Kos (Hippokrátēs ho Kṓos; c. 460 – c. 370 BC),
also known as
Hippocrates II, was a Greek physician of the Age of
Pericles (Classical Greece), and is considered one of the most
outstanding figures in the history of medicine. He is often referred
to as the "Father of Medicine" in recognition of his lasting
contributions to the field as the founder of the Hippocratic School of
Medicine. This intellectual school revolutionized medicine in ancient
Greece, establishing it as a discipline distinct from other fields
with which it had traditionally been associated (theurgy and
philosophy), thus establishing medicine as a profession.
However, the achievements of the writers of the Corpus, the
practitioners of Hippocratic medicine and the actions of Hippocrates
himself were often commingled; thus very little is known about what
Hippocrates actually thought, wrote, and did.
Hippocrates is commonly
portrayed as the paragon of the ancient physician, and credited with
coining the Hippocratic Oath, still relevant and in use today. He is
also credited with greatly advancing the systematic study of clinical
medicine, summing up the medical knowledge of previous schools, and
prescribing practices for physicians through the Hippocratic Corpus
and other works.
2 Hippocratic theory
3 Direct contributions to medicine
4 Hippocratic Corpus
4.1 Hippocratic Oath
8 See also
11 Further reading
12 External links
Asklepieion on Kos
Historians agree that
Hippocrates was born around the year 460 BC on
the Greek island of Kos; other biographical information, however, is
likely to be untrue.
Soranus of Ephesus, a 2nd-century Greek gynecologist, was
Hippocrates' first biographer and is the source of most personal
information about him. Later biographies are in the
Suda of the 10th
century AD, and in the works of John Tzetzes, which date from the 12th
Hippocrates is mentioned in passing in the writings
of two contemporaries: Plato, in "Protagoras" and "Phaedrus", and,
Aristotle's "Politics", which date from the 4th century BC.
Soranus wrote that Hippocrates' father was Heraclides, a physician,
and his mother was Praxitela, daughter of Tizane. The two sons of
Hippocrates, Thessalus and Draco, and his son-in-law, Polybus, were
his students. According to Galen, a later physician, Polybus was
Hippocrates' true successor, while Thessalus and Draco each had a son
Hippocrates III and IV).
Soranus said that
Hippocrates learned medicine from his father and
Hippocrates I), and studied other subjects with
Democritus and Gorgias.
Hippocrates was probably trained at the
asklepieion of Kos, and took lessons from the Thracian physician
Herodicus of Selymbria.
Hippocrates in two of his
dialogues: in Protagoras,
Hippocrates as "Hippocrates
of Kos, the Asclepiad"; while in Phaedrus,
Plato suggests that
Hippocrates the Asclepiad" thought that a complete knowledge of the
nature of the body was necessary for medicine.
and practiced medicine throughout his life, traveling at least as far
as Thessaly, Thrace, and the Sea of Marmara. Several different
accounts of his death exist. He died, probably in Larissa, at the age
of 83, 85 or 90, though some say he lived to be well over 100.
It is thus with regard to the disease called Sacred: it appears to me
to be nowise more divine nor more sacred than other diseases, but has
a natural cause from the originates like other affections. Men regard
its nature and cause as divine from ignorance and wonder....
— Hippocrates, On the Sacred Disease
Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that
diseases were caused naturally, not because of superstition and
Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of
Pythagoras of allying philosophy and medicine. He separated the
discipline of medicine from religion, believing and arguing that
disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the
product of environmental factors, diet, and living habits. Indeed
there is not a single mention of a mystical illness in the entirety of
the Hippocratic Corpus. However,
Hippocrates did work with many
convictions that were based on what is now known to be incorrect
anatomy and physiology, such as Humorism.
Ancient Greek schools of medicine were split (into the Knidian and
Koan) on how to deal with disease. The Knidian school of medicine
focused on diagnosis. Medicine at the time of
Hippocrates knew almost
nothing of human anatomy and physiology because of the Greek taboo
forbidding the dissection of humans. The Knidian school consequently
failed to distinguish when one disease caused many possible series of
symptoms. The Hippocratic school or Koan school achieved greater
success by applying general diagnoses and passive treatments. Its
focus was on patient care and prognosis, not diagnosis. It could
effectively treat diseases and allowed for a great development in
Hippocratic medicine and its philosophy are far removed from that of
modern medicine. Now, the physician focuses on specific diagnosis and
specialized treatment, both of which were espoused by the Knidian
school. This shift in medical thought since Hippocrates' day has
caused serious criticism over the past two millennia, with the
passivity of Hippocratic treatment being the subject of particularly
strong denunciations; for example, the French doctor M. S. Houdart
called the Hippocratic treatment a "meditation upon death".
Another important concept in Hippocratic medicine was that of a
crisis, a point in the progression of disease at which either the
illness would begin to triumph and the patient would succumb to death,
or the opposite would occur and natural processes would make the
patient recover. After a crisis, a relapse might follow, and then
another deciding crisis. According to this doctrine, crises tend to
occur on critical days, which were supposed to be a fixed time after
the contraction of a disease. If a crisis occurred on a day far from a
critical day, a relapse might be expected.
Galen believed that this
idea originated with Hippocrates, though it is possible that it
Illustration of a Hippocratic bench, date unknown
Hippocratic medicine was humble and passive. The therapeutic approach
was based on "the healing power of nature" ("vis medicatrix naturae"
in Latin). According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself
the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself (physis).
Hippocratic therapy focused on simply easing this natural process. To
Hippocrates believed "rest and immobilization [were] of
capital importance." In general, the Hippocratic medicine was very
kind to the patient; treatment was gentle, and emphasized keeping the
patient clean and sterile. For example, only clean water or wine were
ever used on wounds, though "dry" treatment was preferable. Soothing
balms were sometimes employed.
Hippocrates was reluctant to administer drugs and engage in
specialized treatment that might prove to be wrongly chosen;
generalized therapy followed a generalized diagnosis.
Generalized treatments he prescribed include fasting and the
consumption of apple cider vinegar.
Hippocrates once said that "to eat
when you are sick, is to feed your sickness." However, potent drugs
were used on certain occasions. This passive approach was very
successful in treating relatively simple ailments such as broken bones
which required traction to stretch the skeletal system and relieve
pressure on the injured area. The
Hippocratic bench and other devices
were used to this end.
One of the strengths of Hippocratic medicine was its emphasis on
prognosis. At Hippocrates' time, medicinal therapy was quite immature,
and often the best thing that physicians could do was to evaluate an
illness and predict its likely progression based upon data collected
in detailed case histories.
A number of ancient Greek surgical tools. On the left is a trephine;
on the right, a set of scalpels. Hippocratic medicine made good use of
Hippocratic medicine was notable for its strict professionalism,
discipline, and rigorous practice. The Hippocratic work On the
Physician recommends that physicians always be well-kempt, honest,
calm, understanding, and serious. The Hippocratic physician paid
careful attention to all aspects of his practice: he followed detailed
specifications for, "lighting, personnel, instruments, positioning of
the patient, and techniques of bandaging and splinting" in the ancient
operating room. He even kept his fingernails to a precise
The Hippocratic School gave importance to the clinical doctrines of
observation and documentation. These doctrines dictate that physicians
record their findings and their medicinal methods in a very clear and
objective manner, so that these records may be passed down and
employed by other physicians.
Hippocrates made careful, regular
note of many symptoms including complexion, pulse, fever, pains,
movement, and excretions. He is said to have measured a patient's
pulse when taking a case history to discover whether the patient was
Hippocrates extended clinical observations into family
history and environment. "To him medicine owes the art of clinical
inspection and observation." For this reason, he may more properly
be termed as the "Father of Medicine".
Direct contributions to medicine
Clubbing of fingers in a patient with Eisenmenger's syndrome; first
described by Hippocrates, clubbing is also known as "Hippocratic
Hippocrates and his followers were first to describe many diseases and
medical conditions. He is given credit for the first description
of clubbing of the fingers, an important diagnostic sign in chronic
lung disease, lung cancer and cyanotic heart disease. For this reason,
clubbed fingers are sometimes referred to as "Hippocratic
Hippocrates was also the first physician to describe
Hippocratic face in Prognosis.
Shakespeare famously alludes to this
description when writing of Falstaff's death in Act II, Scene iii. of
Hippocrates began to categorize illnesses as acute, chronic, endemic
and epidemic, and use terms such as, "exacerbation, relapse,
resolution, crisis, paroxysm, peak, and convalescence."
Another of Hippocrates' major contributions may be found in his
descriptions of the symptomatology, physical findings, surgical
treatment and prognosis of thoracic empyema, i.e. suppuration of the
lining of the chest cavity. His teachings remain relevant to
present-day students of pulmonary medicine and surgery.
Hippocrates was the first documented chest surgeon and his findings
and techniques, while crude, such as the use of lead pipes to drain
chest wall abscess, are still valid.
The Hippocratic school of medicine described well the ailments of the
human rectum and the treatment thereof, despite the school's poor
theory of medicine. Hemorrhoids, for instance, though believed to be
caused by an excess of bile and phlegm, were treated by Hippocratic
physicians in relatively advanced ways.
Cautery and excision
are described in the Hippocratic Corpus, in addition to the preferred
methods: ligating the hemorrhoids and drying them with a hot iron.
Other treatments such as applying various salves are suggested as
well. Today, "treatment [for hemorrhoids] still includes
burning, strangling, and excising." Also, some of the fundamental
concepts of proctoscopy outlined in the Corpus are still in
use. For example, the uses of the rectal speculum, a common
medical device, are discussed in the Hippocratic Corpus. This
constitutes the earliest recorded reference to endoscopy.
Hippocrates often used lifestyle modifications such as diet and
exercise to treat diseases such as diabetes, what is today called
lifestyle medicine. He is often quoted with "Let food be your
medicine, and medicine be your food" and "Walking is man's best
medicine", however the quote "Let food be your medicine" appears
to be an apparent misquotation and its exact origin remains
Main article: Hippocratic Corpus
A 12th-century Byzantine manuscript of the
Oath in the form of a cross
Hippocratic Corpus (Latin: Corpus Hippocraticum) is a collection
of around seventy early medical works collected in Alexandrian
Greece. It is written in Ionic Greek. The question of whether
Hippocrates himself was the author of any of the treatises in the
corpus has not been conclusively answered, but current debate
revolves around only a few of the treatises seen as potentially by
him. Because of the variety of subjects, writing styles and apparent
date of construction, the
Hippocratic Corpus could not have been
written by one person (Ermerins numbers the authors at nineteen).
The corpus came to be known by his name because of his fame, possibly
all medical works were classified under 'Hippocrates' by a librarian
in Alexandria. The volumes were probably produced by his
students and followers.
Hippocratic Corpus contains textbooks, lectures, research, notes
and philosophical essays on various subjects in medicine, in no
particular order. These works were written for different
audiences, both specialists and laymen, and were sometimes written
from opposing viewpoints; significant contradictions can be found
between works in the Corpus. Notable among the treatises of the
Corpus are The Hippocratic Oath; The Book of Prognostics; On Regimen
in Acute Diseases; Aphorisms; On Airs, Waters and Places; Instruments
of Reduction; On The Sacred Disease; etc.
Main article: Hippocratic Oath
The Hippocratic Oath, a seminal document on the ethics of medical
practice, was attributed to
Hippocrates in antiquity although new
information shows it may have been written after his death. This is
probably the most famous document of the Hippocratic Corpus. Recently
the authenticity of the document's author has come under scrutiny.
Oath is rarely used in its original form today, it serves as
a foundation for other, similar oaths and laws that define good
medical practice and morals. Such derivatives are regularly taken
today by medical graduates about to enter medical
Mural painting showing
Galen and Hippocrates. 12th century; Anagni,
Hippocrates is widely considered to be the "Father of Medicine".
His contributions revolutionized the practice of medicine; but after
his death the advancement stalled. So revered was
his teachings were largely taken as too great to be improved upon and
no significant advancements of his methods were made for a long
time. The centuries after Hippocrates' death were marked as
much by retrograde movement as by further advancement. For instance,
"after the Hippocratic period, the practice of taking clinical
case-histories died out," according to Fielding Garrison.
After Hippocrates, the next significant physician was Galen, a Greek
who lived from AD 129 to AD 200.
Galen perpetuated Hippocratic
medicine, moving both forward and backward. In the Middle Ages,
the Islamic world adopted Hippocratic methods and developed new
medical technologies. After the European Renaissance, Hippocratic
methods were revived in western Europe and even further expanded in
the 19th century. Notable among those who employed Hippocrates'
rigorous clinical techniques were Thomas Sydenham, William Heberden,
Jean-Martin Charcot and William Osler. Henri Huchard, a French
physician, said that these revivals make up "the whole history of
Engraving by Peter Paul Rubens, 1638
According to Aristotle's testimony,
Hippocrates was known as "The
Great Hippocrates". Concerning his disposition,
first portrayed as a "kind, dignified, old country doctor" and later
as "stern and forbidding". He is certainly considered wise, of
very great intellect and especially as very practical. Francis Adams
describes him as "strictly the physician of experience and common
His image as the wise, old doctor is reinforced by busts of him, which
wear large beards on a wrinkled face. Many physicians of the time wore
their hair in the style of Jove and Asklepius. Accordingly, the busts
Hippocrates that have been found could be only altered versions of
portraits of these deities.
Hippocrates and the beliefs that he
embodied are considered medical ideals. Fielding Garrison, an
authority on medical history, stated, "He is, above all, the exemplar
of that flexible, critical, well-poised attitude of mind, ever on the
lookout for sources of error, which is the very essence of the
scientific spirit." "His figure... stands for all time as that of
the ideal physician," according to A Short History of Medicine,
inspiring the medical profession since his death.
The Travels of Sir John Mandeville reports (incorrectly) that
Hippocrates was the ruler of the islands of "
Kos and Lango" [sic], and
recounts a legend about Hippocrates' daughter. She was transformed
into a hundred-foot long dragon by the goddess Diana, and is the "lady
of the manor" of an old castle. She emerges three times a year, and
will be turned back into a woman if a knight kisses her, making the
knight into her consort and ruler of the islands. Various knights try,
but flee when they see the hideous dragon; they die soon thereafter.
This is a version of the legend of Melusine.
Hippocrates' legendary genealogy traces his paternal heritage directly
Asklepius and his maternal ancestry to Heracles. According to
Tzetzes's Chiliades, the ahnentafel of
Hippocrates II is:
An mosaic of
Hippocrates on the floor of the
Asclepieion of Kos, with
Asklepius in the middle, 2nd-3rd century
Hippocrates II. "The Father of Medicine"
32. Sostratus III.
64. Theodorus II.
128. Sostratus, II.
Hippocrates in front of the Mayne Medical School in Brisbane
Some clinical symptoms and signs have been named after
he is believed to be the first person to describe those. Hippocratic
face is the change produced in the countenance by death, or long
sickness, excessive evacuations, excessive hunger, and the like.
Clubbing, a deformity of the fingers and fingernails, is also known as
Hippocratic fingers. Hippocratic succussion is the internal splashing
noise of hydropneumothorax or pyopneumothorax.
Hippocratic bench (a
device which uses tension to aid in setting bones) and Hippocratic
cap-shaped bandage are two devices named after Hippocrates.
Hippocratic Corpus and
Hippocratic Oath are also his namesakes. The
drink hypocras is also believed to be invented by Hippocrates. Risus
sardonicus, a sustained spasming of the face muscles may also be
termed the Hippocratic Smile. The most severe form of hair loss and
baldness is called the Hippocratic form.
In the modern age, a lunar crater has been named Hippocrates. The
Hippocratic Museum, a museum on the Greek island of
Kos is dedicated
The Hippocrates Project is a program of the New York
University Medical Center to enhance education through use of
Hippocrates (an acronym of "HIgh PerfOrmance
Computing for Robot-AssisTEd Surgery") is an effort of the Carnegie
Mellon School of Computer Science and Shadyside Medical Center, "to
develop advanced planning, simulation, and execution technologies for
the next generation of computer-assisted surgical robots." Both
the Canadian Hippocratic Registry and American Hippocratic Registry
are organizations of physicians who uphold the principles of the
Hippocratic Oath as inviolable through changing social times.
Hippocrates Prize for Poetry and Medicine
^ "Hippocrates". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft
Corporation. 2006. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31.
^ Strong, W.F.; Cook, John A. (July 2007), "Reviving the Dead Greek
Guys" (PDF), Global Media Journal, Indian Edition, archived from the
original (pdf) on 2012-05-15
^ a b c Garrison 1966, pp. 92–93
^ Nuland 1988, p. 5
^ Garrison 1966, p. 96
^ Nuland 1988, p. 4
^ Britannica Concise Encyclopedia 2006
^ Nuland 1988, p. 7
^ Jones, W. H. S. "
Hippocrates Collected Works I". Perseus Classics
^ Aristotle. "Politics Book VII". Internet Classics Archive.
^ Adams 1891, p. 19
^ a b c Margotta 1968, p. 66
^ a b c d e Martí-Ibáñez 1961, pp. 86–87
Plato 380 B.C.
Plato 360 B.C. 270c
^ a b Adams 1891, p. 4
^ a b Jones 1868, p. 11
^ a b Nuland 1988, pp. 8–9
^ a b c d Garrison 1966, pp. 93–94
^ a b Adams 1891, p. 15
^ Margotta 1968, p. 67
^ Leff & Leff 1956, p. 51
^ Jones 1868, pp. 12–13
^ Jones 1868, pp. 46,48,59
^ Garrison 1966, p. 99
^ a b Margotta 1968, p. 73
^ a b Garrison 1966, p. 98
^ Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 35
^ a b c d
Encyclopædia Britannica 1911
^ a b c Garrison 1966, p. 97
^ Adams 1891, p. 17
^ Garrison 1966
^ a b Margotta 1968, p. 64
^ Rutkow 1993, pp. 24–25
^ Martí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 88
^ Margotta 1968, p. 68
^ Leff & Leff 1956, p. 45
^ Starr, Michelle (18 December 2017). "Ancient Poo Is The First-Ever
Hippocrates Was Right About Parasites". Science Alert.
Retrieved 18 February 2018.
^ Schwartz, Richards & Goyal 2006
^ Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 40
^ Margotta 1968, p. 70
^ Martí-Ibáñez 1961, p. 90
^ a b Major 1965
^ a b c Jóhannsson 2005, p. 11
^ a b c Jani 2005, pp. 24–25
^ Jóhannsson 2005, p. 12
^ Mann 2002, pp. 1, 173
^ Shah 2002, p. 645
^ NCEPOD 2004, p. 4
^ Chishti, Hakim (1988). The Traditional Healer's Handbook. Vermont:
Healing Arts Press. p. 11. ISBN 0892814381.
^ Cardenas, Diana (2013). "Let not thy food be confused with thy
medicine: The Hippocratic misquotation". e-SPEN Journal.
^ Iniesta, Ivan (20 April 2011), "Hippocratic Corpus", BMJ, 342: d688,
^ a b Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 27
^ Smith, Wesley D. (2002). "The Hippocratic Tradition" (PDF). Archived
from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-18. Retrieved 18 October
^ a b Hanson 2006
^ Rutkow 1993, p. 23
^ Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 28
^ Jones 1868, p. 217
^ Buqrat Aur Uski Tasaneef by Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman, Tibbia College
Magazine, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India, 1966, p. 56-62.
^ a b Garrison 1966, p. 100
^ Garrison 1966, p. 95
^ Jones 1868, p. 35
^ Leff & Leff 1956, p. 102
^ a b Garrison 1966, p. 94
^ Jones 1868, p. 38
^ Singer & Underwood 1962, p. 29
^ Anthony Bale, trans., The Book of Marvels and Travels,
ISBN 0199600600, p. 15 and footnote
^ Adams 1891
^ Fishchenko & Khimich 1986
^ "The dilemma of balding solve by father of medicine Hippocrates".
Healthy Hair Highlights News. 15 August 2011.
A woodcut of the reduction of a dislocated shoulder with a Hippocratic
Adams, Francis (1891), The Genuine Works of Hippocrates, New York:
William Wood and Company .
Boylan, Michael (2006), Hippocrates, Internet Encyclopedia of
Philosophy, retrieved September 28, 2006 .
Britannica Concise Encyclopedia (2006), "Soranus of Ephesus",
Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., archived
from the original on October 12, 2007, retrieved December 17,
Encyclopædia Britannica (1911), "Hippocrates", Encyclopædia
Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., V13, p. 519,
retrieved October 14, 2006 .
Garrison, Fielding H. (1966), History of Medicine, Philadelphia: W.B.
Saunders Company .
Fishchenko, AIa; Khimich, SD (1986), "Modification of the Hippocratic
cap-shaped bandage", Klin Khir, 1 (72) . PMID 3959439
Hanson, Ann Ellis (2006), Hippocrates: The "Greek Miracle" in
Medicine, Lee T. Pearcy, The Episcopal Academy, Merion, PA 19066, USA,
retrieved December 17, 2006
Hippocrates (2006) [400 B.C.], On the Sacred Disease, Internet
Classics Archive: The University of Adelaide Library, archived from
the original on September 26, 2007, retrieved December 17, 2006 .
Internet Encyclopedia of
Philosophy (2006), Democritus, The University
of Tennessee at Martin, retrieved December 17, 2006 .
Jani, P.G. (2005), "Management of Haemorrhoids: A Personal
Experience", East and Central African Journal of Surgery, 10 (2):
Jóhannsson, Helgi Örn (2005), Haemorrhoids: Aspects of Symptoms and
Results after Surgery, Uppsala University,
ISBN 91-554-6399-1 .
Jones, W. H. S. (1868),
Hippocrates Collected Works I, Cambrodge:
Harvard University Press, retrieved September 28, 2006 .
Leff, Samuel; Leff, Vera. (1956), From Witchcraft to World Health,
London and Southampton: Camelot Press Ltd. .
Mann, Charles V. (2002), Surgical Treatment of Haemorrhoids, Springer,
ISBN 1-85233-496-7 .
Major, Ralph H. (1965), Classic Descriptions of Disease, Springfield,
Margotta, Roberto (1968), The Story of Medicine, New York: Golden
Martí-Ibáñez, Félix (1961), A Prelude to Medical History, New
York: MD Publications, Inc., Library of Congress ID: 61-11617 .
National Library of Medicine
National Library of Medicine (2006), Images from the History of
Medicine, National Institutes of Health, archived from the original on
March 10, 2007, retrieved December 17, 2006 .
National Library of Medicine
National Library of Medicine (2000), Objects of Art: Tree of
Hippocrates, National Institutes of Health, retrieved December 17,
NCEPOD (2004), Scoping our practice (PDF), London: National
Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death, archived from the
original (PDF) on 2009-01-07 .
Nuland, Sherwin B. (1988), Doctors, Knopf,
ISBN 0-9539240-3-3 .
Pinault, Jody Robin (1992), Hippocratic Lives and Legends, Leiden:
Brill Academic Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09574-8 .
Plato (2012) [360 B.C.], Phaedrus, Internet Classics Archive: The
University of Adelaide Library, retrieved November 1, 2012 .
Plato (2006) [380 B.C.], Protagoras, Internet Classics Archive: The
University of Adelaide Library, retrieved December 17, 2006 .
Hippocrates (1995), Project Hippocrates, Center for Medical
Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery, Carnegie Mellon School of
Computer Science, retrieved December 30, 2006 .
Rutkow, Ira M. (1993), Surgery: An Illustrated History,
Southampton: Elsevier Science Health Science div,
ISBN 0-8016-6078-5 .
Schwartz, Robert A.; Richards, Gregory M.; Goyal, Supriya (2006),
Clubbing of the Nails, WebMD, retrieved September 28, 2006 .
Shah, J. (2002), "
Endoscopy through the ages", BJU International,
London: Academic Surgical Unit and Department of Urology, Imperial
College School of Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, 89 (7): 645–652,
doi:10.1046/j.1464-410X.2002.02726.x, PMID 11966619 .
Singer, Charles; Underwood, E. Ashworth (1962), A Short History of
Medicine, New York and Oxford:
Oxford University Press, Library of
Congress ID: 62-21080 .
Smith, William (1870), Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and
Mythology, 2, Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, archived from the
original on February 2, 2007, retrieved December 23, 2006
Adams, Francis (translator) (1891) (1994) , Works by
Hippocrates, The Internet Classics Archive: Daniel C. Stevenson, Web
Atomics © 1994–2000 .
Coulter, Harris L (1975), Divided Legacy: A History of the Schism in
Medical Thought: The Patterns Emerge:
Hippocrates to Paracelsus, 1,
Washington, DC: Weehawken Book
Craik, Elizabeth M. (ed., trans., comm.), The Hippocratic Treatise On
glands (Leiden; Boston: Brill, 2009) (Studies in ancient medicine,
Di Benedetto, Vincenzo (1986), Il medico e la malattia. La scienza di
Ippocrate, Turin: Einaudi
Edelstein, Ludwig (1943), The Hippocratic Oath: Text, Translation, and
Interpretation, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
Goldberg, Herbert S. (1963), Hippocrates, Father of Medicine, New
York: Franklin Watts
Heidel, William Arthur (1941), Hippocratic Medicine: Its Spirit and
Method, New York: Columbia University Press
Hippocrates (1990), Smith, Wesley D, ed., Pseudepigraphic
writings : letters, embassy, speech from the altar, decree,
Leiden: Brill, ISBN 90-04-09290-0
Jouanna, Jacques (1999), Hippocrates, M. B. DeBevoise, trans,
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,
Jori, Alberto (1996), Medicina e medici nell'antica Grecia. Saggio sul
'Perì téchnes' ippocratico, Bologna (Italy): il Mulino .
Kalopothakes, M. D. (1857), An essay on Hippocrates, Philadelphia:
King and Baird Printers .
Langholf, Volker (1990), Medical theories in Hippocrates : early
texts and the "Epidemics", Berlin: de Gruyter,
Levine, Edwin Burton (1971), Hippocrates, New York: Twayne
Lopez, Francesco (2004), Il pensiero olistico di Ippocrate. Percorsi
di ragionamento e testimonianze. Vol. I, Cosenza (Italy): Edizioni
Pubblisfera, ISBN 978-88-88358-35-2 .
Moon, Robert Oswald (1923),
Hippocrates and His Successors in Relation
Philosophy of Their Time, New York: Longmans, Green and
Petersen, William F. (1946), Hippocratic Wisdom for Him Who Wishes to
Pursue Properly the Science of Medicine: A Modern Appreciation of
Ancient Scientific Achievement, Springfield, IL: Charles C
Phillips, E.D. (1973), Aspects of Greek Medicine, New York: St.
Pliny the Elder, Natural History: Book XXIX., translated by John
Bostock. See original text in Perseus program.
Sargent, II, Frederick (1982), Hippocratic heritage : a history
of ideas about weather and human health, New York:
Smith, Wesley D. (1979), Hippocratic Tradition, Cornell University
Press, ISBN 0-8014-1209-9
Temkin, Owsei (1991),
Hippocrates in a world of pagans and Christians,
Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,
Find more aboutHippocratesat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
Media from Wikimedia Commons
News from Wikinews
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Harvard Classics Volume 38 with "The
Oath of Hippocrates", project
Hippocrates collection, full works in English, at The Virtual Library
LibriVox (public domain audiobooks)
Hippocrates entry in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Works by or about
Hippocrates in libraries (
First printed editions of the Hippocratic Collection at the
Bibliothèque Interuniversitaire de Médecine of Paris (BIUM) studies
and digitized texts by the BIUM (Bibliothèque interuniversitaire de
médecine et d'odontologie, Paris) see its digital library Medic@.
Wesley D. Smith. Hippocrates. Free full-text article from
Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Last accessed 24 April 2012.
Plants / animals
Atropa belladonna (belladonna)
Datura innoxia (thorn-apple)
Datura metel (devil's trumpet)
Hyoscyamus niger (henbane)
Mandragora officinarum (mandrake)
Greek Dark Ages
Ancient Greek colonies
Antigonid Macedonian army
Army of Macedon
Sacred Band of Thebes
List of ancient Greeks
Kings of Argos
Archons of Athens
Kings of Athens
Kings of Commagene
Kings of Lydia
Kings of Macedonia
Kings of Paionia
Attalid kings of Pergamon
Kings of Pontus
Kings of Sparta
Tyrants of Syracuse
Diogenes of Sinope
Alexander the Great
Milo of Croton
Philip of Macedon
Ancient Greek tribes
Funeral and burial practices
Arts and science
Greek Revival architecture
Funeral and burial practices
Theatre of Dionysus
Tunnel of Eupalinos
ISNI: 0000 0004 3523 8545
BNF: cb119075525 (data)