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Hindustani (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तानी,[a] Urdu: ہندوستانی‎,[b] [ˌɦɪnd̪ʊsˈt̪aːniː], lit. 'of Hindustan'[8]), colloquially known by some as Hamari/Apni Boli (lit. our language)[9][10] and historically also known as Hindavi, Dehlavi, Hindi-Urdu, and Rekhta, is the lingua franca of North India
India
and Pakistan.[11][12] It is an Indo-Aryan language, deriving its base primarily from the Khariboli
Khariboli
dialect of Delhi. The language incorporates a large amount of vocabulary from Sanskrit, Persian and Arabic.[13][14] It is a pluricentric language, with two official forms, Modern Standard Hindi
Hindi
and Modern Standard Urdu,[15] which are its standardised registers, and which may be called Hindustani or Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
when taken together.[16] The colloquial registers are mostly indistinguishable, and even though the official standards are nearly identical in grammar, they differ in literary conventions and in academic and technical vocabulary, with Urdu
Urdu
adopting stronger Persian and Arabic influences, and Hindi
Hindi
relying more heavily on Sanskrit.[17][18] Before the Partition of the British Indian Empire, the terms Hindustani, Urdu, and Hindi
Hindi
were synonymous; all covered what would be mostly called Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
today.[19] The term Hindustani is still used for the colloquial language and the lingua franca of North India
India
and Pakistan, for example for the language of Bollywood
Bollywood
films, as well as for several quite different varieties of Hindi
Hindi
spoken outside the Indian Subcontinent, such as Fiji
Fiji
Hindi
Hindi
of Fiji
Fiji
and the Caribbean Hindustani of Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, and the rest of the Caribbean. Hindustani is also spoken by a small number of people in Mauritius
Mauritius
and South Africa.[citation needed]

Contents

1 History 2 Registers

2.1 Modern Standard Hindi 2.2 Modern Standard Urdu 2.3 Bazaar
Bazaar
Hindustani

3 Names 4 Literature 5 Official status 6 Hindustani outside South Asia 7 Phonology 8 Grammar 9 Vocabulary 10 Writing system 11 Sample text

11.1 Formal Hindi 11.2 Formal Urdu

12 Hindustani and Bollywood 13 Urdu
Urdu
films and Lollywood 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 Bibliography 18 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of Hindustani Early forms of present-day Hindustani developed from the Middle Indo-Aryan apabhramsha vernaculars of present-day North India
India
in the 7th–13th centuries.[20] Amir Khusro, who lived in the 13th century CE during the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate period in North India, used these forms (which was the lingua franca of the period) in his writings and referred to it as Hindavi (Persian: ھندوی‎ literally "of Hindus or Indians").[20] The Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, which comprised several Turkic and Afghan dynasties that ruled from Delhi,[21] was succeeded by the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
in 1526. Although the Mughals
Mughals
were of Timurid (Gurkānī) Turko-Mongol descent,[22] they were Persianised, and Persian had gradually become the state language of the Mughal empire after Babur,[23][24][25][26] a continuation since the introduction of Persian by Central Asian
Central Asian
Turkic rulers in the Indian Subcontinent,[27] and the patronisation of it by the earlier Turko-Afghan Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate. The basis in general for the introduction of Persian language
Persian language
into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianised Central Asian
Central Asian
Turkic and Afghan dynasties.[28] In the 18th century, towards the end of the Mughal period, with the fragmentation of the empire and the elite system, a variant of Khariboli, one of the successors of apabhramsha vernaculars at Delhi, and nearby cities, came to gradually replace Persian as the lingua franca among the educated elite upper class particularly in northern India, though Persian still retained much of its pre-eminence for a short period. The term Hindustani (Persian: ھندوستانی‎ "of Hindustan") was the name given to that variant of Khariboli. For socio-political reasons, though essentially the variant of Khariboli
Khariboli
with Persian vocabulary, the emerging prestige dialect became also known as Zabān-e Urdū-e Mualla "language of the court" or Zabān-e Urdū زبان اردو‎, ज़बान-ए उर्दू, "language of the camp" in Persian, derived from Turkic Ordū "camp", cognate with English horde; due to its origin as the common speech of the Mughal army). The more highly Persianised version later established as a language of the court was called Rekhta, or "mixed". As an emerging common dialect, Hindustani absorbed large numbers of Persian, Arabic, and Turkic words, and as Mughal conquests grew it spread as a lingua franca across much of northern India. Written in the Perso-Arabic Script
Perso-Arabic Script
or Devanagari
Devanagari
script,[29] it remained the primary lingua franca of northern India
India
for the next four centuries (although it varied significantly in vocabulary depending on the local language) and achieved the status of a literary language, alongside Persian, in Muslim courts. Its development was centred on the poets of the Mughal courts of cities in Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
such as Delhi, Lucknow, and Agra. John Fletcher Hurst
John Fletcher Hurst
in his book published in 1891 mentioned that the Hindustani or Camp language or Language of the Camps of Moughal courts at Delhi
Delhi
was not regarded by philologists as distinct language but only as a dialect of Hindi
Hindi
with admixture of Persian. He continued: "But it has all the magnitude and importance of separate language. It is linguistic result of Muslim rule of eleventh & twelfth centuries and is spoken (except in rural Bengal
Bengal
) by many Hindus in North India
India
and by Musalman
Musalman
population in all parts of India". Next to English it was the official language of British Indian Empire, was commonly written in Arabic or Persian characters, and was spoken by approximately 100,000,000 people.[30] When the British colonised the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
from the late 18th through to the late 19th century, they used the words 'Hindustani', 'Hindi' and 'Urdu' interchangeably. They developed it as the language of administration of British India,[31] further preparing it to be the official language of modern India
India
and Pakistan. However, with independence, use of the word 'Hindustani' declined, being largely replaced by 'Hindi' and 'Urdu', or 'Hindi-Urdu' when either of those was too specific. More recently, the word 'Hindustani' has been used for the colloquial language of Bollywood
Bollywood
films, which are popular in both India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
and which cannot be unambiguously identified as either Hindi
Hindi
or Urdu. Registers[edit] See also: Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
controversy and Register (sociolinguistics) Although, at the spoken level, Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
are considered registers of a single language, they differ vastly in literary and formal vocabulary; where literary Hindi
Hindi
draws heavily on Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and to a lesser extent Prakrit, literary Urdu
Urdu
draws heavily on Persian and Arabic. The grammar and base vocabulary (most pronouns, verbs, adpositions, etc.) of both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu, however, are the same and derive from a Prakritic base, and both have a Persian/Arabic influence. The standardised registers Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
are collectively known as Hindi-Urdu. Hindustani is perhaps the lingua franca of the north and west of the Indian subcontinent, though it is understood fairly well in other regions also, especially in the urban areas. A common vernacular sharing characteristics with Sanskritised Hindi, regional Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu, Hindustani is more commonly used as a vernacular than highly Sanskritised Hindi
Hindi
or highly Arabicised/Persianised Urdu. This can be seen in the popular culture of Bollywood
Bollywood
or, more generally, the vernacular of North Indians and Pakistanis, which generally employs a lexicon common to both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
speakers. Minor subtleties in region will also affect the 'brand' of Hindustani, sometimes pushing the Hindustani closer to Urdu
Urdu
or to Hindi. One might reasonably assume that the Hindustani spoken in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh (known for its usage of Urdu) and Varanasi
Varanasi
(a holy city for Hindus and thus using highly Sanskritised Hindi) is somewhat different. Modern Standard Hindi[edit]

Rigveda
Rigveda
manuscript in Devanagari
Devanagari
(early 19th century)

Main article: Hindi Standard Hindi, one of the official languages of India, is based on the Khariboli
Khariboli
dialect of the Delhi
Delhi
region and differs from Urdu
Urdu
in that it is usually written in the indigenous Devanagari script
Devanagari script
of India
India
and exhibits less Persian and Arabic influence than Urdu. Many scholars today employ a Sanskritised form of Hindi
Hindi
developed primarily in Varanasi, the Hindu
Hindu
holy city, which is based on the Eastern Hindi dialect of that region and thus a separate language from official Standard Hindi.[citation needed] It has a literature of 500 years, with prose, poetry, religion & philosophy, under the Bahmani Kings and later on Khutab Shahi Adil Shahi etc. It is a living language, still prevalent all over the Deccan Plateau. Note that the term Hindustani has generally fallen out of common usage in modern India, except to refer to "Indian" as a nationality[32] and a style of Indian classical music prevalent in northern India. The term used to refer to it is Hindi
Hindi
or Urdu, depending on the religion of the speaker, and regardless of the mix of Persian or Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words used by the speaker. One could conceive of a wide spectrum of dialects and registers, with the highly Persianised Urdu
Urdu
at one end of the spectrum and a heavily Sanskrit-based dialect, spoken in the region around Varanasi, at the other end of the spectrum. In common usage in India, the term Hindi
Hindi
includes all these dialects except those at the Urdu end of the spectrum. Thus, the different meanings of the word Hindi include, among others:

standardised Hindi
Hindi
as taught in schools throughout India
India
(except some states such as Tamil Nadu), formal or official Hindi
Hindi
advocated by Purushottam Das Tandon
Purushottam Das Tandon
and as instituted by the post-independence Indian government, heavily influenced by Sanskrit, the vernacular dialects of Hindustani as spoken throughout India, the neutralised form of Hindustani used in popular television and films, or the more formal neutralised form of Hindustani used in broadcast and print news reports.

Modern Standard Urdu[edit]

The phrase Zabān-e Urdu-e Mo'alla written in Nasta'liq
Nasta'liq
calligraphy

Main article: Urdu Urdu
Urdu
is the national language of Pakistan
Pakistan
and an officially recognised regional language of India. Urdu
Urdu
is the official language of all Pakistani provinces and is taught in all schools as a compulsory subject up to the 12th grade. It is also an official language in the Indian states of Jammu and Kashmir, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Telangana
Telangana
that have significant Muslim populations. Bazaar
Bazaar
Hindustani[edit] Main article: Hindi
Hindi
dialects In a specific sense, Hindustani may be used to refer to the dialects and varieties used in common speech, in contrast with the standardised Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu. This meaning is reflected in the use of the term bazaar Hindustani, in other words, the "language of the street or the marketplace", as opposed to the perceived refinement of formal Hindi, Urdu, or even Sanskrit. Thus, the Webster's New World Dictionary defines the term Hindustani as the principal dialect of Hindi/Urdu, used as a trade language throughout north India
India
and Pakistan. Names[edit] Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
ca. 1300 referred to this language of his writings as Dehlavi (देहलवी; دہلوی‬ 'of Delhi') or Hindavi (हिन्दवी; ہندوی‬). During this period, Hindustani was used by Sufis
Sufis
in promulgating their message across the Indian subcontinent.[33] After the advent of the Mughals
Mughals
in the subcontinent, Hindustani acquired more Persian loanwords. Rekhta ('mixture') and Hindi
Hindi
('Indian')[29] became popular names for the same language until the 18th century.[34] The name Urdu
Urdu
appeared around 1780.[34] During the British Raj, the term Hindustani was used by British officials.[34] In 1796, John Borthwick Gilchrist
John Borthwick Gilchrist
published a "A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language".[34][35] Upon partition, India and Pakistan
Pakistan
established national standards that they called Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu, respectively, and attempted to make distinct, with the result that Hindustani commonly, but mistakenly, came to be seen as a mixture of Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu. Grierson, in his highly influential Linguistic Survey of India, proposed that the names Hindustani, Urdu, and Hindi
Hindi
be separated in use for different varieties of the Hindustani language, rather than as the overlapping synonyms they frequently were:

We may now define the three main varieties of Hindōstānī as follows:—Hindōstānī is primarily the language of the Upper Gangetic Doab, and is also the lingua franca of India, capable of being written in both Persian and Dēva-nāgarī characters, and without purism, avoiding alike the excessive use of either Persian or Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words when employed for literature. The name 'Urdū' can then be confined to that special variety of Hindōstānī in which Persian words are of frequent occurrence, and which hence can only be written in the Persian character, and, similarly, 'Hindī' can be confined to the form of Hindōstānī in which Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words abound, and which hence can only be written in the Dēva-nāgarī character.[36]

Literature[edit] Main articles: Hindi
Hindi
literature and Urdu
Urdu
literature Official status[edit]

Hindustani, in its standardised registers, is one of the official languages of both India
India
(Hindi) and Pakistan
Pakistan
(Urdu).

Hindi, a major standardized register of Hindustani, is declared by the Constitution of India
India
as the "official language (राजभाषा, rājabhāshā) of the Union" (Art. 343(1)) (In this context, "Union" means the Federal Government and not the entire country – India
India
has 23 official languages). At the same time, however, the definitive text of Federal laws is officially the English text and proceedings in the higher appellate courts must be conducted in English. At the state level, Hindi
Hindi
is one of the official languages in 9 of the 29 Indian states and three Union Territories (namely Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, and Haryana
Haryana
and UTs are Delhi, Chandigarh, Andaman and Nicobar Islands). In the remaining states Hindi
Hindi
is not an official language. In the state of Tamil Nadu studying Hindi
Hindi
is not compulsory in the state curriculum. However an option to take the same as second or third language does exist. In many other states, studying Hindi
Hindi
is usually compulsory in the school curriculum as a third language (the first two languages being the state's official language and English), though the intensiveness of Hindi
Hindi
in the curriculum varies.[37] Urdu, also a major standardized register of Hindustani, is also one of the languages recognized by the Indian Constitution and is an official language of the Indian states of Telangana, Bihar, Delhi, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttar Pradesh. Although the government school system in most other states emphasises Modern Standard Hindi, at universities in cities such as Lucknow, Aligarh
Aligarh
and Hyderabad, Urdu
Urdu
is spoken and learnt, and Saaf Urdu
Urdu
is treated with just as much respect as Shuddha Hindi. Urdu
Urdu
is also the national language of Pakistan, where it shares official language status with English. Although English is spoken by many, Punjabi is the native language of the majority of the population, Urdu
Urdu
is the lingua franca. Hindustani was the official language of the British Indian Empire
British Indian Empire
and was synonymous with both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu.[31][38][39] After India's independence in 1947, the Sub-Committee on Fundamental Rights recommended that the official language of India
India
be Hindustani:

"Hindustani, written either in Devanagari
Devanagari
or the Perso-Arabic
Perso-Arabic
script at the option of the citizen, shall, as the national language, be the first official language of the Union."[40]

However, this recommendation was not adopted by the Constituent Assembly. Hindustani outside South Asia[edit] Besides being the lingua franca of North India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
in South Asia, Hindustani is also spoken by many in the South Asian diaspora and their descendants around the world, including North America
North America
(in Canada, for example, Hindustani is one of the fastest growing languages[41]) and the Middle East. Hindustani was also one of the languages that was spoken widely in Burma
Burma
during British rule. Many older Burmese, particularly the Anglo-Indians
Anglo-Indians
and Anglo-Burmese
Anglo-Burmese
of the country, still know it, although it has had no official status in the country since military rule. Hindustani is also spoken in the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council, where migrant labour workers from various countries live and work for several years. Phonology[edit] Main article: Hindustani phonology Grammar[edit] Main article: Hindustani grammar Vocabulary[edit] See also: Hindustani etymology Hindustani contains around 5,500 words of Persian and Arabic origin.[42] Writing system[edit] Main articles: Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
orthography, Hindi
Hindi
Braille, and Urdu
Urdu
Braille

"Surahi" in Samrup rachna
Samrup rachna
calligraphy

Historically, Hindustani was written in the Kaithi, Devanagari, and Urdu
Urdu
alphabets.[29] Kaithi
Kaithi
and Devanagari
Devanagari
are two of the Brahmic scripts native to India, whereas Urdu
Urdu
is a derivation of the Perso-Arabic
Perso-Arabic
script Nastaliq
Nastaliq
which is preferred calligraphic style for Urdu. Today, Hindustani continues to be written in the Urdu
Urdu
alphabet, and this is nearly exclusive in Pakistan. In India, the Hindi
Hindi
register is officially written in Devanagari
Devanagari
(a relative of Kaithi), and Urdu
Urdu
in Perso-Arabic
Perso-Arabic
script Nastaliq, to the extent that these standards are partly defined by their script. However, in popular publications in India, Urdu
Urdu
is also written in Devanagari
Devanagari
script, with slight variations to establish a Devanagari Urdu
Urdu
alphabet alongside the Devanagari
Devanagari
Hindi
Hindi
alphabet.

Devanagari

अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ औ

ə aː ɪ iː ʊ uː eː ɛː oː ɔː

क क़ ख ख़ ग ग़ घ ङ

k q kʰ x ɡ ɣ ɡʱ ŋ

च छ ज ज़ झ झ़ ञ

t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ d͡ʒ z d͡ʒʱ ʒ ɲ

ट ठ ड ड़ ढ ढ़ ण

ʈ ʈʰ ɖ ɽ ɖʱ ɽʱ ɳ

त थ द ध न

t̪ t̪ʰ d̪ d̪ʱ n

प फ फ़ ब भ म

p pʰ f b bʱ m

य र ल व

j ɾ l ʋ

श ष स ह

ʃ ʂ s ɦ

Urdu
Urdu
alphabet

Letter Name of letter Transcription IPA

ا‬ alif – –

ب‬ be b /b/

پ‬ pe p /p/

ت‬ te t /t̪/

ٹ‬ ṭe ṭ /ʈ/

ث‬ se s /s/

ج‬ jīm j /d͡ʒ/

چ‬ che ch /t͡ʃ/

ح‬ baṛī he h /h ~ ɦ/

خ‬ khe kh /x/

د‬ dāl d /d̪/

ڈ‬ ḍāl ḍ /ɖ/

ذ‬ zāl dh /z/

ر‬ re r /r ~ ɾ/

ڑ‬ ṛe ṛ /ɽ/

ز‬ ze z /z/

ژ‬ zhe zh /ʒ/

س‬ sīn s /s/

ش‬ shīn sh /ʃ/

ص‬ su'ād ṣ /s/

ض‬ zu'ād z̤ /z/

ط‬ to'e t /t/

ظ‬ zo'e ẓ /z/

ع‬ ‘ain ' –

غ‬ ghain gh /ɣ/

ف‬ fe f /f/

ق‬ qāf q /q/

ک‬ kāf k /k/

گ‬ gāf g /ɡ/

ل‬ lām l /l/

م‬ mīm m /m/

ن‬ nūn n /n/

و‬ vā'o v, o, or ū /ʋ/, /oː/, /ɔ/ or /uː/

ہ, ﮩ, ﮨ‬ choṭī he h /h ~ ɦ/

ھ‬ do chashmī he h /ʰ/ or /ʱ/

ء‬ hamza ' /ʔ/

ی‬ ye y, i /j/ or /iː/

ے‬ baṛī ye ai or e /ɛː/, or /eː/

Because of anglicisation in South Asia and the international use of the Latin script, Hindustani is occasionally written in the Latin script. This adaptation is called Roman Urdu
Urdu
or Romanised Hindi, depending upon the register used. Because the Bollywood
Bollywood
film industry is a major proponent of the Latin script, the use of Latin script
Latin script
to write in Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
is growing amongst younger Internet users.[citation needed] Since Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
are mutually intelligible when spoken, Romanised Hindi
Hindi
and Roman Urdu
Urdu
(unlike Devanagari
Devanagari
Hindi and Urdu
Urdu
in the Urdu
Urdu
alphabet) are mutually intelligible as well. Sample text[edit] Following is a sample text, Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the two official registers of Hindustani, Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu. Because this is a formal legal text, differences in formal vocabulary are maximised. Formal Hindi[edit]

अनुच्छेद १—सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिये।

Nastaliq
Nastaliq
transcription:

انچھید ١ : سبھی منشیوں کو گورو اور ادھکاروں کے وشے میں جنمجات سؤتنترتا پراپت ہیں۔ انہیں بدھی اور انتراتما کی دین پراپت ہے اور پرسپر انہیں بھائی چارے کے بھاؤ سے برتاؤ کرنا چاہئے۔‬

Transliteration (IAST):

Anucched 1: Sabhī manushyoṇ ko gaurav aur adhikāroṇ ke vishay meṇ janm'jāt svatantratā prāpt haiṇ. Unheṇ buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unheṇ bhāīchāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā chāhiye.

Transcription (IPA):

ənʊtʃʰːed̪ ek səbʱi mənʊʂjõ ko ɡɔɾəʋ ɔr əd̪ʱɪkaɾõ ke viʂaj mẽ dʒənmdʒat̪ sʋət̪ənt̪ɾət̪a pɾapt̪ hɛ̃ ʊnʱẽ bʊd̪ʱːɪ ɔɾ ənt̪əɾat̪ma kiː d̪en pɾapt̪ hɛ ɔɾ pəɾəspəɾ ʊnʱẽ bʱaitʃaɾe keː bʱaʋ se bəɾt̪aʋ kəɾna tʃahɪe

Gloss (word-to-word):

Article 1—All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in from-birth freedom acquired is. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should.

Translation (grammatical):

Article 1—All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Formal Urdu[edit]

:دفعہ 1: تمام انسان آزاد اور حقوق و عزت کے اعتبار سے برابر پیدا ہوئے ہیں۔ انہیں ضمیر اور عقل ودیعت ہوئی ہیں۔ اسلئے انہیں ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ بھائی چارے کا سلوک کرنا چاہئے۔‬

Devanagari
Devanagari
transcription:

दफ़ा १: तमाम इनसान आज़ाद और हुक़ूक़ ओ इज़्ज़त के ऐतबार से बराबर पैदा हुए हैं। इन्हें ज़मीर और अक़्ल वदीयत हुई हैं। इसलिए इन्हें एक दूसरे के साथ भाई चारे का सुलूक करना चाहीए।

Transliteration (ALA-LC):

Dafʻah 1: Tamām insān āzād aur ḥuqūq o ʻizzat ke iʻtibār se barābar paidā hu’e haiṇ. Unheṇ zamīr aur ʻaql wadīʻat hu’ī he. Isli’e unheṇ ek dūsre ke sāth bhā’ī chāre kā sulūk karnā chāhi’e.

Transcription (IPA):

d̪əfa ek t̪əmam ɪnsan azad̪ ɔɾ hʊquq o izːət̪ ke ɛt̪əbaɾ se bəɾabəɾ pɛd̪a hʊe hɛ̃ ʊnʱẽ zəmiɾ ɔɾ əql ʋədiət̪ hʊi hɛ̃ ɪslɪe ʊnʱẽ ek d̪usɾe ke sat̪ʰ bʱai tʃaɾe ka sʊluk kəɾna tʃahɪe

Gloss (word-to-word):

Article 1: All humans free[,] and rights and dignity's consideration from equal born are. To them conscience and intellect endowed is. Therefore, they one another's with brotherhood's treatment do must.

Translation (grammatical):

Article 1—All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Hindustani and Bollywood[edit] The predominant Indian film industry Bollywood, located in Mumbai, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
uses dialects of Khariboli, Bambaiya Hindi, Urdu,[43] Awadhi, Rajasthani, Bhojpuri, and Braj Bhasha, along with the language of Punjabi and with the liberal use of English or Hinglish for the dialogue and soundtrack lyrics. Movie titles are often screened in three scripts: Latin, Devanagari and occasionally Perso-Arabic. The use of Urdu
Urdu
or Hindi
Hindi
in films depends on the film's context: historical films set in the Delhi Sultanate or Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
are almost entirely in Urdu, whereas films based on Hindu
Hindu
mythology or ancient India
India
make heavy use of Hindi
Hindi
with Sanskrit
Sanskrit
vocabulary. Urdu
Urdu
films and Lollywood[edit] The Pakistani film industry Lollywood, centred historically in Lahore, has seen a rise in Punjabi movies lately. Urdu
Urdu
languages have seen a surge throughout Pakistan
Pakistan
specifically Karachi, with new age films, and to a lesser extent in Islamabad
Islamabad
and Lahore. See also[edit]

India
India
portal Pakistan
Pakistan
portal Languages portal

Languages of India Languages of Pakistan List of Hindi
Hindi
authors List of Urdu
Urdu
writers Uddin and Begum Hindustani Romanisation

Notes[edit]

^ Hindustānī ^ Hindūstānī

References[edit]

^ "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013)" (PDF). Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 27 November 2016.  ^ a b Standard Hindi
Hindi
L1: 260.1 million (2001), L2: 120.5 million (1999). Urdu
Urdu
L1: 68.6 million (2001–2014), L2: 94 million (1999): Ethnologue
Ethnologue
19. Hindi
Hindi
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(19th ed., 2016). Urdu
Urdu
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(19th ed., 2016). ^ Takkar, Gaurav. "Short Term Programmes". punarbhava.in.  ^ " Fiji
Fiji
Constitution".  ^ The Central Hindi
Hindi
Directorate regulates the use of Devanagari
Devanagari
script and Hindi
Hindi
spelling in India. Source: Central Hindi
Hindi
Directorate: Introduction Archived 15 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "National Council for Promotion of Urdu
Urdu
Language". www.urducouncil.nic.in.  ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hindustani". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "About Hindi-Urdu". North Carolina State University. Archived from the original on 15 August 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2009.  ^ "Hamari Boli - The Hindi
Hindi
Urdu
Urdu
Flagship at the University of Texas at Austin". hindiurduflagship.org.  ^ "Drawn from the same wellspring - The Express Tribune". 14 May 2016.  ^ Mohammad Tahsin Siddiqi (1994), Hindustani-English code-mixing in modern literary texts, University of Wisconsin, ... Hindustani is the lingua franca of both India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
...  ^ Lydia Mihelič Pulsipher; Alex Pulsipher; Holly M. Hapke (2005), World Regional Geography: Global Patterns, Local Lives, Macmillan, ISBN 0-7167-1904-5, ... By the time of British colonialism, Hindustani was the lingua franca of all of northern India
India
and what is today Pakistan
Pakistan
...  ^ Michael Huxley (editor) (1935), The Geographical magazine, Volume 2, Geographical Press, ... For new terms it can draw at will upon the Persian, Arabic, Turkish and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
dictionaries ... CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Great Britain, Royal Society of Arts (1948), Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, Volume 97, ... it would be very unwise to restrict it to a vocabulary mainly dependent upon Sanskrit, or mainly dependent upon Persian. If a language is to be strong and virile it must draw on both sources, just as English has drawn on Latin and Teutonic sources ...  ^ Robert E. Nunley; Severin M. Roberts; George W. Wubrick; Daniel L. Roy (1999), The Cultural Landscape an Introduction to Human Geography, Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-080180-1, ... Hindustani is the basis for both languages ...  ^ Benjamin W. Fortson. Indo-European Language and Culture An Introduction, Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2011. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-4051-8896-8.  ^ Hindi
Hindi
by Yamuna Kachru ^ Students' Britannica: India: Select essays by Dale Hoiberg, Indu Ramchandani page 175 ^ "Hindustani B2". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005.  (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) ^ a b Keith Brown; Sarah Ogilvie (2008), Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, Elsevier, ISBN 0-08-087774-5, ... Apabhramsha seemed to be in a state of transition from Middle Indo-Aryan to the New Indo-Aryan stage. Some elements of Hindustani appear ... the distinct form of the lingua franca Hindustani appears in the writings of Amir Khusro
Amir Khusro
(1253–1325), who called it Hindwi ...  ^ Gat, Azar (2013). Nations: The Long History and Deep Roots of Political Ethnicity and Nationalism. Cambridge University Press. p. 126. ISBN 9781107007857.  ^ Zahir ud-Din Mohammad (2002-09-10), Thackston, Wheeler M., ed., The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, Modern Library Classics, ISBN 0-375-76137-3, Note: Gurkānī is the Persianized form of the Mongolian word "kürügän" ("son-in-law"), the title given to the dynasty's founder after his marriage into Genghis Khan's family.  ^ B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Timurid Dynasty", Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation:...Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia....Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture...) ^ "Timurids". The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth ed.). New York City: Columbia University. Archived from the original on 5 December 2006. Retrieved 8 November 2006.  ^ Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article: Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids, Online Edition, 2007. ^ "South Asian Sufis: Devotion, Deviation, and Destiny". Retrieved 2 January 2015.  ^ Sigfried J. de Laet. History of Humanity: From the seventh to the sixteenth century UNESCO, 1994. ISBN 9231028138 p 734 ^ a b c McGregor, Stuart (2003), "The Progress of Hindi, Part 1", Literary cultures in history: reconstructions from South Asia, p. 912, ISBN 978-0-520-22821-4  in Pollock (2003) ^ [1] Indika: the country and the people of India
India
and Ceylon By John Fletcher Hurst (1891) Page 344. ^ a b Writing Systems by Florian Coulmas, page 232 ^ Bahri, (13 February 1989). "Learners' Hindi-English Dictionary". dsalsrv02.uchicago.edu.  ^ "The Origin and Growth of Urdu
Urdu
Language". Yaser Amri. Retrieved 2007-01-08.  ^ a b c d Faruqi, Shamsur Rahman (2003), "A Long History of Urdu Literarature, Part 1", Literary cultures in history: reconstructions from South Asia, p. 806, ISBN 978-0-520-22821-4  in Pollock (2003). ^ A Grammar of the Hindoostanee Language, Chronicle Press, 1796, retrieved 2007-01-08  ^ Grierson, vol. 9-1, p. 47. ^ Government of India: National Policy on Education Archived 20 June 2006 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ "Colonial Knowledge and the Fate of Hindustani". 35. Cambridge University Press: 665–682. JSTOR 179178.  ^ Indian critiques of Gandhi by Harold G. Coward page 218 ^ "Hindi, not a national language: Court".  ^ "Census data shows Canada increasingly bilingual, linguistically diverse".  ^ Kuczkiewicz-Fraś, Agnieszka (2008). Perso-Arabic
Perso-Arabic
Loanwords in Hindustani. Kraków: Księgarnia Akademicka. p. X. ISBN 978-83-7188-161-9.  ^ "Decoding the Bollywood
Bollywood
poster". National Science and Media Museum. 28 February 2013. 

Bibliography[edit]

Asher, R. E. (1994). Hindi. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 1547–1549). Asher, R. E. (Ed.). (1994). The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4. Bailey, Thomas G. (1950). Teach yourself Hindustani. London: English Universities Press. Chatterji, Suniti K. (1960). Indo-Aryan and Hindi
Hindi
(rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay. Dua, Hans R. (1992). Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
as a pluricentric language. In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1. Dua, Hans R. (1994a). Hindustani. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 1554). Dua, Hans R. (1994b). Urdu. In Asher (Ed.) (pp. 4863–4864). Rai, Amrit. (1984). A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X.

Further reading

Henry Blochmann (1877). English and Urdu
Urdu
dictionary, romanized (8 ed.). CALCUTTA: Printed at the Baptist mission press for the Calcutta school-book society. p. 215. Retrieved 2011-07-06. the University of Michigan John Dowson (1908). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language (3 ed.). LONDON: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., ltd. p. 264. Retrieved 2011-07-06. the University of Michigan John Dowson (1872). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language. LONDON: Trübner & Co. p. 264. Retrieved 2011-07-06. Oxford University John Thompson Platts (1874). A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language. Volume 6423 of Harvard College Library preservation microfilm program. LONDON: W.H. Allen. p. 399. Retrieved 2011-07-06. Oxford University John Thompson Platts (1892). A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language. LONDON: W.H. Allen. p. 399. Retrieved 2011-07-06. the New York Public Library John Thompson Platts (1884). A dictionary of Urdū, classical Hindī, and English (reprint ed.). LONDON: H. Milford. p. 1259. Retrieved 2011-07-06. Oxford University Shakespear, John. A Dictionary, Hindustani and English. 3rd ed., much enl. London: Printed for the author by J.L. Cox and Son: Sold by Parbury, Allen, & Co., 1834. Taylor, Joseph. A dictionary, Hindoostanee and English. Available at Hathi Trust. (A dictionary, Hindoostanee and English / abridged from the quarto edition of Major Joseph Taylor ; as edited by the late W. Hunter ; by William Carmichael Smyth.)

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hindi-Urdu_phrasebook.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
article Hindostani.

Hamari Boli (Hindustani) Khan Academy (Hindi-Urdu): academic lessons taught in Hindi-Urdu Hindi, Urdu, Hindustani, khaRî bolî Hindustani FAQ at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 27 October 2009) Hindustani as an anxiety between Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
Commitment Hindi? Urdu? Hindustani? Hindi-Urdu? Hindi/Urdu-English-Kalasha-Khowar-Nuristani-Pashtu Comparative Word List GRN Report for Hindustani Hindustani Poetry Hindustani online resources Biggest Hindustani-Indian poetry forum National Language Authority (Urdu), Pakistan
Pakistan
(muqtadera qaumi zaban) "Language: Urdu
Urdu
and the borrowed words", Dawn.com

v t e

Hindi

Grammar Phonology Devanagari Braille History Vocabulary Hindustani

Varieties

Western

Braj Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Kannauji Khari Boli
Khari Boli
(Registers: Standard Hindi Standard Urdu; Dialects: Dakhini) Sansi Boli

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Caribbean
Caribbean
Hindi Chhattisgarhi Fiji
Fiji
Hindi

Pidgins and Creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Bombay Hindi Haflong Hindi Hinglish

Language politics

Anti- Hindi
Hindi
agitations of Karnataka Anti- Hindi
Hindi
agitations of Tamil Nadu Hindi- Urdu
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v t e

Urdu

History Alphabet Grammar Phonology Vocabulary Nastaliq Braille

Varieties

Dialects

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Forms

Aurangabad Urdu British Urdu Roman Urdu

Politics

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Urdu
movement Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
controversy

Arts

Awards Literature Informatics Cinema Poetry Music Writers Poets Progressive Writers' Movement Uddin & Begum Romanisation

v t e

Hindustani-speaking areas of India

See also: Hindi
Hindi
Belt

Bihar

Araria Arwal Aurangabad Banka Begusarai Bhagalpur Bhojpur Buxar Darbhanga East Champaran Gaya Gopalganj Jamui Jehanabad Kaimur Katihar Khagaria Kishanganj Lakhisarai Madhepura Madhubani Munger Muzaffarpur Nalanda Nawada Patna Purnia Rohtas Saharsa Samastipur Saran Sheikhpura Sheohar Sitamarhi Siwan Supaul Vaishali West Champaran

Chhattisgarh

Bastar Bilaspur Dantewada Dhamtari Durg Janjgir-Champa Jashpur Kabirdham Kanker Korba Koriya Mahasamund Narayanpur Raigarh Raipur Rajnandgaon Surguja

Delhi

Central Delhi East Delhi New Delhi North Delhi North East Delhi North West Delhi South Delhi South West Delhi West Delhi

Haryana

Ambala Bhiwani Faridabad Fatehabad Gurgaon Hisar Jhajjar Jind Kaithal Karnal Kurukshetra Mahendragarh Mewat Panchkula Palwal Panipat Rewari Rohtak Sirsa Sonipat Yamuna Nagar

Himachal Pradesh

Bilaspur Chamba Hamirpur Kangra Kinnaur Kullu Lahul and Spiti Mandi Shimla Sirmaur Solan Una

Jharkhand

Bokaro Chatra Deoghar Dhanbad Dumka East Singhbhum Garhwa Giridih Godda Gumla Hazaribagh Jamtara Khunti Koderma Latehar Lohardaga Pakur Palamu Ramgarh Ranchi Saraikela Kharsawan Simdega Singhbhum Sahebganj

Madhya Pradesh

Anuppur Ashoknagar Balaghat Barwani Betul Bhind Bhopal Burhanpur Chhatarpur Chhindwara Damoh Datia Dewas Dhar Dindori Guna Gwalior Harda Hoshangabad Indore Jabalpur Jhabua Katni Khandwa Khargone Mandla Mandsaur Morena Narsinghpur Neemuch Panna Raisen Rajgarh Ratlam Rewa Sagar Satna Sehore Seoni Shahdol Shajapur Sheopur Shivpuri Sidhi Tikamgarh Ujjain Umaria Vidisha

Rajasthan

Ajmer Alwar Banswara Baran Barmer Bhilwara Bikaner Bharatpur Bundi Chittorgarh Churu Dausa Dholpur Dungarpur Ganganagar Hanumangarh Jaipur Jaisalmer Jalore Jhalawar Jhunjhunu Jodhpur Karauli Kota Nagaur Pali Pratapgarh Rajsamand Sawai Madhopur Sikar Sirohi Tonk Udaipur

Uttar Pradesh

Agra Aligarh Allahabad Ambedkar Nagar Amethi Amroha Auraiya Azamgarh Badaun Bagpat Bahraich Balarampur Ballia Banda Barabanki Bareilly Basti Bijnor Bulandshahr Chandauli Chitrakoot Devaria Etah Etawah Faizabad Farrukhabad Fatehpur Firozabad Ghaziabad Gonda Gorakhpur Gautam Buddha Nagar Ghazipur Hamirpur Hardoi Hathras Jalaun Jaunpur Jhansi Kannauj Kanpur Kanpur Dehat Kaushambi Kushinagar Khair
Khair
City Lakhimpur Kheri Lalitpur Lucknow Maharajganj Mahoba Mainpuri Mathura Mau Meerut Mirzapur Moradabad Muzaffarnagar Pilibhit Pratapgarh Raebareli Rampur Saharanpur Sant Kabir Nagar Sant Ravidas Nagar Shahjahanpur Shravasti Siddharthnagar Sitapur Sonbhadra Sultanpur Unnao Varanasi

Uttarakhand

Almora Bageshwar Chamoli Champawat Dehradun Haridwar Nainital New Tehri Pauri Pithoragarh Rudraprayag Rudrapur Uttarkashi

v t e

Modern Indo-Aryan languages

Dardic

Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Indus Kohistani Kalami Kalash Kashmiri Khowar Kundal Shahi Mankiyali Nangalami Palula Pashayi Sawi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji

Northern

Eastern

Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa

Central

Garhwali Kumaoni

Western

Dogri Kangri Mandeali

North- western

Punjabi

Punjabi

dialects

Lahnda

Hindko Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki

Sindhi

Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi

Western

Gujarati

Aer Gujarati Jandavra Koli Lisan ud-Dawat Parkari Koli Saurashtra Vaghri

Bhil

Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi

Rajasthani

Bagri Goaria Gujari Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki

Others

Domari Khandeshi Romani

list of languages

Central

Western

Braj Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Hindustani

Hindi

Bombay Hindi

Urdu

Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta

Khariboli Kannauji Sansi Sadhukadi

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji
Fiji
Hindi

Others

Danwar Parya

Eastern

Bihari

Angika Bhojpuri Caribbean
Caribbean
Hindustani Vajjika Magahi Maithili Majhi Sadri

Bengali– Assamese

Assamese Bengali

dialects

Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Goalpariya Hajong Kamrupi Kharia Thar Kurmukar Rangpuri Rohingya Sylheti Tanchangya

Odia

Odia Kosli Bodo Parja Kupia Reli

Halbic

Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari

Others

Mal Paharia

Southern

Marathi–Konkani

Konkani Kukna Marathi others..

Insular

Maldivian Sinhalese

Unclassified

Chinali Sheikhgal

Pidgins/ creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Haflong Hindi Nagamese Nefamese Vedda

See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani languages; Iranian languages

v t e

Major languages of South Asia

Main articles

Languages of India

list by number of speakers scheduled

Languages of Pakistan Languages of Bangladesh Languages of Bhutan Languages of the Maldives Languages of Nepal Languages of Sri Lanka

Contemporary languages

Austronesian

Sri Lankan Creole Malay

Dravidian

Brahui Jeseri Kannada Malayalam Tamil Telugu Tulu

Indo-Aryan

Angika Assamese Bhojpuri Bengali Chakma Chittagonian Dhivehi Dogri Gujarati Hindi Hindko Kashmiri Konkani Kumaoni Magahi Mahal Maithili Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Saraiki Sindhi Sinhala Sylheti Rajasthani language Urdu

Iranian

Balochi Pashto Wakhi

Isolates

Great Andamanese Burushaski Nihali Kusunda

Mon–Khmer

Khasi Nicobarese

Munda

Ho Korku Mundari Santali Sora

Ongan

Önge Jarawa

Tibeto-Burman

Ao Bodo Dzongkha Garo Meithei Mizo Nepal Bhasa Sikkimese Tenyidie Tibetan Tripuri

European influence

English

Indian English Pakistani English Sri Lankan English

French Portuguese

Scripts

Historical

Indus (Undeciphered) Brahmi (Abugida) Kharosthi

Brahmic

Devanagari Bengali Gujarati Gurmukhī Malayalam Kannada Odia Ranjana Sinhala Tamil Telugu

European

Latin alphabet

Arabic

Arwi Nastaʿlīq Shahmukhi Arabi Malayalam

Language activism

Hela Havula Bengali Language Movement Sanskrit
Sanskrit
revival Pure Tamil movement Nepal Bhasa
Nepal Bhasa
movement Punjabi Language Movement Urdu
Urdu
movement

Authority control

GND: 41338

.