hispanidad. The term commonly applies to countries with a cultural and historical link to Spain and to Vic ...
s ** Hispanic and Latin American Australians ** Latin American Canadians, Hispanic and Latin American Canadians ** Latin American migration to the United Kingdom, Latin Americans in the United Kingdom * Hispanidad * Latin American diaspora, Latino diaspora * Latin American Asian * Migration from Latin America to Europe, Latin Americans in Europe Individuals: * List of Hispanic and Latino Americans ** Hispanics and Latinos in the American Civil War ** Hispanic Americans in World War II, Hispanic and Latino Americans in World War II ** Hispanics and Latinos in the United States Air Force ** Hispanics and Latinos in the United States Coast Guard ** Hispanics and Latinos in the United States Marine Corps ** Hispanics and Latinos in the United States Navy *** Hispanic and Latino Admirals in the United States Navy *** Hispanics and Latinos in the United States Naval Academy Other Hispanic and Latino Americans topics: * Latin America–United States relations * National Alliance for Hispanic Health * Portugal–United States relations * Spain–United States relations * White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Hispanic Americans * List of U.S. place names of Spanish origin * Latino National Survey, 2006 General: * Demographics of the United States **
Hispanos Hispanos (from es, adj. prefix Hispano- relating to Spain, from la, Hispānus) are Hispanic residents of the United States who are culturally descended from the original Spanish language, Spanish-speaking settlers in the areas which were once ...
** Immigration to the United States ** History of immigration to the United States


Notes


References


Further reading


Surveys and historiography

* Bean, Frank D., and Marta Tienda. ''The Hispanic Population of the United States'' (1987), statistical analysis of demography and social structure * Miguel A. De La Torre. ''Encyclopedia on Hispanic American Religious Culture'' (2 vol. ABC-CLIO Publishers, 2009). * De Leon, Arnoldo, and Richard Griswold Del Castillo. ''North to Aztlan: A History of Mexican Americans in the United States'' (2006) * Garcia, Maria Cristina. "Hispanics in the United States". ''Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture'', edited by Jay Kinsbruner and Erick D. Langer, (2nd ed., vol. 3, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008), pp. 696–728
online
* Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography", ''Reviews in American History'' 34.4 (2006) 521-52
online
* Gomez-Quiñones, Juan. ''Mexican American Labor, 1790–1990''. (1994). * Gutiérrez, David G. ed. ''The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States Since 1960'' (2004) 512p
excerpt and text search
* Gutiérrez, David G. "Migration, Emergent Ethnicity, and the 'Third Space'": The Shifting Politics of Nationalism in Greater Mexico" ''Journal of American History'' 1999 86(2): 481–517
in JSTOR
covers 1800 to the 1980s * Leonard, David J. ''Latino History and Culture: An Encyclopedia'' (Sharpe Reference 2009) * Oboler, Suzanne, and Deena J. González, eds. ''The Oxford Encyclopedia Of Latinos & Latinas In The United States'' (4 vol. 2006
excerpt and text search
* Rochín, Refugio I., and Denis N. Valdés, eds. ''Voices of a New Chicana/o History''. (2000). 307 pp. * Ruiz, Vicki L. "Nuestra América: Latino History as United States History", ''Journal of American History'', 93 (2006), 655–72
in JSTOR
* Ruiz, Vicki L. ''From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America'' (1998)


Pre 1965

* Bogardus, Emory S. ''The Mexican in the United States'' (1934), sociological * Gamio, Manuel. ''The Life Story of the Mexican Immigrant'' (1931) * Gamio, Manuel. ''Mexican Immigration to the United States'' (1939) * García, Mario T. ''Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960'' (1989) * García, Mario T. ''Desert Immigrants. The Mexicans of El Paso, 1880–1920'' (1982) 348 pp
excerpt and text search
* Gomez-Quinones, Juan. ''Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600–1940'' (1994) * Grebler, Leo, Joan Moore, and Ralph Guzmán. ''The Mexican American People: The Nation's Second Largest Minority'' (1970), emphasis on census data and statistics * Rivas-Rodríguez, Maggie ed. ''Mexican Americans and World War II'' (2005) * Sanchez, George J. ''Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945'' (1995
excerpt and text search


Culture and politics, post 1965

* Abrajano, Marisa A., and R. Michael Alvarez, eds. ''New Faces, New Voices: The Hispanic Electorate in America'' (Princeton University Press; 2010) 219 pages. Documents the generational and other diversity of the Hispanic electorate and challenges myths about voter behavior. * Aranda, José, Jr. ''When We Arrive: A New Literary History of Mexican America''. U. of Arizona Press, 2003. 256 pp. * Arreola, Daniel D., ed. ''Hispanic Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America''. 2004. 334 pp. * Badillo, David A. ''Latinos and the New Immigrant Church''. 2006. 275 pp
excerpt and text search
* Berg, Charles Ramírez. ''Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, and Resistance'', 2002. 314 pp. * Branton, Regina. "Latino Attitudes toward Various Areas of Public Policy: The Importance of Acculturation", ''Political Research Quarterly'', Vol. 60, No. 2, 293–303 (2007
Abstract
* Cepeda, Raquel. ''Bird of Paradise: How I Became Latina'' Atria Books. 2013. . A personal exploration of Dominican American identity via family interviews, travel and genetic genealogy
Synopsis and Excerpt
* DeGenova, Nicholas and Ramos-Zayas, Ana Y. ''Latino Crossings: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and the Politics of Race and Citizenship''. 2003. 257 pp. * Dolan, Jay P. and Gilberto M. Hinojosa; ''Mexican Americans and the Catholic Church, 1900–1965'' (1994) * Fregoso, Rosa Linda. ''The Bronze Screen: Chicana and Chicano Film Culture''. (1993
excerpt and text search
* García, Mario T. ''Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960'' (1989) * García, María Cristina. ''Seeking Refuge: Central American Migration to Mexico, The United States, and Canada''. (2006) 290pp * Gomez-Quinones, Juan. ''Chicano Politics: Reality and Promise, 1940–1990'' (1990) * Gutiérrez, David G. ''Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity in the Southwest, 1910–1986'' 1995
excerpt and text search
* Hammerback, John C., Richard J. Jensen, and Jose Angel Gutierrez. ''A War of Words: Chicano Protest in the 1960s and 1970s'' 1985. * Herrera-Sobek, Maria. ''Celebrating Latino Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Cultural Traditions'' (3 vol., 2012
excerpt and text search
* Kanellos, Nicolás, ed. ''The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Latino Literature'' (3 vol. 2008
excerpt and text search
* Kenski, Kate and Tisinger, Russell. "Hispanic Voters in the 2000 and 2004 Presidential General Elections". ''Presidential Studies Quarterly'' 2006 36(2): 189–202. * López-Calvo, Ignacio. ''Latino Los Angeles in Film and Fiction: The Cultural Production of Social Anxiety''. University of Arizona Press, 2011. * Martinez, Juan Francisco. ''Sea La Luz: The Making of Mexican Protestantism in the American Southwest, 1829–1900'' (2006) * Matovina, Timothy. ''Guadalupe and Her Faithful: Latino Catholics in San Antonio, from Colonial Origins to the Present''. 2005. 232 pp
excerpt and text search
* Meier, Matt S., and Margo Gutierrez, ed. ''Encyclopedia of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement'' (2000
excerpt and text search
* Nuno, S. A. "Latino Mobilization and Vote Choice in the 2000 Presidential Election" ''American Politics Research'', (2007); 35(2): 273–293
Abstract
* Saldívar-Hull, Sonia. ''Feminism on the Border: Chicana Gender Politics and Literature'' 2000
excerpt and text search
* Wegner, Kyle David, "Children of Aztlán: Mexican American Popular Culture and the Post-Chicano Aesthetic" (PhD dissertation State University of New York, Buffalo, 2006). Order No. DA3213898.


Women

* Elizabeth Martínez, Martinez, Elizabeth. ''500 Years of Chicana Women's History/500 anos de la mujer Chicana'', Rutgers University Press (Bilingual Edition) 2008.


Regional and local

* Overmyer-Velazquez, Mark. ''Latino America: A State-by-State Encyclopedia'' (2 vol. 2008
excerpt and text search


California



** * Bedolla, Lisa García. ''Fluid Borders: Latino Power, Identity, and Politics in Los Angeles''. 2005. 279 pp. * Burt, Kenneth C. ''The Search for a Civic Voice: California Latino Politics'' (2007
excerpt and text search
* Camarillo, Albert. ''Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848–1930'' (1979) * Camarillo, Albert M., "Cities of Color: The New Racial Frontier in California's Minority-Majority Cities", ''Pacific Historical Review'', 76 (February 2007), 1–28; looks at cities of Compton, East Palo Alto, and Seaside * Daniel, Cletus E. ''Bitter Harvest: A History of California Farmworkers, 1870–1941'' 1981. * García, Matt. ''A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900–1970'' (2001), * Hayes-Bautista, David E. ''La Nueva California: Latinos in the Golden State''. U. of California Press, 2004. 263 pp
excerpt and text search
* Hughes, Charles. "The Decline of the Californios: The Case of San Diego, 1846–1856" ''The Journal of San Diego History'' Summer 1975, Volume 21, Number 3 online a

* McWilliams, Carey. ''North from Mexico''. (1949), farm workers in California * Pitt, Leonard. ''The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish speaking Californians, 1846–1890'' () * Sánchez; George J. ''Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900–1945'' (1993
excerpt and text search
* Valle, Victor M. and Torres, Rodolfo D. ''Latino Metropolis''. 2000. 249 pp. on Los Angeles


Texas and Southwest

* Alonzo, Armando C. ''Tejano Legacy: Rancheros and Settlers in South Texas, 1734–1900'' (1998)

*

** [https://web.archive.org/web/20140415073401/http://www.1st-hand-history.org/Hhb/16/album1.html v 16 ''History of the North Mexican States and Texas, Volume 2: 1801 - 1889''] *
Vol. 17 ''History of Arizona and New Mexico (1530-1888)'' (1889)
* Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. ''Women of the Depression: Caste and Culture in San Antonio'' 1984
excerpt and text search
* Buitron Jr., Richard A. ''The Quest for Tejano Identity in San Antonio, Texas, 1913–2000'' (2004
excerpt and text search
* Chávez, John R. ''The Lost Land: The Chicano Image of the Southwest'' (Albuquerque, 1984) * Chávez-García, Miroslava. ''Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s to 1880s'' (2004). * De León, Arnoldo. ''They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821–1900'' (Austin, 1983) * De León, Arnoldo. ''Mexican Americans in Texas: A Brief History'', 2nd ed. (1999) * Deutsch, Sarah ''No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on the Anglo-Hispanic Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880–1940'' 1987 * Dysart, Jane. "Mexican Women in San Antonio, 1830–1860: The Assimilation Process" ''Western Historical Quarterly'' 7 (October 1976): 365–375
in JSTOR
* Echeverría, Darius V., "Aztlán Arizona: Abuses, Awareness, Animosity, and Activism amid Mexican-Americans, 1968–1978" PhD dissertation (Temple University, 2006). Order No. DA3211867. * Fregoso; Rosa Linda. ''Mexicana Encounters: The Making of Social Identities on the Borderlands'' (2003) * Garcia, Ignacio M. ''Viva Kennedy: Mexican Americans in Search of Camelot'', Texas A&M University Press, 2000. 227p
and online search from Amazon.com
* García, Richard A. ''Rise of the Mexican American Middle Class: San Antonio, 1929–1941'' 1991 * Getz; Lynne Marie. ''Schools of Their Own: The Education of Hispanos in New Mexico, 1850–1940'' (1997) * Gómez-Quiñones, Juan. ''Roots of Chicano Politics, 1600–1940'' (1994) * Gonzales-Berry, Erlinda, David R. Maciel, editors, ''The Contested Homeland: A Chicano History of New Mexico'', 314 pages (2000), * González; Nancie L. ''The Spanish-Americans of New Mexico: A Heritage of Pride'' (1969) * Guglielmo, Thomas A. "Fighting for Caucasian Rights: Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and the Transnational Struggle for Civil Rights in World War II Texas", ''Journal of American History'', 92 (March 2006
in History Cooperative
* Gutiérrez; Ramón A. ''When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500–1846'' (1991) * Márquez, Benjamin. ''LULAC: The Evolution of a Mexican American Political Organization'' (1993) * Matovina, Timothy M. ''Tejano Religion and Ethnicity, San Antonio, 1821–1860'' (1995) * David Montejano, Montejano, David. ''Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836–1986'' (1987) * Muñoz, Laura K., "Desert Dreams: Mexican American Education in Arizona, 1870–1930" (PhD dissertation Arizona State University, 2006). Order No. DA3210182. * Quintanilla, Linda J., "Chicana Activists of Austin and Houston, Texas: A Historical Analysis" (University of Houston, 2005). Order No. DA3195964. * Sánchez; George I. ''Forgotten People: A Study of New Mexicans'' (1940; reprint 1996) on New Mexico * Taylor, Paul S. ''Mexican Labor in the United States''. 2 vols. 1930–1932, on Texas * Stewart, Kenneth L., and Arnoldo De León. ''Not Room Enough: Mexicans, Anglos, and Socioeconomic Change in Texas, 1850–1900'' (1993) * de la Teja, Jesús F. ''San Antonio de Béxar: A Community on New Spain's Northern Frontier'' (1995). * Tijerina, Andrés. ''Tejanos and Texas under the Mexican Flag, 1821–1836'' (1994), * Tijerina, Andrés. ''Tejano Empire: Life on the South Texas Ranchos'' (1998). * Timmons, W. H. ''El Paso: A Borderlands History'' (1990). * Trevino, Roberto R. ''The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston''. (2006). 308pp. * Weber, David J. ''The Mexican Frontier, 1821–1846: The American Southwest under Mexico'' (1982) ** Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano Historiography", ''Reviews in American History'' 34.4 (2006) 521–528 in Project MUSE


Other regions

* Bullock, Charles S., and M. V. Hood, "A Mile‐Wide Gap: The Evolution of Hispanic Political Emergence in the Deep South". ''Social Science Quarterly'' 87.5 (2006): 1117–1135
Online
* García, María Cristina. ''Havana, USA: Cuban Exiles and Cuban Americans in South Florida, 1959–1994'' (1996)
excerpt and text search
* Korrol, Virginia Sánchez. ''From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City, 1917–1948'' (1994) * Fernandez, Lilia. ''Brown in the Windy City: Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Postwar Chicago'' (University of Chicago Press, 2012) * Millard, Ann V. and Chapa, Jorge. ''Apple Pie and Enchiladas: Latino Newcomers in the Rural Midwest''. 2004. 276 pp
excerpt and text search
* Murphy, Arthur D., Colleen Blanchard, and Jennifer A. Hill, eds. ''Latino Workers in the Contemporary South''. 2001. 224 pp. * Padilla, Felix M. ''Puerto Rican Chicago''. (1987). 277 pp. * Sãnchez Korrol, Virginia E. ''From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans in New York City''. (1994
complete text online free in Californiaexcerpt and text search
* Vargas, Zaragosa. ''Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917–1933'' (1993
complete text online free in Californiaexcerpt and text search
* Whalen, Carmen Teresa, and Victor Vásquez-Hernández, eds. '' The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives'' (2005),


Primary sources

* Richard Ellis, ed. ''New Mexico Past and Present: A Historical Reader''. 1971. * David J. Weber; ''Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans'' (1973), primary sources to 1912


External links


2000 Census

Hispanic Americans in Congress
– Library of Congress
Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Army


by Josh Miller, PBS, April 27, 2007
Latino in America
– CNN {{Authority control Hispanic and Latino American, * Hispanic and Latino American people, Multiracial ethnic groups in the United States