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Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
and Latino Americans
Americans
(Spanish: Estadounidenses hispanos; [isˈpanos]) are people in the United States
United States
who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America
Latin America
and Spain.[6][7][8] The United States
United States
has the largest population of Latinos and Hispanics outside of Latin America. More generally, it includes all persons in the United States
United States
who self-identify as Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino, whether of full or partial ancestry.[9][10][11][12] For the 2010 United States
United States
Census, people counted as "Hispanic" or "Latino" were those who identified as one of the specific Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino categories listed on the census questionnaire ("Mexican," "Puerto Rican," or "Cuban") as well as those who indicated that they were "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino." The national origins classified as Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino by the United States Census Bureau are the following: Argentine, Cuban, Colombian, Puerto Rican, Spaniards, Dominican, Mexican, Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, Bolivian, Spanish, Chilean, Ecuadorian, Paraguayan, Peruvian, Uruguayan, and Venezuelan. Other U.S. government agencies have slightly different definitions of the term, including Brazilians
Brazilians
and other Portuguese-speaking groups. The Census Bureau uses the terms Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino interchangeably.[13] "Origin" can be viewed as the ancestry, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's parents or ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify as Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino may be of any race.[14][15][16][17] As the only specifically designated category of ethnicity in the United States (other than non-Hispanic/Latino),[clarification needed] Hispanics form a pan-ethnicity incorporating a diversity of inter-related cultural and linguistic heritages. Most Hispanic Americans
Americans
are of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadoran, Dominican, Guatemalan, or Colombian origin. The predominant origin of regional Hispanic
Hispanic
populations varies widely in different locations across the country.[15][18][19][20][21] Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
are the second fastest-growing ethnic group by percentage growth in the United States
United States
after Asian Americans.[22] Hispanic/Latinos overall are the second-largest ethnic group in the United States, after non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Whites (a group which, like Hispanics and Latinos, is composed of dozens of sub-groups of differing national origin).[23] Hispanics have lived within what is now the United States continuously[24][25][26][27] since the founding of St. Augustine by the Spanish in 1565. After Native Americans, Hispanics are the oldest ethnic group to inhabit much of what is today the United States. Many have Native American ancestry.[28][29][30][31] Spain
Spain
colonized large areas of what is today the American Southwest
American Southwest
and West Coast, as well as Florida. Its holdings included present-day California, New Mexico, Nevada, Arizona, and Texas, all of which were part of the Republic of Mexico
Mexico
from its independence in 1821 until the end of the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
in 1848. Conversely, Hispanic
Hispanic
immigrants to the New York City metropolitan area
New York City metropolitan area
derive from a broad spectrum of Latin American states.[2] A study published in 2015 in the American Journal of Human Genetics, based on 23andMe
23andMe
data from 8,663 self-described Latinos, estimated that Latinos in the United States
United States
carried a mean of 65.1% European ancestry, 18.0% Native American ancestry, and 6.2% African ancestry. The study found that self-described Latinos from the Southwest, especially those along the Mexican border, had the highest mean levels of Native American ancestry, while self-described Latinos from the South, Midwest, and Atlantic Coast had the highest mean levels of African ancestry.[32]

Contents

1 Terminology 2 History

2.1 16th and 17th centuries 2.2 18th and 19th centuries 2.3 20th and 21st centuries

3 Demographics

3.1 Geographic distribution 3.2 National origin 3.3 Race 3.4 Age

4 Education

4.1 Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino K-12 education

4.1.1 English language learners 4.1.2 Immigration status

4.2 Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino higher education

4.2.1 Hispanic
Hispanic
university enrollments

5 Health

5.1 Longevity 5.2 Healthcare 5.3 Common Diseases

5.3.1 Diabetes Mellitus 5.3.2 Liver Disease 5.3.3 HIV

6 Economic outlook

6.1 Median income 6.2 Poverty

7 Cultural matters

7.1 Language

7.1.1 Spanish 7.1.2 American Spanish dialects 7.1.3 Spanglish
Spanglish
and English dialects

7.2 Religion 7.3 Media 7.4 Cuisine 7.5 Familial issues

7.5.1 Family life and values 7.5.2 Intermarriage

7.6 Cultural adjustment

7.6.1 Transnationalism 7.6.2 Gender roles 7.6.3 Sexuality

7.7 Relations towards other minority groups

8 Politics

8.1 Political affiliations 8.2 Political impact

8.2.1 Elections of 1996-2006 8.2.2 2008 election 8.2.3 2012 election

8.3 Hispanic
Hispanic
vote

9 Notable contributions

9.1 Arts and entertainment

9.1.1 Music 9.1.2 Film, radio, television, and theatre

9.2 Business
Business
and finance 9.3 Fashion 9.4 Government and politics 9.5 Literature and journalism 9.6 Military

9.6.1 American Revolution 9.6.2 American Civil War 9.6.3 World War I 9.6.4 World War II 9.6.5 Korean War 9.6.6 Cuban Missile Crisis 9.6.7 Vietnam War 9.6.8 After Vietnam 9.6.9 Medal of Honor 9.6.10 National intelligence

9.7 Science and technology 9.8 Sports

9.8.1 Baseball 9.8.2 Basketball
Basketball
and football 9.8.3 Tennis 9.8.4 Football (soccer) 9.8.5 Other sports

10 Hispanophobia 11 See also 12 Footnotes 13 Further reading

13.1 Surveys and historiography 13.2 Pre 1965 13.3 Culture and politics, post 1965 13.4 Women 13.5 Regional and local

13.5.1 California 13.5.2 Texas
Texas
and Southwest 13.5.3 Other regions

13.6 Primary sources

14 External links

Terminology[edit] Main article: Hispanic/Latino naming dispute

Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans

National origin groups

Argentine Americans Bolivian Americans Brazilian Americans Chilean Americans Colombian Americans Costa Rican Americans Cuban Americans Dominican Americans Ecuadorian Americans Guatemalan Americans Honduran Americans Mexican Americans Nicaraguan
Nicaraguan
Americans Panamanian Americans Paraguayan Americans Peruvian Americans Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
(stateside) Salvadoran
Salvadoran
Americans Spanish Americanss Uruguayan Americans Venezuelan Americans

History

History of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans History of Mexican Americans

Colonial casta system

castizo cholo criollo mestizo mulato pardo/moreno zambo

Political movements

Chicano
Chicano
Movement Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino American politics

Organizations

Association of Hispanic
Hispanic
Arts Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Caucus Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Conference LULAC MALDEF MEChA NALEO NALFO National Council of La Raza National Hispanic
Hispanic
Institute RNHA SHPE UFW USHCC

Culture

Literature Music Religion Studies

Related national groups

Belizean Americans Brazilian Americans Filipino Americans Guyanese Americans Haitian Americans Portuguese Americans Spanish Americans Surinamese Americans

Languages

English Spanglish Spanish Cuban Spanish

United States

New Mexican Puerto Rican

Ethnic groups

Californio Chicano Hispano Isleño Nuevomexicano Nuyorican Tejano

Lists

Communities with Hispanic
Hispanic
majority Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans Puerto Rico Related topics

v t e

John Leguizamo
John Leguizamo
in 2017, he debuted Latin History for Morons, a show about the participation of Latin Americans
Latin Americans
throughout US history. The show premiered at the Public Theater
Public Theater
before moving to Studio 54.

The terms "Hispanic" and "Latino" refer to an ethnicity; people of this group may be of any race. Hispanic
Hispanic
people may share some commonalities in their language, culture, history, and heritage. According to the Smithsonian Institution, the term "Latino" includes peoples with Portuguese roots, such as Brazilians, as well as those of Spanish-language origin.[33][34] In the United States, many Hispanics and Latinos are of both European and Native American ancestry (mestizo). Others are wholly or predominately of European ancestry, or wholly or predominantly of Amerindian
Amerindian
ancestry. Many Hispanics and Latinos from the Caribbean, as well as other regions of Latin America where African slavery was widespread, may be of sub-Saharan African descent as well.[33][35] The difference between the terms Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino is confusing to some. The U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
equates the two terms and defines them as referring to anyone from Spain
Spain
and the Spanish-speaking countries of the Americas. The term Latino has developed a number of definitions. One definition of Latino is "a Latin male in the United States".[36] This is the oldest and the original definition used in the United States, first used in 1946.[36] This definition encompasses Spanish speakers from both Europe and the Americas. Under this definition, immigrants from Spain
Spain
and immigrants from Latin America
Latin America
are both Latino. This definition is consistent with the 21st-century usage by the U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
and OMB, as the two agencies use both terms Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino interchangeably. A later definition of Latino is as a condensed form of the term "Latino-Americano", the Spanish word for Latin-American, or someone who comes from Latin America. Under this definition a Mexican American or Puerto Rican, for example, is both a Hispanic
Hispanic
and a Latino. A Brazilian American
Brazilian American
is also a Latino by this definition, which includes those of Portuguese-speaking origin from Latin America. An immigrant from Spain, however, would be classified as European or White by American standards but not Latino by this definition.[37][38][39][40][41][42]

San Miguel Chapel, built in 1610 in Santa Fe, is the oldest church structure in the U.S.

While the U.S. Census Bureau's definition of "Hispanic" is limited to Spanish-speaking Latin America, other government agencies have slightly different definitions of the term. The US Department of Transportation defines "Hispanic" as "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race."[43] This definition has been adopted by the Small Business Administration
Small Business Administration
as well as by many federal, state, and municipal agencies. Unlike the Census Bureau's definition, this clearly includes people with origins in Portuguese-speaking countries. Preference of use between the terms among Hispanics and Latinos in the United States
United States
often depends on where users of the respective terms reside. Those in the Eastern United States
United States
tend to prefer the term Hispanic, whereas those in the West tend to prefer Latino.[14] Both terms refer to ethnicity, as a person of Latino or Hispanic
Hispanic
origin can be of any race.[15][44] In Spanish, Latina is used for persons of feminine gender; Latino is used for those of masculine gender, or by default. For example, a group of mixed or unknown gender would be referred to as Latinos. In the 21st century, the neologisms Latinx
Latinx
and Latin@[45] were coined as a gender-neutral alternative to this traditional usage.[46] The X functions as a variable, encompassing those who identify as male, female, or non-binary. The @ symbol is seen as containing both the masculine 'o' and feminine 'a', thus serving a similar purpose.[47] Neither has been widely adopted. History[edit]

This section needs expansion with: more about the 19th and 20th centuries. You can help by adding to it. (January 2010)

Main article: History of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans See also: Hispanic
Hispanic
Heritage Sites (U.S. National Park Service) 16th and 17th centuries[edit]

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, 16th-century Spanish admiral who founded the first European settlement in North America
North America
at Saint Augustine, Florida
Florida
in 1565.

Historical population

Census Pop.

1850 116,943

1880 393,555

1900 503,189

1910 797,994

58.6%

1920 1,286,154

61.2%

1930 1,653,987

28.6%

1940 2,021,820

22.2%

1950 3,231,409

59.8%

1960 5,814,784

79.9%

1970 8,920,940

53.4%

1980 14,608,673

63.8%

1990 22,354,059

53.0%

2000 35,305,818

57.9%

2010 50,477,594

43.0%

Est. 2014 55,387,539

9.7%

Sources:

[48]

Hispanic/Latinos have been settled continuously in the territory of the United States
United States
since the late 16th century,[24][25][26][27] earlier than any other colonial group of European origin. Spanish explorers were pioneers in the territory of the present-day United States. The first confirmed European landing in the continental U.S. was by Juan Ponce de León, who landed in 1513 at a lush shore he christened La Florida. Within three decades of Ponce de León's landing, the Spanish became the first Europeans to reach the Appalachian Mountains, the Mississippi River, the Grand Canyon
Grand Canyon
and the Great Plains. Spanish ships sailed along the East Coast, penetrating to present-day Bangor, Maine, and up the Pacific Coast as far as Oregon. From 1528 to 1536, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca
and three fellows (including an African named Estevanico), from a Spanish expedition that foundered, journeyed from Florida
Florida
to the Gulf of California, 267 years before the Lewis and Clark Expedition. They turned back to the interior, reaching their destination of Mexico
Mexico
City. In 1540 Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
undertook an extensive exploration of the present U.S. That same year Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
Francisco Vásquez de Coronado
led 2,000 Spaniards
Spaniards
and Mexican Indians across today's Arizona– Mexico
Mexico
border and traveled as far as central Kansas, close to the exact geographic center of what is now the continental United States. Other Spanish explorers of the US territory include, among others: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón, Pánfilo de Narváez, Sebastián Vizcaíno, Gaspar de Portolà, Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, Tristán de Luna y Arellano and Juan de Oñate, and non-Spanish explorers working for the Spanish Crown, such as Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In all, Spaniards
Spaniards
probed half of today's lower 48 states before the first English colonization effort in 1585 at Roanoke Island off the East Coast. In 1565 the Spanish created the first permanent European settlement in the continental United States, at St. Augustine, Florida. Santa Fe, New Mexico
Mexico
was founded before Jamestown, Virginia
Jamestown, Virginia
(founded in 1607) and the New England Plymouth Colony
Plymouth Colony
(1620, of Mayflower
Mayflower
and Pilgrims fame). Spanish missionaries and colonists founded settlements in El Paso, San Antonio, Tucson, Albuquerque, San Diego, Los Angeles
Los Angeles
and San Francisco, to name a few. 18th and 19th centuries[edit]

Castillo de San Marcos
Castillo de San Marcos
in Saint Augustine, Florida. Built in 1672 by the Spanish, it is the oldest masonry fort in the United States.

As late as 1783, at the end of the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
(a conflict in which Spain
Spain
aided and fought alongside the rebels), Spain held claim to roughly half the territory of today's continental United States. From 1819 to 1848, the United States
United States
(through treaties, purchase, diplomacy, and the Mexican–American War) increased its area by roughly a third at Spanish and Mexican expense, acquiring its three currently most populous states—California, Texas
Texas
and Florida. 20th and 21st centuries[edit] During the 20th and 21st centuries, Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino immigration to the US increased markedly following changes to the immigration law in 1965. Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino contributions in the historical past and present of the United States
United States
are addressed in more detail below (See Notables and their contributions). To recognize the current and historic contributions of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans, on September 17, 1968, President Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson
designated a week in mid-September as National Hispanic
Hispanic
Heritage Week, with Congress's authorization. In 1988, President Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
extended the observance to a month, designated Hispanic
Hispanic
Heritage Month.[49] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans See also: Demographics of the United States
United States
and List of U.S. states by Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino population As of 2011, Hispanics accounted for 16.7% of the national population, or around 52 million people.[50] The Hispanic
Hispanic
growth rate over the April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 period was 28.7%—about four times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 7.2%).[51] The growth rate from July 1, 2005 to July 1, 2006 alone was 3.4%[52]—about three and a half times the rate of the nation's total population growth (at 1.0%).[51] Based on the 2010 census, Hispanics are now the largest minority group in 191 out of 366 metropolitan areas in the US.[53] The projected Hispanic
Hispanic
population of the United States
United States
for July 1, 2050 is 132.8 million people, or 30.2% of the nation's total projected population on that date.[54] Geographic distribution[edit]

Percent of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino population by state in 2012.

The percentage of Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino residents by county.

US metropolitan areas with over 1 million Hispanics (2011)[55]

Rank Metropolitan area Hispanic
Hispanic
population Percent Hispanic

1 Los Angeles, California 5,804,000 45%

2 New York, New York 4,317,000 24%

3 San Juan, Puerto Rico 2,617,089 99%

4 Houston, Texas 2,105,000 37%

5 San Bernardino-Riverside, California 2,062,000 48%

6 Chicago, Illinois 1,971,000 22%

7 Dallas, Texas 1,809,000 28%

8 Miami, Florida 1,627,000 65%

9 Phoenix, Arizona 1,163,000 30%

10 San Francisco, California 1,114,000 23%

11 San Antonio, Texas 1,112,000 56%

12 San Diego, California 1,021,000 33%

States and territories with the highest proportion of Hispanics (2010)[citation needed]

Rank State/Territory Hispanic
Hispanic
population Percent Hispanic

1 Puerto Rico 3,688,455 98%

2 New Mexico 953,403 46%

3 California 14,013,719 37%

4 Texas 9,460,921 37%

5 Arizona 1,895,149 29%

6 Nevada 716,501 26%

7 Florida 4,223,806 22%

8 Colorado 1,038,687 20%

9 New Jersey 1,555,144 17%

10 New York 3,416,922 17%

11 Illinois 2,027,578 15%

Of the nation's total Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino population, 49% (21.5 million) live in California
California
or Texas.[56] Over half of the Hispanic/Latino population is concentrated in the Southwest region, mostly composed of Mexican Americans. California
California
and Texas
Texas
have some of the largest populations of Mexicans and Central American Latinos in the United States. The Northeast region is dominated by Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
and Dominican Americans, having the highest concentrations of both in the country. In the Mid Atlantic region, centered on the DC Metro Area, Salvadoran Americans
Salvadoran Americans
are the largest of Hispanic
Hispanic
groups. Florida
Florida
is dominated by Cuban Americans
Cuban Americans
and Puerto Ricans. In both the Great Lakes States
Great Lakes States
and the South Atlantic States, Mexicans and Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
dominate. Mexicans dominate in the rest of the country, including the Western United States, South Central United States and Great Plains
Great Plains
states. National origin[edit]

The Chicano
Chicano
Movement (Chicanismo) of the 1960s helped increase cultural awareness, and social empowerment of Mexican Americans (Chicanos) in the United States.

As of 2007, some 64% of the nation's Hispanic
Hispanic
population are of Mexican origin (see table). Another 9% are of Puerto Rican origin, with about 3% each of Cuban, Salvadoran
Salvadoran
and Dominican origins. The remainder are of other Central American or South American origin, or of origin directly from Spain. 60.2% of all Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
were born in the United States.[57] There are few immigrants directly from Spain, since Spaniards
Spaniards
have historically emigrated to Latin America
Latin America
rather than English-speaking countries. Because of this, most Hispanics who identify themselves as Spaniard or Spanish also identify with Latin American national origin. In the 2000 Census, 299,948 Americans, of whom 83% were native-born,[58] specifically reported their ancestry as Spaniard.[59] However a larger number of people, in the 2000 Census some 2,187,144 Americans
Americans
reported "Spanish" as their ancestry, whether directly from Spain
Spain
or not.

Ricky Martin
Ricky Martin
at the annual Puerto Rican parade in Manhattan.

In northern New Mexico
Mexico
and southern Colorado, there is a large portion of Hispanics who trace their ancestry to Spanish settlers of the late 16th century through the 17th century. People from this background often self-identify as "Hispanos", "Spanish", or "Hispanic". Many of these settlers also intermarried with local Amerindians, creating a Mestizo
Mestizo
population.[60] Likewise, southern Louisiana
Louisiana
is home to communities of people of Canary Islands
Canary Islands
descent, known as Isleños, in addition to other people of Spanish ancestry. Chicanos, Californios, Nuevomexicanos, and Tejanos are Americans
Americans
of Spanish and or Mexican descent. Chicanos live in the Southwest, Nuevomexicanos
Nuevomexicanos
in New Mexico, and Tejanos in Texas. Nuevomexicanos
Nuevomexicanos
and Tejanos are distinct cultures with their own cuisines, dialects and musical traditions.The term "Chicano" became popular amongst Mexican Americans
Americans
in the 1960s during the Chicano
Chicano
nationalism and Chicano Movement, and is today seen as an ethnic and cultural identity by some. Political activist César Chávez
César Chávez
and novelist José Antonio Villarreal are famous Chicanos. Nuyoricans are Americans
Americans
of Puerto Rican descent from the New York City area. There are close to two million Nuyoricans in the US. Famous Nuyoricans include US Supreme Court Judge Sonia Sotomayor
Sonia Sotomayor
and singer Jennifer Lopez.

Population by national origin (2010) (self-identified ethnicity, not by birthplace)[61]

Hispanic
Hispanic
ancestry Population % of Hispanics

Mexican 31,798,258 63.0

Puerto Rican 4,623,716 9.2

Cuban 1,785,547 3.5

Salvadoran 1,648,968 3.3

Dominican 1,414,703 2.8

Guatemalan 1,044,209 2.1

Colombian 908,734 1.8

New Mexican 750,000 1.4

Spanish 635,253 1.3

Honduran 633,401 1.3

Ecuadorian 564,631 1.1

Peruvian 531,358 1.1

Nicaraguan 348,202 0.7

Argentine 224,952 0.4

Venezuelan 215,023 0.4

Panamanian 165,456 0.3

Chilean 126,810 0.3

Costa Rican 126,418 0.3

Bolivian 99,210 0.2

Uruguayan 56,884 0.1

Paraguayan 20,023 -

All other 3,505,838 6.9

Total 50,477,594 100

Race[edit]

Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
by race (2010)[62]

Race Population % of all Hispanic and Latino Americans

White 26,735,713 53.0

Some other race 18,503,103 36.7

Two or more races 3,042,592 6.0

Black 1,243,471 2.5

American Indian and Alaska Native 685,150 1.4

Asian 209,128 0.4

Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander 58,437 0.1

Total 50,477,594 100.0

See also: Race and ethnicity in Latin America
Latin America
and Race and ethnicity in the United States Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino origin is independent of race and is termed "ethnicity" by the United States
United States
Census Bureau. According to the 2007 American Community Survey, 42% of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latinos were White. The largest numbers of White Hispanics come from within the Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Colombian, and Spanish communities.[63][64]

Actress Alexis Bledel
Alexis Bledel
is a White Hispanic
Hispanic
of Argentine and Mexican heritage. Bledel grew up in a Spanish speaking household and did not learn English until she began school.[65][66]

A significant percentage of the Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino population self-identifies as Mestizo, particularly the Mexican and Central American community. Mestizo
Mestizo
is not a racial category in the U.S. Census, but signifies someone who has both European and American Indian Ancestry. According to the 2010 United States
United States
Census, 36.7% of Hispanic/Latino Americans
Americans
identify as "some other race" as these Hispanic/Latinos may feel the U.S. census does not describe their European or American Indian ancestry as they understand it to be.[62] Half of the Hispanic/Latino population in the United States self-identifies as white. Most of the multi-racial population in the Mexican, Salvadoran, and Guatemalan communities are of European and Native American ancestry
American ancestry
(Mestizo), while most of the multiracial population in the Puerto Rican, Dominican, and Cuban communities are of European and African ancestry (Mulatto).

Costa Rican-American actor Harry Shum, Jr.
Harry Shum, Jr.
was born in Limón, Costa Rica to Chinese immigrants. His first language was Spanish. He subsequently learned Cantonese and English.

The largest numbers of Black Hispanics are from the Spanish Caribbean islands, including the Cuban, Dominican, Panamanian, and Puerto Rican, communities. Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latinos are racially diverse, although different "races" are usually the majority of each Hispanic
Hispanic
group. For example, of Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
deriving from northern Mexico, most are White or bi-racial having White/Native American Ancestry, while of those deriving from southern Mexican ancestry, the majority are Native American or of Native American and European Ancestry. In Guatemala, Native American and bi-racial people of Native American and European descent make the majority, while in El Salvador, whites and Bi-racial people of Native American/European descent are the majority. In the Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
the population are largely made up of people with inter-mixed ancestries, in which there are even levels of African and European ancestry, with smaller numbers of Whites and Blacks as well.

Zoe Saldana
Zoe Saldana
at the 82nd Academy Awards
82nd Academy Awards
(2010)

In Puerto Rico, people with European ancestry are the majority. There are also populations of predominantly of African descent as well as populations of American Indian descent as well as those with inter-mixed ancestries. Cubans
Cubans
are mostly of White Latin American ancestry, however there are also populations of Blacks and multi-racials as well.[67][68][68][69] The race and culture of each Hispanic/Latino country and their United States
United States
diaspora differs by history and geography. Mexicans represent the bulk of the US Hispanic/Latino population, and most Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
that migrate to the United States
United States
are of Native American and White descent, which causes many non-Hispanics to equate being Hispanic
Hispanic
with being of mestizo or Native American ancestry. Official sources report the racial makeup of these Hispanic
Hispanic
subgroups as follows, Argentina,[70] Uruguay,[70] Puerto Rico,[70] Cuba,[70] and Chile,[70] having the highest percentage of Hispanics self-identifying as white in their respective countries. As a result of their racial diversity, Hispanics form an ethnicity sharing a language (Spanish) and cultural heritage, rather than a race. The phenomenon of bi-racial people who are predominantly of European descent identifying as white is not limited to Hispanics or Spanish speakers but is also common among English speakers as well: researchers found that most White Americans
White Americans
with less than 28 percent African- American ancestry
American ancestry
say they are White; above that threshold, people tended to describe themselves as African-American.[71] Age[edit] As of 2014, one third, or 17.9 million, of the Hispanic
Hispanic
population was younger than 18 and a quarter, 14.6 million were Millennials. This makes them more than half of the Hispanic
Hispanic
population within the United States.[72] Education[edit] See also: Hispanic-serving institution Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino K-12 education[edit]

Lauro Cavazos, US Secretary of Education from August 1988 to December 1990

With the increasing Hispanic
Hispanic
population in the United States, Latinos have had a considerable impact on the K-12 system. In 2011-12, Latina/os comprised 24% of all enrollments in the United States, including 52% and 51% of enrollment in California
California
and Texas, respectively.[73] Further research shows the Latino population will continue to grow in the United States, implicating that more Latinos will populate U.S schools. The state of Latina/o education shows some promise. First, Hispanic students attending pre-K or kindergarten were more likely to attend full-day programs.[73] Second, Latinos in elementary education were the second largest group represented in gifted and talented programs.[73] Third, Hispanics' average NAEP math and reading scores have consistently increased over the last 10 years.[73] Finally, Latina/os were more likely than other groups, including whites, to go to college.[73] However, their academic achievement in early childhood, elementary, and secondary education lag behind other groups.[73] For instance, their average math and reading NAEP scores were lower than every other group, except African Americans, and have the highest dropout rate of any group, 13% despite decreasing from 24%.[73] To explain these disparities, some scholars have suggested there is a Latino "Education Crisis" due to failed school and social policies.[74] To this end, scholars have further offered several potential reasons including language barriers, poverty, and immigrant/nativity status resulting in Latinos not performing well academically.[75][76] English language learners[edit]

Hispanics have revived the use of Spanish in the United States, originally brought to North America
North America
during the Spanish colonial period in the 16th century. Today, there are almost 40 million Spanish speakers in the United States. Spanish is also the most popular language taught in the U.S.[77][78]

Currently, 80% of Hispanic
Hispanic
students in the U.S. are English language learners.[79] In 2008-9, 5.3 million students were classified as English Language Learners (ELLs) in pre-K to 12th grade.[80] This is a result of many students entering the education system at different ages, although the majority of ELLs are not foreign born.[80] In order to provide English instruction for Latino students there have been a multitude of English Language programs. However, the great majority of these programs are English Immersion, which arguably undermines the students’ culture and knowledge of their primary language.[76] As such, there continues to be great debate within schools as to which program can address these language disparities. Immigration status[edit] Immigrants have not always had access to compulsory education in the United States. However, due to the landmark Supreme Court case Plyler v. Doe in 1982, immigrants are allowed access to K-12 education. This significantly impacted all immigrant groups, including Latina/os. However, their academic achievement is dependent upon several factors including, but not limited to time of arrival and schooling in country of origin.[81] Moreover, Latinos' immigration/nativity status plays a major role regarding their academic achievement. For instance, first- and second- generation Latinos outperform their later generational counterparts.[82] Additionally, their aspirations appear to decrease as well.[83] This has major implications on their postsecondary futures. Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino higher education[edit]

University of Texas
Texas
at El Paso is the number one graduate engineering school for Latinos.[citation needed]

Those with a bachelor's degree or higher ranges from 50% of Venezuelans compared to 18% for Ecuadorians 25 years and older. Amongst the largest Hispanic
Hispanic
groups, those with a bachelor's or higher was 25% for Cuban Americans, 16% of Puerto Ricans, 15% of Dominicans, and 11% for Mexican Americans. Over 21% of all second-generation Dominican Americans
Dominican Americans
have college degrees, slightly below the national average (28%) but significantly higher than U.S.-born Mexican Americans
Americans
(13%) and U.S.-born Puerto Rican Americans
Puerto Rican Americans
(12%).[84] Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latinos make up the second or third largest ethnic group in Ivy League
Ivy League
universities, considered to be the most prestigious in the United States. Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino enrollment at Ivy League universities has gradually increased over the years. Today, Hispanics make up between 8% of students at Yale University
Yale University
to 15% at Columbia University.[85] For example, 18% of students in the Harvard University Class of 2018 are Hispanic.[86] Hispanics have significant enrollment in many other top universities such as University of Texas
Texas
at El Paso (70% of students), Florida International University (63%), University of Miami
University of Miami
(27%), and MIT, UCLA, & UC-Berkeley
UC-Berkeley
at 15% each. At Stanford University, Hispanics are the third largest ethnic group behind non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Whites and Asians, at 18% of the student population.[87] Hispanic
Hispanic
university enrollments[edit] Hispanics study in universities around the country, but can also attend to Hispanic-serving institution, institutions that are part of a federal program designed to assist colleges or universities in the United States
United States
that attempt to assist first generation, majority low income Hispanic
Hispanic
students. There are over 250 schools that have been designated as an HSI.

Universities with the largest Hispanic
Hispanic
undergraduate enrollment (2013)[88]

Rank University Hispanic
Hispanic
enrollment % of student body

1 Florida
Florida
International University 24,105 67%

2 University of Texas
Texas
at El Paso 15,459 81%

3 University of Texas
Texas
Pan American 15,009 91%

4 University of Texas
Texas
at San Antonio 11,932 47%

5 California
California
State University at Northridge 11,774 38%

6 California
California
State University at Fullerton 11,472 36%

7 Arizona
Arizona
State University 11,465 19%

8 California
California
State University at Long Beach 10,836 35%

9 California
California
State University at Los Angeles 10,392 58%

10 University of Central Florida 10,255 20%

Universities with the largest Hispanic
Hispanic
graduate enrollment (2013)

Rank University Hispanic
Hispanic
enrollment % of student body

1 Nova Southeastern University 4,281 20%

2 Florida
Florida
International University 3,612 42%

3 University of Southern California 2,358 11%

4 University of Texas
Texas
Pan American 2,120 78%

5 University of Texas
Texas
at El Paso 2,083 59%

6 CUNY Graduate Center 1,656 30%

7 University of New Mexico 1,608 26%

8 University of Texas
Texas
at San Antonio 1,561 35%

9 University of Florida 1,483 9%

10 Arizona
Arizona
State University 1,400 10%

Hispanic
Hispanic
student enrollment in university and college systems (2012-2013)

Rank University system Hispanic
Hispanic
enrollment % of student body

1 California
California
Community College System[89] 642,045 41%

2 California
California
State University[90] 149,137 33%

3 Florida
Florida
College System[91] 118,821 26%

4 University of Texas
Texas
System[92] 84,086 39%

5 State University System of Florida[93] 79,931 24%

6 City University of New York[94] 77,341 30%

7 State University of New York[95] 43,514 9%

8 University of California 42,604 18%

9 Texas
Texas
A&M University System[96][97] 27,165 25%

10 Nevada
Nevada
System of Higher Education[98] 21,467 21%

- Ivy League[85] 11,562 10%

Health[edit] Longevity[edit] Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
are the longest-living Americans, according to official data. Their life expectancy is more than two years longer than for non- Hispanic
Hispanic
whites and almost eight years longer than for African Americans.[99] Healthcare[edit] Countrywide, nearly 30% of Hispanics are born without health insurance. Factors such as immigration, acculturation and language affect their chances of getting health insurance. Furthermore, working Hispanics are less likely to receive health insurance from their employer in comparison to non-White Hispanics. Insurance from employers is most common source for workers. According to studies, Hispanics are most likely to have jobs in agriculture, domestic services, retail trade in comparison to Non- Hispanic
Hispanic
whites and their administrative, and executive positions. Although insurance companies such as Medicare have enrolled many minority groups in order for them to receive medical care, the gap between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites is noticeable. In New York City, around 61% Hispanics work with an employers who provides insurance whereas 89% of Non- Hispanic
Hispanic
whites work under an employer that provided health insurance. Those who do not receive health insurance is because either they do not qualify, the premiums are too expensive and the primarily because their employers do not offer health insurance. Common Diseases[edit] The following are some common diseases among Latinos Diabetes Mellitus[edit] There is a prominent difference in the percentage of Hispanics who have diabetes in comparison to other races. The years an immigrant lives in the United States
United States
or more specifically, New York, and being diagnosed with diabetes. Hispanics had the highest rate of hospitalizations because of diabetes, 260 people out of 10,000 populations, in comparison to other minority groups. Research show underprivileged New Yorkers are more likely to avoid exercise and healthy food choices. Moreover, Hispanics of all income levels are more obese than White New Yorkers. The alarming rate of obesity is crucial to address because obesity causes high blood and plasma glucose levels. Therefore deeming weight control is essential. Hispanic
Hispanic
children also have the highest rate of obesity in New York City which factors into the high rates of Diabetes. Almost 1 in 4 Hispanic
Hispanic
children are obese. Awareness, income and insurance are major factors lead to high rates of diabetes. Liver Disease[edit] The three types of prevalent liver disorders among Hispanics are Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic alcoholic liver disease, and viral hepatitis B and C. Although mortality rates are not the highest for Hispanics in comparison to other ethnicities and drinking levels are not especially high overall, the heavy drinkers indulge greater amounts of alcohol. Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
and Puerto Ricans seem to have the highest noted alcohol consumption rates out of the Hispanic
Hispanic
subgroups. Additionally, the United States
United States
born Hispanics have a higher rate of alcohol consumption in comparison to Hispanic immigrants. In New York, NAFLD rates have increased steeply over the past 20 years for adolescents and it has been linked to obesity. Furthermore, having NAFLD can lead to diabetes. HIV[edit] A limit of healthcare and preventative sources may be the cause of high rate of HIV and AIDS. Without the availability of resources, HIV/AIDs can be transmitted unknowingly among the populations. Furthermore, a stigma attached to infections and homophobia also increases the chances of not being tested. High percentages remain undiagnosed due to poverty and the cultural stigma. In 2015, among the 5 boroughs around 29% of the diagnosed males were living in the Bronx, with the majority of those diagnosed having sex with men. Furthermore, most of the diagnosed males fell under the category of experiencing Very High Poverty. Also, 40% of the diagnosed females were living in the Bronx; however, around 50% of the cases came from heterosexual contact. 43% of the diagnosed females fell under the category of Very High Poverty. Economic outlook[edit] Median income[edit]

Median household income (2011)

Ethnicity
Ethnicity
or nationality Income

Argentinean $55,000

Peruvian $50,000

Venezuelan $50,000

Ecuadorian $48,600

Colombian $48,000

Nicaraguans $46,700

Salvadoran $40,000

Cubans $38,600

Mexicans $38,000

Guatemalans $36,400

Puerto Ricans $36,000

Dominicans $32,300

Hondurans $31,000

Sources:[100]

In 2011, the median household income among Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
was highest for Argentinean Americans
Americans
($55,000), and lowest for Honduran Americans
Honduran Americans
($31,000). For other large Hispanic
Hispanic
groups, the incomes were as follows: Salvadoran Americans
Salvadoran Americans
($40,000), Cuban Americans
Americans
($38,600), Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
($38,000), Guatemalan Americans ($36,400), Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
($36,000) and Dominican Americans
Dominican Americans
($32,300). Poverty[edit] According to the U.S. Census, the poverty rate among the six largest Hispanic
Hispanic
groups during the period of 2007-2011 was: Dominican Americans
Americans
(26.3 percent), Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
(25.6), Guatemalan Americans (25.1), Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
(24.9 percent), Salvadoran Americans
Salvadoran Americans
(18.9) and Cuban Americans
Cuban Americans
(14.2).[101] In comparison, the average poverty rates for non- Hispanic
Hispanic
White Americans
White Americans
(12.8 percent)[101] and Asian Americans
Americans
(11.3 percent) were lower than those of any Hispanic
Hispanic
group. African Americans
African Americans
(25.8 percent) had a higher poverty rate than Cuban Americans, Salvadoran
Salvadoran
Americans, Mexican Americans, Guatemalan Americans
Americans
and Puerto Ricans, but had a lower poverty rate than Dominican Americans.[101] Poverty affects many underrepresented students as racial/ethnic minorities tend to stay isolated within pockets of low-income communities. This results in several inequalities, such as "school offerings, teacher quality, curriculum, counseling and all manner of things that both keep students engaged in school and prepare them to graduate."[102] In the case of Latinos the poverty rate for Hispanic children in 2004 was 28.6 percent.[79] Moreover, with this lack of resources, schools reproduce these inequalities for generations to come. In order to assuage poverty, many Hispanic
Hispanic
families can turn to social and community services as resources. Cultural matters[edit] Main articles: American culture
American culture
and Hispanic
Hispanic
culture See also: National Association of Latino Fraternal Organizations The geographic, political, social, economic, and racial diversity of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
makes all Hispanics very different depending on their family heritage and/or national origin. Yet several features tend to unite Hispanics from these diverse backgrounds.

Spanish speakers in the United States

Year Number of Spanish speakers Percent of US population

1980 11 million 5%

1990 17.3 million 7%

2000 28.1 million 10%

2010 37 million 13%

2012 38.3 million 13%

2020 (projected) 40 million 14%

Sources:[103][104][105][106]

Language[edit] See also: Spanish language
Spanish language
in the United States
United States
and Languages of the United States Spanish[edit]

Spanish colonial architecture
Spanish colonial architecture
in Los Angeles' Plaza Historic District. The Spanish language
Spanish language
in the Southwestern United States
Southwestern United States
spans many centuries.

As one of the most important uniting factors of Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans, Spanish is an important part of Hispanic
Hispanic
culture. Teaching Spanish to children is often one of the most valued skills taught amongst Hispanic
Hispanic
families. Spanish is not only closely tied with the person's family, heritage, and overall culture, but valued for increased opportunities in business and one's future professional career. A 2013 Pew Research survey showed that 95% of Hispanic
Hispanic
adults said "it's important that future generations of Hispanics speak Spanish."[103][107] Given the United States' proximity to other Spanish-speaking countries, Spanish is being passed on to future American generations. Amongst second-generation Hispanics, 80% speak fluent Spanish, and amongst third-generation Hispanics, 40% speak fluent Spanish.[108] Hispanics have revived the Spanish language
Spanish language
in the United States. First brought to North America
North America
by the Spanish during the Spanish colonial period in the 16th century, Spanish was the first European language spoken in the Americas. Spanish is the oldest European language in the United States, spoken uninterruptedly for four and a half centuries, since the founding of Saint Augustine, Florida
Florida
in 1565.[24][25][26][27] Today, 90% of all Hispanics and Latinos speak English, and at least 78% speak fluent Spanish.[109] Additionally, 2.8 million non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
also speak Spanish at home for a total of 41.1 million.[110] With 40% of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
being immigrants,[111] and with many of the 60% who are U.S.-born being the children or grandchildren of immigrants, bilingualism is the norm in the community at large. At home, at least 69% of all Hispanics over the age of five are bilingual in English and Spanish, whereas up to 22% are monolingual English-speakers, and 9% are monolingual Spanish speakers. Another 0.4% speak a language other than English and Spanish at home.[109] American Spanish dialects[edit] See also: Isleño
Isleño
and New Mexican Spanish The Spanish dialects spoken in the United States
United States
differ depending on the country of origin of the person or the person's family heritage. Generally, however, Spanish spoken in the Southwest is Mexican Spanish (or Chicano
Chicano
Spanish). An old, colonial variety of Spanish is spoken by descendants of the early Spanish colonists in New Mexico
Mexico
and Colorado, which is New Mexican Spanish. One of the major distinctions of New Mexican Spanish
Mexican Spanish
is its heavy use of colonial vocabulary and verb tenses that make New Mexican Spanish
New Mexican Spanish
uniquely American amongst Spanish dialects. The Spanish spoken in Florida
Florida
and in the Northeast is Caribbean Spanish
Caribbean Spanish
and is heavily influenced by the Spanish of Cuba
Cuba
and Puerto Rico. Canarian Spanish
Canarian Spanish
is the historic Spanish dialect spoken by the descendants of the earliest Spanish colonists beginning in the 18th century in Louisiana. Spanish spoken elsewhere throughout the country varies, although is generally Mexican Spanish.[110][112] Spanglish
Spanglish
and English dialects[edit] Main articles: Chicano
Chicano
English, Spanglish, Miami
Miami
§ Dialect, and New York Latino English See also: List of English words of Spanish origin Hispanics have influenced the way Americans
Americans
speak with the introduction of many Spanish words into the English language. Amongst younger generations of Hispanics, Spanglish, or a mix of Spanish and English, may be a common way of speaking. Although they are fluent in both languages, speakers will switch between Spanish and English throughout the conversation. Spanglish
Spanglish
is particularly common in Hispanic-majority cities and communities such as Miami, Hialeah, San Antonio, Los Angeles, and New York City.[113] Hispanics have also influenced the way English is spoken in the United States. In Miami, for example, the Miami
Miami
dialect has evolved as the most common form of English spoken and heard in Miami
Miami
today. This is a native dialect of English, and was developed amongst second and third generations of Cuban Americans
Cuban Americans
in Miami. Today, it is commonly heard everywhere throughout the city. Gloria Estefan
Gloria Estefan
and Enrique Iglesias are examples of people who speak with the Miami
Miami
dialect. Another major English dialect, is spoken by Chicanos and Tejanos in the Southwestern United States, called Chicano
Chicano
English. George Lopez
George Lopez
and Selena
Selena
are examples of speakers of Chicano
Chicano
English.[114] An English dialect spoken by Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
and other Hispanic
Hispanic
groups is called New York Latino English. Religion[edit]

José Horacio Gómez, Archbishop of Los Angeles. Hispanics are overwhelmingly Roman Catholic.

The most methodologically rigorous study of Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino religious affiliation to date was the Hispanic
Hispanic
Churches in American Public Life (HCAPL) National Survey, conducted between August and October 2000. This survey found that 70% of all Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
are Catholic, 20% are Protestant, 3% are "alternative Christians" (such as Mormons or Jehovah's Witnesses), 1% identify themselves with a non- Christian
Christian
religion (including Islam, Judaism, Buddhism...[115]), and 6% have no religious preference (with only 0.37% claiming to be either atheist or agnostic). The results of this study suggest that Hispanics/Latinos are not only a highly religious, but also a highly Christian
Christian
constituency. It also suggests that Hispanic/Latino Protestants are a more sizable minority than is sometimes realized. Catholic affiliation is much higher among first-generation than it is among second- or third-generation Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino immigrants, who exhibit a fairly high rate of defection to Protestantism.[116] Also Hispanics and Latinos in the Bible Belt, which is mostly located in the South, are more likely to shift to Protestantism
Protestantism
than those in other regions, as it is all around them. Protestant denominations that have attracted Hispanic/Latino converts are Pentecostalism,[117][118] Southern Baptist,[119] and the Episcopal Church.[120][121] According to Andrew Greeley, as many as 600,000 American Latinos leave Catholicism for Protestant churches every year.[122] Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino Catholics are developing youth and social programs to retain members, as well as the spread of the Catholic Charismatic Renewal.[123] Media[edit]

Univisión
Univisión
is the country's largest Spanish language
Spanish language
network, followed by Telemundo. It is the country's fourth-largest network overall.[124]

Telemundo

Rey Network (Spanish for The King) is an English language American television channel targeting Latino audiences.

The United States
United States
is home to thousands of Spanish-language media outlets, which range in size from giant commercial and some non-commercial broadcasting networks and major magazines with circulations numbering in the millions, to low-power AM radio stations with listeners numbering in the hundreds. There are hundreds of Internet media outlets targeting U.S. Hispanic
Hispanic
consumers. Some of the outlets are online versions of their printed counterparts and some online exclusively. Among the most notable Hispanic/Latino-oriented media outlets are:

Univisión, the largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally; Telemundo, the second-largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally; Azteca América, a Spanish-language television network in the United States, with affiliates in nearly every major U.S. market, and numerous affiliates internationally; La Opinión, a Spanish-language daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California
California
and distributed throughout the six counties of Southern California. It is the largest Spanish-language newspaper in the United States; El Nuevo Herald
El Nuevo Herald
and Diario Las Américas, Spanish-language daily newspapers serving the greater Miami, Florida
Florida
market; El Rey Network, is an English television channel targeting Latino audiences with 40 million homes of reaching capacity. Its headquarters are in Austin, Texas; mun2, a cable network that produces content for U.S.-born Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino audiences; People en Español, a Spanish-language magazine counterpart of People; ConSentido TV, a television, radio, and newspaper network in North Texas; TBN Enlace USA, a Spanish-language Christian
Christian
television network based in Tustin, California; 3ABN
3ABN
Latino, a Spanish-language Christian
Christian
television network based in West Frankfort, Illinois; V-me, a Spanish-language television network, a sister network of PBS; CNN
CNN
en Español, a Spanish-language all-news television network based in Atlanta, Georgia; Vida Latina, a Spanish-language entertainment magazine distributed throughout the Southern United States. ESPN Deportes
ESPN Deportes
and Fox Deportes, two Spanish-language sports television networks.

Cuisine[edit] Latino food, particularly Mexican food, has influenced American cuisine and eating habits. Mexican cuisine
Mexican cuisine
has become so mainstream in American culture
American culture
that many no longer see it as an ethnic food. Across the US, tortillas and salsa are arguably becoming as common as hamburger buns and ketchup. Tortilla
Tortilla
chips have surpassed potato chips in annual sales, and plantain chips popular in Caribbean
Caribbean
cuisines have continued to increase sales.[125] Tropical fruit, such as mango, guava, and passion fruit (maracuyá), have become more popular and are now common flavors in desserts, candies, and food dishes in the US. Due to the large Mexican-American population in the Southwestern United States, and its proximity to Mexico, Mexican food
Mexican food
there is believed to be some of the best in the US. Cubans
Cubans
brought Cuban cuisine to Miami, and today, cortaditos, pastelitos de guayaba, and empanadas are common mid-day snacks in the city. Cuban culture has changed Miami's coffee drinking habits, and today a café con leche or a cortadito is commonly had, often with a pastelito (pastry), at one of the city's numerous coffee shops.[126] The Cuban sandwich
Cuban sandwich
developed in Miami, and is now a staple and icon of the city's cuisine and culture.[127] Familial issues[edit] Family life and values[edit]

Mexican food
Mexican food
has become part of the mainstream American market just as Italian food
Italian food
did so decades before.

Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino culture places a strong value on family, and is commonly taught to Hispanic
Hispanic
children as one of the most important values in life. Statistically, Hispanic
Hispanic
families tend to have larger and closer knit families than the American average. Hispanic
Hispanic
families tend to prefer to live near other family members. This may mean that three or sometimes four generations may be living in the same household or near each other, although four generations is uncommon in the US. The role of grandparents is believed to be very important in the upbringing of children.[128] Hispanics tend to be very group-oriented, and an emphasis is placed on the well-being of the family above the individual. The extended family plays an important part of many Hispanic
Hispanic
families, and frequent social, family gatherings are common. Traditional rites of passages, particularly Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
sacraments: such as baptisms, birthdays, First Holy Communions, quinceañeras, Confirmations, graduations, and weddings are all popular moments of family gatherings and celebrations in Hispanic
Hispanic
families.[129][130] Education is another important priority for Hispanic
Hispanic
families. Education is seen as the key towards continued upward mobility in the US among Hispanic
Hispanic
families. A 2010 study by the Associated Press showed that Hispanics place a higher emphasis on education than the average American. Hispanics expect their children to graduate university.[131][132] Latin American youth today stay at home with their parents longer than before. This is due to more years spent studying and the difficulty of finding a paid job that meets their aspirations.[133] Intermarriage[edit]

Mariah Carey
Mariah Carey
an American singer, songwriter, record producer, and actress.

Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans, like immigrant groups before them, are out-marrying at high rates. Out-marriages comprised 17.4% of all existing Hispanic
Hispanic
marriages in 2008.[134] The rate was higher for newlyweds (which excludes immigrants who are already married): Among all newlyweds in 2010, 25.7% of all Hispanics married a non-Hispanic (this compares to out-marriage rates of 9.4% of whites, 17.1% of blacks, and 27.7% of Asians). The rate was larger for native-born Hispanics, with 36.2% of native-born Hispanics (both men and women) out-marrying compared to 14.2% of foreign-born Hispanics.[135] The difference is attributed to recent immigrants tending to marry within their immediate immigrant community due to commonality of language, proximity, familial connections, and familiarity.[134] In 2008, 81% of Hispanics who married out married non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Whites, 9% married non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Blacks, 5% non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Asians, and the remainder married non-Hispanic, multi-racial partners.[134]

Rosie Perez
Rosie Perez
is an American actress, community activist, talk show host, author, dancer, and choreographer.

Of the 275,500 new intermarried pairings in 2010, 43.3% were White- Hispanic
Hispanic
(compared to White-Asian at 14.4%, White-Black at 11.9%, and Other Combinations at 30.4%; other combinations consists of pairings between different minority groups, multi-racial people, and American Indians).[135] Unlike those for marriage to Blacks and Asians, intermarriage rates of Hispanics to Whites do not vary by gender. The combined median earnings of White/ Hispanic
Hispanic
couples are lower than those of White/White couples but higher than those of Hispanic/ Hispanic
Hispanic
couples. 23% of Hispanic
Hispanic
men who married White women have a college degree compared to only 10% of Hispanic
Hispanic
men who married a Hispanic
Hispanic
woman. 33% of Hispanic
Hispanic
women who married a White husband are college-educated compared to 13% of Hispanic
Hispanic
women who married a Hispanic
Hispanic
man.[135] Attitudes among non-Hispanics toward intermarriage with Hispanics are mostly favorable, with 81% of Whites, 76% of Asians, and 73% of Blacks "being fine" with a member of their family marrying a Hispanic
Hispanic
and an additional 13% of Whites, 19% of Asians, and 16% of Blacks "being bothered but accepting of the marriage." Only 2% of Whites, 4% of Asians, and 5% of Blacks would not accept a marriage of their family member to a Hispanic.[134] Hispanic
Hispanic
attitudes toward intermarriage with non-Hispanics are likewise favorable, with 81% "being fine" with marriages to Whites and 73% "being fine" with marriages to Blacks. A further 13% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a White and 22% admitted to "being bothered but accepting" of a marriage of a family member to a Black. Only 5% of Hispanics objected outright marriage of a family member to a non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Black and 2% to a non- Hispanic
Hispanic
White.[134] Unlike intermarriage with other racial groups, intermarriage with non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Blacks varies by nationality of origin. Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
and Dominicans have by far the highest rates of intermarriage with blacks, of all major Hispanic
Hispanic
national groups.[131][136][137][138][139][140][141][142][143][144] Cubans
Cubans
have the highest rate of intermarriage with non- Hispanic
Hispanic
Whites, of all major Hispanic
Hispanic
national groups, and are the most assimilated into White American culture.[145][146] Mexican Americans, who are the majority of the US Hispanic
Hispanic
population, are most likely to intermarry with Whites and Asians when marrying out.[147][148][149] Cultural adjustment[edit] As Latino migrants become the norm in the United States, the effects of this migration on the identity of these migrants and their kin becomes most evident in the younger generations. Crossing the borders changes the identities of both the youth and their families. Often "one must pay special attention to the role expressive culture plays as both entertainment and as a site in which identity is played out, empowered, and reformed" because it is "sometimes in opposition to dominant norms and practices and sometimes in conjunction with them."[150] The exchange of their culture of origin with American culture creates a dichotomy within the values that the youth find important, therefore changing what it means to be Latino in the global sphere. Transnationalism[edit]

Karla Camila Cabello
Camila Cabello
Estrabao was born in Cojimar, Habana del Este, Cuba, to Sinuhe Estrabao and Alejandro Cabello. For most of her early life, she and her family moved back and forth between Havana and Mexico
Mexico
City, Mexico
Mexico
(her father's native country), before relocating to Miami, Florida
Florida
at age 5.

The term agringados is a term for immigrants who have gone to America and allowed themselves to be Americanized, thus losing their Latino identity. This is the identity struggle youth and families face because they are forced to choose how much American culture
American culture
they can adopt without having their Latino peers looking down on them for being “too American”. Another way in which identity is compromised is shown through youth. Families who bring their young children into the U.S. allow them to be more exposed and vulnerable to adopting American identity. This becomes a problem for the parents because they struggle to understand their children and how to teach them, having grown up in their original country. Along with feeling that they are neither from the country of their ethnic background nor the United States, a new identity within the United States
United States
is formed called latinidad. This is especially seen in cosmopolitan social settings like New York City, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Underway is "the intermeshing of different Latino subpopulations has laid the foundations for the emergence and ongoing evolution of a strong sense of latinidad" which establishes a "sense of cultural affinity and identity deeply rooted in what many Latinos perceive to be a shared historical, spiritual, aesthetic and linguistic heritage, and a growing sense of cultural affinity and solidarity in the social context of the United States."[150] This unites Latinos as one, creating cultural kin with other Latino ethnicities. Gender roles[edit]

A Quinceañera
Quinceañera
after a Catholic Mass, celebrating a daughter's 15th birthday, common among Hispanic
Hispanic
families.

Migration to the United States
United States
can change identity for Latino youth in various way, including how they carry their gendered identities. In traditional Latino households, women and young girls are homebodies or muchachas de la casa ("girls of the house"), showing that they abide "by the cultural norms ... [of] respectability, chastity, and family honor [as] valued by the [Latino] community."[151] However, when Latina women come to the United States, they tend to adapt to the perceived social norms of this new country, and their social location changes as they become more independent and able to live without the financial support of their families or partners. The unassimilated community views these adapting women as being de la calle ("of [or from] the street"), transgressive and sexually promiscuous. Some Latino families in the United States
United States
"deal with young women's failure to adhere to these culturally prescribed norms of proper gendered behavior in a variety of ways, including sending them to live in ... [the sending country] with family members, regardless of whether or not ... [the young women] are sexually active."[152] Along with the increase in independence amongst these young women, there is a diminution in the power of vergüenza ("shame") in many of the relations between the two sexes. To have vergüenza is to assert male dominance in all spheres, especially in a man's relationship with his female partner; the concept is enforced through shaming males into comporting themselves with a macho (literally, "male" or "masculine") archetype in order to establish respect, dominance, and manliness in their social ambits. Although many Latina women in the homeland as well as older Latina women in the United States
United States
reinforce this dynamic by not wanting a man who is a sinvergüenza ("shameless one"), some Latinx
Latinx
youth accept the label of sinvergüenza and now wear it proudly. Feeling caught between two distinct societies causes youth to "meditate between the two cultures and [instills] ambivalence toward feeling a lack of vergüenza",[153] resulting in a group of youth who celebrate being sinvergüenza while still acknowledging the concept of vergüenza within a part of their increasingly composite culture. Sexuality[edit]

Antonio Banderas, a Spanish actor, has starred in many films.

With the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
remaining a large influence on the Latino culture, the subject of promiscuity and sexuality is often considered taboo. It is taught in many Latino cultures that best way to remain pure of sin and not become pregnant is to remain celibate and heterosexual. All are to be straight and women are to be virgins. A woman must carry herself like a Madonna in order to receive respect and keep the family's honor.

Sofía Vergara, a Colombian actress and model

However, despite being told that they should essentially suppress any natural feeling of sexual curiosity, through the globalization of encouraging sexual liberation, many young Latina women take their sexuality into their own hands and do not listen to the Madonna ideal. Despite this oppressive nature, "women are neither passive nor one-dimensional individuals who automatically adapt to these culturally and socially defined moral prescriptions shaping their sex lives in some way" but instead "sophisticated, multidimensional, and active social agents who react to these prescriptions in multiform and complicated ways."[154] Latino youth are also taking control of their sexuality through migration, globalization, and tourism in places like Acapulco, Cancun, Vallarta, Mazatlan, and Veracruz, all cities in Mexico. These cities are becoming popularized by gay youth, both Mexican and American, and have become somewhat of a safe haven for homosexual people as well as those whom have been labeled gay, not for their sexual preferences but because of the way that their gender is perceived by others. Due to the persecution for presenting as homosexual that is faced in Mexico along with the difficulty to immigrate north of the border, "many queer Mexican men and women migrating to urban areas within Mexico
Mexico
has proved to be a better alternative."[155] The creation of this ambiente, is due to the not only globalization of queerness but as well as the way harsh immigration laws in the United States
United States
makes these cities one of their only options. Relations towards other minority groups[edit] As a result of the rapid growth of the Hispanic
Hispanic
population, there has been some tension with other minority populations,[156] especially the African American population, as Hispanics have increasingly moved into once exclusively Black areas.[157][158][159][160][161][162][163][164][165][166][167][168] There has also been increasing cooperation between minority groups to work together to attain political influence.[169][170][171][172][173]

A 2007 UCLA
UCLA
study reported that 51% of Blacks felt that Hispanics were taking jobs and political power from them and 44% of Hispanics said they feared African- Americans
Americans
identifying them (African Americans) with high crime rates. That said, large majorities of Hispanics credited American blacks and the civil rights movement with making life easier for them in the US.[174][175] A Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
poll from 2006 showed that Blacks overwhelmingly felt that Hispanic
Hispanic
immigrants were hard working (78%) and had strong family values (81%) but also that they believed that immigrants took jobs from Americans
Americans
(34%) with a significant minority of Blacks (22%) believing that they had directly lost a job to an immigrant and 34% of Blacks wanting immigration to be curtailed. The report also surveyed three cities: Chicago
Chicago
(with its well-established Latino community); Washington DC
Washington DC
(with a less-established but quickly growing Hispanic community); and Raleigh-Durham
Raleigh-Durham
(with a very new but rapidly growing Hispanic
Hispanic
community). The results showed that a significant proportion of Blacks in those cities wanted immigration to be curtailed: Chicago (46%), Raleigh-Durham
Raleigh-Durham
(57%), and Washington DC
Washington DC
(48%).[176] Per a 2008 University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
Law School research brief, a recurring theme to Black / Hispanic
Hispanic
tensions is the growth in "contingent, flexible, or contractor labor," which is increasingly replacing long term steady employment for jobs on the lower-rung of the pay scale (which had been disproportionately filled by Blacks). The transition to this employment arrangement corresponds directly with the growth in the Latino immigrant population. The perception is that this new labor arrangement has driven down wages, removed benefits, and rendered temporary, jobs that once were stable (but also benefiting consumers who receive lower-cost services) while passing the costs of labor (healthcare and indirectly education) onto the community at large.[177] A 2008 Gallup poll
Gallup poll
indicated that 60% of Hispanics and 67% of blacks believe that good relations exist between US blacks and Hispanics[178] while only 29% of blacks, 36% of Hispanics, and 43% of whites, say Black– Hispanic
Hispanic
relations are bad.[178] In 2009, in Los Angeles
Los Angeles
County, Latinos committed 77% of the hate crimes against black victims and blacks committed half of the hate crimes against Latinos.[179]

Politics[edit] Main article: Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino American politics See also: List of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
in the United States Congress

Current Hispanics and Latinos in United States
United States
government

Political party State Term Ancestry

Supreme Court

Sonia Sotomayor N/A N/A 2009–Present Puerto Rican

State Governors

Brian Sandoval Republican Nevada 2011–Present Mexican

Susana Martínez Republican New Mexico 2011–Present Mexican

US Senate

Bob Menéndez Democrat New Jersey 2006–Present Cuban

Marco Rubio Republican Florida 2011–Present Cuban

Ted Cruz Republican Texas 2013–Present Cuban

Catherine Cortez Masto Democrat Nevada 2017–present Mexican

US House of Representatives

Ileana Ros-Lehtinen Republican Florida 1989–Present Cuban

José E. Serrano Democrat New York 1990–Present Puerto Rican

Luis Gutiérrez Democrat Illinois 1993–Present Puerto Rican

Lucille Roybal-Allard Democrat California 1993–Present Mexican

Nydia Velázquez Democrat New York 1993–Present Puerto Rican

Rubén Hinojosa Democrat Texas 1997–Present Mexican

Grace Napolitano Democrat California 1999–Present Mexican

Mario Díaz-Balart Republican Florida 2003–Present Cuban

Raúl Grijalva Democrat Arizona 2003–Present Mexican

Linda Sánchez Democrat California 2003–Present Mexican

Henry Roberto Cuellar Democrat Texas 2005–Present Mexican

Albio Sires Democrat New Jersey 2006–Present Cuban

Ben Ray Luján Democrat New Mexico 2009–Present Mexican

Bill Flores Republican Texas 2011–Present Mexican

Jaime Herrera Republican Washington 2011–Present Mexican

Raúl Labrador Republican Idaho 2011–Present Puerto Rican

Tony Cárdenas Democrat California 2013–Present Mexican

Joaquín Castro Democrat Texas 2013–Present Mexican

Pete Gallego Democrat Texas 2013–Present Mexican

José Antonio García Democrat Florida 2013–Present Cuban

Michelle Lujan Grisham Democrat New Mexico 2013–Present Mexican

Raúl Ruiz Democrat California 2013–Present Mexican

Juan Vargas Democrat California 2013–Present Mexican

Filemon Vela, Jr. Democrat Texas 2013–Present Mexican

Pete Aguilar Democrat California 2015–Present Mexican

Norma Torres Democrat California 2015–Present Guatemalan

Ruben Gallego Democrat Arizona 2015–Present Colombian

Nanette Barragán Democrat California 2017–Present Mexican

Salud Carbajal Democrat California 2017–Present Mexican

Lou Correa Democrat California 2017–Present Mexican

Jimmy Gomez Democrat California 2017–Present Mexican

Political affiliations[edit]

The Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Caucus, circa 1984

Hispanics and Latinos differ on their political views depending on their location and background. The majority (57%)[180] either identify as or support the Democrats, and 23% identify as Republicans.[180] This 34-point gap as of December 2007 was an increase from the gap of 21 points 16 months earlier. Cuban Americans
Cuban Americans
and Colombian Americans
Colombian Americans
tend to favor conservative political ideologies and support the Republicans. Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Dominican Americans
Dominican Americans
tend to favor liberal views and support the Democrats. However, because the latter groups are far more numerous—as, again, Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
alone are 64% of Hispanics and Latinos—the Democratic Party is considered to be in a far stronger position with the ethnic group overall. Political impact[edit] Elections of 1996-2006[edit]

President Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
and his Hispanic
Hispanic
appointees in 1998

In the 1996 presidential election, 72% of Hispanics and Latinos backed President Bill Clinton. In 2000 the Democratic total fell to 62%, and went down again in 2004, with Democrat John Kerry
John Kerry
winning Hispanics 58–40 against Bush.[181] Hispanics in the West, especially in California, were much stronger for the Democratic Party than in Texas and Florida. California
California
Latinos voted 63–32 for Kerry in 2004, and both Arizona
Arizona
and New Mexico
Mexico
Latinos by a smaller 56–43 margin. Texas Latinos were split nearly evenly, favoring Kerry 50–49 over their favorite son candidate, and Florida
Florida
Latinos (who are mostly Cuban American) backed Bush, by a 54–45 margin. In the 2006 midterm election, however, due to the unpopularity of the Iraq
Iraq
War, the heated debate concerning illegal Hispanic
Hispanic
immigration, and Republican-related Congressional scandals, Hispanics and Latinos went as strongly Democratic as they have since the Clinton years. Exit polls showed the group voting for Democrats by a lopsided 69–30 margin, with Florida
Florida
Latinos for the first time split evenly. The runoff election in Texas' 23rd congressional district was seen as a bellwether of Latino politics. Democrat Ciro Rodriguez's unexpected (and unexpectedly decisive) defeat of Republican incumbent Henry Bonilla was seen as proof of a leftward lurch among Latino voters; majority-Latino counties overwhelmingly backed Rodriguez, and majority European-American counties overwhelmingly backed Bonilla. 2008 election[edit]

Election year Candidate of the plurality Political party % of Hispanic vote Result

1980 Jimmy Carter Democratic 56% Lost

1984 Walter Mondale Democratic 61% Lost

1988 Michael Dukakis Democratic 69% Lost

1992 Bill Clinton Democratic 61% Won

1996 Bill Clinton Democratic 72% Won

2000 Al Gore Democratic 62% Lost

2004 John Kerry Democratic 58% Lost

2008 Barack Obama Democratic 67% Won

2012 Barack Obama Democratic 71% Won

2016 Hillary Clinton Democratic 70% Lost

In the 2008 Presidential election's Democratic primary Hispanics and Latinos participated in larger numbers than before, with Hillary Clinton receiving most of the group's support.[182] Pundits discussed whether a large percentage of Hispanics and Latinos would vote for an African-American candidate, in this case Barack Obama, Clinton's opponent.[183] Hispanics/Latinos voted 2 to 1 for Mrs. Clinton, even among the younger demographic. In other groups, younger voters went overwhelmingly for Obama.[184] Among Hispanics, 28% said race was involved in their decision, as opposed to 13% for (non-Hispanic) whites.[184] Obama defeated Clinton. In the matchup between Obama and Republican candidate John McCain
John McCain
for the presidency, Hispanics and Latinos supported Obama with 59% to McCain's 29% in the Gallup tracking poll as of June 30, 2008.[185] This surprised some analysts, since a higher than expected percentage of Latinos and Hispanics favored Obama over McCain, who had been a leader of the comprehensive immigration reform effort.[186] However, McCain had retreated during the Republican primary, saying that he would not support the bill if it came up again. Some analysts believed that this shift damaged his standing among Hispanics and Latinos.[187] Obama took advantage of the situation by running ads in Spanish to appeal to this ethnic group, in which he mentioned McCain's about-face.[188] In the general election, 67% of Hispanics and Latinos voted for Obama[189] and 31% voted for McCain,[190] with a relatively stronger turnout than in previous elections in states such as Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, and Virginia, helping Obama carry those formerly Republican states. Obama won 70% of non-Cuban Hispanics and 35% of the traditionally Republican Cuban Americans
Cuban Americans
who have a strong presence in Florida. The changing state demographics, in which the non-Cuban Hispanic
Hispanic
community is increasing in number, also contributed to his carrying Florida's Latinos with 57% of the vote.[189][191] Hispanics and Latinos also offset Republican gains in traditional red states; for example, Obama carried 63% of Texas
Texas
Latinos, when the overall vote of the state was for McCain by 55%.[192] Although during 2008 the economy and employment were top concerns for Hispanics and Latinos, immigration was "never far from their minds": almost 90% of Latino voters rated immigration as "somewhat important" or "very important" in a poll taken after the election.[193] There is "abundant evidence" that the heated Republican opposition to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007 has done significant damage to the party's appeal to Hispanics and Latinos in the years to come, especially in the swing states such as Florida, Nevada, and New Mexico.[193] In a Gallup poll
Gallup poll
of 4,604 registered Hispanic
Hispanic
voters taken in the final days of June 2008, only 18% of participants identified as Republicans.[185] Some political organizations associated with Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
are League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), the National Council of La Raza
National Council of La Raza
(NCLR), the United Farm Workers, the Cuban American National Foundation, and the National Institute for Latino Policy. 2012 election[edit] Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latinos voted even more heavily for Democrats in the 2012 election with the Democratic incumbent Barack Obama
Barack Obama
receiving 71% and the Republican challenger Mitt Romney receiving about 27% of the vote.[194][195] Hispanic
Hispanic
vote[edit] United States
United States
has a population of 50 million of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans, of them, 27 Million are citizens eligible to vote (13% of total eligible voters), therefore Hispanics have a very important effect on presidential elections since the vote difference between two main parties is usually around 4%.[196][197][198][199] Notable contributions[edit] Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
have made distinguished contributions to the United States
United States
in all major fields, such as politics, the military, music, literature, philosophy, sports, business and economy, and science.[200] Arts and entertainment[edit] In 1995, the American Latino Media Arts Award, or ALMA Award
ALMA Award
was created. It's a distinction given to Latino performers (actors, film and television directors, and musicians) by the National Council of La Raza. Music[edit] Main article: Latin music in the United States

Jennifer Lopez
Jennifer Lopez
performing during the 2014 FIFA World Cup opening ceremony in Brazil

There are many Hispanic
Hispanic
American musicians that have achieved international fame, such as Christopher Rios
Christopher Rios
better known by his stage name Big Pun, Mariah Carey, Jennifer López, Joan Baez, Linda Ronstadt, Zack de la Rocha, Fergie, Gloria Estefan, Celia Cruz, Tito Puente, Kat DeLuna, Selena, Ricky Martin, Marc Anthony, Carlos Santana, Christina Aguilera, Selena
Selena
Gomez, Jerry García, Demi Lovato, Dave Navarro, Romeo Santos, Tom Araya, Becky G, Camila Cabello, all members of all-girl band Go Betty Go
Go Betty Go
and two members of girl group, Fifth Harmony: Lauren Jauregui
Lauren Jauregui
and Ally Brooke.

Enrique Iglesias
Enrique Iglesias
performing with Pitbull at the Frank Erwin Center in Austin, Texas, 2015

Among the Hispanic
Hispanic
American musicians who were pioneers in the early stages of rock and roll were Ritchie Valens, who scored several hits, most notably "La Bamba" and Herman Santiago
Herman Santiago
wrote the lyrics to the iconic rock and roll song "Why Do Fools Fall in Love". Songs that became popular in the United States
United States
and are heard during the Holiday/Christmas season are "¿Dónde Está Santa Claus?" is a novelty Christmas song with 12-year-old (Augie Ríos) was a record hit in 1959 which featured the Mark Jeffrey Orchestra. "Feliz Navidad" by José Feliciano. Miguel del Aguila, wrote 116 works and has three Latin Grammy
Grammy
nominations In 1986, Billboard magazine introduced the Hot Latin Songs
Hot Latin Songs
chart which ranks the best-performing songs on Spanish-language radio stations in the United States. Seven years later, Billboard initiated the Top Latin Albums which ranks top-selling Latin albums in the United States.[201] Similarly, the Recording Industry Association of America incorporated "Los Premios de Oro y Platino" (The Gold and Platinum Awards) to certify Latin recordings which contains at least 50% of its content recorded in Spanish.[202] In 1989, Univision
Univision
established the Lo Nuestro Awards
Lo Nuestro Awards
which became the first award ceremony to recognize the most talented performers of Spanish-language music and was considered to be the "Hispanic Grammys".[203][204] In 2000, the Latin Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences (LARAS) established the Latin Grammy
Grammy
Awards to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish and Portuguese.[205] Unlike The Recording Academy, LARAS extends its membership internationally to Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking communities worldwide in Latin America, Spain, and Portugal.[206] Film, radio, television, and theatre[edit]

Jordana Brewster
Jordana Brewster
Brewster was born in Panama
Panama
City, Panama. She is the oldest of two daughters. Her mother, Maria João (née Leal de Sousa), is a former swimsuit model from Brazil.

Hispanics and Latinos have also contributed some prominent actors and others in the film industry. Of Puerto Rican origin: José Ferrer
José Ferrer
(the first Hispanic
Hispanic
actor to win an Academy Award
Academy Award
for his role in Cyrano de Bergerac), Auli'i Cravalho, Rita Moreno, Chita Rivera, Raul Julia, Rosie Perez, Rosario Dawson, Esai Morales, Jennifer Lopez
Jennifer Lopez
and Benicio del Toro. Of Mexican origin: Ramón Novarro, Dolores del Río, Lupe Vélez, Anthony Quinn, Ricardo Montalbán, Katy Jurado, Edward James Olmos, Salma Hayek, Danny Trejo, and Becky G. Of Cuban origin: Cesar Romero, Andy García, Cameron Diaz
Cameron Diaz
and Eva Mendes. Of Dominican origin: Maria Montez
Maria Montez
and Zoe Saldana. Of Brazilian origin: Carmen Miranda, Sonia Braga, and Rodrigo Santoro. Of Spanish origin: Rita Hayworth, Martin Sheen, and Antonio Banderas. Other outstanding figures are: Anita Page
Anita Page
(of Salvadoran
Salvadoran
origin), Fernando Lamas
Fernando Lamas
(of Argentine origin), Raquel Welch
Raquel Welch
(of Bolivian origin), Maria Conchita Alonso (of Venezuelan origin), John Leguizamo
John Leguizamo
(of Colombian origin) and Oscar Isaac
Oscar Isaac
(of Guatemalan origin).

Jessica Marie Alba
Jessica Marie Alba
is an American actress and businesswoman.

In standup comedy, Paul Rodríguez, Greg Giraldo, Cheech Marin, George Lopez, Freddie Prinze, Jade Esteban Estrada, Carlos Mencia, John Mendoza, Gabriel Iglesias, and others are prominent. Some of the Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino actors who achieved notable success in U.S. television include Desi Arnaz, Lynda Carter, Jimmy Smits, Charo, Selena
Selena
Gomez, Carlos Pena Jr., Eva Longoria, Sofía Vergara, Benjamin Bratt, Ricardo Montalbán, America Ferrera, Karla Souza, Diego Boneta, Erik Estrada, Cote de Pablo, Freddie Prinze, Lauren Vélez, and Charlie Sheen. Kenny Ortega
Kenny Ortega
is an Emmy Award-winning producer, director, and choreographer who has choreographed many major television events such as Super Bowl XXX, the 72nd Academy Awards, and Michael Jackson's memorial service. Hispanics and Latinos are underrepresented in U.S. television, radio, and film. This is combatted by organizations such as the Hispanic Organization of Latin Actors (HOLA), founded in 1975; and National Hispanic
Hispanic
Media Coalition (NHMC), founded in 1986.[207] Together with numerous Latino civil rights organizations, the NHMC led a "brownout" of the national television networks in 1999, after discovering that there were no Latinos in any of their new prime time shows that year.[208] This resulted in the signing of historic diversity agreements with ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC
NBC
that have since increased the hiring of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino talent and other staff in all of the networks. Latino Public Broadcasting
Latino Public Broadcasting
(LPB) funds programs of educational and cultural significance to Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans. These programs are distributed to various public television stations throughout the United States. Business
Business
and finance[edit] See also: Hispanic
Hispanic
500

U.S. Century Bank
U.S. Century Bank
is one of the largest Hispanic-owned banks in the United States.[209]

The total number of Hispanic-owned businesses in 2002 was 1.6 million, having grown at triple the national rate for the preceding five years.[49] Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino business leaders include Cuban immigrant Roberto Goizueta, who rose to head of The Coca-Cola Company.[210] Advertising Mexican-American magnate Arte Moreno
Arte Moreno
became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
to own a major league team in the United States
United States
when he purchased the Los Angeles Angels baseball club.[211] Also a major sports team owner is Mexican-American Linda G. Alvarado, president and CEO of Alvarado Construction, Inc and co-owner of the Colorado
Colorado
Rockies baseball team. The largest Hispanic-owned food company in the US is Goya Foods, because of World War II
World War II
hero Joseph A. Unanue, the son of the company's founders.[212] Angel Ramos was the founder of Telemundo, Puerto Rico's first television station[213] and now the second largest Spanish-language television network in the United States, with an average viewership over one million in primetime. Samuel A. Ramirez, Sr. made Wall Street
Wall Street
history by becoming the first Hispanic
Hispanic
to launch a successful investment banking firm, Ramirez & Co.[214][215] Nina Tassler is president of CBS
CBS
Entertainment since September 2004. She is the highest-profile Latina in network television and one of the few executives who has the power to approve the airing or renewal of series. Fashion[edit] In the world of fashion, notable Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino designers include Oscar de la Renta, Carolina Herrera, and Narciso Rodríguez among others. Christy Turlington, Gisele Bündchen
Gisele Bündchen
and Lea T
Lea T
achieved international fame as models. Government and politics[edit] Main article: List of Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
in the United States
United States
Congress

Sonia Sotomayor, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States

Governor and former Congressman, Cabinet member, Ambassador, and U.S. Presidential candidate Bill Richardson

As of 2007 there were more than five thousand elected officeholders in the United States
United States
who were of Latino origin.[216] In the House of Representatives, Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino representatives have included Ladislas Lazaro, Antonio M. Fernández, Henry B. Gonzalez, Kika de la Garza, Herman Badillo, Romualdo Pacheco, and Manuel Lujan, Jr., out of almost two dozen former Representatives. Current Representatives include Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, Jose E. Serrano, Luis Gutiérrez, Nydia Velázquez, Xavier Becerra, Lucille Roybal-Allard, Loretta Sanchez, Rubén Hinojosa, Mario Diaz-Balart, Raul Grijalva, Ben R. Lujan, Jaime Herrera
Jaime Herrera
Beutler, Raul Labrador, and Alex Mooney—in all, they number thirty. Former senators are Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Mel Martinez, Dennis Chavez, Joseph Montoya, and Ken Salazar. As of January 2011, the U.S. Senate includes Hispanic
Hispanic
members Bob Menendez, a Democrat, and Republicans Ted Cruz and Marco Rubio, all Cuban Americans.[217] Numerous Hispanics and Latinos hold elective and appointed office in state and local government throughout the United States.[218] Current Hispanic
Hispanic
Governors include Republican Nevada
Nevada
Governor Brian Sandoval and Republican New Mexico
Mexico
Governor Susana Martinez; upon taking office in 2011, Martinez became the first Latina governor in the history of the United States.[219] Former Hispanic
Hispanic
governors include Democrats Jerry Apodaca, Raul Hector Castro, and Bill Richardson, as well as Republicans Octaviano Ambrosio Larrazolo, Romualdo Pacheco, and Bob Martinez.

Marco Rubio
Marco Rubio
suspended his campaign for President on March 15, 2016.

Catherine Cortez Masto, first Latina U.S. Senator

Since 1988,[220] when Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
appointed Lauro Cavazos
Lauro Cavazos
the Secretary of Education, the first Hispanic
Hispanic
United States
United States
Cabinet member, Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
have had an increasing presence in presidential administrations. Hispanics serving in subsequent cabinets include Ken Salazar, current Secretary of the Interior; Hilda Solis, current United States
United States
Secretary of Labor; Alberto Gonzales, former United States
United States
Attorney General; Carlos Gutierrez, Secretary of Commerce; Federico Peña, former Secretary of Energy; Henry Cisneros, former Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; Manuel Lujan, Jr., former Secretary of the Interior; and Bill Richardson, former Secretary of Energy and Ambassador to the United Nations. Rosa Rios
Rosa Rios
is the current US Treasurer, including the latest three, were Hispanic women. In 2009, Sonia Sotomayor
Sonia Sotomayor
became the first Supreme Court Associate Justice of Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino origin. The Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Caucus (CHC), founded in December 1976, and the Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Conference (CHC), founded on March 19, 2003, are two organizations that promote policy of importance to Americans
Americans
of Hispanic
Hispanic
descent. They are divided into the two major American political parties: The Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Caucus is composed entirely of Democratic representatives, whereas the Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Conference is composed entirely of Republican representatives. Literature and journalism[edit]

Geraldo Rivera
Geraldo Rivera
is an American attorney, reporter, author, and talk show host.

Jorge Ramos has won eight Emmy Awards and the Maria Moors Cabot Award for excellence in journalism. In 2015, Rheamos was one of five selected as Time magazine's World's Most Influential People.

See also: Category: Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino American writers and National Association of Hispanic
Hispanic
Journalists Among the distinguished Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino authors and works are:

Isabel Allende
Isabel Allende
( The House of the Spirits
The House of the Spirits
and City of the Beasts) Sandra Cisneros
Sandra Cisneros
(The House on Mango
Mango
Street and Woman Hollering Creek and Other Stories) Julia Álvarez
Julia Álvarez
("How the García Girls Lost Their Accents") Jorge Majfud
Jorge Majfud
(Crisis) Rudolfo Anaya ( Bless Me, Ultima and Heart of Aztlan) Giannina Braschi (Empire of Dreams, Yo-Yo Boing!, and 'United States of Banana) Junot Díaz
Junot Díaz
(The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao) Frank X Gaspar (Leaving Pico) Rigoberto González
Rigoberto González
(Butterfly Boy: Memories of a Chicano
Chicano
Mariposa) Jovita González de Mireles (Caballero, cowritten with Eve Raleigh, and Dew On The Thorn) Oscar Hijuelos (The Mambo Kings Play Songs of Love) Micol Ostow ("Mind Your Manners, Dick and Jane", "Emily Goldberg Learns to Salsa"[221] Benito Pastoriza Iyodo
Benito Pastoriza Iyodo
(A Matter of Men and September Elegies) Tomas Rivera (...And the Earth did Not Devour Him) Richard Rodríguez (Hunger of Memory) Rubén Salazar
Rubén Salazar
(journalist) George Santayana
George Santayana
(novelist and philosopher: "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it") Sergio Troncoso
Sergio Troncoso
( From This Wicked Patch of Dust
From This Wicked Patch of Dust
and The Last Tortilla and Other Stories) Alisa Valdes-Rodriguez
Alisa Valdes-Rodriguez
(Haters) Victor Villaseñor
Victor Villaseñor
(Rain of Gold) Oscar Zeta Acosta (The Revolt of the Cockroach People) Guadalupe Baca-Vaughn (The Souls in Purgatory) Alberto Alvaro Rios
Alberto Alvaro Rios
(Capirotada, Elk Heads on the Wall and The Iguana Killer) John Quiñones

Military[edit] See also: Spain
Spain
in the American Revolutionary War, Hispanics in the American Civil War, Hispanics in the United States
United States
Marine Corps, and Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
in World War II

Major General Luis R. Esteves, the first Hispanic
Hispanic
to graduate from the United States
United States
Military Academy ("West Point")

Antonia Novello
Antonia Novello
is the first woman and first Hispanic
Hispanic
to serve as Surgeon General.

Richard E. Cavazos
Richard E. Cavazos
became the U.S. Army's first Hispanic
Hispanic
four-star general.

Rear Admiral Ronald J. Rábago, the first Hispanic
Hispanic
to be promoted to Rear Admiral (lower half) in the United States
United States
Coast Guard

Specialist Hilda Clayton, U.S. Army combat photographer who photographed the explosion that killed her and four Afghan soldiers.

Hispanics and Latinos have participated in the military of the United States and in every major military conflict from the American Revolution onward.[222][223][224] 11% to 13% military personnel now are Latinos and they have been deployed in the Iraq
Iraq
War, the Afghanistan War, and U.S. military missions and bases elsewhere.[225] Hispanics and Latinos have not only distinguished themselves in the battlefields but also reached the high echelons of the military, serving their country in sensitive leadership positions on domestic and foreign posts. Up to now, 43 Hispanics and Latinos have been awarded the nation's highest military distinction, the Medal of Honor (also known as the Congressional Medal of Honor). The following is a list of some notable Hispanics/Latinos in the military: American Revolution[edit]

Bernardo de Gálvez
Bernardo de Gálvez
(1746–1786)  – Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who aided the American Thirteen Colonies in their quest for independence and led Spanish forces against Britain in the Revolutionary War; since 2014, a posthumous honorary citizen of the United States Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Jorge Farragut Mesquida (1755–1817) – participated in the American Revolution
American Revolution
as a lieutenant in the South Carolina Navy

American Civil War[edit] Main article: Hispanics in the American Civil War

Admiral David Farragut – promoted to vice admiral on December 21, 1864, and to full admiral on July 25, 1866, after the war, thereby becoming the first person to be named full admiral in the Navy's history[226] Colonel Ambrosio José Gonzales – active during the bombardment of Fort Sumter; because of his actions, was appointed Colonel of artillery and assigned to duty as Chief of Artillery in the department of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida Brigadier General Diego Archuleta
Diego Archuleta
(1814–1884) – member of the Mexican Army who fought against the United States
United States
in the Mexican-American War. During the American Civil War he joined the Union Army
Union Army
(US Army) and became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
to reach the military rank of Brigadier General. He commanded The First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry in the Battle of Valverde. He was later appointed an Indian (Native Americans) Agent by Abraham Lincoln.[227] Colonel Carlos de la Mesa – grandfather of Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr. commanding general of the First Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily, and later the commander of the 104th Infantry Division
104th Infantry Division
during World War II. Colonel Carlos de la Mesa was a Spanish national who fought at Gettysburg for the Union Army
Union Army
in the Spanish Company of the "Garibaldi Guard" of the 39th New York State Volunteers.[228] Colonel Federico Fernández Cavada – commanded the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteer infantry regiment when it took the field in the Peach Orchard at Gettysburg[229] Colonel Miguel E. Pino – commanded the 2nd Regiment of New Mexico
Mexico
Volunteers, which fought at the Battle of Valverde in February and the Battle of Glorieta Pass and helped defeat the attempted invasion of New Mexico
Mexico
by the Confederate Army[230] Colonel Santos Benavides – commanded his own regiment, the "Benavides Regiment"; highest ranking Mexican-American in the Confederate Army[229] Major Salvador Vallejo – officer in one of the California
California
units that served with the Union Army
Union Army
in the West[230] Captain Adolfo Fernández Cavada – served in the 114th Pennsylvania Volunteers at Gettysburg with his brother, Colonel Federico Fernandez Cavada; served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac from Fredericksburg to Gettysburg; "special aide-de-camp" to General Andrew A. Humphreys[229][231] Captain Roman Anthony Baca – member of the Union forces in the New Mexico
Mexico
Volunteers; spy for the Union Army
Union Army
in Texas[230] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Augusto Rodriguez – Puerto Rican native; officer in the 15th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry, of the Union Army; served in the defenses of Washington, D.C. and led his men in the Battles of Fredericksburg and Wyse Fork[232] Lola Sánchez – Cuban born woman who became a Confederate spy; helped the Confederates obtain a victory against the Union Forces in the "Battle of Horse Landing" Loreta Janeta Velázquez, also known as " Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Harry Buford" – Cuban woman who donned Confederate garb and served as a Confederate officer and spy during the American Civil War

World War I[edit]

Major General Luis R. Esteves, U.S. Army – in 1915, became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
to graduate from the United States
United States
Military Academy ("West Point"); organized the Puerto Rican National Guard Private Marcelino Serna – undocumented Mexican immigrant who joined the United States
United States
Army and became the most decorated soldier from Texas
Texas
in World War I; first Hispanic
Hispanic
to be awarded the Distinguished Service Cross

World War II[edit]

Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Pedro del Valle – first Hispanic
Hispanic
to reach the rank of Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General; played an instrumental role in the seizure of Guadalcanal
Guadalcanal
and Okinawa
Okinawa
as Commanding General of the U.S. 1st Marine Division during World War II Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Elwood R. Quesada (1904–1993) – commanding general of the 9th Fighter Command, where he established advanced headquarters on the Normandy
Normandy
beachhead on D-Day plus one, and directed his planes in aerial cover and air support for the Allied invasion of the European continent during World War II. He was the foremost proponent of "the inherent flexibility of air power", a principle he helped prove during the war. Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr.
Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr.
(1888–1969) – commanding general of the 1st Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily
Sicily
during World War II; commander of the 104th Infantry Division Colonel Virgil R. Miller – Regimental Commander of the 442d Regimental Combat Team, a unit composed of "Nisei" (second generation Americans
Americans
of Japanese descent), during World War II; led the 442nd in its rescue of the Lost Texas
Texas
Battalion of the 36th Infantry Division, in the forests of the Vosges Mountains in northeastern France[233][234] Captain Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano
Marion Frederic Ramírez de Arellano
(1913–1980) – served in World War II; first Hispanic
Hispanic
submarine commander First Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Oscar Francis Perdomo – of the 464th Fighter Squadron, 507th Fighter Group; the last "Ace in a Day" for the United States in World War II CWO2 Joseph B. Aviles, Sr. – member of the United States
United States
Coast Guard; first Hispanic-American
Hispanic-American
to be promoted to Chief Petty Officer; received a war-time promotion to Chief Warrant Officer
Chief Warrant Officer
(November 27, 1944), thus becoming the first Hispanic
Hispanic
American to reach that level as well[235] Sergeant First Class Agustín Ramos Calero – most decorated Hispanic
Hispanic
soldier in the European Theatre of World War II PFC Guy Gabaldon, USMC – captured over a thousand prisoners during the World War II
World War II
Battle of Saipan Tech4 Carmen Contreras-Bozak – first Hispanic
Hispanic
woman to serve in the U.S. Women's Army Corps, where she served as an interpreter and in numerous administrative positions[236]

Korean War[edit]

Major General Salvador E. Felices, U.S. Air Force – flew in 19 combat missions over North Korea
North Korea
during the Korean War
Korean War
in 1953. In 1957, he participated in "Operation Power Flite", a historic project that was given to the Fifteenth Air Force by the Strategic Air Command headquarters. Operation Power Flite
Operation Power Flite
was the first around the world non-stop flight by an all-jet aircraft. First Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Baldomero Lopez – the only Hispanic
Hispanic
graduate of the United States
United States
Naval Academy ("Annapolis") to be awarded the Medal of Honor Sergeant First Class Modesto Cartagena – member of the 65th Infantry Regiment, an all-Puerto Rican regiment also known as "The Borinqueneers", during World War II
World War II
and the Korean War; most decorated Puerto Rican soldier in history[237]

Cuban Missile Crisis[edit]

Admiral Horacio Rivero, Jr. – second Hispanic
Hispanic
four-star admiral; commander of the American fleet sent by President John F. Kennedy to set up a quarantine (blockade) of the Soviet ships during the Cuban Missile Crisis

Vietnam War[edit]

Sergeant First Class Jorge Otero Barreto
Jorge Otero Barreto
a.k.a. "The Puerto Rican Rambo" – the most decorated Hispanic
Hispanic
American soldier in the Vietnam War[238]

After Vietnam[edit]

Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Ricardo Sanchez – top commander of the Coalition forces during the first year of the occupation of Iraq, 2003–2004, during the Iraq
Iraq
War Lieutenant
Lieutenant
General Edward D. Baca – in 1994, became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
Chief of the National Guard Bureau Vice Admiral Antonia Novello, M.D., Public Health Service Commissioned Corps – in 1990, became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
(and first female) U.S. Surgeon General Vice Admiral Richard Carmona, M.D., Public Health Service Commissioned Corps – served as the 17th Surgeon General of the United States, under President George W. Bush Brigadier General Joseph V. Medina, USMC  – made history by becoming the first Marine Corps officer to take command of a naval flotilla Rear Admiral Ronald J. Rábago
Ronald J. Rábago
 – first person of Hispanic American descent to be promoted to rear admiral (lower half) in the United States
United States
Coast Guard[239] Captain Linda Garcia Cubero, United States
United States
Air Force – in 1980 became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
woman graduate of the United States
United States
Air Force Major General Erneido Oliva  – Deputy Commanding General of the D.C. National Guard Brigadier General Carmelita Vigil-Schimmenti, United States
United States
Air Force  – in 1985 became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
female to attain the rank of Brigadier General in the Air Force[240][241] Brigadier General Angela Salinas
Angela Salinas
 – on August 2, 2006, became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
female to obtain a general rank in the Marines[242] Chief Master Sergeant Ramón Colón-López
Ramón Colón-López
 – pararescueman; in 2007, was the only Hispanic
Hispanic
among the first six airmen to be awarded the newly created Air Force Combat Action Medal Specialist Hilda Clayton
Hilda Clayton
(1991–2013) – combat photographer with 55th Signal Company who captured the explosion that killed her and four Afghan soldiers.[243]

Medal of Honor[edit] Main article: List of Hispanic
Hispanic
Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
recipients The following 43 Hispanics were awarded the Medal of Honor: Philip Bazaar, Joseph H. De Castro, John Ortega, France Silva, David B. Barkley, Lucian Adams, Rudolph B. Davila, Marcario Garcia, Harold Gonsalves, David M. Gonzales, Silvestre S. Herrera, Jose M. Lopez, Joe P. Martinez, Manuel Perez Jr., Cleto L. Rodriguez, Alejandro R. Ruiz, Jose F. Valdez, Ysmael R. Villegas, Fernando Luis García, Edward Gomez, Ambrosio Guillen, Rodolfo P. Hernandez, Baldomero Lopez, Benito Martinez, Eugene Arnold Obregon, Joseph C. Rodriguez, John P. Baca, Roy P. Benavidez, Emilio A. De La Garza, Ralph E. Dias, Daniel Fernandez, Alfredo Cantu "Freddy" Gonzalez, Jose Francisco Jimenez, Miguel Keith, Carlos James Lozada, Alfred V. Rascon, Louis R. Rocco, Euripides Rubio, Hector Santiago-Colon, Elmelindo Rodrigues Smith, Jay R. Vargas, Humbert Roque Versace, and Maximo Yabes. National intelligence[edit]

In the spy arena, José Rodríguez, a native of Puerto Rico, was the Deputy Director of Operations and subsequently Director of the National Clandestine Service (D/NCS), two senior positions in the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
(CIA), between 2004 and 2007.[244] Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Colonel Mercedes O. Cubria
Mercedes O. Cubria
(1903–1980), a.k.a. La Tía (The Aunt), was the first Cuban-born female officer in the U.S. Army. She served in the Women's Army Corps
Women's Army Corps
during World War II
World War II
and in the U.S. Army
U.S. Army
during the Korean War, and was recalled into service during the Cuban Missile Crisis. In 1988, she was posthumously inducted into the Military Intelligence Hall of Fame.[245]

Science and technology[edit] See also: Society of Hispanic
Hispanic
Professional Engineers

Luis Walter Álvarez, experimental physicist, inventor, and professor, was awarded the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
of Physics in 1968.

Laser physicist and author Francisco Javier Duarte

Among Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
who have excelled in science are Luis Walter Álvarez, Nobel Prize–winning physicist, and his son Walter Alvarez, a geologist. They first proposed that an asteroid impact on the Yucatán Peninsula
Yucatán Peninsula
caused the extinction of the dinosaurs. Mario J. Molina won the Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in chemistry and currently works in the chemistry department at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Victor Manuel Blanco
Victor Manuel Blanco
is an astronomer who in 1959 discovered "Blanco 1", a galactic cluster.[246] F. J. Duarte
F. J. Duarte
is a laser physicist and author; he received the Engineering
Engineering
Excellence Award from the prestigious Optical Society of America
Optical Society of America
for the invention of the N-slit laser interferometer.[247] Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa
is the Director of the Pituitary Surgery Program at Johns Hopkins Hospital
Johns Hopkins Hospital
and the Director of the Brain Tumor Stem Cell Laboratory at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. Physicist Albert Baez made important contributions to the early development of X-ray microscopes and later X-ray telescopes. His nephew John Carlos Baez is also a noted mathematical physicist. Francisco J. Ayala
Francisco J. Ayala
is a biologist and philosopher, former president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and has been awarded the National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
and the Templeton Prize. Peruvian-American biophysicist Carlos Bustamante
Carlos Bustamante
has been named a Searle Scholar and Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
Fellow. Luis von Ahn is one of the pioneers of crowdsourcing and the founder of the companies reCAPTCHA and Duolingo. Colombian-American Ana Maria Rey received a MacArthur Fellowship
MacArthur Fellowship
for her work in atomic physics in 2013. Dr. Fernando E. Rodríguez Vargas discovered the bacteria that cause dental cavity. Dr. Gualberto Ruaño is a biotechnology pioneer in the field of personalized medicine and the inventor of molecular diagnostic systems, Coupled Amplification and Sequencing (CAS) System, used worldwide for the management of viral diseases.[248] Fermín Tangüis was an agriculturist and scientist who developed the Tangüis Cotton in Peru
Peru
and saved that nation's cotton industry.[249] Severo Ochoa, born in Spain, was a co-winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize
Nobel Prize
in Physiology or Medicine. Dr. Sarah Stewart, a Mexican-American Microbiologist, is credited with the discovery of the Polyomavirus and successfully demonstrating that cancer causing viruses could be transmitted from animal to animal. Mexican-American psychiatrist Dr. Nora Volkow, whose brain imaging studies helped characterize the mechanisms of drug addiction, is the current director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Dr. Helen Rodríguez Trías, an early advocate for women's reproductive rights, helped drive and draft U.S. federal sterilization guidelines in 1979. She was awarded the Presidential Citizens Medal
Presidential Citizens Medal
by President Bill Clinton, and was the first Latina president of the American Public Health Association.

Joseph Acaba, Puerto Rican-American
Puerto Rican-American
NASA
NASA
astronaut

Mexican American
Mexican American
astronaut Ellen Ochoa
Ellen Ochoa
became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
woman in the world to go into space.

Some Hispanics and Latinos have made their names in astronautics, including several NASA
NASA
astronauts:[250] Franklin Chang-Diaz, the first Latin American NASA
NASA
astronaut, is co-recordholder for the most flights in outer space, and is the leading researcher on the plasma engine for rockets; France A. Córdova, former NASA
NASA
chief scientist; Juan R. Cruz, NASA
NASA
aerospace engineer; Lieutenant
Lieutenant
Carlos I. Noriega, NASA mission specialist and computer scientist; Dr. Orlando Figueroa, mechanical engineer and Director of Mars Exploration in NASA; Amri Hernández-Pellerano, engineer who designs, builds and tests the electronics that will regulate the solar array power in order to charge the spacecraft battery and distribute power to the different loads or users inside various spacecraft at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Olga D. González-Sanabria
Olga D. González-Sanabria
won an R&D 100 Award for her role in the development of the "Long Cycle-Life Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries" which help enable the International Space Station
International Space Station
power system. Mercedes Reaves, research engineer and scientist who is responsible for the design of a viable full-scale solar sail and the development and testing of a scale model solar sail at NASA
NASA
Langley Research Center. Dr. Pedro Rodríguez, inventor and mechanical engineer who is the director of a test laboratory at NASA
NASA
and of a portable, battery-operated lift seat for people suffering from knee arthritis. Dr. Felix Soto Toro, electrical engineer and astronaut applicant who developed the Advanced Payload Transfer Measurement System (ASPTMS) (Electronic 3D measuring system); Ellen Ochoa, a pioneer of spacecraft technology and astronaut; Joseph Acaba, Fernando Caldeiro, Sidney Gutierrez, Jose Hernández, Michael López-Alegría, John Olivas, and George Zamka, who are current or former astronauts. Sports[edit] Baseball[edit]

Alex Rodriguez

The large number of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino American stars in Major League Baseball (MLB) includes players like Ted Williams
Ted Williams
(considered by many to be the greatest hitter of all time), Alex Rodriguez, Alex Rios, Miguel Cabrera, Lefty Gómez, Iván Rodríguez, Carlos González, Roberto Clemente, Adrian Gonzalez, Jose Fernandez, David Ortiz, Fernando Valenzuela, Nomar Garciaparra, Albert Pujols, Omar Vizquel, managers Al López, Ozzie Guillén, and Felipe Alou, and General Manager Omar Minaya. Basketball
Basketball
and football[edit]

Tony Romo, Mexican American
Mexican American
quarterback for the Dallas Cowboys

There have been far fewer football and basketball players, let alone star players, but Tom Flores was the first Hispanic
Hispanic
head coach and the first Hispanic
Hispanic
quarterback in American professional football, and won Super Bowls
Super Bowls
as a player, as assistant coach and as head coach for the Oakland Raiders. Anthony Múñoz
Anthony Múñoz
is enshrined in the Pro Football Hall of Fame, ranked #17 on Sporting News's 1999 list of the 100 greatest football players, and was the highest-ranked offensive lineman. Jim Plunkett won the Heisman Trophy and was inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame, and Joe Kapp
Joe Kapp
is inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame and College Football Hall of Fame. Steve Van Buren, Martin Gramatica, Victor Cruz, Tony Gonzalez, Marc Bulger, Tony Romo and Mark Sanchez
Mark Sanchez
can also be cited among successful Hispanics and Latinos in the National Football League
National Football League
(NFL).

Puerto Rican NBA Allstar Carmelo Anthony

Trevor Ariza, Mark Aguirre, Carmelo Anthony, Manu Ginóbili, Carlos Arroyo, Gilbert Arenas, Rolando Blackman, Pau Gasol, Jose Calderon, José Juan Barea
José Juan Barea
and Charlie Villanueva
Charlie Villanueva
can be cited in the National Basketball
Basketball
Association (NBA). Dick Versace made history when he became the first person of Hispanic
Hispanic
heritage to coach an NBA team. Rebecca Lobo was a major star and champion of collegiate (National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)) and Olympic basketball and played professionally in the Women's National Basketball
Basketball
Association (WNBA). Diana Taurasi
Diana Taurasi
became just the seventh player ever to win an NCAA title, a WNBA title, and as well an Olympic gold medal. Orlando Antigua became in 1995 the first Hispanic
Hispanic
and the first non-black in 52 years to play for the Harlem Globetrotters. Tennis[edit] Tennis
Tennis
players includes legend Pancho Gonzales
Pancho Gonzales
and Olympic tennis champions and professional players Mary Joe Fernández
Mary Joe Fernández
and Gigi Fernández and 2016 Puerto Rican Gold Medalist Monica Puig. Football (soccer)[edit]

Bocanegra with the United States
United States
men's national soccer team in 2010

Hispanics are present in all major American sports and leagues, but have particularly influenced the growth in popularity of soccer in the United States. Soccer
Soccer
is the most popular sport across Latin America and Spain, and Hispanics brought the heritage of soccer playing to the US. Major League Soccer
Soccer
teams such as Chivas USA, LA Galaxy, and the Houston Dynamo, for example, have a fanbase composed primarily of Mexican Americans.[251][252][253] Association football
Association football
players in the Major League Soccer
Soccer
(MLS) includes several like Tab Ramos, Claudio Reyna, Omar Gonzalez, Marcelo Balboa
Marcelo Balboa
and Carlos Bocanegra. Other sports[edit]

De La Hoya in 2008

Boxing's first Hispanic
Hispanic
world champion was Panama
Panama
Al Brown. Some other champions include Oscar De La Hoya, Miguel Cotto, Bobby Chacon, Brandon Ríos, Michael Carbajal, John Ruiz, and Carlos Ortiz. Ricco Rodriguez, Tito Ortiz, Diego Sanchez, Nick Diaz, Nate Diaz, Dominick Cruz, Frank Shamrock, Gilbert Melendez, Roger Huerta, Carlos Condit, Kelvin Gastelum, and UFC Heavy Weight Champion Cain Velasquez have been competitors in the Ultimate Fighting Championship
Ultimate Fighting Championship
(UFC) of mixed martial arts. In 1991 Bill Guerin
Bill Guerin
whose mother is Nicaraguan
Nicaraguan
became the first Hispanic
Hispanic
player in the National Hockey League
National Hockey League
(NHL). He was also selected to four NHL All-Star Games. In 1999 Scott Gomez
Scott Gomez
won the NHL Rookie of the Year Award.[254] Figure skater Rudy Galindo; golfers Chi Chi Rodríguez, Nancy López, and Lee Trevino; softball player Lisa Fernández; and Paul Rodríguez Jr., X Games
X Games
professional skateboarder, are all Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino Americans
Americans
who have distinguished themselves in their sports. In sports entertainment we find the professional wrestlers Alberto Del Rio, Rey Mysterio, Eddie Guerrero, Tyler Black and Melina Pérez, and executive Vickie Guerrero. Hispanophobia[edit] Main articles: Hispanophobia
Hispanophobia
and Anti-Mexican sentiment

Ana Navarro, is a Nicaraguan-American Republican strategist and political commentator for various news outlets, including CNN, CNN
CNN
en Español,[255] ABC News, Telemundo,[256] and The View.[257]

Hispanophobia
Hispanophobia
has existed in various degrees throughout U.S. history, based largely on ethnicity, race, culture, Anti-Catholicism, economic and social conditions in Latin America, and use of the Spanish language.[258][259][260][261] In 2006, Time Magazine
Magazine
reported that the number of hate groups in the United States
United States
increased by 33 percent since 2000, primarily due to anti-illegal immigrant and anti-Mexican sentiment.[262] According to Federal Bureau of Investigation statistics, the number of anti-Latino hate crimes increased by 35 percent since 2003 (albeit from a low level). In California, the state with the largest Latino population, the number of hate crimes against Latinos almost doubled.[263] For the year 2009, the FBI reported that 483 of the 6,604 hate crimes committed in the United States
United States
were anti- Hispanic
Hispanic
comprising 7.3% of all hate crimes. This compares to 34.6% of hate crimes being anti-Black, 17.9% being anti-Homosexual, 14.1% being anti-Jewish, and 8.3% being anti-White.[264] See also[edit]

Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
portal

Places of settlement in United States:

List of U.S. communities with Hispanic
Hispanic
majority populations in the 2010 census List of U.S. cities with large Hispanic
Hispanic
populations List of U.S. cities by Spanish-speaking population Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
in California Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
in Arizona Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
in New Mexico Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
in Texas Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
in Nevada Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
in Florida

Diaspora:

Latino diaspora Hispanidad Latin Americans

Latin American Australian Latin American Canadian Latin Americans
Latin Americans
in the United Kingdom

Latin American Asian Hispanics and Latins in Europe

Individuals:

List of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans

Hispanics in the American Civil War Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
in World War II Hispanics in the United States
United States
Air Force Hispanics in the United States
United States
Coast Guard Hispanics in the United States
United States
Marine Corps Hispanics in the United States
United States
Navy

Hispanic
Hispanic
Admirals in the United States
United States
Navy Hispanics in the United States
United States
Naval Academy

Other Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans
Americans
topics:

National Alliance for Hispanic
Hispanic
Health White Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans List of U.S. place names of Spanish origin Latino National Survey, 2006

General:

Demographics of the United States

Footnotes[edit]

^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic
Hispanic
Origin for the United States, States, and Counties: 2016 Population Estimates". United States
United States
Census Bureau. 1 July 2016. Retrieved 8 August 2017.  ^ a b "Supplemental Table 2. Persons Obtaining Lawful Permanent Resident Status by Leading Core Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs) of Residence and Region and Country of Birth: Fiscal Year 2014". U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved July 3, 2017.  ^ a b c "U.S. Catholic Hispanic
Hispanic
Population Less Religious, Shrinking". =Gallup.com. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "Growing number of Latinos have no religious affiliation". NBC Latino. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "Overview of Race and Hispanic
Hispanic
Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. March 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 29, 2011. Retrieved January 9, 2016.  ^ Luis Fraga; John A. Garcia (2010). Latino Lives in America: Making It Home. Temple University Press. p. 145. ISBN 978-1-4399-0050-5.  ^ Nancy L. Fisher (1996). Cultural and Ethnic Diversity: A Guide for Genetics Professionals. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-8018-5346-3.  ^ Robert H. Holden; Rina Villars (2012). Contemporary Latin America: 1970 to the Present. John Wiley & Sons. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-118-27487-3.  ^ "49 CFR Part 26". Retrieved 2012-10-22. ' Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans,' which includes European-descended persons of Mexican-, Puerto Rican-, Jamaican-, Cuban, Dominican-, Central or South American  ^ "US Small Business Administration
Small Business Administration
8(a) Program Standard Operating Procedure" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-09-25. Retrieved 2012-10-22. SBA has defined ' Hispanic
Hispanic
American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, or the Iberian Peninsula, including Spain
Spain
and Portugal.  ^ Humes, Karen R.; Jones, Nicholas A.; Ramirez, Roberto R. "Overview of Race and Hispanic
Hispanic
Origin: 2010" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-29. Retrieved 2011-03-28. "Hispanic or Latino" refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race.  ^ "American FactFinder Help: Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino origin". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-10-05.  ^ "PEOPLE REPORTING ANCESTRY Universe: Total population, 2014 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved 14 October 2015.  This page of the US Census bureau is about the reported ethnicities of United States
United States
in 2014. The page indicates the number of American people (or residents in United States) identifying as of different national origins. ^ a b Office of Management and Budget. "Revisions to the Standards for the Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity. Federal Register Notice October 30, 1997". Archived from the original on January 17, 2017. Retrieved 2012-06-01.  ^ a b c Grieco, Elizabeth M.; Rachel C. Cassidy. "Overview of Race and Hispanic
Hispanic
Origin: 2000" (PDF). United States
United States
Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-04-27.  ^ "B03001. Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino origin by specific origin". 2009 American Community Survey
American Community Survey
1-Year Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2016-04-17. Retrieved 2010-10-17.  ^ "CIA – The World Factbook – Field Listing :: Ethnic groups". Retrieved 2010-11-18.  ^ "T4-2007. Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino By Race [15]". 2007 Population Estimates. United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2010-09-10.  ^ "B03002. Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino origin by race". 2007 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. United States
United States
Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2010-09-02.  ^ Tafoya, Sonya (2004-12-06). "Shades of Belonging" (PDF). Pew Hispanic
Hispanic
Center. Retrieved 2008-05-07.  ^ The Contested Homeland - A Chicano
Chicano
History of New Mexico ^ "Hispanics Were Not The Fastest-Growing Minority Group Last Year". MarketingCharts. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ F. Lennox Campello. "Hispanics or Latinos: A Culture – Not a Race!". Tripod.com. Retrieved 9 January 2016.  ^ a b c Small, Lawrence M (2002-08-01). "Latino Legacies". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2008-04-28. There was a Hispanic
Hispanic
presence on the continent for more than 200 years before 13 colonies on the eastern coast declared their independence from England.... By 1607, when the British established their first successful settlement, at Jamestown, Virginia, writes historian Bernard Bailyn, "Spain's American dominion extended nearly 8,000 miles, from Southern California
California
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Los Angeles
Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved December 25, 2013.  ^ Garza, Agustin (May 18, 2002). "Latin Grammys Struggle With Loss of Momentum". Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Tribune Company. Retrieved December 25, 2013.  ^ "National Hispanic
Hispanic
Media Coalition: About Us". Retrieved 2008-06-12.  ^ Noriega, Chon. "Politics and Culture: Making a Difference". Connecticut College. Archived from the original on December 10, 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-12.  ^ [1][permanent dead link] ^ "04/13/1998 I'd like the world to by a coke". The McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2008-12-13.  ^ "Arturo Moreno". Time. Retrieved 2008-12-13.  ^ "Joseph Unanue". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2008-12-13.  ^ "Biografía de Ángel Ramos Torres". Archived from the original on 2007-10-24. Retrieved 2009-04-16.  ^ "Samuel A. Ramirez & Company, Inc. Introduces The Ramirez Hispanic
Hispanic
Index Equally-Weighted Portfolio". Archived from the original on 2008-10-12. Retrieved 2009-04-16.  ^ "Making Wall Street
Wall Street
History" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2006. Retrieved 2009-04-16.  Scan of cover story in Hispanic
Hispanic
Trends, issue of December, 2005 – January 2006. ^ "Directory of Latino Elected Officials". Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-27.  ^ "Latino clout in Congress appears to stay consistent". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "History of NALEO". Archived from the original on December 14, 2009. Retrieved 2010-01-27.  ^ "First Latina Governor's Historic Inauguration Gets Little National News Coverage". Fox News. 2011-01-11.  ^ "Lauro F. Cavazos: An Inventory of His Papers 1943-1991 and undated, at the Southwest Collection/ Special
Special
Collections Library". Lib.utexas.edu. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "Princeton's Children's Book Festival". Princeton Library. September 15, 2007. Archived from the original on February 26, 2010.  ^ "Operation Tribute to Freedom :: Supporting Soldiers in The War on Terrorism". 25 March 2007. Archived from the original on 25 March 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "Senator Mark Pryor Press Releases". 8 March 2007. Archived from the original on 8 March 2007. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "The Hispanic
Hispanic
Experience - Contributions to America's Defense". Houstonculture.org. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "U.S. military, a growing Latino army". Nbclatino.com. 1 January 2013. Retrieved 16 January 2018.  ^ "David Farragut". Nndb.com. Retrieved 2007-04-14.  ^ "Hispanics Firsts"; by: Nicolas Kanellos; pp. 210–211; Publisher: Visible Ink Press; ISBN 0-7876-0519-0 ^ "Arlington National Cemetery - Home". Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ a b c "The Civil War, 1840s-1890s"; by Roger E. Hernandez, Roger E. Hernndez; ISBN 978-0-7614-2939-5; ISBN 0-7614-2939-5 ^ a b c "Hispanics in America's Defense" (PDF). Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Military Manpower and Personnel Policy. Retrieved January 10, 2016.  ^ "Civil War Stories - Immigrants". Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ "The Puerto Rican Diaspora: historical perspectives"; By Carmen Teresa Whalen, Víctor Vázquez-Hernandez; page 176; Publisher: Temple University Press; ISBN 978-1-59213-413-7; ISBN 1-59213-413-0 ^ Collection of the U.S. Military Academy Library, Pages 132–133; Publication: Assembly; Summer 1969 Archived February 8, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Patriots under Fire: Japanese Americans
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Marine Corps. Archived from the original on 2007-07-04. Retrieved 2006-08-05.  ^ Martin, David (May 3, 2017). "Army combat photographer's last picture is of her own death". CBS
CBS
News.  ^ "HPSCI Chairman Reyes Honors D/NCS Jose Rodriguez — Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 2010-03-09.  ^ "Diversity, the MI Tradition" (PDF). Fort Huachuca, United States Army. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 25, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2011.  ^ "Exótico Cielo Profundo". Surastronomico.com. Retrieved 5 March 2015.  ^ Optics & Photonics News 6(10), 12 (1995). ^ Genetic Roadmap Targets Drug Therapies from Hartford Business
Business
Review 30 November 2009 ^ Un Modelo de Vida (A role model in his lifetime) Archived May 12, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "HEP@ NASA
NASA
LaRC; NASA
NASA
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Further reading[edit]

Surveys and historiography[edit]

Bean, Frank D., and Marta Tienda. The Hispanic
Hispanic
Population of the United States
United States
(1987), statistical analysis of demography and social structure Miguel A. De La Torre. Encyclopedia on Hispanic
Hispanic
American Religious Culture (2 vol. ABC-CLIO Publishers, 2009). De Leon, Arnoldo, and Richard Griswold Del Castillo. North to Aztlan: A History of Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
in the United States
United States
(2006) Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano
Chicano
Historiography," Reviews in American History 34.4 (2006) 521-528 in Project Muse Gomez-Quiñones, Juan. Mexican American
Mexican American
Labor, 1790-1990. (1994). Gutiérrez, David G. ed. The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States Since 1960 (2004) 512pp excerpt and text search Gutiérrez, David G. "Migration, Emergent Ethnicity, and the 'Third Space'": The Shifting Politics of Nationalism in Greater Mexico" Journal of American History 1999 86(2): 481-517. in JSTOR covers 1800 to the 1980s Leonard, David J. Latino History and Culture: An Encyclopedia (Sharpe Reference 2009) Oboler, Suzanne, and Deena J. González, eds. The Oxford Encyclopedia Of Latinos & Latinas In The United States
United States
(4 vol. 2006) excerpt and text search Rochín, Refugio I., and Denis N. Valdés, eds. Voices of a New Chicana/o History. (2000). 307 pp. Ruiz, Vicki L. "Nuestra América: Latino History as United States History," Journal of American History, 93 (2006), 655–72. in JSTOR Ruiz, Vicki L. From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth-Century America (1998)

Pre 1965[edit]

Bogardus, Emory S. The Mexican in the United States
United States
(1934), sociological Gamio, Manuel. The Life Story of the Mexican Immigrant (1931) Gamio, Manuel. Mexican Immigration to the United States
United States
(1939) García, Mario T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960 (1989) García, Mario T. Desert Immigrants. The Mexicans of El Paso, 1880-1920 (1982) 348 pp; excerpt and text search Gomez-Quinones, Juan. Roots of Chicano
Chicano
Politics, 1600-1940 (1994) Grebler, Leo, Joan Moore, and Ralph Guzmán. The Mexican American People: The Nation's Second Largest Minority (1970), emphasis on census data and statistics Rivas-Rodríguez, Maggie ed. Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
and World War II
World War II
(2005) Sanchez, George J. Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano
Chicano
Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (1995) excerpt and text search

Culture and politics, post 1965[edit]

Abrajano, Marisa A., and R. Michael Alvarez, eds. New Faces, New Voices: The Hispanic
Hispanic
Electorate in America (Princeton University Press; 2010) 219 pages. Documents the generational and other diversity of the Hispanic
Hispanic
electorate and challenges myths about voter behavior. Aranda, José, Jr. When We Arrive: A New Literary History of Mexican America. U. of Arizona
Arizona
Press, 2003. 256 pp. Arreola, Daniel D., ed. Hispanic
Hispanic
Spaces, Latino Places: Community and Cultural Diversity in Contemporary America. 2004. 334 pp. Badillo, David A. Latinos and the New Immigrant Church. 2006. 275 pp. excerpt and text search Berg, Charles Ramírez. Latino Images in Film: Stereotypes, Subversion, and Resistance. 2002. 314 pp. Branton, Regina. "Latino Attitudes toward Various Areas of Public Policy: The Importance of Acculturation," Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 60, No. 2, 293-303 (2007) Abstract Cepeda, Raquel. Bird of Paradise: How I Became Latina Atria Books. 2013. ISBN 978-1-4516-3586-7. A personal exploration of Dominican American identity via family interviews, travel and genetic genealogy. Synopsis and Excerpt DeGenova, Nicholas and Ramos-Zayas, Ana Y. Latino Crossings: Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and the Politics of Race and Citizenship. 2003. 257 pp. Dolan, Jay P. and Gilberto M. Hinojosa; Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
and the Catholic Church, 1900-1965 (1994) Fregoso, Rosa Linda. The Bronze Screen: Chicana and Chicano
Chicano
Film Culture. (1993) excerpt and text search García, Mario T. Mexican Americans: Leadership, Ideology and Identity, 1930–1960 (1989) García, María Cristina. Seeking Refuge: Central American Migration to Mexico, The United States, and Canada. (2006) 290pp Gomez-Quinones, Juan. Chicano
Chicano
Politics: Reality and Promise, 1940-1990 (1990) Gutiérrez, David G. Walls and Mirrors: Mexican Americans, Mexican Immigrants, and the Politics of Ethnicity
Ethnicity
in the Southwest, 1910-1986 1995. excerpt and text search Hammerback, John C., Richard J. Jensen, and Jose Angel Gutierrez. A War of Words: Chicano
Chicano
Protest in the 1960s and 1970s 1985. Herrera-Sobek, Maria. Celebrating Latino Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Cultural Traditions (3 vol., 2012) excerpt and text search Kanellos, Nicolás, ed. The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Latino Literature (3 vol. 2008) excerpt and text search Kenski, Kate and Tisinger, Russell. " Hispanic
Hispanic
Voters in the 2000 and 2004 Presidential General Elections." Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(2): 189-202. ISSN 0360-4918 López-Calvo, Ignacio. Latino Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in Film and Fiction: The Cultural Production of Social Anxiety. University of Arizona
Arizona
Press, 2011. ISBN 0-8165-2926-4 Martinez, Juan Francisco. Sea La Luz: The Making of Mexican Protestantism
Protestantism
in the American Southwest, 1829-1900 (2006) Matovina, Timothy. Guadalupe and Her Faithful: Latino Catholics in San Antonio, from Colonial Origins to the Present. 2005. 232 pp. excerpt and text search Meier, Matt S., and Margo Gutierrez, ed. Encyclopedia of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement (2000) excerpt and text search Nuno, S. A. "Latino Mobilization and Vote Choice in the 2000 Presidential Election" American Politics Research, (2007); 35(2): 273 - 293. Abstract Saldívar-Hull, Sonia. Feminism on the Border: Chicana Gender Politics and Literature 2000. excerpt and text search Wegner, Kyle David, "Children of Aztlán: Mexican American
Mexican American
Popular Culture and the Post- Chicano
Chicano
Aesthetic" (PhD dissertation State University of New York, Buffalo, 2006). Order No. DA3213898.

Women[edit]

Martinez, Elizabeth. 500 Years of Chicana Women's History/500 anos de la mujer Chicana, Rutgers University Press (Bilingual Edition) 2008.

Regional and local[edit]

Overmyer-Velazquez, Mark. Latino America: A State-by-State Encyclopedia (2 vol. 2008) excerpt and text search

California[edit]

Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft,

vol 18-24, History of California
California
to 1890

Bedolla, Lisa García. Fluid Borders: Latino Power, Identity, and Politics in Los Angeles. 2005. 279 pp. Burt, Kenneth C. The Search for a Civic Voice: California
California
Latino Politics (2007) excerpt and text search Camarillo, Albert. Chicanos in a Changing Society: From Mexican Pueblos to American Barrios in Santa Barbara and Southern California, 1848–1930 (1979) Camarillo, Albert M., "Cities of Color: The New Racial Frontier in California's Minority-Majority Cities," Pacific Historical Review, 76 (Feb. 2007), 1–28; looks at cities of Compton, East Palo Alto, and Seaside Daniel, Cletus E. Bitter Harvest: A History of California
California
Farmworkers, 1870-1941 1981. García, Matt. A World of Its Own: Race, Labor, and Citrus in the Making of Greater Los Angeles, 1900-1970 (2001), Hayes-Bautista, David E. La Nueva California: Latinos in the Golden State. U. of California
California
Press, 2004. 263 pp. excerpt and text search Hughes, Charles. "The Decline of the Californios: The Case of San Diego, 1846-1856" The Journal of San Diego History Summer 1975, Volume 21, Number 3 online at [3] McWilliams, Carey. North from Mexico. (1949), farm workers in California Pitt, Leonard. The Decline of the Californios: A Social History of the Spanish speaking Californians, 1846-1890 (ISBN 0-520-01637-8) Sánchez; George J. Becoming Mexican American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano
Chicano
Los Angeles, 1900-1945 (1993) excerpt and text search Valle, Victor M. and Torres, Rodolfo D. Latino Metropolis. 2000. 249 pp. on Los Angeles

Texas
Texas
and Southwest[edit]

Alonzo, Armando C. Tejano Legacy: Rancheros and Settlers in South Texas, 1734-1900 (1998) Hubert Howe Bancroft. The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft,

v 15: History of the North Mexican States and Texas, Volume 1: 1531 - 1800 v 16 History of the North Mexican States and Texas, Volume 2: 1801 - 1889 Vol. 17 History of Arizona
Arizona
and New Mexico
Mexico
(1530-1888) (1889)

Blackwelder, Julia Kirk. Women of the Depression: Caste and Culture in San Antonio
San Antonio
1984. excerpt and text search Buitron Jr., Richard A. The Quest for Tejano Identity in San Antonio, Texas, 1913-2000 (2004) excerpt and text search Chávez, John R. The Lost Land: The Chicano
Chicano
Image of the Southwest (Albuquerque, 1984) Chávez-García, Miroslava. Negotiating Conquest: Gender and Power in California, 1770s to 1880s (2004). De León, Arnoldo. They Called Them Greasers: Anglo Attitudes toward Mexicans in Texas, 1821–1900 (Austin, 1983) De León, Arnoldo. Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
in Texas: A Brief History, 2nd ed. (1999) Deutsch, Sarah No Separate Refuge: Culture, Class, and Gender on the Anglo- Hispanic
Hispanic
Frontier in the American Southwest, 1880-1940 1987 Dysart, Jane. "Mexican Women in San Antonio, 1830-1860: The Assimilation Process" Western Historical Quarterly 7 (October 1976): 365-375. in JSTOR Echeverría, Darius V., "Aztlán Arizona: Abuses, Awareness, Animosity, and Activism amid Mexican-Americans, 1968–1978" PhD dissertation (Temple University, 2006). Order No. DA3211867. Fregoso; Rosa Linda. Mexicana Encounters: The Making of Social Identities on the Borderlands (2003) Garcia, Ignacio M. Viva Kennedy: Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
in Search of Camelot, Texas
Texas
A&M University Press, 2000. 227pp and online search from Amazon.com. García, Richard A. Rise of the Mexican American
Mexican American
Middle Class: San Antonio, 1929-1941 1991 Getz; Lynne Marie. Schools of Their Own: The Education of Hispanos in New Mexico, 1850-1940 (1997) Gómez-Quiñones, Juan. Roots of Chicano
Chicano
Politics, 1600-1940 (1994) Gonzales-Berry, Erlinda, David R. Maciel, editors, The Contested Homeland: A Chicano
Chicano
History of New Mexico, 314 pages (2000), ISBN 0-8263-2199-2 González; Nancie L. The Spanish- Americans
Americans
of New Mexico: A Heritage of Pride (1969) Guglielmo, Thomas A. "Fighting for Caucasian Rights: Mexicans, Mexican Americans, and the Transnational Struggle for Civil Rights in World War II Texas," Journal of American History, 92 (March 2006) in History Cooperative Gutiérrez; Ramón A. When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away: Marriage, Sexuality, and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1846 (1991) Márquez, Benjamin. LULAC: The Evolution of a Mexican American Political Organization (1993) Matovina, Timothy M. Tejano Religion and Ethnicity, San Antonio, 1821-1860 (1995) Montejano, David. Anglos and Mexicans in the Making of Texas, 1836-1986 (1987) Muñoz, Laura K., "Desert Dreams: Mexican American
Mexican American
Education in Arizona, 1870–1930" (PhD dissertation Arizona
Arizona
State University, 2006). Order No. DA3210182. Quintanilla, Linda J., "Chicana Activists of Austin and Houston, Texas: A Historical Analysis" (University of Houston, 2005). Order No. DA3195964. Sánchez; George I. Forgotten People: A Study of New Mexicans (1940; reprint 1996) on New Mexico Taylor, Paul S. Mexican Labor in the United States. 2 vols. 1930-1932, on Texas Stewart, Kenneth L., and Arnoldo De León. Not Room Enough: Mexicans, Anglos, and Socioeconomic Change in Texas, 1850-1900 (1993) de la Teja, Jesús F. San Antonio
San Antonio
de Béxar: A Community on New Spain's Northern Frontier (1995). Tijerina, Andrés. Tejanos and Texas
Texas
under the Mexican Flag, 1821-1836 (1994), Tijerina, Andrés. Tejano Empire: Life on the South Texas
Texas
Ranchos (1998). Timmons, W. H. El Paso: A Borderlands History (1990). Trevino, Roberto R. The Church in the Barrio: Mexican American Ethno-Catholicism in Houston. (2006). 308pp. Weber, David J. The Mexican Frontier, 1821-1846: The American Southwest under Mexico
Mexico
(1982)

Garcia, Richard A. "Changing Chicano
Chicano
Historiography," Reviews in American History 34.4 (2006) 521-528 in Project Muse

Other regions[edit]

Bullock, Charles S., III and Hood, M. V., III. "A Mile-wide Gap: the Evolution of Hispanic
Hispanic
Political Emergence in the Deep South." Social Science Quarterly 2006 87 (special Issue): 1117-1135. ISSN 0038-4941 Fulltext: in Blackwell Synergy García, María Cristina. Havana, USA: Cuban Exiles and Cuban Americans
Americans
in South Florida, 1959–1994 (1996); excerpt and text search Korrol, Virginia
Virginia
Sánchez. From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
in New York City, 1917–1948 (1994) Fernandez, Lilia. Brown in the Windy City: Mexicans and Puerto Ricans in Postwar Chicago
Chicago
(University of Chicago
Chicago
Press, 2012) Millard, Ann V. and Chapa, Jorge. Apple Pie and Enchiladas: Latino Newcomers in the Rural Midwest. 2004. 276 pp. excerpt and text search Murphy, Arthur D., Colleen Blanchard, and Jennifer A. Hill, eds. Latino Workers in the Contemporary South. 2001. 224 pp. Padilla, Felix M. Puerto Rican Chicago. (1987). 277 pp. Sãnchez Korrol, Virginia
Virginia
E. From Colonia to Community: The History of Puerto Ricans
Puerto Ricans
in New York City. (1994) complete text online free in California; excerpt and text search Vargas, Zaragosa. Proletarians of the North: A History of Mexican Industrial Workers in Detroit and the Midwest, 1917-1933 (1993) complete text online free in California; excerpt and text search Whalen, Carmen Teresa, and Victor Vásquez-Hernández, eds. The Puerto Rican Diaspora: Historical Perspectives (2005),

Primary sources[edit]

Richard Ellis, ed. New Mexico
Mexico
Past and Present: A Historical Reader. 1971. David J. Weber; Foreigners in Their Native Land: Historical Roots of the Mexican Americans
Mexican Americans
(1973), primary sources to 1912

External links[edit]

2000 Census Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
in Congress Library of Congress Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans
Americans
in the U.S. Army Latino- Americans
Americans
Become Unofficial Face of Politics Abroad by Josh Miller, PBS, April 27, 2007 Latino in America - CNN Mexican American
Mexican American
News - Xcano Media

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