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The term Hispanic
Hispanic
(Spanish: hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain. It commonly applies to countries once under colonial possession by the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
following Spanish colonization of the Americas, parts of the Asia-Pacific region and Africa, principally what are today the countries of Hispanic America
Hispanic America
where Spanish is the predominant or official language and their cultures are heavily derived from Spain
Spain
although with strong local indigenous or other foreign influences. It is sometimes extended to the Philippines, Guam, etc., although Spanish is not dominant nor official, and their cultures are largely local indigenous but heavily influenced by Spain. It could be argued that the term Hispanic
Hispanic
should apply to all Spanish-speaking cultures or countries, as the historical roots of the word specifically pertain to the Iberian region. It is difficult to label a nation or culture with one term, such as Hispanic, as the ethnicities, customs, traditions, and art forms (music, literature, dress, culture, cuisine, and others) vary greatly by country and region. The Spanish language
Spanish language
and Spanish culture are the main distinctions.[1][2] Hispanic
Hispanic
originally referred to the people of ancient Roman Hispania, which roughly comprised the Iberian Peninsula, including the contemporary states of Spain, Portugal, and Andorra, and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.[3][4][5]

Contents

1 Terminology

1.1 Definitions in ancient Rome 1.2 Definitions in Portugal
Portugal
and Spain 1.3 Definitions in the United States

1.3.1 Hispanicization

2 Spanish-speaking countries and regions

2.1 Language and ethnicities in Spanish-speaking areas around the world 2.2 Areas with Hispanic
Hispanic
cultural influence

3 Culture

3.1 Music 3.2 Literature 3.3 Sports 3.4 Religion

4 Cultural heritage according to UNESCO 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External links

Terminology[edit] The term Hispanic
Hispanic
derives from Latin Hispanicus ('Spanish'), the adjectival derivation of Latin (and Greek) Hispania
Hispania
('Spain') and Hispanus/ Hispanos ('Spaniard'), ultimately probably of Celtiberian origin.[6] In English the word is attested from the 16th century (and in the late 19th century in American English).[7] The words Spain, Spanish, and Spaniard
Spaniard
are of the same etymology as Hispanus, ultimately.[6]

Stele of a family of celts, hispanus from Gallaecia : Apana · Ambo/lli · f(ilia) · Celtica /Supertam(arica) · / [j] Miobri · /an(norum) · XXV · h(ic) · s(ita) · e(st) · /Apanus · fr(ater) · f(aciendum)· c(uravit)[8]

Hispanus was the Latin name given to a person from Hispania
Hispania
during Roman rule. In English, the term Hispano-Roman is sometimes used.[9] The Hispano-Romans were composed of people from many different indigenous tribes, in addition to Italian colonists.[10][11] Some famous Hispani (plural of Hispanus) and Hispaniensis were the emperors Trajan, Marcus Aurelius, Hadrian, Theodosius I
Theodosius I
and Magnus Maximus, the poets Marcus Annaeus Lucanus, Martial
Martial
and Prudentius, the philosophers Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Younger, or the usurper Maximus of Hispania. A number of these men, such as Trajan, Hadrian
Hadrian
and others, were in fact descended from Roman colonial families.[12][13][14] Here follows a comparison of several terms related to Hispanic:

Hispania
Hispania
was the name of the Iberian Peninsula/Iberia from the 3rd century BC to the 8th AD, both as a Roman Empire
Roman Empire
province and immediately thereafter as a Visigothic kingdom, 5th–8th century. Hispano-Roman is used to refer to the culture and people of Hispania.[15][16][17] Hispanic
Hispanic
is used to refer to modern Spain, to the Spanish language, and to the Spanish-speaking nations of the world, particularly the Americas,[17][18] Pacific Islands and Asia, such as the Philippines[19] and Guam. Spanish is used to refer to the people, nationality, culture, language and other things of Spain. Spaniard
Spaniard
is used to refer to the people of Spain.

Hispania
Hispania
was the Roman name for the whole territory of the Iberian Peninsula. Initially, this territory was divided into two provinces: Hispania
Hispania
Citerior and Hispania
Hispania
Ulterior. In 27 B.C, Hispania
Hispania
Ulterior was divided into two new provinces, Hispania
Hispania
Baetica and Hispania Lusitania, while Hispania
Hispania
Citerior was renamed Hispania
Hispania
Tarraconensis. This division of Hispania
Hispania
explains the usage of the singular and plural forms (Spain, and The Spains) used to refer to the peninsula and its kingdoms in the Middle Ages.[20] Before the marriage of Queen Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469, the four Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula—the Kingdom of Portugal, the Crown of Aragon, the Crown of Castile, and the Kingdom of Navarre—were collectively called The Spains. This revival of the old Roman concept in the Middle Ages appears to have originated in Provençal, and was first documented at the end of the 11th century. In the Council of Constance, the four kingdoms shared one vote. The word Lusitanian, relates to Lusitania
Lusitania
or Portugal, also in reference to the Lusitanians, possibly one of the first Indo-European tribes to settle in Europe. From this tribe's name had derived the name of the Roman province
Roman province
of Lusitania, and Lusitania
Lusitania
remains the name of Portugal
Portugal
in Latin. The terms Spain
Spain
and the Spains were not interchangeable.[21] Spain
Spain
was a geographic territory, home to several kingdoms (Christian and Muslim), with separate governments, laws, languages, religions, and customs, and was the historical remnant of the Hispano-Gothic unity.[22] Spain
Spain
was not a political entity until much later, and when referring to the Middle Ages, one should not be confounded with the nation-state of today.[23] The term The Spains referred specifically to a collective of juridico-political units, first the Christian kingdoms, and then the different kingdoms ruled by the same king. With the Decretos de Nueva Planta, Philip V started to organize the fusion of his kingdoms that until then were ruled as distinct and independent, but this unification process lacked a formal and juridic proclamation.[24][25] Although colloquially and literally the expression "King of Spain" or "King of the Spains" was already widespread,[26] it did not refer to a unified nation-state. It was only in the constitution of 1812 that was adopted the name Españas (Spains) for the Spanish nation and the use of the title of "king of the Spains".[27] The constitution of 1876 adopts for the first time the name "Spain" for the Spanish nation and from then on the kings would use the title of "king of Spain".[28] The expansion of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
between 1492 and 1898 brought thousands of Spanish migrants to the conquered lands, who established settlements, mainly in the Americas, but also in other distant parts of the world (as in the Philippines, the lone Spanish territory in Asia), producing a number of multiracial populations. Today, the term Hispanic
Hispanic
is typically applied to the varied populations of these places, including those with Spanish ancestry. The Filipinos however can be considered Hispanics because of the culture and language that Spanish left behind. Along with English and Tagalog, Spanish used to be one of the official languages in the Philippines
Philippines
before being removed in 1973 by the Cory Aquino government. Definitions in ancient Rome[edit] The Latin gentile adjectives that belong to Hispania
Hispania
are Hispanus, Hispanicus, and Hispanienses. A Hispanus is someone who is a native of Hispania
Hispania
with no foreign parents, while children born in Hispania
Hispania
of (Latin) Roman parents were Hispaniensis. Hispaniensis means 'connected in some way to Hispania', as in "Exercitus Hispaniensis" ('the Spanish army') or "mercatores Hispanienses" ('Spanish merchants'). Hispanicus implies 'of' or 'belonging to' Hispania
Hispania
or the Hispanus or of their fashion as in "glaudius Hispanicus".[29] The gentile adjectives were not ethnolinguistic but derived primarily on a geographic basis, from the toponym Hispania
Hispania
as the people of Hispania
Hispania
spoke different languages, although Livy
Livy
said they could all understand each other, not making clear if they spoke dialects of the same language or were polyglots.[30] The first recorded use of an anthroponym derived from the toponym Hispania
Hispania
is attested in one of the five fragments, of Ennius
Ennius
in 236 B.C. who wrote "Hispane, non Romane memoretis loqui me" ("Remember that I speak like a Spaniard
Spaniard
not a Roman") as having been said by a native of Hispania.[31][32] Definitions in Portugal
Portugal
and Spain[edit] The term Hispanic
Hispanic
signifies the cultural resonance, among other elements and characteristics, of the descendants of the people who inhabited ancient Hispania
Hispania
(Iberian Peninsula). It has been used throughout history for many purposes, including drawing a contrast to the Moors and differentiating explorers and settlers. Technically speaking, persons from Portugal
Portugal
or of Portuguese extraction are referred to as Lusitanians. In Portugal, Hispanic refers to something related to ancient Hispania, Spain
Spain
or the Spanish language and culture, Portugal.[33] Portugal
Portugal
and Spain
Spain
do not have exactly the same definition for the term Hispanic, but they do share the etymology for the word (pt: hispânico, es: hispánico). The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, RAE), the official royal institution responsible for regulating the Spanish language defines the terms "Hispano" and "Hispánico" (which in Spain
Spain
have slightly different meanings) as:[34][35] Hispano:

Of Hispania. Belonging or relative to old Hispania. Spanish, as applied to a person. Of or pertaining to Hispanic
Hispanic
America. Of or pertaining to the population of Hispanic
Hispanic
American origin who live in the United States
United States
of America. A person of this origin who lives in the United States
United States
of America. People for The Republic of the Philippines

Hispánico:

Belonging or relative to old Hispania
Hispania
and the peoples which were once part of it. Belonging or relative to Spain
Spain
and Spanish-speaking countries.

Note that both terms include Portugal
Portugal
as part of "Hispania" as Hispania
Hispania
is the old Roman name given to the entire Iberian peninsula and their peoples, including the Lusitanians. The common modern term to identify Portuguese and Spanish cultures under a single nomenclature is "Iberian", and the one to refer to cultures derived from both countries in the Americas
Americas
is "Iberian-American". These designations can be mutually recognized by people in Portugal
Portugal
and Brazil, unlike "Hispanic", which is totally void of any self-identification in those countries, and quite on the opposite, serves the purpose of marking a clear distinction in relation to neighboring countries´ culture. In Spanish, the term "hispano" as in "hispanoamericano", refers to the people of Spanish origin who live in the Americas; it also refers to a relationship to Hispania
Hispania
or to the Spanish language. There are people in Hispanic America
Hispanic America
that are not of Spanish origin, as the original people of these areas are Amerindians. Definitions in the United States[edit] See also: Ethnic groups in the United States, History of Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans, Race and ethnicity in the United States
United States
Census, and Hispanic/Latino naming dispute Today, organizations in the United States
United States
use the term as a broad catchall to refer to persons with a historical and cultural relationship with Spain, such as equitoreal guinea and Philippines which are- regardless of race and ethnicity.[1][2] The U.S. Census Bureau defines the ethnonym Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race"[36] and states that Hispanics or Latinos can be of any race, any ancestry, any ethnicity.[37] Generically, this limits the definition of Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino to people from the Caribbean, Central and South America, or other Hispanic
Hispanic
(Spanish or Portuguese) culture or origin, regardless of race. Latino can refer to males or females, while Latina refers to only females. Because of the technical distinctions involved in defining "race" vs. "ethnicity," there is confusion among the general population about the designation of Hispanic
Hispanic
identity. Currently, the United States
United States
Census Bureau defines six race categories:[38]

White or Caucasian Black or African American American Indian or Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
or Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race

According to census reports, of the above races the largest number of Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latinos are of the White race, the second largest number come from the Native American/American Indian race who are the indigenous people of the Americas. The inhabitants of Easter Island are Pacific Islanders and since the island belongs to Chile
Chile
they are theoretically Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latinos. Because Hispanic
Hispanic
roots are considered aligned with a European ancestry (Spain/Portugal), Hispanic/Latino ancestry is defined solely as an ethnic designation (similar to being Norse or Germanic). Therefore, a person of Hispanic descent is typically defined using both race and ethnicity as an identifier—i.e., Black-Hispanic, White-Hispanic, Asian-Hispanic, Amerindian- Hispanic
Hispanic
or "other race" Hispanic. A 1997 notice by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget
Office of Management and Budget
defined Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino persons as being "persons who trace their origin or descent to Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, Central and South America, and other Spanish cultures."[39] The United States
United States
Census uses the ethnonym Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Hispanic
Hispanic
culture or origin regardless of race."[36] The 2010 Census asked if the person was "Spanish/Hispanic/Latino". The United States
United States
Census uses the ethnonym Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino to refer to "a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin regardless of race."[36] The Census Bureau also explains that "[o]rigin can be viewed as the heritage, nationality group, lineage, or country of birth of the person or the person's ancestors before their arrival in the United States. People who identify their origin as Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish may be of any race."[40] The U.S. Department of Transportation defines Hispanic
Hispanic
as, "persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish or Portuguese culture or origin, regardless of race."[1] This definition has been adopted by the Small Business Administration as well as by many federal, state, and municipal agencies for the purposes of awarding government contracts to minority owned businesses.[2] The Congressional Hispanic Caucus
Congressional Hispanic Caucus
and the Congressional Hispanic
Hispanic
Conference include representatives of Spanish and Portuguese, Puerto Rican and Mexican descent. The Hispanic Society of America
Hispanic Society of America
is dedicated to the study of the arts and cultures of Spain, Portugal, and Latin America.[41] The Hispanic
Hispanic
Association of Colleges and Universities, proclaimed champions of Hispanic
Hispanic
success in higher education, is committed to Hispanic
Hispanic
educational success in the U.S., Puerto Rico, Ibero-America, Spain
Spain
and Portugal. The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
encourages any individual who believes that he or she is Hispanic
Hispanic
to self-identify as Hispanic.[42] The United States
United States
Department of Labor - Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs encourages the same self-identification. As a result, any individual who traces his or her origins to part of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
or Portuguese Empire
Portuguese Empire
may self-identify as Hispanic, because an employer may not override an individual's self-identification.[43] The 1970 Census was the first time that a "Hispanic" identifier was used and data collected with the question. The definition of "Hispanic" has been modified in each successive census.[44] In a recent study, most Spanish-speakers of Spanish or Hispanic American descent do not prefer the term "Hispanic" or "Latino" when it comes to describing their identity. Instead, they prefer to be identified by their country of origin. When asked if they have a preference for either being identified as "Hispanic" or "Latino," the Pew study finds that "half (51%) say they have no preference for either term."[45] A majority (51%) say they most often identify themselves by their family’s country of origin, while 24% say they prefer a pan-ethnic label such as Hispanic
Hispanic
or Latino. Among those 24% who have a preference for a pan-ethnic label, "'Hispanic' is preferred over 'Latino' by more than a two-to-one margin—33% versus 14%." Twenty-one percent prefer to be referred to simply as "Americans."[46] Hispanicization[edit] Hispanicization is the process by which a place or a person absorbs characteristics of Hispanic
Hispanic
society and culture.[47][48][49] Modern hispanization of a place, namely in the United States, might be illustrated by Spanish-language media and businesses. Hispanization of a person might be illustrated by speaking Spanish, making and eating Hispanic
Hispanic
American food, listening to Spanish language
Spanish language
music or participating in Hispanic
Hispanic
festivals and holidays - Hispanization of those outside the Hispanic
Hispanic
community as opposed to assimilation of Hispanics into theirs. One reason that some people believe the assimilation of Hispanics in the U.S. is not comparable to that of other cultural groups is that Hispanic and Latino Americans
Hispanic and Latino Americans
have been living in parts of North America for centuries, in many cases well before the English-speaking culture became dominant. For example, California, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico
Mexico
(1598), Arizona, Nevada, Florida
Florida
and Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
have been home to Spanish-speaking peoples since the 16th century, long before the U.S. existed. (The language of the Native Americans existed before this, until the invasion and forced assimilation by the Spanish.) These and other Spanish-speaking territories were part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later Mexico
Mexico
(with the exception of Florida
Florida
and Puerto Rico), before these regions joined or were taken over by the United States
United States
in 1848. Some cities in the U.S. were founded by Spanish settlers as early as the 16th century, prior to the creation of the Thirteen Colonies. For example, San Miguel de Gualdape, Pensacola and St. Augustine, Florida
Florida
were founded in 1526, 1559 and 1565 respectively. Santa Fe, New Mexico
New Mexico
was founded in 1604, and Albuquerque was established in 1660. El Paso
El Paso
was founded in 1659, San Antonio
San Antonio
in 1691, Laredo, Texas
Texas
in 1755, San Diego
San Diego
in 1769, San Francisco in 1776, San Jose, California
California
in 1777, New Iberia, Louisiana in 1779, and Los Angeles
Los Angeles
in 1781. Therefore, in many parts of the U.S., the Hispanic
Hispanic
cultural legacy predates English/British influence. For this reason, many generations have largely maintained their cultural traditions and Spanish language
Spanish language
well before the United States was created. However, Spanish-speaking persons in many Hispanic
Hispanic
areas in the U.S. amounted to only a few thousand people when they became part of the United States; a large majority of current Hispanic residents are descended from Hispanics who entered the United States in the mid-to-late 20th and early 21st centuries. Language retention is a common index to assimilation; according to the 2000 census, about 75 percent of all Hispanics spoke Spanish in the home. Spanish language
Spanish language
retention rates vary geographically; parts of Texas
Texas
and New Mexico
New Mexico
have language retention rates over 90 percent, whereas in parts of Colorado
Colorado
and California, retention rates are lower than 30 percent. The degree of retention of Spanish as the native language is based on recent arrival from countries where Spanish is spoken. As is true of other immigrants, those who were born in other countries still speak their native language. Later generations are increasingly less likely to speak the language spoken in the country of their ancestors, as is true of other immigrant groups. Spanish-speaking countries and regions[edit]

Spanish-speaking countries

the map of the spanish language uses

  Spanish identified as sole official language

  Spanish identified as co-official language

  Former Spanish co-official, now identified as auxillary language

See also: Hispanophone, Hispanic
Hispanic
America, and List of countries where Spanish is an official language Today, Spanish is among the most commonly spoken first languages of the world. During the period of the Spanish Empire
Spanish Empire
from 1492 and 1898, many people migrated from Spain
Spain
to the conquered lands. The Spaniards brought with them the Castilian language and culture, and in this process that lasted several centuries, created a global empire with a diverse population. Culturally, Spaniards (those living in Spain) are typically European, but they also have small traces of many peoples from the rest of Europe, such as for example, old Germania, Scandinavia, France, the Mediterranean, the Near East and northern Africa.[50][51] Language and ethnicities in Spanish-speaking areas around the world[edit]

Continent/region Country/territory Languages spoken[52] Ethnic groups[53] Picture References

Europe Spain Spanish (official) 70%, Catalan 20%, Galician 7%, Basque 2% (official regionally) (Spanish is spoken by 100% of the population)[54] 88.0% Spanish, 12.0% others (Romanian, British, Moroccan, Hispanic American, German) (2009) (See: Spanish people)

[55][56]

Andorra Catalan (official) 57.7%, Spanish 56.4%, French 14.5%, Portuguese 13.9%

[57]

North America Mexico Spanish 92.7%, Spanish and other language 5.7%, native/indigenous only 0.8%, unspecified 0.8%; (Native/ Indigenous languages include Mayan languages, Mixtec, Nahuatl, Purépecha, Zapotec, and other) (2005) Mestizo
Mestizo
(European, mainly Spanish and Native Mixed) 65%,[58] Amerindian
Amerindian
(or predominantly Amerindian) 17.5%, White (full Spanish or other European) 16.5%,[59] other (including Black minority) 1%[58] (See: Mexican people)

[59]

United States English 79.4%, Spanish 12.8%, other Indo-European 3.7%, Asian and Pacific Islander languages 3.0%, other 0.9% (2010 census) (Hawaiian is an official language in the state of Hawaii). (Note: The U.S. is a predominantly English-speaking country. As is true of many immigrant families, the immigrants often speak Spanish and some English, while their children are fluent English speakers because they were born and educated in the U.S. Some retain their Spanish language
Spanish language
as is true of other immigrant families. The recent influx of large numbers of immigrants from Spanish-speaking countries into the U.S. has meant that the number of Spanish-speaking U.S. residents has increased, but the children speaking English as is true of the historic U.S. immigrant experience, continues. Migration from Hispanic
Hispanic
countries has increased the Spanish-speaking population in the United States. Of those who speak Spanish in the United States, three quarters speak English well or very well.

White 79.96%, Black 12.85%, Asian 4.43%, Amerindian
Amerindian
and Alaska Native 0.97%, Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific islanders 0.18%, two or more races 1.61% (July 2007 estimate) (Note: a separate listing for Hispanics is not included because the U.S. Census Bureau considers Hispanic
Hispanic
to mean a person of Hispanic American descent (including persons of Cuban, Mexican, or Puerto Rican origin) and of Spanish descent living in the U.S. who may be of any race or ethnic group (white, black, Asian, etc.); about 15–16% of the total U.S. population is Hispanic, not including estimates about alien residents).

[60][61]

Central America Belize Spanish 43%, Belizean Creole 37%, Mayan dialects 7.8%, English 5.6% (official), German 3.2%, Garifuna 2%, other 1.5% Mestizo
Mestizo
34%, Kriol 25%, Maya peoples
Maya peoples
10.6%, Garifuna 6.1%, other 11% (2000 census) (See:Belizean people)

[62]

Costa Rica Spanish (official) White 81%, Mestizo
Mestizo
13%, Black 3%, Amerindian
Amerindian
1%, Chinese 1% Other 1%

[63]

El Salvador Spanish (official) Mestizo
Mestizo
86%, White 12%, Amerindian
Amerindian
1%

[64]

Guatemala Spanish 59.4%, Amerindian
Amerindian
languages 40.5% (23 officially recognized Amerindian
Amerindian
languages, including K'iche, Kakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca). Mestizo
Mestizo
41%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other Maya peoples
Maya peoples
8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1%, White 18.5% (2001 census)

[65]

Honduras Spanish (official), (various Amerindian
Amerindian
languages, including Garifuna, Lenca, Miskito, Ch’orti’, and Tol). English(on the Bay Islands) Mestizo
Mestizo
(mixed Amerindian
Amerindian
and European) 90%, Amerindian
Amerindian
7%, Black 2%, White 1%

[66]

Nicaragua Spanish 97.5% (official), Miskito 1.7%, others 0.8% (1995 census) (English and indigenous languages on Atlantic coast). Mestizo
Mestizo
(mixed Amerindian
Amerindian
and European) 69%, White 17%, Black 9%, Amerindian
Amerindian
5%

[67]

Panama Spanish (official), English 14% (bilingual: requires verification) Mestizo
Mestizo
(mixed Amerindian
Amerindian
and European) 70%, Black 14%, White 10%, Amerindian
Amerindian
6%

[68]

South America Argentina Spanish (official), other European and Amerindian
Amerindian
languages European Argentine 86% (mostly from Spanish and Italian ancestries), Mestizo, Amerindian
Amerindian
and other non-European or non-White groups (including Arab, East Asian, and Black minorities) 14% (See: Argentinian people)

[69]

Bolivia Spanish 60.7% (official), Quechua 21.2% (official), Aymara 14.6% (official), foreign languages 2.4%, other 1.2% (2001 census) Quechua 30%, Mestizo
Mestizo
(mixed White and Amerindian
Amerindian
ancestry) 30%, Aymara 25%, White 15%, Black minority.

[70]

Chile Spanish (official), Mapudungun, other European languages White 52.7%, Mestizo
Mestizo
44.1%, Amerindian
Amerindian
3.2% (See: Chilean people)

[71]

Colombia Spanish (official), 68 ethnic languages and dialects. English also official in the San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina
San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina
Islands. Mestizo
Mestizo
49%, White 37%, Black 10.6% (includes Mulatto
Mulatto
and Zambo), Amerindian
Amerindian
3.4%, Roma 0.01%, among other ethnic groups. (See: Colombian people)

[72][73]

Ecuador Spanish (official), Amerindian
Amerindian
languages (especially Quechua) Mestizo
Mestizo
(mixed Amerindian
Amerindian
and White) 65%, Amerindian
Amerindian
25%, White 7%, Black 3%

[74]

Paraguay Spanish (official), Guaraní (official) Mestizo
Mestizo
(mixed European and Amerindian) 74.5%, White 20%, Mulato 3.5%, Amerindian
Amerindian
1.5%

[75]

Peru Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages Mestizo
Mestizo
38%, Quechua 29.7%, Aymara 4.7%, Amazonian 1.8%, White 15.5%, Black 5%, East Asian 3.3%.

[76]

Uruguay Spanish (official) White (mostly from Spanish and Italian ancestries) 88%, Mestizo
Mestizo
8%, Black 4%, Amerindian
Amerindian
(less than 0.5%)

[77]

Venezuela Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects Mestizos
Mestizos
(mixed Amerindian, White and African) 49,9%, White 42,2%, Black 3,5% and Amerindians
Amerindians
2,7% (See: Venezuelan people)

[78]

Caribbean
Caribbean
Islands Cuba Spanish (official) White 69.1% (mostly Spanish and Portuguese, or other European and British Ancestry), Mulattoes
Mulattoes
20.7%, Black 10.2% (2002 census) (See: Cubans)

[79]

Dominican Republic Spanish (official) Mestizo
Mestizo
44%, Mulatto
Mulatto
30%, White 16%, African 10%

Santo Domingo

[80]

Puerto Rico (Territory of the U.S. with Commonwealth status) Spanish, English White (mostly of Spanish ancestry) 76.2%, Black 6.9%, Asian 0.3%, Amerindian
Amerindian
0.2%, mixed 4.4%, other 12% (2007)

[81]

Africa Equatorial Guinea Spanish 67.6% (official), other 32.4% (includes the other 2 official languages - French and Portuguese, Fang, Bube, Annobonese, Igbo, Krio, Pichinglis, and English) (1994 census) Note: Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guinea
was the only Spanish colony in Sub-Saharan Africa. Fang 85.7%, Bubi 6.5%, Mdowe 3.6%, Annobon
Annobon
1.6%, Bujeba 1.1%, other 1.4% (1994 census)

[82]

Polynesia Easter Island Territory of Chile Spanish (official), Rapanui Rapanui

[83]

The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[84]

Areas with Hispanic
Hispanic
cultural influence[edit]

Continent/region Country/territory Languages spoken [52] Ethnic groups [53] References

Africa Western Sahara Arabic is the official language of Western Sahara, while Spanish is still widely spoken. The major ethnic group of the Western Sahara
Western Sahara
are the Sahrawis, a nomadic or Bedouin group speaking Arabic. [citation needed]

Asia Philippines Chavacano, a Spanish-based creole language is spoken in the Philippines
Philippines
by 600,000 people.[85] Philippine Spanish
Philippine Spanish
is natively spoken by 5,000 people but second- and third-language speakers range from 500,000 to 2,500,000.[86][87][88] Hispanic
Hispanic
influences have impacted several native languages, such as Tagalog, Cebuano and Ilocano. Many aspects of Filipino culture including cuisine, traditional dances, music, festivals, religion, architecture, traditional costumes and crafts exhibit Hispanic
Hispanic
origin and influences.[85] Spanish Filipino. Various ethnolinguistic groups particularly with some Hispanic
Hispanic
heritage that forms up the Filipino people
Filipino people
(Chavacanos, Cebuanos, Hiligaynons, Warays, Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Kapampangan, Bicolanos and others) [85]

Micronesia Guam Former Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific no longer recognize Spanish as an official language. The predominant languages used in Guam
Guam
are English, Chamorro and Filipino. Also, in Guam
Guam
– a U.S. territory – and the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language.[89] Asians, Chamorro, Filipinos, and others [89]

FSM Micronesia Micronesia's official language is English, although native languages, such as Chuukese, Kosraean, Pohnpeian, Yapese, Ulithian, Woleaian, Nukuoro
Nukuoro
and Kapingamarangi
Kapingamarangi
are also prominent.[90] Asians, Micronesians, and others [90]

Northern Mariana Islands In the Northern Mariana Islands, a commonwealth in political union with the U.S., a Malayo-Polynesian language called Chamorro is spoken, with numerous loanwords with Spanish etymological origins. However it is not a Spanish creole language. The top four languages used in the Northern Mariana Islands
Northern Mariana Islands
are Filipino, Chinese, Chamorro and English.[91] Asians, Chamorro, and others [91]

Palau In Palau, Spanish is no longer used; instead, the people use their native languages, such as Palauan, Angaur, Sonsorolese and Tobian.[92] Asians, Palauan, and others [92]

The CIA World Factbook is in the public domain. Accordingly, it may be copied freely without permission of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).[84]

Culture[edit] The Miguel de Cervantes Prize
Miguel de Cervantes Prize
is awarded to Hispanic
Hispanic
writers, whereas the Latin Grammy Award
Latin Grammy Award
recognizes Hispanic
Hispanic
and Portuguese musicians, and the Platino Awards as given to outstanding Hispanic
Hispanic
films. Music[edit] Main articles: Music of Spain, Hispanic
Hispanic
music, and Latin music (genre) Folk and popular dance and music also varies greatly among Hispanics. For instance, the music from Spain
Spain
is a lot different from the Hispanic
Hispanic
American, although there is a high grade of exchange between both continents. In addition, due to the high national development of the diverse nationalities and regions of Spain, there is a lot of music in the different languages of the Peninsula (Catalan, Galician and Basque, mainly). See, for instance, Music of Catalonia
Music of Catalonia
or Rock català, Music of Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias, and Basque music. Flamenco
Flamenco
is also a very popular music style in Spain, especially in Andalusia. Spanish ballads "romances" can be traced in Argentina
Argentina
as "milongas", same structure but different scenarios. On the other side of the ocean, Hispanic America
Hispanic America
is also home to a wide variety of music, even though "Latin" music is often erroneously thought of, as a single genre. Hispanic
Hispanic
Caribbean
Caribbean
music tends to favor complex polyrhythms of African origin. Mexican music shows combined influences of mostly European and Native American origin, while traditional Northern Mexican music — norteño and banda — polka, has influence from polka music brought by Central European settlers to Mexico
Mexico
which later influenced western music. The music of Hispanic Americans — such as tejano music — has influences in rock, jazz, R&B, pop, and country music as well as traditional Mexican music such as Mariachi. Meanwhile, native Andean sounds and melodies are the backbone of Peruvian and Bolivian music, but also play a significant role in the popular music of most South American countries and are heavily incorporated into the folk music of Ecuador
Ecuador
and Chile
Chile
and the tunes of Colombia, and again in Chile
Chile
where they play a fundamental role in the form of the greatly followed nueva canción. In U.S. communities of immigrants from these countries it is common to hear these styles. Latin pop, Rock en Español, Latin hip-hop, Salsa, Merengue, colombian cumbia and Reggaeton
Reggaeton
styles tend to appeal to the broader Hispanic
Hispanic
population, and varieties of Cuban music are popular with many Hispanics of all backgrounds. Literature[edit] Main article: Hispanic
Hispanic
literature

Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
Prize, most prestigious literary award in the Spanish language

Spanish-language literature and folklore is very rich and is influenced by a variety of countries. There are thousands of writers from many places, and dating from the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
to the present. Some of the most recognized writers are Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
Saavedra (Spain), Lope de Vega
Lope de Vega
(Spain), Calderón de la Barca (Spain), Jose Rizal (Philippines), Carlos Fuentes
Carlos Fuentes
(Mexico), Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz
(Mexico), Miguel Ángel Asturias
Miguel Ángel Asturias
(Guatemala), George Santayana
George Santayana
(US), José Martí (Cuba), Sabine Ulibarri (US), Federico García Lorca
Federico García Lorca
(Spain), Miguel de Unamuno
Miguel de Unamuno
(Spain), Gabriel García Márquez
Gabriel García Márquez
(Colombia), Rafael Pombo (Colombia), Horacio Quiroga
Horacio Quiroga
(Uruguay), Rómulo Gallegos (Venezuela), Luis Rodriguez Varela (Philippines), Rubén Darío (Nicaragua), Mario Vargas Llosa
Mario Vargas Llosa
(Peru), Giannina Braschi (Puerto Rico), Cristina Peri Rossi
Cristina Peri Rossi
(Uruguay), Luisa Valenzuela
Luisa Valenzuela
(Argentina), Roberto Quesada (Honduras), Julio Cortázar
Julio Cortázar
(Argentina), Pablo Neruda (Chile), Gabriela Mistral
Gabriela Mistral
(Chile), Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges
(Argentina), Pedro Henríquez Ureña (Dominican Republic), Ernesto Sabato (Argentina), Juan Tomás Ávila Laurel (Equatorial Guinea), Ciro Alegría (Peru), Joaquin Garcia Monge (Costa Rica), and Jesus Balmori (Philippines). Sports[edit] In the majority of the Hispanic
Hispanic
countries, association football is the most popular sport. The men's national teams of Argentine, Uruguay
Uruguay
and Spain
Spain
have won the FIFA World Cup
FIFA World Cup
a total five times. The Spanish La Liga is one of the most popular in the world, known for FC Barcelona and Real Madrid. Meanwhile, the Argentine Primera División
Argentine Primera División
and Mexican Primera División
Mexican Primera División
are two of the strongest leagues in the Americas. However, baseball is the most popular sport in some Central American and Caribbean
Caribbean
countries (especially Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), as well as in the diaspora in the United States. Notable Hispanic
Hispanic
teams in early baseball are the All Cubans, Cuban Stars and New York Cubans. The Hispanic
Hispanic
Heritage Baseball
Baseball
Museum recognizes Hispanic
Hispanic
baseball personalities. Nearly 30 percent (22 percent foreign-born Latinos) of MLB
MLB
players today have Hispanic heritage. Several Hispanic
Hispanic
sportspeople have been successful worldwide, such as Diego Maradona, Alfredo di Stefano, Lionel Messi, Diego Forlán (association football), Juan Manuel Fangio, Juan Pablo Montoya, Eliseo Salazar, Fernando Alonso, Marc Gené, Carlos Sainz
Carlos Sainz
(auto racing), Ángel Nieto, Dani Pedrosa, Jorge Lorenzo, Marc Márquez, Marc Coma, Nani Roma
Nani Roma
(motorcycle racing), Emanuel Ginóbili, Pau Gasol, Marc Gasol (basketball), Julio César Chávez, Saúl Álvarez, Carlos Monzón (boxing), Miguel Indurain, Alberto Contador, Santiago Botero, Rigoberto Urán, Nairo Quintana
Nairo Quintana
(cycling), Roberto de Vicenzo, Ángel Cabrera, Sergio García, Severiano Ballesteros, José María Olazábal (golf), Luciana Aymar
Luciana Aymar
(field hockey), Rafael Nadal, Marcelo Ríos, Guillermo Vilas, Gabriela Sabatini, Juan Martín del Potro
Juan Martín del Potro
(tennis). Notable Hispanic
Hispanic
sports television networks are ESPN Latin America, Fox Sports Latin America
Latin America
and TyC Sports. Religion[edit] With regard to religious affiliation among Spanish-speakers, Christianity
Christianity
— specifically Roman Catholicism — is usually the first religious tradition that comes to mind[citation needed]. The Spaniards and the Portuguese took the Roman Catholic faith to Ibero-America
Ibero-America
and the Philippines, and Roman Catholicism remains the predominant religion amongst most Hispanics. A small but growing number of Hispanics belong to a Protestant denomination.

This section's representation of one or more viewpoints about a controversial issue may be unbalanced or inaccurate. Please improve the article or discuss the issue on the talk page. (December 2009)

There are also Spanish-speaking Jews, most of whom are the descendants of Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
who migrated from Europe (German Jews, Russian Jews, Polish Jews, etc.) to Hispanic
Hispanic
America, particularly Argentina, Uruguay, Peru
Peru
and Cuba
Cuba
( Argentina
Argentina
is host to the third largest Jewish population in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States
United States
and Canada)[93][94] in the 19th century and following World War II. Many Spanish-speaking Jews also originate from the small communities of reconverted descendants of anusim — those whose Spanish Sephardi Jewish ancestors long ago hid their Jewish ancestry and beliefs in fear of persecution by the Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
in the Iberian Peninsula and Ibero-America. The Spanish Inquisition
Spanish Inquisition
led to a large number of forced conversions of Spanish Jews. Genetic studies on the (male) Y-chromosome conducted by the University of Leeds in 2008 appear to support the idea that the number of forced conversions have been previously underestimated significantly. They found that twenty percent of Spanish males have Y-chromosomes associated with Sephardic Jewish ancestry.[95] This may imply that there were more forced conversions than was previously thought. There are also thought to be many Catholic-professing descendants of marranos and Spanish-speaking crypto-Jews in the Southwestern United States and scattered through Hispanic
Hispanic
America. Additionally, there are Sephardic Jews who are descendants of those Jews who fled Spain
Spain
to Turkey, Syria, and North Africa, some of whom have now migrated to Hispanic
Hispanic
America, holding on to some Spanish/Sephardic customs, such as the Ladino language, which mixes Spanish, Hebrew, Arabic and others, though written with Hebrew and Latin characters.[96] Ladinos were also African slaves captive in Spain
Spain
held prior to the colonial period in the Americas. (See also History of the Jews in Hispanic America and List of Hispanic
Hispanic
American Jews.) Among the Spanish-speaking Catholics, most communities celebrate their homeland's patron saint, dedicating a day for this purpose with festivals and religious services. Some Spanish-speakers syncretize Roman Catholicism and African or Native American rituals and beliefs. Such is the case of Santería, popular with Afro-Cubans, which combines old African beliefs in the form of Roman Catholic saints and rituals. Other syncretistic beliefs include Spiritism
Spiritism
and Curanderismo. While a tiny minority, there are some Muslims in Latin America, in the US, and in the Philippines. Those in the Philippines
Philippines
live predominantly in the province forming the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. In the United States, some 65% of Hispanics and Latinos report themselves Catholic and 21% Protestant, with 13% having no affiliation.[97] A minority among the Roman Catholics, about one in five, are charismatics. Among the Protestant, 85% are "Born-again Christians" and belong to Evangelical or Pentecostal churches. Among the smallest groups, less than 4%, are Jewish. Cultural heritage according to UNESCO[edit] The Hispanic
Hispanic
world, according to the United Nations World Heritage Committee, has contributed substantially more than any other ethnicity to the cultural heritage of the world. A World Heritage Cultural Site is a place such as a building, city, complex, or monument that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural significance. Of a total of 802 Cultural World Heritage Sites recognized by the United Nations as of July 2015, 114 are located in Hispanic
Hispanic
countries. Spain alone has 39 cultural sites, only second in the world to Italy.[citation needed] See also[edit]

Latino and Hispanic
Hispanic
American portal

Spanish language

Hispanophone Languages of Spain Spanish language
Spanish language
in the Americas Spanish language
Spanish language
in the United States Chavacano

Latin Americans

Afro-Latin American Amerindians Asian Latin American Criollo people Mestizo Mulatto White Latin American Isleño

Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans

Black Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans White Hispanic
Hispanic
and Latino Americans Hispanic/Latino naming dispute Hispanic
Hispanic
Heritage Sites (U.S. National Park Service) Hispanic
Hispanic
Paradox Cuban-American lobby

Lusitanians Panhispanism

Hispanism Flag of the Hispanic
Hispanic
People Hispanophobia

Culture of Spain Spanish Filipino

Chavacano Philippine Spanish Hispanic
Hispanic
influence on Filipino culture

Emancipados Fernandinos Ibero-America
Ibero-America
(Iberian Peninsula) Latin Union Hispanos Hispanic
Hispanic
Ancestry userbox

Notes[edit]

^ a b c "Archived: 49 CFR Part 26". U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 19 January 2016. ' Hispanic
Hispanic
Americans,' which includes persons of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race...  ^ a b c "SOP 80 05 3A: Overview of the 8(A) Business Development Program" (PDF). U.S. Small Business Administration. 11 April 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2016. SBA has defined ' Hispanic
Hispanic
American' as an individual whose ancestry and culture are rooted in South America, Central America, Mexico, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, or Spain.  ^ Vega, Noé Villaverde (2001). Tingitana en la antigüedad tardía, siglos III-VII: autoctonía y romanidad en el extremo occidente mediterráneo [Tingitana in late antiquity, the III-VII centuries: the autochthonous and Roman world in the west end of the Mediterranean. Which answers the million dollar question. Portuguese people are considered to be Hispanic
Hispanic
because of the origin of the famial background.] (in Spanish). Real Academia de la Historia. p. 266. ISBN 978-84-89512-94-8. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ Bowersock, Glen Warren; Brown, Peter; Grabar, Oleg (1999). Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World. Harvard University Press. p. 504. ISBN 978-0-674-51173-6. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ Corfis, Ivy A. (2009). Al-Andalus, Sepharad and Medieval Iberia: Cultural Contact and Diffusion. BRILL. p. 231. ISBN 90-04-17919-4. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ a b Harper, Douglas. "Online Etymology Dictionary; Hispanic". Retrieved 10 February 2009.  Also: etymology of "Spain", on the same site. ^ Herbst, Philip (1997). The Color of Words: An Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Ethnic Bias in the United States. Intercultural Press. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-877864-97-1. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "Record No. 7448, Sepulchral inscription". Hispania
Hispania
Epigraphica Online Database. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ Pohl, Walter; Reimitz, Helmut (1998). Strategies of Distinction: The Construction of the Ethnic Communities, 300-800. BRILL. p. 117. ISBN 90-04-10846-7. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ Curchin, Leonard A. (2004). The Romanization of Central Spain: Complexity, Diversity and Change in a Provincial Hinterland. Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 1134451121.  ^ "Pre-Roman Peoples and Languages of Iberia: An ethnological map of the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
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Spain
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Miguel de Cervantes
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Spain
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United States
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in Urban Peru". Princeton University. pp. 4–5. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "The World Factbook: Uruguay". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "Resultados Básicos Censo 2011" (PDF). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Caracas. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "The World Factbook: Cuba". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2016-09-23.  ^ "The World Factbook: Puerto Rico". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "The World Factbook: Equatorial Guinea". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "The World Factbook: Chile
Chile
(includes Easter Island)". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ a b "The World Factbook: Copyright notice". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ a b c "The World Factbook: Philippines". CIA.gov. Archived from the original on 11 January 2010. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ Lewis, M. Paul; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D., eds. (2015). "Philippines". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (18th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ There are 2,532 immigrants from Spain
Spain
according to INE (1 January 2009) ^ 1,816,773 Spanish + 1,200,000 Spanish creole: Antonio Quilis La lengua española en Filipinas (1996), p.234 Cervantesvirtual.com, Mepsyd.es (p.23), Mepsyd.es (p.249), Spanish-differences.com, Aresprensa.com. The figure 2,900,000 Spanish-speakers, we can find in Thompson, R.W., "Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations" (p.45), or in Sispain.org. More than 2 million Spanish-speakers and around 3 million with Chavacano
Chavacano
speakers according to "Instituto Cervantes de Manila" ^ a b "The World Factbook: Guam". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ a b "The World Factbook: Federated States of Micronesia". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ a b "The World Factbook: Northern Mariana Islands". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ a b "The World Factbook: Palau". CIA.gov. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "Annual Assessment: The Situation and Dynamics of the Jewish People" (PDF). The Jewish People Policy Planning Institute. 2015. p. 18. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ "Global Jewish Populations". United Jewish Federations. Archived from the original on 2008-05-31.  ^ Wade, Nicholas (5 December 2008). "Gene Test Shows Spain's Jewish and Muslim Mix". The New York Times. p. A12. (Subscription required (help)).  ^ "Ladino". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ Espinosa, Gastón; Elizondo, Virgilio; Miranda, Jesse (January 2003). " Hispanic
Hispanic
Churches in American Public Life: Summary of Findings" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 November 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2006. 

References[edit]

De la Garza, Rodolfo O.; Desipio, Louis (1996). Ethnic Ironies: Latino Politics in the 1992 Elections. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.  Maura, Juan Francisco (2011). "Caballeros y rufianes andantes en la costa atlántica de los Estados Unidos: Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón y Alvar Núñez Cabeza". Revista Canadiense de Estudios Hispánicos. 35 (2): 305–328.  Maura, Juan Francisco (2009). "Nuevas aportaciones al estudio de la toponimia ibérica en la América Septentrional en el siglo XVI". Bulletin of Spanish Studies. 86 (5): 577–603. doi:10.1080/14753820902969345.  Maura, Juan Francisco (2016). "Sobre el origen hispánico del nombre 'Canadá'" (PDF). Lemir: Revista de literatura medieval y del Renacimiento (20): 17–52.  Montalban-Anderssen, Romero Anton (1996). "What is a Hispanic? Legal Definition vs. Racist Definition". andrew.cmu.edu.  Price, Marie D.; Cooper, Catherine W. (May 2007). "Competing Visions, Shifting Boundaries: The Construction of Latin America
Latin America
as a World Region". Journal of Geography. 106 (3): 113–122. doi:10.1080/00221340701599113. 

External links[edit]

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