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Vedanta

Advaita Vishishtadvaita Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta Bhedabheda Dvaitadvaita Achintya Bheda Abheda Shuddhadvaita

Heterodox

Charvaka Ājīvika Buddhism Jainism

Other schools

Vaishnava Smarta Shakta Īśvara

Shaiva: Pratyabhijña Pashupata Siddhanta

Tantra

Teachers (Acharyas)

Nyaya

Akṣapāda Gotama Jayanta Bhatta Raghunatha Siromani

Mīmāṃsā

Jaimini Kumārila Bhaṭṭa Prabhākara

Advaita Vedanta

Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vācaspati Miśra Vidyaranya Sadananda Madhusūdana Sarasvatī Vijnanabhiksu Ramakrishna Vivekananda Ramana Maharshi Siddharudha Chinmayananda Nisargadatta

Vishishtadvaita

Nammalvar Alvars Yamunacharya Ramanuja Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika Pillai Lokacharya Manavala Mamunigal

Dvaita

Madhvacharya Jayatirtha Vyasatirtha Sripadaraja Vadirajatirtha Vijayendra Tirtha Raghavendra Swami Padmanabha Tirtha Naraharitirtha

Achintya Bheda Abheda

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu Jiva
Jiva
Goswami Bhaktisiddhanta Sarasvati Prabhupada

Tantra Shakta

Abhinavagupta Nigamananda Paramahansa Ramprasad Sen Bamakhepa Kamalakanta Bhattacharya Anandamayi Ma

Others

Samkhya

Kapila

Yoga

Patanjali

Vaisheshika

Kanada, Prashastapada

Dvaitadvaita

Nimbarka

Shuddhadvaita

Vallabha
Vallabha
Acharya

Major texts

Sruti Smriti

Vedas

Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda

Upanishads

Principal Upanishads Minor Upanishads

Other scriptures

Bhagavat Gita Agama (Hinduism)

Shastras and Sutras

Brahma
Brahma
Sutras Samkhya
Samkhya
Sutras Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras Nyāya
Nyāya
Sūtras Vaiśeṣika Sūtra Yoga
Yoga
Sutras

Pramana
Pramana
Sutras

Puranas Dharma
Dharma
Shastra Artha
Artha
Śastra Kamasutra Tirumurai Shiva
Shiva
Samhita

Hinduism Other Indian philosophies

v t e

Hindu
Hindu
philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings)[1] that emerged in ancient India. The mainstream ancient Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
includes six systems (ṣaḍdarśana) – Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mimamsa
Mimamsa
and Vedanta.[2] These are also called the Astika
Astika
(orthodox) philosophical traditions and are those that accept the Vedas
Vedas
as authoritative, important source of knowledge.[3][note 1][note 2] Ancient and medieval India was also the source of philosophies that share philosophical concepts but rejected the Vedas, and these have been called nāstika (heterodox or non-orthodox) Indian philosophies.[2][3] Nāstika Indian philosophies include Buddhism, Jainism, Cārvāka, Ājīvika, and others.[6] Scholars have debated the relationship and differences within āstika philosophies and with nāstika philosophies, starting with the writings of Indologists and Orientalists of the 18th and 19th centuries, which were themselves derived from limited availability of Indian literature and medieval doxographies.[2] The various sibling traditions included in Hindu
Hindu
philosophies are diverse, and they are united by shared history and concepts, same textual resources, similar ontological and soteriological focus, and cosmology.[7][8] While Buddhism
Buddhism
and Jainism
Jainism
are considered distinct philosophies and religions, some heterodox traditions such as Cārvāka are often considered as distinct schools within Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[9][10][11] Hindu
Hindu
philosophy also includes several sub-schools of theistic philosophies that integrate ideas from two or more of the six orthodox philosophies, such as the realism of the Nyāya, the naturalism of the Vaiśeṣika, the dualism of the Sāṅkhya, the monism and knowledge of Self
Self
as essential to liberation of Advaita, the self-discipline of yoga and the asceticism and elements of theistic ideas.[12][13][14] Examples of such schools include Pāśupata Śaiva, Śaiva siddhānta, Pratyabhijña, Raseśvara and Vaiṣṇava.[12][13] Some sub-schools share Tantric ideas with those found in some Buddhist traditions.[15] The ideas of these sub-schools are found in the Puranas
Puranas
and Āgamas.[16][17][18] Each school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy has extensive epistemological literature called pramāṇaśāstras,[19][20] as well as theories on metaphysics, axiology, and other topics.[21]

Contents

1 Classifications

1.1 Āstika 1.2 Nāstika 1.3 Other schools

2 Characteristics 3 Overview

3.1 Epistemology

4 Sāmkhya 5 Yoga 6 Vaiśeṣika 7 Nyāya 8 Mīmāṃsā 9 Vedānta

9.1 Advaita 9.2 Viśiṣṭādvaita 9.3 Dvaita 9.4 Dvaitādvaita (Bhedabheda) 9.5 Śuddhādvaita 9.6 Acintya Bheda Abheda

10 Cārvāka 11 Shaivism

11.1 Pāśupata Shaivism 11.2 Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta 11.3 Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Bibliography 16 Further reading

Classifications[edit] Further information: Āstika and nāstika In the history of Hinduism, the six orthodox schools had emerged by sometime between the start of the Common Era
Common Era
and the Gupta Empire, or about the fourth century.[22] Some scholars have questioned whether the orthodox and heterodox schools classification is sufficient or accurate, given the diversity and evolution of views within each major school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, with some sub-schools combining heterodox and orthodox views.[23] Since medieval times Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
has been categorized into āstika and nāstika schools of thought.[24] The orthodox schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy have been called ṣaḍdarśana ("six systems"). This schema was created between the 12th and 16th centuries by Vedantins.[25]:2–3 It was then adopted by the early Western Indologists, and pervades modern understandings of Hindu philosophy.[25]:4–5 Āstika[edit] There are six āstika (orthodox) schools of thought.[note 3] Each is called a darśana, and each darśana accepts the Vedas
Vedas
as authoritative and the premise that ātman (soul, eternal self) exists.[3][26] The āstika schools are:

Samkhya, an atheistic and strongly dualist theoretical exposition of consciousness and matter. Yoga, a school emphasising meditation, contemplation and liberation. Nyāya
Nyāya
or logic, which explores sources of knowledge. Nyāya
Nyāya
Sūtras. Vaiśeṣika, an empiricist school of atomism. Mīmāṃsā, an anti-ascetic and anti-mysticist school of orthopraxy. Vedānta, the last segment of knowledge in the Vedas, or jñānakāṇḍa. Vedānta came to be the dominant current of Hinduism
Hinduism
in the post-medieval period.

Nāstika[edit] See also: Buddhist philosophy
Buddhist philosophy
and Jain philosophy Schools that do not accept the authority of the Vedas
Vedas
are nāstika philosophies, of which four nāstika (heterodox) schools are prominent:[6]

Cārvāka, a materialism school that accepted the existence of free will.[27][28] Ājīvika, a materialism school that denied the existence of free will.[29][30] Buddhism, a philosophy that denies existence of ātman (soul, self)[31] and is based on the teachings and enlightenment of Gautama Buddha. Jainism, a philosophy that accepts the existence of the ātman (soul, self), and is based on the teachings and enlightenment of twenty-four teachers known as tirthankaras, with Rishabha
Rishabha
as the first and Mahavira
Mahavira
as the twenty-fourth.[32]

Other schools[edit] Besides the major orthodox and non-orthodox schools, there have existed syncretic sub-schools that have combined ideas and introduced new ones of their own. The medieval scholar Madhva Acharya
Acharya
(CE 1238–1317) includes the following, along with Buddhism[33] and Jainism,[34] as sub-schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy:

Pashupata Shaivism, developed by Nakulisa[35] Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta, the theistic Sankhya
Sankhya
school[36][37] Pratyabhijña, the recognitive school of Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism[38] Raseśvara, a Shaiva
Shaiva
school that advocated the use of mercury to reach immortality[39] The Ramanuja
Ramanuja
school[40] The Pūrṇaprājña (Madhvācārya) school[41] The Pāṇinīya[42]

The above sub-schools introduced their own ideas while adopting concepts from orthodox schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy such as realism of the Nyāya, naturalism of Vaiśeṣika, monism and knowledge of Self (Atman) as essential to liberation of Advaita, self-discipline of Yoga, asceticism and elements of theistic ideas.[12] Some sub-schools share Tantric ideas with those found in some Buddhist traditions.[15] Characteristics[edit]

School Samkhya Yoga Nyāya Vaiśeṣika Mīmāṃsā Advaita[N 1] Vishishtadvaita[N 1] Dvaita[N 1] Achintya Bheda Abheda Pashupata Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism Raseśvara Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana

Classification rationalism,[43][44] dualism, atheism dualism, spiritual practice realism,[45] logic, analytic philosophy naturalism,[46] atomism exegesis, philology, ritualism monism, non-dualism qualified monism, panentheism dualism, theology simultaneous monism and dualism theism, spiritual practice Monotheism theistic monism, idealism alchemy linguistics, philosophy of language

Philosophers Kapila, Iśvarakṛṣṇa, Vācaspati Miśra, Guṇaratna more.. Patañjali, Yajnavalkya, Vyasa[N 2] Aksapada Gautama, Vātsyāyana, Udayana, Jayanta Bhatta more.. Kanada, Praśastapāda, Śridhara's Nyāyakandalī more.. Jaimini, Kumārila Bhaṭṭa, Prabhākara more.. Gaudapada, Adi Shankara, Madhusudana Saraswati, Vidyaranya more.. Yamunacharya, Ramanuja
Ramanuja
more.. Madhvacharya, Jayatirtha, Vyasatirtha, Raghavendra Swami Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, Six Goswamis of Vrindavana, Visvanatha Chakravarti, Krishnadasa Kaviraja, Baladeva Vidyabhushana, Rupa Goswami, more.. Haradattacharya, Lakulish Tirumular, Meikandadevar, Appayya Dikshita, Sadyojyoti, Aghorasiva Vasugupta, Abhinavagupta, Jayaratha Govinda
Govinda
Bhagavat, Sarvajña Rāmeśvara Pāṇini, Bhartṛhari, Kātyāyana

Texts Samkhyapravachana Sutra, Samkhyakarika, Sāṁkhya tattvakaumudī more.. Yoga
Yoga
Sutras, Yoga
Yoga
Yajnavalkya, Samkhya
Samkhya
pravacana bhasya Nyāya
Nyāya
Sūtras, Nyāya
Nyāya
Bhāṣya, Nyāya
Nyāya
Vārttika more.. Vaiśeṣika Sūtra, Padārtha dharma saṁgraha, Daśapadārtha śāstra more.. Purva Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Sutras, Mimamsasutra bhāshyam more.. Brahma
Brahma
Sutras, Prasthanatrayi, Avadhuta Gita, Ashtavakra Gita, Pañcadaśī more.. Siddhitrayam, Sri Bhasya, Vedartha Sangraha AnuVyakhana, Brahma
Brahma
Sutra
Sutra
Bahshya, Sarva Shāstrārtha Sangraha, Tattva prakashika, Nyaya
Nyaya
Sudha, Nyayamruta, Tarka Tandava, DwaitaDyumani Bhagavata Purana, Bhagavad Gita, Sat Sandarbhas, Govinda
Govinda
Bhashya, Chaitanya Charitamrita, Gaṇakārikā, Pañchārtha bhāshyadipikā, Rāśikara bhāshya Sivagamas, Tirumurais, Meikanda Sastras Shiva
Shiva
Sutras of Vasugupta, Tantraloka Rasārṇava, Rasahṛidaya, Raseśvara siddhānta Vākyapadīya, Mahabhashya, Vārttikakāra

Concepts Originated Purusha, Prakṛti, Guṇa, Satkāryavāda Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dhāraṇā, Dhyana, Samadhi Pratyakṣa, Anumāna, Upamāna, Anyathakyati vada, Niḥśreyasa more.. Padārtha, Dravya, Sāmānya, Viśeṣa, Samavāya, Paramāṇu Apauruṣeyātva, Arthāpatti, Anuapalabdhi, Satahprāmāṇya vāda Jivanmukta, Mahāvākyas, Sādhana Chatuṣṭaya, three orders of reality, Vivartavada Hita, Antarvyāpi, Bahuvyāpi more.. Prapacha, Mukti-yogyas, Nitya-samsarins, Tamo-yogyas Sambandha, Abhidheya, Prayojana
Prayojana
(Relationship, Process, Ultimate Goal) Pashupati, eight pentads Charya, Mantramārga, Rodha Śakti Citi, Mala, Upaya, Anuttara, Aham, Svatantrya Pārada, three modes of mercury Sphoṭa, Ashtadhyayi

^ a b c Advaita, Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
and Dvaita
Dvaita
have evolved from an older Vedanta
Vedanta
school and all of them accept Upanishads
Upanishads
and Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
as standard texts. ^ Vyasa
Vyasa
wrote a commentary on the Yoga
Yoga
Sutras called Samkhyapravacanabhasya.(Radhankrishnan, Indian Philosophy, London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd., 1971 edition, Volume II, p. 344.)

Overview[edit] Epistemology[edit] Main article: Pramana Epistemology
Epistemology
is called pramāṇa.[47] It has been a key, much debated field of study in Hinduism
Hinduism
since ancient times. Pramāṇa is a Hindu theory of knowledge and discusses means by which human beings gain accurate knowledge.[47] The focus of pramāṇa is how correct knowledge can be acquired, how one knows, how one doesn't, and to what extent knowledge pertinent about someone or something can be acquired.[19] Ancient and medieval Hindu texts
Hindu texts
identify six pramāṇas as correct means of accurate knowledge and truths: pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts)[48] Each of these are further categorized in terms of conditionality, completeness, confidence and possibility of error, by the different schools. The schools vary on how many of these six are valid paths of knowledge.[20] For example, the Cārvāka nāstika philosophy holds that only one (perception) is an epistemically reliable means of knowledge,[49] the Samkhya
Samkhya
school holds that three are (perception, inference and testimony),[49] while the Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
and Advaita schools hold that all six are epistemically useful and reliable means to knowledge.[49][50] Sāmkhya[edit] Main article: Samkhya Samkhya
Samkhya
is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical systems in Hinduism,[51] with origins in the 1st millennium BCE.[52] It is a rationalist school of Indian philosophy,[43] and had a strong influence on other schools of Indian philosophies.[53] Sāmkhya is an enumerationist philosophy whose epistemology accepted three of six pramāṇas as the only reliable means of gaining knowledge. These were pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and sabda (Āptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).[54][49] Samkhya
Samkhya
school espouses dualism between consciousness and matter.[55] It regards the universe as consisting of two realities: Puruṣa (consciousness) and prakriti (matter). Jiva
Jiva
(a living being) is that state in which puruṣa is bonded to prakriti in some form.[56] This fusion, state the Samkhya
Samkhya
scholars, led to the emergence of buddhi (awareness, intellect) and ahankara (individualized ego consciousness, “I-maker”). The universe is described by this school as one created by Purusa- Prakriti
Prakriti
entities infused with various permutations and combinations of variously enumerated elements, senses, feelings, activity and mind.[56] Samkhya
Samkhya
philosophy includes a theory of gunas (qualities, innate tendencies, psyche).[57] Guna, it states, are of three types: Sattva being good, compassionate, illuminating, positive, and constructive; Rajas guna is one of activity, chaotic, passion, impulsive, potentially good or bad; and Tamas being the quality of darkness, ignorance, destructive, lethargic, negative. Everything, all life forms and human beings, state Samkhya
Samkhya
scholars, have these three gunas, but in different proportions.[58] The interplay of these gunas defines the character of someone or something, of nature and determines the progress of life.[59][60] Samkhya
Samkhya
theorises a pluralism of souls (Jeevatmas) who possess consciousness, but denies the existence of Ishvara
Ishvara
(God).[61] Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
is considered an atheist or non-theistic Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.[62][63][64] The Samkhya
Samkhya
karika, one of the key texts of this school of Hindu philosophy, opens by stating its goal to be "three[65] kinds of human suffering" and means to prevent them.[66] The text then presents a distillation of its theories on epistemology, metaphysics, axiology and soteriology. For example, it states,

From the triad of suffering, arises this inquiry into the means of preventing it. That is useless - if you say so, I say: No, because suffering is not absolute and final. – Verse 1

The Guṇas (qualities) respectively consist in pleasure, pain and dullness, are adapted to manifestation, activity and restraint; mutually domineer, rest on each other, produce each other, consort together, and are reciprocally present. – Verse 12 Goodness is considered to be alleviating and enlightening; foulness, urgent and persisting; darkness, heavy and enveloping. Like a lamp, they cooperate for a purpose by union of contraries. – Verse 13

There is a general cause, which is diffuse. It operates by means of the three qualities, by mixture, by modification; for different objects are diversified by influence of the several qualities respectively. – Verse 16 Since the assemblage of perceivable objects is for use (by man); Since the converse of that which has the three qualities with other properties must exist (in man); Since there must be superintendence (within man); Since there must be some entity that enjoys (within man); Since there is a tendency to abstraction (in man), therefore soul is. – Verse 17

—  Samkhya
Samkhya
karika, [66][67]

The soteriology in Samkhya
Samkhya
aims at the realization of Puruṣa as distinct from Prakriti; this knowledge of the Self
Self
is held to end transmigration and lead to absolute freedom (kaivalya).[68] Yoga[edit] Main article: Yoga
Yoga
(philosophy) In Indian philosophy, Yoga
Yoga
is, among other things, the name of one of the six āstika philosophical schools.[69] The Yoga
Yoga
philosophical system aligns closely with the dualist premises of the Samkhya school.[70][71] The Yoga
Yoga
school accepts Samkhya
Samkhya
psychology and metaphysics, but is considered theistic because it accepts the concept of personal god (Ishvara), unlike Samkhya.[72][73][74] The epistemology of the Yoga
Yoga
school, like the Sāmkhya school, relies on three of six prāmaṇas as the means of gaining reliable knowledge:[49] pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference) and śabda (āptavacana, word/testimony of reliable sources).[50][49] The universe is conceptualized as a duality in Yoga
Yoga
school: puruṣa (consciousness) and prakṛti (matter); however, the Yoga
Yoga
school discusses this concept more generically as "seer, experiencer" and "seen, experienced" than the Samkhya
Samkhya
school.[75] A key text of the Yoga
Yoga
school is the Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali. Patanjali
Patanjali
may have been, as Max Müller
Max Müller
explains, "the author or representative of the Yoga-philosophy without being necessarily the author of the Sutras."[76] Hindu
Hindu
philosophy recognizes many types of Yoga, such as rāja yoga, jñāna yoga,[77] karma yoga, bhakti yoga, tantra yoga, mantra yoga, laya yoga, and hatha yoga.[78] The Yoga
Yoga
school builds on the Samkhya
Samkhya
school theory that jñāna (knowledge) is a sufficient means to moksha. It suggests that systematic techniques/practice (personal experimentation) combined with Samkhya's approach to knowledge is the path to moksha.[70] Yoga shares several central ideas with Advaita Vedanta, with the difference that Yoga
Yoga
is a form of experimental mysticism while Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
is a form of monistic personalism.[79][80][81] Like Advaita Vedanta, the Yoga
Yoga
school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy holds that liberation/freedom in this life is achievable, and that this occurs when an individual fully understands and realizes the equivalence of Atman (soul, self) and Brahman.[82][83] Vaiśeṣika[edit] Main article: Vaisheshika The Vaiśeṣika philosophy is a naturalist school.[46] It is a form of atomism in natural philosophy.[84] It postulates that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to paramāṇu (atoms), and that one's experiences are derived from the interplay of substance (a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements), quality, activity, commonness, particularity and inherence.[85] Knowledge and liberation are achievable by complete understanding of the world of experience, according to Vaiśeṣika school.[85] The Vaiśeṣika darśana is credited to Kaṇāda Kaśyapa from the second half of the first millennium BCE.[85][86] The foundational text, the Vaiśeṣika Sūtra, opens as follows:

Dharma
Dharma
is that from which results the accomplishment of Exaltation and of the Supreme Good. The authoritativeness of the Veda arises from its being an exposition of dharma. The Supreme Good results from knowledge, produced from a particular dharma, of the essence of the Predicables, Substance, Attribute, Action, Genus, Species and Combination, by means of their resemblances and differences. —  Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
1.1.1-1.1.4, [87]

The Vaiśeṣika school is related to the Nyāya
Nyāya
school but features differences in its epistemology, metaphysics and ontology.[88] The epistemology of the Vaiśeṣika school, like Buddhism, accepted only two means to knowledge as reliable – perception and inference.[50][89] The Vaiśeṣika school and Buddhism
Buddhism
both consider their respective scriptures as indisputable and valid means to knowledge, the difference being that the scriptures held to be a valid and reliable source by Vaiśeṣikas were the Vedas.[50][90] Vaiśeṣika metaphysical premises are founded on a form of atomism, that reality is composed of four substances (earth, water, air, and fire). Each of these four are of two types:[84] atomic (paramāṇu) and composite. An atom is, according to Vaiśeṣika scholars, that which is indestructible (anitya), indivisible, and has a special kind of dimension, called “small” (aṇu). A composite, in this philosophy, is defined to be anything which is divisible into atoms. Whatever human beings perceive is composite, while atoms are invisible.[84] The Vaiśeṣikas stated that size, form, truths and everything that human beings experience as a whole is a function of atoms, their number and their spatial arrangements, their guṇa (quality), karma (activity), sāmānya (commonness), viśeṣa (particularity) and amavāya (inherence, inseparable connectedness of everything).[85][91] Nyāya[edit] Main article: Nyāya The Nyāya
Nyāya
school is a realist āstika philosophy.[92][93] The school's most significant contributions to Indian philosophy
Indian philosophy
were its systematic development of the theory of logic, methodology, and its treatises on epistemology.[94][95] The foundational text of the Nyāya school is the Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
of the first millennium BCE. The text is credited to Aksapada Gautama
Aksapada Gautama
and its composition is variously dated between the sixth and second centuries BCE.[96][86] Nyāya
Nyāya
epistemology accepts four out of six prāmaṇas as reliable means of gaining knowledge – pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy) and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).[49][97][48] In its metaphysics, the Nyāya
Nyāya
school is closer to the Vaiśeṣika school than the others.[92] It holds that human suffering results from mistakes/defects produced by activity under wrong knowledge (notions and ignorance).[98] Moksha
Moksha
(liberation), it states, is gained through right knowledge. This premise led Nyāya
Nyāya
to concern itself with epistemology, that is, the reliable means to gain correct knowledge and to remove wrong notions. False knowledge is not merely ignorance to Naiyayikas; it includes delusion. Correct knowledge is discovering and overcoming one's delusions, and understanding the true nature of the soul, self and reality.[99] The Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
begin:

Perception, Inference, Comparison and Word – these are the means of right knowledge. Perception is that knowledge which arises from the contact of a sense with its object and which is determinate, unnameable and non-erratic. Inference is knowledge which is preceded by perception, and is of three kinds: a priori, a posteriori, and commonly seen. Comparison is the knowledge of a thing through its similarity to another thing previously well known. Word is the instructive assertion of a reliable person. It [knowledge] is of two kinds: that which is seen, and that which is not seen. Soul, body, senses, objects of senses, intellect, mind, activity, fault, transmigration, fruit, suffering and release – are the objects of right knowledge.

—  Nyāya Sūtras
Nyāya Sūtras
1.1.3-1.1.9, [100]

Mīmāṃsā[edit] Main article: Mīmāṃsā The Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
school emphasized hermeneutics and exegesis.[101][102] It is a form of philosophical realism.[103] Key texts of the Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
school are the Purva Mimamsa Sutras
Purva Mimamsa Sutras
of Jaimini.[104][105] The classical Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
school is sometimes referred to as pūrvamīmāṃsā or Karmamīmāṃsā in reference to the first part of the Vedas.[104] The Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
school has several sub-schools defined by epistemology. The Prābhākara subschool of Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
accepted five means to gaining knowledge as epistimetically reliable: pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).[97][48] The Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
Kumārila Bhaṭṭa
sub-school of Mīmāṃsā added a sixth way of knowing to its canon of reliable epistemology: anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof).[49] The metaphysics of the Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
school consists of both atheistic and theistic doctrines, and the school showed little interest in systematic examination of the existence of God. Rather, it held that the soul is an eternal, omnipresent, inherently active spiritual essence, then focussed on the epistemology and metaphysics of dharma.[104][106][107] To them, dharma meant rituals and duties, not devas (gods), because devas existed only in name.[104] The Mīmāṃsākas held that the Vedas
Vedas
are "eternal authorless infallible", that Vedic vidhi (injunctions) and mantras in rituals are prescriptive karya (actions), and that the rituals are of primary importance and merit. They considered the Upanishads
Upanishads
and other texts related to self-knowledge and spirituality to be of secondary importance, a philosophical view that the Vedanta
Vedanta
school disagreed with.[101][104] Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
gave rise to the study of philology and the philosophy of language.[108] While their deep analysis of language and linguistics influenced other schools,[109] their views were not shared by others. Mīmāṃsākas considered the purpose and power of language was to clearly prescribe the proper, correct and right. In contrast, Vedantins extended the scope and value of language as a tool to also describe, develop and derive.[104] Mīmāṃsākas considered orderly, law-driven, procedural life as the central purpose and noblest necessity of dharma and society, and divine (theistic) sustenance means to that end. The Mimamsa
Mimamsa
school was influential and foundational to the Vedanta
Vedanta
school, with the difference that Mīmāṃsā
Mīmāṃsā
developed and emphasized karmakāṇḍa (the portion of the śruti which relates to ceremonial acts and sacrificial rites, the early parts of the Vedas), while the Vedanta
Vedanta
school developed and emphasized jñānakāṇḍa (the portion of the Vedas
Vedas
which relates to knowledge of monism, the latter parts of the Vedas).[101] Vedānta[edit] The Vedānta school built upon the teachings of the Upanishads
Upanishads
and Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
from the first millennium BCE[86][110] and is the most developed and best-known of the Hindu
Hindu
schools. The epistemology of the Vedantins included, depending on the sub-school, five or six methods as proper and reliable means of gaining any form of knowledge:[90] pratyakṣa (perception), anumāṇa (inference), upamāṇa (comparison and analogy), arthāpatti (postulation, derivation from circumstances), anupalabdi (non-perception, negative/cognitive proof) and śabda (word, testimony of past or present reliable experts).[50][49][48] All of these have been further categorized by each sub-school of Vedanta
Vedanta
in terms of conditionality, completeness, confidence and possibility of error.[90] The emergence of Vedanta
Vedanta
school represented a period when a more knowledge-centered understanding began to emerge. These focussed on jnana (knowledge) driven aspects of the Vedic religion and the Upanishads. This included metaphysical concepts such as ātman and Brahman, and an emphasis on meditation, self-discipline, self-knowledge and abstract spirituality, rather than ritualism. The Upanishads
Upanishads
were variously interpreted by ancient- and medieval-era Vedanta
Vedanta
scholars. Consequently, the Vedanta
Vedanta
separated into many sub-schools, ranging from theistic dualism to non-theistic monism, each interpreting the texts in its own way and producing its own series of sub-commentaries.[111][112] Advaita[edit] Main article: Advaita Vedanta Advaita literally means "not two, sole, unity". It is a sub-school of Vedanta, and asserts spiritual and universal non-dualism.[113][114] Its metaphysics is a form of absolute monism, that is all ultimate reality is interconnected oneness.[115][116] This is the oldest and most widely acknowledged Vedantic school. The foundational texts of this school are the Brahma Sutras
Brahma Sutras
and the early Upanishads
Upanishads
from the 1st millennium BCE.[115] Its first great consolidator was the 8th century scholar Adi Shankara, who continued the line of thought of the Upanishadic teachers, and that of his teacher's teacher Gaudapada. He wrote extensive commentaries on the major Vedantic scriptures and is celebrated as one of the major Hindu
Hindu
philosophers from whose doctrines the main currents of modern Indian thought are derived.[117] According to this school of Vedanta, all reality is Brahman, and there exists nothing whatsoever which is not Brahman.[118] Its metaphysics includes the concept of māyā and ātman. Māyā connotes "that which exists, but is constantly changing and thus is spiritually unreal".[119] The empirical reality is considered as always changing and therefore "transitory, incomplete, misleading and not what it appears to be".[120][121][122] The concept of ātman is of soul, self within each person, each living being. Advaita Vedantins assert that ātman is same as Brahman, and this Brahman
Brahman
is within each human being and all life, all living beings are spiritually interconnected, and there is oneness in all of existence.[123][124] They hold that dualities and misunderstanding of māyā as the spiritual reality that matters is caused by ignorance, and are the cause of sorrow, suffering. Jīvanmukti (liberation during life) can be achieved through Self-knowledge, the understanding that ātman within is same as ātman in another person and all of Brahman
Brahman
– the eternal, unchanging, entirety of cosmic principles and true reality.[125][124] Viśiṣṭādvaita[edit] Main article: Vishishtadvaita Ramanuja
Ramanuja
(c. 1037–1137) was the foremost proponent of the philosophy of Viśiṣṭādvaita or qualified non-dualism. Viśiṣṭādvaita advocated the concept of a Supreme Being
Supreme Being
with essential qualities or attributes. Viśiṣṭādvaitins argued against the Advaitin conception of Brahman
Brahman
as an impersonal empty oneness. They saw Brahman as an eternal oneness, but also as the source of all creation, which was omnipresent and actively involved in existence. To them the sense of subject-object perception was illusory and a sign of ignorance. However, the individual's sense of self was not a complete illusion since it was derived from the universal beingness that is Brahman.[126] Ramanuja
Ramanuja
saw Vishnu
Vishnu
as a personification of Brahman. Dvaita[edit] Dvaita
Dvaita
refers to a theistic sub-school in Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition of Hindu philosophy.[127][128] Also called as Tattvavāda and Bimbapratibimbavāda, the Dvaita
Dvaita
sub-school was founded by the 13th-century scholar Madhvacharya.[127] The Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
school believes that God
God
(Vishnu, supreme soul) and the individual souls (jīvātman) exist as independent realities, and these are distinct.[129][130] Dvaita
Dvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
is a dualistic interpretation of the Vedas, espouses dualism by theorizing the existence of two separate realities.[127] The first and the only independent reality, states the Dvaita
Dvaita
school, is that of Vishnu
Vishnu
or Brahman.[127] Vishnu
Vishnu
is the supreme Self, in a manner similar to monotheistic God
God
in other major religions.[131] The distinguishing factor of Dvaita
Dvaita
philosophy, as opposed to monistic Advaita Vedanta, is that God
God
takes on a personal role and is seen as a real eternal entity that governs and controls the universe.[132] Like Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
Vedanta
Vedanta
subschool, Dvaita
Dvaita
philosophy also embraced Vaishnavism, with the metaphysical concept of Brahman
Brahman
in the Vedas identified with Vishnu
Vishnu
and the one and only Supreme Being.[133][134] However, unlike Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
which envisions ultimate qualified nondualism, the dualism of Dvaita
Dvaita
was permanent.[130][129] Salvation, in Dvaita, is achievable only through the grace of God Vishnu.[127][135][136] Dvaitādvaita (Bhedabheda)[edit] Dvaitādvaita was proposed by Nimbarka, a 13th-century Vaishnava Philosopher from the Andhra region. According to this philosophy there are three categories of existence: Brahman, soul, and matter. Soul
Soul
and matter are different from Brahman
Brahman
in that they have attributes and capacities different from Brahman. Brahman
Brahman
exists independently, while soul and matter are dependent. Thus soul and matter have an existence that is separate yet dependent. Further, Brahman
Brahman
is a controller, the soul is the enjoyer, and matter the thing enjoyed. Also, the highest object of worship is Krishna
Krishna
and his consort Radha, attended by thousands of gopis; of the Vrindavan; and devotion consists in self-surrender. Śuddhādvaita[edit] Śuddhādvaita is the "purely non-dual" philosophy propounded by Vallabha
Vallabha
Acharya
Acharya
(1479–1531). The founding philosopher was also the guru of the Vallabhā sampradāya ("tradition of Vallabh") or Puṣṭimārga, a Vaishnava tradition focused on the worship of Krishna. Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
enunciates that Brahman
Brahman
has created the world without connection with any external agency such as Māyā (which itself is His power) and manifests Himself through the world.[137] That is why Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
is known as ‘Unmodified transformation’ or ‘Avikṛta Pariṇāmavāda’. Brahman
Brahman
or Ishvara
Ishvara
desired to become many, and he became the multitude of individual souls and the world. The Jagat or Maya is not false or illusionary, the physical material world is. Vallabha
Vallabha
recognises Brahman
Brahman
as the whole and the individual as a ‘part’ (but devoid of bliss) like sparks and fire.[138] Acintya Bheda Abheda[edit] Main article: Achintya Bheda Abheda Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu
(1486–1534), stated that the soul or energy of God
God
is both distinct and non-distinct from God, whom he identified as Krishna, Govinda, and that this, although unthinkable, may be experienced through a process of loving devotion (bhakti). He followed the Dvaita
Dvaita
concept of Madhvacharya.[139] This philosophy of "inconceivable oneness and difference". Cārvāka[edit] Main article: Charvaka The Cārvāka school is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" philosophies .[140][10][141] It rejects supernaturalism, emphasizes materialism and philosophical skepticism, holding empiricism, perception and conditional inference as the proper source of knowledge[142][143] Cārvāka is an atheistic school of thought.[144] It holds that there is neither afterlife nor rebirth, all existence is mere combination of atoms and substances, feelings and mind are an epiphenomenon, and free will exists.[27][28] Bṛhaspati is sometimes referred to as the founder of Cārvāka (also called Lokayata) philosophy. Much of the primary literature of Carvaka, the Barhaspatya sutras (ca. 600 BCE), however, are missing or lost.[144][145] Its theories and development has been compiled from historic secondary literature such as those found in the shastras, sutras and the Indian epic poetry
Indian epic poetry
as well as from the texts of Buddhism
Buddhism
and from Jain literature.[144][146][147] One of the widely studied principles of Cārvāka philosophy was its rejection of inference as a means to establish valid, universal knowledge, and metaphysical truths.[148] In other words, the Cārvāka epistemology states that whenever one infers a truth from a set of observations or truths, one must acknowledge doubt; inferred knowledge is conditional.[149] Shaivism[edit]

Part of a series on

Shaivism

Deities Paramashiva (Supreme being) Shiva
Shiva
- Shakti

Sadasiva Rudra Bhairava Parvati Durga Kali

Ganesha Murugan Others

Scriptures and texts

Agamas and Tantras

Vedas Svetasvatara

Tirumurai Shivasutras Vachanas

Philosophy

Three Components

Pati Pashu Pasam

Three bondages

Anava Karma Maya 36 Tattvas Yoga

Practices

Vibhuti Rudraksha Panchakshara Bilva Maha Shivaratri Yamas-Niyamas Guru-Linga-Jangam

Schools

Adi Margam

Pashupata Kalamukha Kapalika

Mantra
Mantra
Margam

Saiddhantika

Siddhantism

Non - Saiddhantika

Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism

Pratyabhijna Vama Dakshina Kaula: Trika-Yamala-Kubjika-Netra

Others

Veerashaiva - Lingayatism Nath Siddhar Srouta Nusantara Agama Siwa

Scholars

Lakulisa Abhinavagupta Vasugupta Utpaladeva Nayanars Meykandar Nirartha Basava Sharana Srikantha Appayya Navnath

Related

Nandi Tantrism Jyotirlinga Shiva
Shiva
Temples

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal

v t e

Early history of Shaivism
Shaivism
is difficult to determine.[150] However, the Śvetāśvatara Upanishad
Upanishad
(400 – 200 BCE)[151] is considered to be the earliest textual exposition of a systematic philosophy of Shaivism.[152] Shaivism
Shaivism
is represented by various philosophical schools, including non-dualist (abheda), dualist (bheda), and non-dualist-with-dualist (bhedābheda) perspectives. Vidyaranya in his works mentions three major schools of Shaiva
Shaiva
thought—Pashupata Shaivism, Shaiva Siddhanta
Shaiva Siddhanta
and Pratyabhijña ( Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism).[153] Pāśupata Shaivism[edit] Pāśupata Shaivism
Shaivism
(Pāśupata, "of Paśupati") is the oldest of the major Shaiva
Shaiva
schools.[154] The philosophy of Pashupata sect was systematized by Lakulish
Lakulish
in the 2nd century CE. Paśu in Paśupati refers to the effect (or created world), the word designates that which is dependent on something ulterior. Whereas, Pati means the cause (or principium), the word designates the Lord, who is the cause of the universe, the pati, or the ruler.[155] Pashupatas disapproved of Vaishnava theology, known for its doctrine servitude of souls to the Supreme Being, on the grounds that dependence upon anything could not be the means of cessation of pain and other desired ends. They recognised that those depending upon another and longing for independence will not be emancipated because they still depend upon something other than themselves. According to Pāśupatas, soul possesses the attributes of the Supreme Deity
Deity
when it becomes liberated from the 'germ of every pain'.[156] Pāśupatas divided the created world into the insentient and the sentient. The insentient was the unconscious and thus dependent on the sentient or conscious. The insentient was further divided into effects and causes. The effects were of ten kinds, the earth, four elements and their qualities, colour etc. The causes were of thirteen kinds, the five organs of cognition, the five organs of action, the three internal organs, intellect, the ego principle and the cognising principle. These insentient causes were held responsible for the illusive identification of Self
Self
with non-Self. Salvation in Pāśupata involved the union of the soul with God
God
through the intellect.[157] Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta[edit] Considered normative Tantric Shaivism, Shaiva
Shaiva
Siddhanta[158][159] provides the normative rites, cosmology and theological categories of Tantric Shaivism.[160] Being a dualistic philosophy, the goal of Shaiva Siddhanta
Shaiva Siddhanta
is to become an ontologically distinct Shiva
Shiva
(through Shiva's grace).[161] This tradition later merged with the Tamil Saiva movement and expression of concepts of Shaiva Siddhanta
Shaiva Siddhanta
can be seen in the bhakti poetry of the Nayanars.[162] Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism[edit] Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism
Shaivism
arose during the eighth[163] or ninth century CE[164] in Kashmir
Kashmir
and made significant strides, both philosophical and theological, until the end of the twelfth century CE.[165] It is categorised by various scholars as monistic[166] idealism (absolute idealism, theistic monism, realistic idealism,[167] transcendental physicalism or concrete monism[167]). It is a school of Śaivism consisting of Trika and its philosophical articulation Pratyabhijña.[168] Even though, both Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism
Shaivism
and Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
are non-dual philosophies which give primacy to Universal Consciousness (Chit or Brahman),[169] in Kashmir
Kashmir
Shavisim, as opposed to Advaita, all things are a manifestation of this Consciousness.[170] This implies that from the point of view of Kashmir
Kashmir
Shavisim, the phenomenal world (Śakti) is real, and it exists and has its being in Consciousness (Chit).[171] Whereas, Advaita holds that Brahman
Brahman
is inactive (niṣkriya) and the phenomenal world is an illusion (māyā).[172] The objective of human life, according to Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism, is to merge in Shiva
Shiva
or Universal Consciousness, or to realize one's already existing identity with Shiva, by means of wisdom, yoga and grace.[173] See also[edit]

Book: Hindu
Hindu
philosophy

Hinduism
Hinduism
portal Philosophy
Philosophy
portal

Āstika and nāstika Buddhism
Buddhism
and Hinduism Buddhist philosophy Hindu
Hindu
idealism Pramana Indian philosophy Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism Metaphilosophy Dharma Asrama Vedas

Notes[edit]

^ M Chadha (2015), in The Routledge
Routledge
Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy
Philosophy
of Religion, states that Vedas
Vedas
were knowledge source but interpreted differently by different schools of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy: "The sacred texts of the Hindus, the Vedas, are variously interpreted by the six traditional Hindu
Hindu
philosophical schools. Even within a single school, philosophers disagree on the import of Vedic statements. (...) Hindu
Hindu
intellectual traditions must be understood as standing for the collection of philosophical views that share a textual connection. There is no single, comprehensive philosophical doctrine shared by all intellectual traditions in Hinduism
Hinduism
that distinguishes their view from other Indian religions
Indian religions
such as Buddhism
Buddhism
or Jainism
Jainism
on issues of epistemology, metaphysics, logic, ethics or cosmology. The Vedas
Vedas
are regarded as Apauruseya, but by the same token, they are not the Word of God
God
either.[4] ^ Elisa Freschi (2012): The Vedas
Vedas
are not deontic authorities in absolute sense and may be disobeyed, but are recognized as an epistemic authority by an orthodox school of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy;[5] (Note: This differentiation between epistemic and deontic authority is true for all Indian religions) ^ For an overview of the six orthodox schools, with detail on the grouping of schools, see: Radhakrishnan and Moore, "Contents", and pp. 453–487.

References[edit]

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Philosophy
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Routledge
Handbook of Contemporary Philosophy of Religion
Religion
(Editor: Graham Oppy), Routledge, ISBN 978-1844658312, pages 127-128 ^ Elisa Freschi (2012), Duty, Language and Exegesis
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Hinduism
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and Practical Reason (Editors: Frank Reynolds, David Tracy), State Univ of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791422175, page 64; Quote: "Central to Buddhist soteriology is the doctrine of not-self (Pali: anattā, Sanskrit: anātman, the opposed doctrine of ātman is central to Brahmanical thought). Put very briefly, this is the [Buddhist] doctrine that human beings have no soul, no self, no unchanging essence."; John C. Plott et al (2000), Global History of Philosophy: The Axial Age, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120801585, page 63, Quote: "The Buddhist schools reject any Ātman concept. As we have already observed, this is the basic and ineradicable distinction between Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism" KN Jayatilleke (2010), Early Buddhist Theory of Knowledge, ISBN 978-8120806191, pages 246–249, from note 385 onwards; Katie Javanaud (2013), Is The Buddhist 'No-Self' Doctrine Compatible With Pursuing Nirvana?, Philosophy
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Hindu
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Philosophy
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Hindu
Philosophy
Philosophy
by Madhva Acharya, Trubner's Oriental Series, pages 103-111 ^ Cowell and Gough (1882, Translators), The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy
Philosophy
by Madhva Acharya, Trubner's Oriental Series, pages 112-127 ^ King 2007, p. 45. ^ Cowell and Gough (1882, Translators), The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy
Philosophy
by Madhva Acharya, Trubner's Oriental Series, pages 128-136 ^ Cowell and Gough (1882, Translators), The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy
Philosophy
by Madhva Acharya, Trubner's Oriental Series, pages 137-144 ^ Cowell and Gough (1882, Translators), The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy
Philosophy
by Madhva Acharya, Trubner's Oriental Series, pages 64-86 ^ Cowell and Gough (1882, Translators), The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy
Philosophy
by Madhva Acharya, Trubner's Oriental Series, pages 87-102 ^ Cowell and Gough (1882, Translators), The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu
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(2015) ^ a b Dale Riepe (1996), Naturalistic Tradition in Indian Thought, ISBN 978-8120812932, pages 227-246 ^ a b Lochtefeld 2002, p. 520-521. ^ a b c d Flood 1996, p. 225. ^ a b c d e f g h i Grimes 1989, p. 238. ^ a b c d e Perrett 2000, pp. 245-248. ^ Flood 1996, pp. 232. ^ Sharma, C. (1997). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0365-5, p.149 ^ Roy Perrett, Indian Ethics: Classical traditions and contemporary challenges, Volume 1 (Editor: P Bilimoria et al), Ashgate, ISBN 978-0754633013, pages 149-158 ^ Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy
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of Religion : Indian Philosophy
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Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245-248 ^ Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism: Past and Present, Princeton University Press, p. 264, ISBN 0-691-08953-1  ^ a b Samkhya
Samkhya
- Hinduism
Hinduism
Encyclopædia Britannica (2014) ^ Gerald James Larson (2011), Classical Sāṃkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120805033, pages 154-206 ^ James G. Lochtefeld, Guna, in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. 1, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 9780823931798, page 265 ^ T Bernard (1999), Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1373-1, pages 74–76 ^ Haney, William S., Culture and Consciousness: Literature Regained, Bucknell University Press (1 August 2002). P. 42. ISBN 1611481724. ^ Dasgupta, Surendranath (1992). A history of Indian philosophy, Volume 1. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 258. ISBN 978-81-208-0412-8.  ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
- An Indian Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415648875, page 39 ^ Lloyd Pflueger (2008), Person Purity and Power in Yogasutra, in Theory and Practice of Yoga
Yoga
(Editor: Knut Jacobsen), Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329, pages 38-39 ^ John C. Plott et al (1984), Global History of Philosophy: The period of scholasticism, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-0895816788, page 367 ^ adhyatmika, adhibhautika and adhidaivika - that is, suffering caused internally by self, cause by other human beings, caused by acts of nature ^ a b Samkhya
Samkhya
karika by Iswara Krishna, Henry Colebrooke (Translator), Oxford University Press ^ Original Sanskrit: Samkhya
Samkhya
karika Compiled and indexed by Ferenc Ruzsa (2015), Sanskrit Documents Archives; Second Translation (Verse 1): Ferenc Ruzsa (1997), [The triple suffering - A note on the Samkhya
Samkhya
karika, Xth World Sanskrit Conference: Bangalore, University of Hungary, Budapest; Third Translation (all Verses): Samkhyakarika
Samkhyakarika
of Iswara Krishna
Krishna
John Davis (Translator), Trubner, London, University of Toronto Archives ^ Larson, Gerald James. Classical Sāṃkhya: An Interpretation of Its History and Meaning. Motilal Banarasidass, 1998. P. 13. ISBN 81-208-0503-8. ^ For a brief overview of the Yoga
Yoga
school of philosophy see: Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43. ^ a b Edwin Bryant (2011, Rutgers University), The Yoga
Yoga
Sutras of Patanjali
Patanjali
IEP ^ Chatterjee and Datta, p. 43. ^ Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. p. 453. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.  ^ Müller (1899), Chapter 7, " Yoga
Yoga
Philosophy", p. 104. ^ Zimmer, Heinrich (1951). Philosophies of India. New York City: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01758-1.  Bollingen Series XXVI; Edited by Joseph Campbell, page 280 ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
- An Indian Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415648875, pages x-xi, 101-107, 142 and Introduction chapter ^ Max Müeller, The six systems of Indian philosophy, Longmans, page 410 ^ The Encyclopedia of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra
Tantra
by Georg Feuerstein ^ The Encyclopedia of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra, Georg Feuerstein ^ Phillips, Stephen H. (1995). Classical Indian Metaphysics: Refutations of Realism and the Emergence of "New Logic". Open Court Publishing. pp. 12–13.  ^ Personalism Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Philosophy
(2013) ^ Northrop Frye (2006), Educated Imagination and Other Writings on Critical Theory, 1933-1962, University of Toronto Press, ISBN 978-0802092090, page 291 ^ Mike McNamee and William J. Morgan (2015), Routledge
Routledge
Handbook of the Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415829809, pages 135-136, Quote: "As a dualistic philosophy largely congruent with Samkhya's metaphysics, Yoga
Yoga
seeks liberation through the realization that Atman equals Brahman; it involves a cosmogonic dualism: purusha an absolute consciousness, and prakriti original and primeval matter." ^ Mike Burley (2012), Classical Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga
Yoga
- An Indian Metaphysics
Metaphysics
of Experience, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415648875, pages 141-142 ^ a b c Analytical philosophy in early modern India J Ganeri, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy ^ a b c d Oliver Leaman, Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy. Routledge, ISBN 978-0415173629, 1999, page 269. ^ a b c Michael Brannigan (2009), Striking a Balance: A Primer in Traditional Asian Values, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0739138465, page 7 ^ Original Sanskrit and Translation: The Vaisheshika Sutra
Sutra
of Kanada with the Commentary of Sankara Misra BD Basu (Translator), The Sacred Books of the Hindus, Volume 6, University of Toronto Archives; For modern translations and a history of the Vaiśeṣika Sūtra
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in the 1st millennium BCE, see: Stephen H. Phillips (1998), Classical Indian Metaphysics, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120814899, pages 38-54 ^ DPS Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality
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and Indian Psychology (Editor: Anthony Marsella), Springer, ISBN 978-1-4419-8109-7, pages 172-175 ^ Grimes 1989, p. 225. ^ a b c P Bilimoria (1993), Pramāṇa epistemology: Some recent developments, in Asian philosophy - Volume 7 (Editor: G Floistad), Springer, ISBN 978-94-010-5107-1, pages 137-154 ^ M Hiriyanna (1993), Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120810860, pages 228-237 ^ a b Nyaya: Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
Encyclopædia Britannica (2014) ^ Flood 1996, pp. 221-227. ^ B Gupta (2012), An Introduction to Indian Philosophy: Perspectives on Reality, Knowledge and Freedom, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415800037, pages 171-189 ^ PT Raju (1985), Structural Depths of Indian Thought: Toward a Constructive Postmodern Ethics, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0887061394, page 223 ^ B. K. Matilal "Perception. An Essay on Classical Indian Theories of Knowledge" (Oxford University Press, 1986), p. xiv. ^ a b DPS Bhawuk (2011), Spirituality
Spirituality
and Indian Psychology (Editor: Anthony Marsella), Springer, ISBN 978-1-4419-8109-7, page 172 ^ Vassilis Vitsaxis (2009), Thought and Faith, Somerset Hall Press, ISBN 978-1935244042, page 131 ^ BK Matilal (1997), Logic, Language and Reality: Indian Philosophy and Contemporary Issues, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120807174, pages 353-357 ^ Original Sanskrit and Translation: The Nyaya
Nyaya
Sutras of Gotama SC Vidyabhusana (Translator), The Bhuvaneswari Ashrama, University of Toronto Archives; A 1990 print is available from Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, ISBN 978-8120807488 (Editor: N Sinha) ^ a b c Oliver Leaman (2006), Shruti, in Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415862530, page 503 ^ Mimamsa
Mimamsa
Encyclopædia Britannica (2014) ^ M. Hiriyanna (1993), Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120810860, page 323-325 ^ a b c d e f Chris Bartley (2013), Purva Mimamsa, in Encyclopaedia of Asian Philosophy
Philosophy
(Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge, 978-0415862530, page 443-445 ^ M. Hiriyanna (1993), Outlines of Indian Philosophy, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120810860, page 298-335 ^ Neville, Robert (2001). Religious truth. SUNY Press.  ^ Worthington, Vivian (1982). A history of yoga. Routledge. p. 66.  ^ Peter M. Scharf, The Denotation of Generic Terms in Ancient Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
(1996), Chapter 3 ^ Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus (2011), Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of Sanskrit Hinduism, Walter de Gruyter GmbH (Berlin), ISBN 978-3110181593, pages 23-24, 551-663 ^ Oliver Leaman (1999), Key Concepts in Eastern Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415173636, page xiv ^ Knut Jacobsen (2008), Theory and Practice of Yoga : 'Essays in Honour of Gerald James Larson, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120832329, page 77; JN Mohanty (2001), Explorations in Philosophy, Vol 1 (Editor: Bina Gupta), Oxford University Press, page 107-108 ^ Oliver Leaman (2000), Eastern Philosophy: Key Readings, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415173582, page 251; R Prasad (2009), A Historical-developmental Study of Classical Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
of Morals, Concept Publishing, ISBN 978-8180695957, pages 345-347 ^ Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
Sangeetha Menon (2012), IEP ^ Nakamura, Hajime (1990), A History of Early Vedanta
Vedanta
Philosophy. Part One, Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, pp. 110–114  ^ a b Flood 1996, pp. 239-244. ^ Eliot Deutsch, Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824802714, pages 10-14 ^ Adi Shankara, Sengaku Mayeda, Encyclopædia Britannica (2013) ^ Richard Brooks (1969), The Meaning of 'Real' in Advaita Vedānta, Philosophy
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East and West, Vol. 19, No. 4, pages 385-398 ^ AC Das (1952), Brahman
Brahman
and Māyā in Advaita Metaphysics, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 2, No. 2, pages 144-154 ^ H.M. Vroom (1996), No Other Gods, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, ISBN 978-0802840974, page 57 ^ Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1986), Dreams, Illusion, and Other Realities, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0226618555, page 119 ^ Lynn Foulston and Stuart Abbott (2009), Hindu
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Goddesses: Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1902210438, pages 14-16 ^ John Koller (2007), in Chad Meister and Paul Copan (Editors): The Routledge
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Companion to Philosophy
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of Religion, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-18001-1, pages 98-106 ^ a b Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 19-40, 53-58, 79-86 ^ Michael Comans (1993), The question of the importance of Samadhi
Samadhi
in modern and classical Advaita Vedanta, Philosophy
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East & West. Vol. 43, Issue 1, pages 19-38 ^ Christopher Etter (30 April 2006). A Study of Qualitative Non-Pluralism. iUniverse. pp. 62–63. ISBN 978-0-595-39312-1.  ^ a b c d e Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy
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of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 340–344. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3.  ^ Hindu
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Philosophy, IEP, Quote: "Dvaita: Madhva is one of the principal theistic exponents of Vedānta. On his account, Brahman
Brahman
is a personal God, and specifically He is the Hindu
Hindu
deity Viṣṇu. ^ a b Jeaneane D. Fowler (2002). Perspectives of Reality: An Introduction to the Philosophy
Philosophy
of Hinduism. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 238–243, 288–293, 340–343. ISBN 978-1-898723-94-3.  ^ a b James Lochtefeld (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Volume 1 & 2, Rosen Publishing, ISBN 0-8239-2287-1, pages 12-13, 213-214, 758-759 ^ Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712571, pages 124-127 ^ Christopher Etter (2006), A Study of Qualitative Non-Pluralism, iUniverse, pp. 59-60, ISBN 0-595-39312-8. ^ Bryant, Edwin (2007). Krishna : A Sourcebook (Chapter 15 by Deepak Sarma). Oxford University Press. p. 358. ISBN 978-0195148923.  ^ Stoker, Valerie (2011). "Madhva (1238-1317)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 29 February 2016.  ^ Sharma, B. N. Krishnamurti (1962). Philosophy
Philosophy
of Śrī Madhvācārya. Motilal Banarsidass (2014 Reprint). pp. 417–424. ISBN 978-8120800687.  ^ Sharma, Chandradhar (1994). A Critical Survey of Indian Philosophy. Motilal Banarsidass. p. 373. ISBN 81-208-0365-5.  ^ Devarshi Ramanath Shastri, “ Shuddhadvaita
Shuddhadvaita
Darshan (Vol.2)”, Published by Mota Mandir, Bhoiwada, Mumbai, India, 1917. ^ “Brahmavād Saṅgraha”, Pub. Vaishnava Mitra Mandal Sarvajanik Nyasa, Indore, India, 2014. ^ Lord Chaitanya Archived 7 June 2002 at the Wayback Machine. (krishna.com) "This is called acintya-bheda-abheda-tattva, inconceivable, simultaneous oneness and difference." ^ R Thomas (2014), Hindu
Hindu
Perspectives on Evolution: Darwin, Dharma, and Design, Sociology of Religion, Vol. 75, No. 1, pages 164-165, Quote: "some of the ancient Hindu
Hindu
traditions like Carvaka have a rich tradition of materialism, in general, other schools..." ^ Jessica Frazier (2014), Hinduism
Hinduism
in The Oxford Handbook of Atheism (Editors: Stephen Bullivant, Michael Ruse), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199644650, pages 367-378; Bill Cooke (2005), Dictionary of Atheism, Skepticism, and Humanism, ISBN 978-1591022992, page 84 ^ KN Tiwari (1998), Classical Indian Ethical Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120816077, page 67; Roy W Perrett (1984), The problem of induction in Indian philosophy, Philosophy
Philosophy
East and West, 34(2): 161-174 ^ V.V. Raman (2012), Hinduism
Hinduism
and Science: Some Reflections, Zygon - Journal of Religion
Religion
and Science, 47(3): 549–574, Quote (page 557): "Aside from nontheistic schools like the Samkhya, there have also been explicitly atheistic schools in the Hindu
Hindu
tradition. One virulently anti-supernatural system is/was the so-called Carvaka school.", doi:10.1111/j.1467-9744.2012.01274.x ^ a b c Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli and Moore, Charles (1957). A Source Book
Book
in Indian Philosophy. Princeton University Press. pp. 227–249. ISBN 0-691-01958-4.  ^ Ramkrishna Bhattacharya (2013), The base text and its commentaries: Problem of representing and understanding the Carvaka / Lokayata, Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal, Issue 1, Volume 3, pages 133-150 ^ Bhattacharya, Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
(2002). " Cārvāka Fragments: A New Collection". Journal of Indian Philosophy. 30 (=6): 597–640.  ^ Dale Riepe (1996), Naturalistic Tradition in Indian Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120812932, pages 53-58 ^ Cowell, E. B.; Gough, A. E. (1882). The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy. pp. 5–7.  ^ MM Kamal (1998), The Epistemology
Epistemology
of the Carvaka Philosophy, Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies, 46(2): 13-16 ^ Tattwananda, Swami (1984), Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship
Worship
(First Revised ed.), Calcutta: Firma KLM Private Ltd., p. 45 . ^ Flood 1996, p. 86. ^ Chakravarti, Mahadev (1994), The Concept of Rudra-Śiva Through The Ages (Second Revised ed.), Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p. 9, ISBN 81-208-0053-2 . ^ Cowell and Gough (1882), p. xii. ^ Flood (2003), p. 206. ^ Cowell and Gough (1882), p. 104-105. ^ Cowell and Gough (1882), p. 103 ^ Cowell and Gough (1882), p. 107 ^ Xavier Irudayaraj,"Saiva Siddanta," in the St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India, Ed. George Menachery, Vol.III, 2010, pp.10 ff. ^ Xavier Irudayaraj, " Self
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Shaivism: The Secret Supreme, By Lakshman Jee ^ Dyczkowski, p. 4. ^ The Trika Śaivism
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of Kashmir, Moti Lal Pandit, pp. 1 ^ Kashmir
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Shaivism: The Secret Supreme, Swami Lakshman Jee, pp. 103 ^ a b Dyczkowski, p. 51. ^ Flood (2005), pp. 56–68 ^ Singh, Jaideva. Pratyãbhijñahṛdayam. Moltilal Banarsidass, 2008. PP. 24–26. ^ Dyczkowski, p. 44. ^ Ksemaraja, trans. by Jaidev Singh, Spanda Karikas: The Divine Creative Pulsation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, p.119 ^ Shankarananda, (Swami). Consciousness is Everything, The Yoga
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Bibliography[edit]

Chatterjee, Satischandra; Datta, Dhirendramohan (1984). An Introduction to Indian Philosophy
Philosophy
(Eighth Reprint ed.). Calcutta: University of Calcutta.  Cowell, E. B.; Gough, A. E. (1882). The Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha or Review of the Different Systems of Hindu
Hindu
Philosophy: Trubner's Oriental Series. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-24517-3.  Dyczkowski, Mark S. G. (1987). The Doctrine of Vibration: An Analysis of the Doctrines and Practices of Kashmir
Kashmir
Shaivism. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-88706-432-9.  Guttorm Fløistad (28 February 1993). Philosophie asiatique/Asian philosophy. Springer Netherlands. ISBN 978-0-7923-1762-3.  Flood, Gavin (1996). An Introduction to Hinduism. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-43878-0.  Flood, Gavin (Editor) (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-4051-3251-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Flood, Gavin (2005). The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion. I. B. Tauris. ISBN 1845110110.  Grimes, John A. (1989). A Concise Dictionary of Indian Philosophy: Sanskrit Terms Defined in English. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-0100-2.  King, Richard (2007), Indian Philosophy. An Introduction to Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist Thought, Georgetown University Press  Lochtefeld, James G. (2002). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-3180-4.  Müeller, Max (1899). Six Systems of Indian Philosophy; Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga, Naya and Vaiseshika. Calcutta: Susil Gupta (India) Ltd. ISBN 0-7661-4296-5.  Reprint edition; Originally published under the title of The Six Systems of Indian Philosophy. Nicholson, Andrew J. (2010), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy
Philosophy
and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press  Perrett, Roy W. (2000). Philosophy
Philosophy
of Religion. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-8153-3611-2.  Potter, Karl H. (1991). Presuppositions of India's Philosophies. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. ISBN 978-81-208-0779-2.  Radhakrishnan, S.; Moore, CA (1967). A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy. Princeton. ISBN 0-691-01958-4. 

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hindu
Hindu
philosophy.

Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli; and Moore, Charles A. A Source Book
Book
in Indian Philosophy. Princeton University Press; 1957. Princeton paperback 12th edition, 1989. ISBN 0-691-01958-4. Rambachan, Anantanand. "The Advaita Worldview: God, World and Humanity." 2006. Zilberman, David B., The Birth of Meaning in Hindu
Hindu
Thought. D. Reidel Publishing Company, Dordrecht, Holland, 1988. ISBN 90-277-2497-0. Chapter 1. " Hindu
Hindu
Systems of Thought as Epistemic Disciplines".

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Indian philosophy

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Philosophers

Avatsara Uddalaka Aruni Gautam Buddha Yajnavalkya Gargi Vachaknavi Buddhaghosa Patanjali Kanada Kapila Brihadratha Ikshvaku Jaimini Vyasa Chanakya Dharmakirti Akshapada Gotama Nagarjuna Padmasambhava Vasubandhu Gaudapada Adi Shankara Vivekananda Dayananda Saraswati Ramanuja Vedanta
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Concepts

Abhava Abhasavada Abheda Adarsana Adrishta Advaita Aham Aishvarya Akrodha Aksara Anatta Ananta Anavastha Anupalabdhi Apauruṣheyā Artha Asiddhatva Asatkalpa Ātman Avyakta Brahman Brahmi sthiti Bhuman Bhumika Chaitanya Chidabhasa Cittabhumi Dāna Devatas Dharma Dhi Dravya Dhrti Ekagrata Guṇa Hitā Idam Ikshana Ishvaratva Jivatva Kama Karma Kasaya Kshetrajna Lakshana Mithyatva Mokṣa Nididhyasana Nirvāṇa Niyama Padārtha Paramatman Paramananda Parameshashakti Parinama-vada Pradhana Prajna Prakṛti Pratibimbavada Pratītyasamutpāda Puruṣa Rājamaṇḍala Ṛta Sakshi Samadhi Saṃsāra Sankalpa Satya Satkaryavada Shabda Brahman Sphoṭa Sthiti Śūnyatā Sutram Svātantrya Iccha-mrityu Syādvāda Taijasa Tajjalan Tanmatra Tyāga Uparati Upekkhā Utsaha Vivartavada Viraj Yamas Yoga More...

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Afterlife Euthyphro dilemma Faith Intelligent design Miracle Problem of evil Religious belief Soul Spirit Theodicy Theological veto

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Problem of evil

Augustinian theodicy Best of all possible worlds Euthyphro dilemma Inconsistent triad Irenaean theodicy Natural evil Theodicy

Philosophers of religion

(by date active)

Ancient and Medieval

Anselm of Canterbury Augustine of Hippo Avicenna Averroes Boethius Erasmus Gaunilo of Marmoutiers Pico della Mirandola Heraclitus King James VI and I Marcion of Sinope Thomas Aquinas Maimonides

Enlightenment

Augustin Calmet René Descartes Blaise Pascal Baruch Spinoza Nicolas Malebranche Gottfried W Leibniz William Wollaston Thomas Chubb David Hume Baron d'Holbach Immanuel Kant Johann G Herder

1800 1850

Friedrich Schleiermacher Karl C F Krause Georg W F Hegel

William Whewell Ludwig Feuerbach Søren Kierkegaard Karl Marx Albrecht Ritschl Afrikan Spir

1880 1900

Ernst Haeckel W. K. Clifford Friedrich Nietzsche Harald Høffding William James

Vladimir Solovyov Ernst Troeltsch Rudolf Otto Lev Shestov Sergei Bulgakov Pavel Florensky Ernst Cassirer Joseph Maréchal

1920 postwar

George Santayana Bertrand Russell Martin Buber René Guénon Paul Tillich Karl Barth Emil Brunner Rudolf Bultmann Gabriel Marcel Reinhold Niebuhr

Charles Hartshorne Mircea Eliade Frithjof Schuon J L Mackie Walter Kaufmann Martin Lings Peter Geach George I Mavrodes William Alston Antony Flew

1970 1990 2010

William L Rowe Dewi Z Phillips Alvin Plantinga Anthony Kenny Nicholas Wolterstorff Richard Swinburne Robert Merrihew Adams

Peter van Inwagen Daniel Dennett Loyal Rue Jean-Luc Marion William Lane Craig Ali Akbar Rashad

Alexander Pruss

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Concepts

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Classical modern

Immanuel Kant Friedrich Schelling William Whewell Auguste Comte John Stuart Mill Herbert Spencer Wilhelm Wundt Charles Sanders Peirce Wilhelm Windelband Henri Poincaré Pierre Duhem Rudolf Steiner Karl Pearson

Late modern

Alfred North Whitehead Bertrand Russell Albert Einstein Otto Neurath C. D. Broad Michael Polanyi Hans Reichenbach Rudolf Carnap Karl Popper Carl Gustav Hempel W. V. O. Quine Thomas Kuhn Imre Lakatos Paul Feyerabend Jürgen Habermas Ian Hacking Bas van Fraassen Larry Laudan Daniel Dennett

.