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Coordinates: 35°N 71°E / 35°N 71°E / 35; 71

Hindu
Hindu
Kush

Hindu
Hindu
Kush range

Highest point

Peak Tirich Mir

Elevation 7,708 m (25,289 ft)

Coordinates 36°14′45″N 71°50′38″E / 36.24583°N 71.84389°E / 36.24583; 71.84389 

Geography

Topography of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range[1]

Countries

List

Afghanistan Pakistan China Tajikistan

Region Central Asia-South

Parent range Himalayas

Hindu
Hindu
Kush and its extending mountain ranges to the west.

The Hindu
Hindu
Kush (/kʊʃ, kuːʃ/), also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus
Caucasus
Indicus (Ancient Greek: Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae
Paropamisadae
(Ancient Greek: Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as هندوکش‬, is an 800-kilometre-long (500 mi) mountain range that stretches near the Afghan- Pakistan
Pakistan
border,[2][3] from central Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to northern Pakistan. It forms the western section of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush Himalayan Region (HKH).[4][5][6] It divides the valley of the Amu Darya
Amu Darya
(the ancient Oxus) to the north from the Indus River
Indus River
valley to the south. The Hindu
Hindu
Kush range has numerous high snow-capped peaks, with the highest point in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush being Tirich Mir
Tirich Mir
or Terichmir at 7,708 metres (25,289 ft) in the Chitral District
Chitral District
of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To the north, near its northeastern end, the Hindu
Hindu
Kush buttresses the Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
near the point where the borders of China, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
meet, after which it runs southwest through Pakistan
Pakistan
and into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
near their border.[2] The eastern end of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush in the north merges with the Karakoram Range.[7][8] Towards its southern end, it connects with the Spin Ghar Range near the Kabul
Kabul
River.[9][10] According to Gnoli, "if we compare the first chapter of the Vidēvdād with the passages of geographical interest that we come across mainly in the great [Zoroastrian] yašts, we can conclude that the geographical area of Avesta was dominated by the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range at the center, the western boundary being marked by the districts of Margiana, Areia, and Drangiana, the eastern one by the Indo-Iranian frontier regions such as Gandhāra, Bunēr, the land of the Seven Rivers."[11] The Hindu
Hindu
Kush range region was later a historically significant centre of Buddhism
Buddhism
with sites such as the Bamiyan Buddhas.[12][13] The range and communities settled in it hosted ancient monasteries, important trade networks, and travelers between Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia.[14][15] The Hindu
Hindu
Kush range has also been the passageway during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent,[16][17] and continues to be important during modern era warfare in Afghanistan.[18][19]

Contents

1 Geology and formation 2 Etymology

2.1 Other names

3 Mountains

3.1 Eastern Hindu
Hindu
Kush 3.2 Highest mountains

4 History

4.1 Ancient 4.2 Medieval era

4.2.1 Slavery

4.3 Modern era

5 Ethnography 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Bibliography 7.2 Further reading

8 External links

Geology and formation[edit] Geologically, the range is rooted in the formation of a subcontinent from a region of Gondwana that drifted away from East Africa
East Africa
about 160 million years ago, around the Middle Jurassic period.[20] [21] The Indian subcontinent, Australia and islands of Indian Ocean
Ocean
rifted further, drifting northeastwards, with the Indian subcontinent colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Palaeocene.[20] This collision created the Himalayas, including the Hindu
Hindu
Kush.[22] The Hindu
Hindu
Kush range remains geologically active and is still rising.[23] It is prone to earthquakes.[24][25] Etymology[edit] The origins of the name Hindu
Hindu
Kush are uncertain, with various theories being propounded by different scholars and writers.[26] According to Hobson-Jobson, the name might be a possible corruption of Indicus Caucasus, with another explanation mentioned first by Ibn Batuta remaining popular despite doubts upon it, and the modification of the name by some later writers into Hindu
Hindu
Koh is factitious and throws no light on the name's origin.[27] In the time of Alexander the Great, the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range was referred to as the Caucasus
Caucasus
Indicus or the " Caucasus
Caucasus
of the Indus River" (as opposed to the Greater Caucasus range between the Caspian and Black Seas), and in the time of Islam in India, the regular invasions possibly derived Hind Kash as Hindu
Hindu
Kush Hindū Kūh (ھندوکوه‬) and Kūh-e Hind (کوهِ ھند‬) usually applied to the entire range separating the basins of the Kabul and Helmand Rivers from that of the Amu Darya, or, more specifically, to that part of the range lying northwest of Kabul. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
documents refer to the Hindu
Hindu
Kush as Hind kshetra in short Hind Kash as frontier lands of India. "Kash as in Kashmir
Kashmir
(pronounced as कश in Hindi, in English written as Kush)" word also synonym of frontier part of a "Kusha" grass. Hind Kash all around from Amu Darya
Amu Darya
(in Vedic Sanskrit Vakṣu (वक्षु) river) to Kashmir
Kashmir
was Kshetra (place) for meditation and teaching by founders of Hinduism. [28] The mountain range was called "Paropamisadae" by Hellenic Greeks in the late first millennium BC.[29] The word Koh or Kuh means "mountain" in the local language, Khowar. According to Nigel Allan, Hindu
Hindu
Kush meant both "mountains of India" and "sparkling snows of India", as he notes, from a Central Asian perspective.[30] Furthermore, some believe it to be the name derived from the rule of the Hindu
Hindu
god Rama's son, Kusha, who ruled in Kasur, in present-day Punjab, Pakistan. Hindū Kūh (ھندوکوه) and Kūh-e Hind (کوهِ ھند) are usually applied to the entire range separating the basins of the Kabul
Kabul
and Helmand rivers from that of the Amu River
River
(ancient Oxus), or more specifically, to that part of the range lying northwest of the Afghan capital Kabul. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
documents refer to the Hindu
Hindu
Kush as Pāriyātra Parvata (पारियात्र पर्वत) The Persian-English dictionary[31] indicates that the word 'koš' [kʰoʃ] is derived from the verb ('koštan' کشتن‬ Persian pronunciation: [kʰoʃˈt̪ʰæn]), meaning "to kill". According to Francis Joseph Steingass, the word and suffix "-kush" means "a male; (imp. of kushtan in comp.) a killer, who kills, slays, murders, oppresses as azhdaha-kush".[32] A Practical Dictionary of the Persian Language gives the meaning of the word kush as "hotbed".[33] According to one interpretation, the name Hindu
Hindu
Kush means "kills the Hindu" or " Hindu
Hindu
killer" and is a reminder of the days when slaves from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
died in the harsh weather typical of the Afghan mountains while being taken to Central Asia.[26][34][35] The World Book
Book
Encyclopedia states that the word kush means death, and was probably given to the mountains because of their dangerous passes.[36] In his travel memoirs about India, the 14th century Moroccan traveller Muhammad Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
mentioned crossing into India via the mountain passes of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. In his Rihla, he mentions these mountains and the history of the range in slave trading.[37][15] Alexander von Humboldt stated that it can be learned from his work that the name only referred to a single mountain pass upon which many Indian slaves died of the cold weather.[38] Battuta wrote,

After this I proceeded to the city of Barwan, in the road to which is a high mountain, covered with snow and exceedingly cold; they call it the Hindu
Hindu
Kush, that is Hindu-slayer, because most of the slaves brought thither from India die on account of the intenseness of the cold. — Ibn Batutta, Chapter XIII, Rihla – Khorasan[15]

An 1879 map of Hindu
Hindu
Kush and its passes by Royal Geographic Society. Kabul
Kabul
is in lower left, Kashmir
Kashmir
in lower right.

The name Hindu
Hindu
Kush is relatively young, states Ervin Grötzbach, and it is "missing from the accounts of the early Arab geographers and occurs for the first time in Ibn Baṭṭuṭa (ca. 1330)". Ibn Baṭṭuṭa, states Grötzbach, saw the "origin of the name Hindu Kush (Hindu-killer) in the fact that numerous Hindu
Hindu
slaves died crossing the pass on their way from India to Turkestan".[39] In contrast, state Fosco Maraini and Nigel Allan, the earliest known usage occurs on a map published about 1000 CE.[40] According to Allan, the term Hindu
Hindu
Kush has been commonly seen to mean " Hindu
Hindu
killer", but two other meanings of the term include "sparkling snows of India" and "mountains of India" with "Kush" possibly a soft variant of Kuh which means "mountain". Hindu
Hindu
Kush in Arabic means mountains of India. To Arab geographers, states Allan, Hindu
Hindu
Kush was the frontier boundary where Hindustan
Hindustan
started.[41][40] According to McColl, the origins of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush name are controversial. Along with its origin in the perishing of Indian slaves, two other possibilities exist.[26] The term could be a corruption of Hindu
Hindu
Koh from pre-Islamic times where it separated Hindu
Hindu
population of southern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
from non- Hindu
Hindu
population in northern Afghanistan. The second possibility is that the name may be from the ancient Avestan language, with the meaning "water mountain".[26] Other names[edit] The mountain range was also called "Paropamisadae" by Hellenic Greeks in the late first millennium BC.[29] Some 19th century Encyclopedias and gazetteers state that the term Hindu
Hindu
Kush originally applied only to the peak in the area of the Kushan Pass, which had become a centre of the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
by the first century.[42] Some scholars remove the space, and refer to Hindu
Hindu
Kush as "Hindukush".[43][44] Mountains[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2017)

The Hindu
Hindu
Kush is a formidable mountain range to cross with most peaks being between 14,500 and 17,000 feet, and some much higher. The mountains experience heavy snowfall and blizzards, with the lowest mountain pass through them being southern Shibar pass (9,000 feet) where the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range terminates.[18] Other mountain passes being generally about 12,000 or higher.[18] They become passable in late spring and summer. The mountains of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range diminish in height as they stretch westward. Near Kabul, in the west, they attain heights of 3,500 to 4,000 meters (11,500 to 13,100 ft); in the east they extend from 4,500 to 6,000 meters (14,800 to 19,700 ft). The average altitude of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush is 4,500 meters (14,800 feet).[45] The Hindu
Hindu
Kush system stretches about 966 kilometres (600 mi) laterally,[45] and its median north-south measurement is about 240 kilometres (150 mi). Only about 600 kilometres (370 mi) of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush system is called the Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountains. The rest of the system consists of numerous smaller mountain ranges. Rivers that flow from the mountain system include the Helmand River, the Hari River
River
and the Kabul
Kabul
River, watersheds for the Sistan
Sistan
Basin.[citation needed] The lower Sistan
Sistan
basin gets little rainfall (~50 mm per year) and the main source of water is the Helmand River
Helmand River
which brings snowmelt water from the southern Hindu
Hindu
Kush. The smaller Khash, the Farah and the Arashkan (Harut) rivers bring water from the western Hindu
Hindu
Kush. The basin of these rivers serves the ecology and economy of the region west to Hindu
Hindu
Kush, but the water flow in these rivers fluctuates severely and has been a historical problem for any settlement. Extreme and extended droughts have been common.[46]

A Badakhshan
Badakhshan
valley (left), August in Hindu
Hindu
Kush.

The Hindu
Hindu
Kush are orographically described in several parts.[47] The western Hindu
Hindu
Kush, states Yarshater, rises to over 5,100 meters and stretches between Darra-ye Sekari and the Shibar Pass in the west and the Khawak Pass in the east.[47] The central Hindu
Hindu
Kush rising over 6,800 meters has numerous spurs between the Khawak Pass in the east and the Durāh Pass in the west. The eastern Hindu
Hindu
Kush with peaks over 7,000 meter extends from the Durāh Pass to the Baroghil Pass at the border between northeastern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and north Pakistan. The ridges between Khawak Pass and Badakshan is over 5,800 meter and is called the Kaja Mohammed range.[47] The Hindu
Hindu
Kush, states Yarshater, are a part of the "young Eurasian mountain range consisting of metamorphic rocks such as schist, gneiss and marble, as well as of intrusives such as granite, diorite of different age and size". The northern regions of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush witness Himalayan winter and have glaciers, while its southeastern end witness the fringe of Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
summer monsoons.[47] From about 1,300 to 2,300 meter, states Yarshater, "sklerophyllous forests are predominant with Quercus and Olea (wild olive); above that up to a height of about 3,300 m one finds coniferous forests with cedars, Picea, Abies, Pinus, and junipers". The inner valleys of the Hindu Kush see little rain and have desert vegetation.[47] Numerous high passes ("kotal") transect the mountains, forming a strategically important network for the transit of caravans. The most important mountain pass is the Salang Pass
Salang Pass
(Kotal-e Salang) (3,878 m); it links Kabul
Kabul
and points south of it to northern Afghanistan. The completion of a tunnel within this pass in 1964 reduced travel time between Kabul
Kabul
and the north to a few hours. Previously access to the north through the Kotal-e Shibar (3,260 m) took three days.[citation needed] The Salang Tunnel
Salang Tunnel
at 3,363 m and the extensive network of galleries on the approach roads were constructed with Soviet financial and technological assistance and involved drilling 1.7 miles through the heart of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. The Salang tunnel is on Afghan Highway 76, northwest of Golbahar town, and has been an active area of armed conflict with various parties trying to control it.[48] These mountainous areas are mostly barren, or at the most sparsely sprinkled with trees and stunted bushes. Very ancient mines producing lapis lazuli are found in Kowkcheh Valley, while gem-grade emeralds are found north of Kabul
Kabul
in the valley of the Panjsher River
River
and some of its tributaries. According to Walter Schumann, the West Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountains have been the source of finest Lapis Lazuli for thousands of years.[49] Eastern Hindu
Hindu
Kush[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2017)

The Eastern Hindu
Hindu
Kush range, also known as the High Hindu
Hindu
Kush range, is mostly located in northern Pakistan
Pakistan
and the Nuristan
Nuristan
and Badakhshan provinces of Afghanistan. The Chitral District
Chitral District
of Pakistan
Pakistan
is home to Tirich Mir, Noshaq, and Istoro Nal, the highest peaks in the Hindu Kush. The range also extends into Ghizar, Yasin Valley, and Ishkoman in Pakistan's Northern Areas.[citation needed] Chitral, Pakistan, is considered to be the pinnacle of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region. The highest peaks, as well as countless passes and massive glaciers, are located in this region. The Chiantar, Kurambar, and Terich glaciers are amongst the most extensive in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush and the meltwater from these glaciers form the Kunar River, which eventually flows south into Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and joins the Bashgal, Panjshir, and eventually the much smaller Kabul
Kabul
River.[citation needed] Highest mountains[edit]

Name Height Country

Tirich Mir 7,708 metres (25,289 ft)  Pakistan

Noshak 7,492 metres (24,580 ft)  Afghanistan,  Pakistan

Istor-o-Nal 7,403 metres (24,288 ft)  Pakistan

Saraghrar 7,338 metres (24,075 ft)  Pakistan

Udren Zom 7,140 metres (23,430 ft)  Pakistan

Lunkho e Dosare 6,901 metres (22,641 ft)  Afghanistan,  Pakistan

Kuh-e Bandaka 6,843 metres (22,451 ft)  Afghanistan

Koh-e Keshni Khan 6,743 metres (22,123 ft)  Afghanistan

Sakar Sar 6,272 metres (20,577 ft)  Afghanistan,  Pakistan

Kohe Mondi 6,234 metres (20,453 ft)  Afghanistan

History[edit]

Kabul, situated 5,900 feet (1,800 m) above sea level in a narrow valley, wedged between the Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountains

The mountains have historical significance in the Indian subcontinent and China. The Hindu
Hindu
Kush range was a major centre of Buddhism
Buddhism
with sites such as the Bamiyan Buddhas.[50] It has also been the passageway during the invasions of the Indian subcontinent,[16][17] a region where the Taliban
Taliban
and Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
grew,[19][51] and to modern era warfare in Afghanistan.[18]

Buddhas of Bamiyan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1896 (top) and after destruction in 2001 by the Taliban
Taliban
Islamists.[52]

Buddhism
Buddhism
was widespread in the ancient Hindu
Hindu
Kush region. Ancient artwork of Buddhism
Buddhism
include the giant rock carved statues called the Bamiyan Buddha, in the southern and western end of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush.[12] These statues were blown up by the Taliban
Taliban
Islamists.[52] The southeastern valleys of Hindu
Hindu
Kush connecting towards the Indus Valley region were a major centre that hosted monasteries, religious scholars from distant lands, trade networks and merchants of ancient Indian subcontinent.[14] One of the early Buddhist schools, the Mahāsāṃghika-Lokottaravāda, was prominent in the area of Bamiyan. The Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang
Xuanzang
visited a Lokottaravāda
Lokottaravāda
monastery in the 7th century CE, at Bamiyan, Afghanistan. Birchbark
Birchbark
and palm leaf manuscripts of texts in this monastery's collection, including Mahāyāna sūtras, have been discovered in the caves of Hindu Kush,[53] and these are now a part of the Schøyen Collection. Some manuscripts are in the Gāndhārī language
Gāndhārī language
and Kharoṣṭhī script, while others are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and written in forms of the Gupta script.[54][55] According to Alfred Foucher, the Hindu
Hindu
Kush and nearby regions gradually converted to Buddhism
Buddhism
by the 1st century CE, and this region was the base from where Buddhism
Buddhism
crossed the Hindu
Hindu
Kush expanding into the Oxus valley region of Central Asia.[56] After the Islamic conquest of the region and Islam becoming the state religion, Buddhism
Buddhism
vanished and locals became Muslims.[57][58][59] Ancient[edit] The significance of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountains ranges has been recorded since the time of Darius I of Persia. Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
entered the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
through the Hindu
Hindu
Kush as his army moved past Bactria
Bactria
into the Afghan valley in the spring of 329 BCE.[60] He moved towards the Indus valley river region in 327 BCE, his armies building several towns in this region over the intervening two years.[61] After Alexander the Great's death in 323 BCE, the region became part of the Seleucid Empire, according to the ancient history of Strabo written in 1st century BCE, before it became a part of the Indian Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
around 305 BCE.[62] The region became a part of the Kushan Empire
Kushan Empire
in centuries around the start of the common era.[63] Medieval era[edit] The lands north of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush, in the Hephthalite dominion, Buddhism
Buddhism
was the predominant religion by mid 1st millennium CE.[64] These Buddhists were religiously tolerant and they co-existed with followers of Zoroastrianism, Manichaseism and Nestorian Christianity.[64][65] This Central Asia
Central Asia
region along the Hindu
Hindu
Kush was taken over by Western Turks and Arabs by the eighth century, facing wars with mostly Iranians.[64] One major exception was the period in mid to late seventh century, when the Tang dynasty from China
China
destroyed the Northern Turks and extended its rule all the way to Oxus River
River
valley and regions of Central Asia
Central Asia
bordering all along the Hindu
Hindu
Kush.[66]

Hindu
Hindu
Kush relative to Bactria, Bamiyan, Kabul
Kabul
and Gandhara (bottom right).

The subcontinent side and valleys of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush remained unconquered by the Islamic armies till the 9th century, even though they had conquered the southern regions of Indus River
Indus River
valley such as Sind.[67] Kabul
Kabul
fell to the army of Al-Ma'mun, the seventh Abbasid caliph, in 808 and the local king agreed to accept Islam and pay annual tributes to the caliph.[67] However, states André Wink, inscriptional evidence suggests that Kabul
Kabul
area near Hindu
Hindu
Kush had an early presence of Islam.[68] Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
came to power in 998 CE, in Ghazna, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
south of Kabul
Kabul
and Hindu
Hindu
Kush range.[69] He began a military campaign that rapidly brought both sides of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range under his rule. From his mountainous Afghan base, he systematically raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030.[70] Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries of kingdoms, sacked cities and destroyed Hindu
Hindu
temples, with each campaign starting every spring, but he and his army returned to Ghazni and Hindu
Hindu
Kush base before monsoons arrived in the northwestern part of the subcontinent.[69][70] He retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.[71][72] In 1017, the Iranian Islamic historian Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
was deported after a war that Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
won,[73] to northwest Indian subcontinent under Mahmud's rule. Al Biruni stayed in the region for about fifteen years, learnt Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and translated many Indian texts, and wrote about Indian society, culture, sciences and religion in Persian and Arabic. He stayed for some time in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region, particularly near Kabul. In 1019, he recorded and described a solar eclipse in what is modern era Laghman Province
Laghman Province
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
through which Hindu
Hindu
Kush pass.[73] Al Biruni also wrote about early history of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region and Kabul
Kabul
kings, who ruled the region long before he arrived, but this history is inconsistent with other records available from that era.[68] Al Biruni was supported by Sultan Mahmud.[73] Al Biruni found it difficult to get access to Indian literature locally in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush area, and to explain this he wrote, "Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed wondeful exploits by which the Hindus became the atoms scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people. (...) This is the reason, too, why Hindu
Hindu
sciences have retired far from those parts of the country conquered by us, and have fled to places which our hand cannot yet reach, to Kashmir, Benares and other places".[74] In late 12th century, the historically influential Ghurid empire led by Mu'izz al-Din
Mu'izz al-Din
ruled the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region.[75] He was influential in seeding the Delhi Sultanate, shifting the base of his Sultanate from south of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range and Ghazni towards the Yamuna River and Delhi. He thus helped bring the Islamic rule to the northern plains of Indian subcontinent.[76] The Moroccan traveller Ibn Battuta
Ibn Battuta
arrived in the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
by passing through the Hindu
Hindu
Kush.[15] The mountain passes of the Hindu Kush range were used by Timur
Timur
and his army and they crossed to launch the 1398 invasion of northern Indian subcontinent.[77] Timur, also known as Temur or Tamerlane in Western scholarly literature, marched with his army to Delhi, plundering and killing all the way.[78][79][80] He arrived in the capital Delhi where his army looted and killed its residents.[81] Then he carried the wealth and the captured slaves, returning to his capital through the Hindu Kush.[78][80][82] Babur, the founder of Mughal Empire, was a patrilineal descendant of Timur
Timur
with roots in Central Asia.[83] He first established himself and his army in Kabul
Kabul
and the Hindu
Hindu
Kush region. In 1526, he made his move into north India, won the Battle of Panipat, ending the last Delhi Sultanate dynasty, and starting the era of the Mughals.[84] Slavery[edit] Slavery, as with all major ancient and medieval societies, has been a part of Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia
South Asia
history. The Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountain passes connected the slave markets of Central Asia
Central Asia
with slaves seized in South Asia.[85][86][87] The seizure and transportation of slaves from Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
became intense in and after the 8th century CE, with evidence suggesting that the slave transport involved "hundreds of thousands" of slaves from India in different periods of Islamic rule era.[86] According to John Coatsworth and others, the slave trading operations during the pre-Akbar Mughal and Delhi Sultanate era "sent thousands of Hindus every year north to Central Asia
Asia
to pay for horses and other goods".[88][89] However, the interaction between Central Asia
Central Asia
and South Asia
South Asia
through the Hindu
Hindu
Kush was not limited to slavery, it included trading in food, goods, horses and weapons.[90] The practice of raiding tribes, hunting and kidnapping people for slave trading continued through the 19th century, at an extensive scale, around Hindu
Hindu
Kush. According to a British Anti-Slavery Society report of 1874, the Governor of Faizabad, Mir Ghulam Bey, kept 8,000 horses and cavalry men who routinely captured non-Muslim infidels (kafir) as well as Shia Muslims as slaves. Others alleged to be involved in slave trade were feudal lords such as Ameer Sheer Ali. The isolated communities in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush were one of the targets of these slave hunting expeditions.[91] Modern era[edit]

Landscape of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
with a T-62
T-62
in the foreground.

In early 19th century, the Sikh Empire expanded under Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
in the northwest till the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range.[92] The Hindu
Hindu
Kush served as a geographical barrier to the British empire, leading to paucity of information and scarce direct interaction between the British colonial officials and Central Asian peoples. The British had to rely on tribal chiefs, Sadozai and Barakzai noblemen for information, and they generally downplayed the reports of slavery and other violence for geo-political strategic considerations.[93] In the colonial era, the Hindu
Hindu
Kush were considered, informally, the dividing line between Russian and British areas of influence in Afghanistan. During the Cold War
Cold War
the Hindu
Hindu
Kush range became a strategic theatre, especially during the 1980s when Soviet forces and their Afghan allies fought the Mujahideen
Mujahideen
with support from the US allies channeled through Pakistan.[94][95][96] After the Soviet withdrawal and the end of the Cold War, many Mujahideen
Mujahideen
morphed into Taliban
Taliban
and Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
forces imposing a strict interpretation of Islamic law (Sharia), with Kabul, these mountains and other parts of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
as their base.[97][98] Other Mujahideen
Mujahideen
joined the Northern Alliance to oppose the Taliban
Taliban
rule.[98] After September 11, 2001 terror attacks in New York, the American and ISAF campaign against Al Qaeda
Al Qaeda
and their Taliban
Taliban
allies made the Hindu Kush once again a militarized conflict zone.[98][99][100] Ethnography[edit] Pre-Islamic populations of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush included Shins, Yeshkun,[101] Chiliss, Neemchas[102] Koli,[103] Palus,[103] Gaware,[104] Yeshkuns,[105] and Krammins.[105] See also[edit]

Mount Imeon Paropamisus Mountains Himalayas A Short Walk in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush Geography of Afghanistan Geography of Pakistan Hindustan List of highest mountains
List of highest mountains
(a list of mountains above 7,200m) List of mountain ranges 2002 Hindu
Hindu
Kush earthquakes 2005 Hindu
Hindu
Kush earthquake

References[edit]

^ Hindu
Hindu
Kush, Encyclopedia Iranica ^ a b Mike Searle (2013). Colliding Continents: A geological exploration of the Himalaya, Karakoram, and Tibet. Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-19-165248-6. , Quote: "The Hindu
Hindu
Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan". ^ George C. Kohn (2006). Dictionary of Wars. Infobase Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4381-2916-7.  ^ " Hindu
Hindu
Kush Himalayan Region". ICIMOD. Retrieved 17 October 2014.  ^ "Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters". Weather and Climate Extremes. 8: 46–58. doi:10.1016/j.wace.2014.12.001. Retrieved 2015-09-06.  ^ "Development of an ASSESSment system to evaluate the ecological status of rivers in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush-Himalayan region" (PDF). assess-hkh.at. Retrieved 2015-09-06.  ^ Karakoram
Karakoram
Range: MOUNTAINS, ASIA, Encyclopedia Britannica ^ Stefan Heuberger (2004). The Karakoram-Kohistan Suture Zone in NW Pakistan
Pakistan
Hindu
Hindu
Kush Mountain Range. vdf Hochschulverlag AG. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-3-7281-2965-9.  ^ Spīn Ghar Range, MOUNTAINS, PAKISTAN-AFGHANISTAN, Encyclopedia Britannica ^ Jonathan M. Bloom; Sheila S. Blair (2009). The Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art and Architecture. Oxford University Press. pp. 389–390. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1.  ^ G. Gnoli (2011), Avestan Geography Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. III, Fasc. 1, pp. 44-47 ^ a b Deborah Klimburg-Salter (1989), The Kingdom of Bamiyan: Buddhist art and culture of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush, Naples – Rome: Istituto Universitario Orientale & Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, ISBN 978-0877737650 (Reprinted by Shambala) ^ Claudio Margottini (2013). After the Destruction of Giant Buddha Statues in Bamiyan (Afghanistan) in 2001: A UNESCO's Emergency Activity for the Recovering and Rehabilitation of Cliff and Niches. Springer. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-3-642-30051-6.  ^ a b Jason Neelis (2010). Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. BRILL Academic. pp. 114–115, 144, 160–163, 170–176, 249–250. ISBN 90-04-18159-8.  ^ a b c d Ibn Battuta; Samuel Lee (Translator) (2010). The Travels of Ibn Battuta: In the Near East, Asia
Asia
and Africa. Cosimo (Reprint). pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-1-61640-262-4. ; Columbia University Archive ^ a b Konrad H. Kinzl (2010). A Companion to the Classical Greek World. John Wiley & Sons. p. 577. ISBN 978-1-4443-3412-8.  ^ a b André Wink (2002). Al-Hind: The Slavic Kings and the Islamic conquest, 11th–13th centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 52–53. ISBN 0-391-04174-6.  ^ a b c d Frank Clements (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 109–110. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8.  ^ a b Michael Ryan (2013). Decoding Al-Qaeda's Strategy: The Deep Battle Against America. Columbia University Press. pp. 54–55. ISBN 978-0-231-16384-2.  ^ a b Robert Wynn Jones (2011). Applications of Palaeontology: Techniques and Case Studies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–271. ISBN 978-1-139-49920-0.  ^ Hinsbergen, D. J. J. van; Lippert, P. C.; Dupont-Nivet, G.; McQuarrie, N.; Doubrovine; et al. (2012). " Greater India
Greater India
Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (20): 7659–7664, for geologic Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
see Figure 1. doi:10.1073/pnas.1117262109. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ S. Mukherjee; R. Carosi; P.A. van der Beek; et al. (2015). Tectonics of the Himalaya. Geological Society of London. pp. 55–57. ISBN 978-1-86239-703-3. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Martin Beniston (2002). Mountain Environments in Changing Climates. Routledge. p. 320. ISBN 978-1-134-85236-9.  ^ Frank Clements (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8.  ^ Afghanistan
Afghanistan
Pakistan
Pakistan
Earthquake National Geographic; Afghanistan
Afghanistan
earthquake BBC News; See also October 2015 Hindu
Hindu
Kush earthquake and 2016 Afghanistan
Afghanistan
earthquake. ^ a b c d R. W. McColl (2014). Encyclopedia of World Geography. Infobase Publishing. pp. 413–414. ISBN 978-0-8160-7229-3.  ^ Henry Yule, A. C. Burnell. Kate Teltscher, ed. Hobson-Jobson: The Definitive Glossary of British India. Oxford University Press. p. 258. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ^ http://www.savarkar.org/content/pdfs/en/six_glorious_epochs-1to6_savarkar_en_v000.pdf ^ a b Vogelsang, Willem (2002). The Afghans. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19841-5. Retrieved 2010-08-22.  ^ Allan, Nigel (2001). "Defining Place and People in Afghanistan". Post Soviet Geography and Economics. 8. 42: 545–560.  ^ Boyle, J.A. (1949). A Practical Dictionary of the Persian Language. Luzac & Co. p. 129.  ^ Francis Joseph Steingass (1992). A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary. Asian Educational Services. pp. 1030–1031 (kush means "killer, kills, slays, murders, oppresses"), p. 455 (khirs–kush means "bear killer"), p. 734 (shutur–kush means "camel butcher"), p. 1213 (mardum–kush means "man slaughter"). ISBN 978-81-206-0670-8.  ^ Boyle, J.A. (1949). A Practical Dictionary of the Persian Language. Luzac & Co. p. 131.  ^ Amy Romano (2003). A Historical Atlas of Afghanistan. Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-0-8239-3863-6.  ^ [a] Michael Franzak (2010). A Nightmare's Prayer: A Marine Harrier Pilot's War in Afghanistan. Simon and Schuster. p. 241. ISBN 978-1-4391-9499-7. ; [b] Ehsan Yarshater (2003). Encyclopædia Iranica. The Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-933273-76-4.  [c] James Wynbrandt (2009). A Brief History of Pakistan. Infobase Publishing. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-8160-6184-6. ; [d] Encyclopedia Americana. 14. 1993. p. 206. ; [e] André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th–11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. p. 110. ISBN 0-391-04173-8. , Quote: "(..) the Muslim Arabs also applied the name 'Khurasan' to all the Muslim provinces to the east of the Great Desert and up to the Hindu-Kush (' Hindu
Hindu
killer') mountains, the Chinese desert and the Pamir mountains". ^ The World Book
Book
Encyclopedia. 9 (1994 ed.). World Book
Book
Inc. 1990. p. 235.  ^ Dunn, Ross E. (2005). The Adventures of Ibn Battuta. University of California Press. pp. 171–178. ISBN 0-520-24385-4.  ^ Alexander von Humboldt. Stephen T. Jackson, Laura Dassow Walls, ed. Views of Nature. University of Chicago Press. p. 68.  ^ Ervin Grötzbach (2012 Edition, Original: 2003), Hindu
Hindu
Kush, Encyclopaedia Iranica ^ a b Fosco Maraini et al., Hindu
Hindu
Kush, Encyclopaedia Britannica ^ Allan, Nigel (2001). "Defining Place and People in Afghanistan". Post Soviet Geography and Economics. 8. 42: 545–560.  ^ 1890,1896 Encyclopedia Brittanica s.v. "Afghanistan", Vol I p.228.; 1893, 1899 Johnson's Universal Encyclopedia Vol I p.61.; 1885 Imperial Gazetteer of India, V. I p. 30.; 1850 A Gazetteer of the World Vol I p. 62. ^ Karl Jettmar; Schuyler Jones (1986). The Religions of the Hindukush: The religion of the Kafirs. Aris & Phillips. ISBN 978-0-85668-163-9.  ^ Winiger, M.; Gumpert, M.; Yamout, H. (2005). "Karakorum-Hindukush-western Himalaya: assessing high-altitude water resources". Hydrological Processes. Wiley-Blackwell. 19 (12): 2329–2338. doi:10.1002/hyp.5887.  ^ a b Scott-Macnab, David (1994). On the roof of the world. London: Reader's Digest Assiciation Ldt. p. 22.  ^ History of Environmental Change in the Sistan
Sistan
Basin, UNEP, United Nations, pages 5, 12-14 ^ a b c d e Ehsan Yarshater (2003). Encyclopædia Iranica. The Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation. p. 312. ISBN 978-0-933273-76-4.  ^ John Laffin (1997). The World in Conflict: War Annual 8 : Contemporary Warfare Described and Analysed. Brassey's. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-1-85753-216-6.  ^ Walter Schumann (2009). Gemstones of the World. Sterling. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-4027-6829-3.  ^ Claudio Margottini (2013). After the Destruction of Giant Buddha Statues in Bamiyan (Afghanistan) in 2001: A UNESCO's Emergency Activity for the Recovering and Rehabilitation of Cliff and Niches. Springer. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-3-642-30051-6.  ^ Magnus, Ralph H. (1998). " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1997: The War Moves North". Asian Survey. University of California Press. 38 (2): 109–115. doi:10.2307/2645667.  ^ a b Jan Goldman (2014). The War on Terror Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 360–362. ISBN 978-1-61069-511-4.  ^ ASOKA MUKHANAGAVINAYAPARICCHEDA, The Schoyen Collection, Quote: "Provenance: 1. Buddhist monastery of Mahasanghika, Bamiyan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
(−7th c.); 2. Cave in Hindu
Hindu
Kush, Bamiyan." ^ "Schøyen Collection: Buddhism". Retrieved 23 June 2012.  ^ "Afghan archaeologists find Buddhist site as war rages". Sayed Salahuddin. News Daily. Aug 17, 2010. Archived from the original on 18 August 2010. Retrieved 2010-08-16.  ^ Jason Neelis (2010). Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. BRILL Academic. pp. 234–235. ISBN 90-04-18159-8.  ^ Lars Fogelin (2015). An Archaeological History of Indian Buddhism. Oxford University Press. pp. 6–11, 218, 229–230. ISBN 978-0-19-994823-9.  ^ Sheila Canby (1993). "Depictions of Buddha Sakyamuni in the Jami al-Tavarikh and the Majma al-Tavarikh". Muqarnas. 10: 299–310. doi:10.2307/1523195.  ^ Michael Jerryson (2016). The Oxford Handbook of Contemporary Buddhism. Oxford University Press. p. 464. ISBN 978-0-19-936239-4.  ^ Peter Marsden (1998). The Taliban: War, Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-85649-522-6.  ^ Peter Marsden (1998). The Taliban: War, Religion and the New Order in Afghanistan. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-1-85649-522-6.  ^ Nancy Hatch Dupree / Aḥmad ʻAlī Kuhzād (1972). "An Historical Guide to Kabul
Kabul
– The Name". American International School of Kabul. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.  ^ Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. 2. BRILL. p. 159. ISBN 90-04-08265-4. Retrieved 2010-08-23.  ^ a b c André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th–11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 110–111. ISBN 0-391-04173-8.  ^ M. A. Shaban (1979). The 'Abbāsid Revolution. Cambridge University Press. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-521-29534-5.  ^ André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th–11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 114–115. ISBN 0-391-04173-8.  ^ a b André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th–11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 9–10, 123. ISBN 0-391-04173-8.  ^ a b André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India and the Expansion of Islam 7th–11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. p. 124. ISBN 0-391-04173-8.  ^ a b Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. pp. 164–165. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4.  ^ a b Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 3–4, 6–7. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.  ^ T. A. Heathcote, The Military in British India: The Development of British Forces in South Asia:1600–1947, (Manchester University Press, 1995), pp 5–7 ^ Barnett, Lionel (1999), Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan, p. 1, at Google Books, Atlantic pp. 73–79 ^ a b c Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni
Bobojan Gafurov (June 1974), The Courier Journal, UNESCO, page 13 ^ William J. Duiker; Jackson J. Spielvogel (2013). The Essential World History, Volume I: To 1800. Cengage. p. 228. ISBN 1-133-60772-1.  ^ K.A. Nizami (1998). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. UNESCO. p. 186. ISBN 978-92-3-103467-1.  ^ Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 7–15, 24–27. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.  ^ Francis Robinson (1996). The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-521-66993-1.  ^ a b Peter Jackson (2003). The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 311–319. ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3.  ^ Beatrice F. Manz (2000). "Tīmūr Lang". In P. J. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C. E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W. P. Heinrichs. Encyclopaedia of Islam. 10 (2 ed.). Brill.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ a b Annemarie Schimmel (1980). Islam in the Indian Subcontinent. BRILL. pp. 36–44. ISBN 90-04-06117-7.  ^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 178. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4.  ^ Paddy Docherty (2007). The Khyber Pass: A History of Empire and Invasion. London: Union Square. pp. 160–162. ISBN 978-1-4027-5696-2.  ^ Gerhard Bowering; Patricia Crone; Wadad Kadi; et al. (2012). The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought. Princeton University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0691134840. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Scott Cameron Levi; Muzaffar Alam (2007). India and Central Asia: Commerce and Culture, 1500–1800. Oxford University Press. pp. 19–20. ISBN 978-0-19-568647-0.  ^ Scott C. Levi (2002), Hindus beyond the Hindu
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Kush: Indians in the Central Asian Slave Trade, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Cambridge University Press, Volume 12, Number 3 (Nov., 2002), pages 277–288 ^ a b Christoph Witzenrath (2016). Eurasian Slavery, Ransom and Abolition in World History, 1200–1860. Routledge. pp. 10–11 with footnotes. ISBN 978-1-317-14002-3.  ^ Scott Cameron Levi; Muzaffar Alam (2007). India and Central Asia: Commerce and Culture, 1500–1800. Oxford University Press. pp. 11–12, 43–49, 86 note 7, 87 note 18. ISBN 978-0-19-568647-0.  ^ John Coatsworth; Juan Cole; Michael P. Hanagan; et al. (2015). Global Connections: Volume 2, Since 1500: Politics, Exchange, and Social Life in World History. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-316-29790-2. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ According to Clarence-Smith, the practice was curtailed but continued during Akbar's era, and returned after Akbar's death; W. G. Clarence-Smith (2006). Islam and the Abolition of Slavery. Oxford University Press. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-0-19-522151-0.  ^ Scott Cameron Levi; Muzaffar Alam (2007). India and Central Asia: Commerce and Culture, 1500–1800. Oxford University Press. pp. 9–10, 53, 126, 160–161. ISBN 978-0-19-568647-0.  ^ Junius P. Rodriguez (2015). Encyclopedia of Emancipation and Abolition in the Transatlantic World. Routledge. pp. 666–667. ISBN 978-1-317-47180-6.  ^ J. S. Grewal (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-521-63764-0.  ^ Jonathan L. Lee (1996). The "Ancient Supremacy": Bukhara, Afghanistan
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Bibliography[edit]

Biddulph, John. Tribes of the Hindoo Koosh (Sang-e-Meel, 2001)[full citation needed]

Further reading[edit]

Drew, Frederic (1877). The Northern Barrier of India: A Popular Account of the Jammoo and Kashmir
Kashmir
Territories with Illustrations. Frederic Drew. 1st edition: Edward Stanford, London. Reprint: Light & Life Publishers, Jammu, 1971 Gibb, H. A. R. (1929). Ibn Battūta: Travels in Asia
Asia
and Africa, 1325–1354. Translated and selected by H. A. R. Gibb. Reprint: Asian Educational Services, New Delhi and Madras, 1992 Gordon, T. E. (1876). The Roof of the World: Being the Narrative of a Journey over the High Plateau of Tibet
Tibet
to the Russian Frontier and the Oxus Sources on Pamir. Edinburgh. Edmonston and Douglas. Reprint: Ch’eng Wen Publishing Company. Tapei, 1971 Leitner, Gottlieb Wilhelm (1890). Dardistan
Dardistan
in 1866, 1886 and 1893: Being An Account of the History, Religions, Customs, Legends, Fables and Songs of Gilgit, Chilas, Kandia (Gabrial) Yasin, Chitral, Hunza, Nagyr and other parts of the Hindukush, as also a supplement to the second edition of The Hunza and Nagyr Handbook. And An Epitome of Part III of the author's 'The Languages and Races of Dardistan'. Reprint, 1978. Manjusri Publishing House, New Delhi. ISBN 81-206-1217-5 Newby, Eric. (1958). A Short Walk in the Hindu
Hindu
Kush. Secker, London. Reprint: Lonely Planet. ISBN 978-0-86442-604-8 Yule, Henry and Burnell, A. C. (1886). Hobson-Jobson: The Anglo-Indian Dictionary. 1996 reprint by Wordsworth Editions Ltd. ISBN 1-85326-363-X A Country Study: Afghanistan, Library of Congress Hindu
Hindu
Kush at Encyclopædia Iranica Encyclopædia Britannica, 15 th Ed, Vol.21, pp. 54–55, 1987 An Advanced History of India, by R. C. Majumdar, H. C. Raychaudhuri, K.Datta, 2nd Ed., MacMillan and Co, London, pp. 336–37, 1965 Encyclopædia Britannica, 15 th Ed, Vol.21, p. 65, 1987 The Cambridge History of India, Vol.IV – The Mughul Period, by W.Haig & R.Burn, S.Chand & Co., New Delhi, pp. 98–99, 1963

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Hindu
Hindu
Kush

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hindu
Hindu
Kush.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hindu
Hindu
Kush.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Hindu
Hindu
Kush.

Khyber Pass Early Explorers of the Hindu
Hindu
Kush Geology More geology And more geology

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Greater India Indian subcontinent Himalayas Hindu
Hindu
Kush Western Ghats Eastern Ghats Ganges Basin Ganges Delta Pashtunistan Punjab Balochistan Kashmir

Kashmir
Kashmir
Valley Pir Panjal Range

Thar Desert Indus Valley Indus River
Indus River
Delta Indus Valley Desert Indo-Gangetic Plain Eastern coastal plains Western Coastal Plains Meghalaya subtropical forests MENASA Lower Gangetic plains moist deciduous forests Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows Doab Bagar tract Great Rann of Kutch Little Rann of Kutch Deccan Plateau Coromandel Coast Konkan False Divi Point Hindi Belt Ladakh Aksai Chin Gilgit-Baltistan

Baltistan Shigar Valley

Karakoram

Saltoro Mountains

Siachen Glacier Bay of Bengal Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Mannar Trans- Karakoram
Karakoram
Tract Wakhan Corridor Wakhjir Pass Lakshadweep Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Andaman Islands Nicobar Islands

Maldive Islands Alpide belt

Southeast

Mainland

Indochina Malay Peninsula

Maritime

Peninsular Malaysia Sunda Islands Greater Sunda Islands Lesser Sunda Islands

Indonesian Archipelago Timor New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

Philippine Archipelago

Luzon Visayas Mindanao

Leyte Gulf Gulf of Thailand East Indies Nanyang Alpide belt

Asia-Pacific Tropical Asia Ring of Fire

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Regions of Europe

North

Nordic Northwestern Scandinavia Scandinavian Peninsula Fennoscandia Baltoscandia Sápmi West Nordic Baltic Baltic Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Iceland Faroe Islands

East

Danubian countries Prussia Galicia Volhynia Donbass Sloboda Ukraine Sambia Peninsula

Amber Coast

Curonian Spit Izyum Trail Lithuania Minor Nemunas Delta Baltic Baltic Sea Vyborg Bay Karelia

East Karelia Karelian Isthmus

Lokhaniemi Southeastern

Balkans Aegean Islands Gulf of Chania North Caucasus Greater Caucasus Kabardia European Russia

Southern Russia

Central

Baltic Baltic Sea Alpine states Alpide belt Mitteleuropa Visegrád Group

West

Benelux Low Countries Northwest British Isles English Channel Channel Islands Cotentin Peninsula Normandy Brittany Gulf of Lion Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Pyrenees Alpide belt

South

Italian Peninsula Insular Italy Tuscan Archipelago Aegadian Islands Iberia

Al-Andalus Baetic System

Gibraltar Arc Southeastern Mediterranean Crimea Alpide belt

Germanic Celtic Slavic countries Uralic European Plain Eurasian Steppe Pontic–Caspian steppe Wild Fields Pannonian Basin

Great Hungarian Plain Little Hungarian Plain Eastern Slovak Lowland

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Regions of North America

Northern

Eastern Canada Western Canada Canadian Prairies Central Canada Northern Canada Atlantic Canada The Maritimes French Canada English Canada Acadia

Acadian Peninsula

Quebec City–Windsor Corridor Peace River
River
Country Cypress Hills Palliser's Triangle Canadian Shield Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Newfoundland (island) Vancouver Island Gulf Islands Strait of Georgia Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Labrador Peninsula Gaspé Peninsula Avalon Peninsula

Bay de Verde Peninsula

Brodeur Peninsula Melville Peninsula Bruce Peninsula Banks Peninsula (Nunavut) Cook Peninsula Gulf of Boothia Georgian Bay Hudson Bay James Bay Greenland Pacific Northwest Inland Northwest Northeast

New England Mid-Atlantic Commonwealth

West

Midwest Upper Midwest Mountain States Intermountain West Basin and Range Province

Oregon Trail Mormon Corridor Calumet Region Southwest

Old Southwest

Llano Estacado Central United States

Tallgrass prairie

South

South Central Deep South Upland South

Four Corners East Coast West Coast Gulf Coast Third Coast Coastal states Eastern United States

Appalachia

Trans-Mississippi Great North Woods Great Plains Interior Plains Great Lakes Great Basin

Great Basin
Great Basin
Desert

Acadia Ozarks Ark-La-Tex Waxhaws Siouxland Twin Tiers Driftless Area Palouse Piedmont Atlantic coastal plain Outer Lands Black Dirt Region Blackstone Valley Piney Woods Rocky Mountains Mojave Desert The Dakotas The Carolinas Shawnee Hills San Fernando Valley Tornado Alley North Coast Lost Coast Emerald
Emerald
Triangle San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area

San Francisco Bay North Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) East Bay ( San Francisco Bay
San Francisco Bay
Area) Silicon Valley

Interior Alaska- Yukon
Yukon
lowland taiga Gulf of Mexico Lower Colorado River
River
Valley Sacramento–San Joaquin River
River
Delta Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta Colville Delta Arkansas Delta Mobile–Tensaw River
River
Delta Mississippi Delta Mississippi River
River
Delta Columbia River
River
Estuary Great Basin High Desert Monterey Peninsula Upper Peninsula of Michigan Lower Peninsula of Michigan Virginia Peninsula Keweenaw Peninsula Middle Peninsula Delmarva Peninsula Alaska Peninsula Kenai Peninsula Niagara Peninsula Beringia Belt regions

Bible Belt Black Belt Corn Belt Cotton Belt Frost Belt Rice Belt Rust Belt Sun Belt Snow Belt

Latin

Northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula Gulf of California

Colorado River
River
Delta

Gulf of Mexico Soconusco Tierra Caliente La Mixteca La Huasteca Bajío Valley of Mexico Mezquital Valley Sierra Madre de Oaxaca Yucatán Peninsula Basin and Range Province Western Caribbean Zone Isthmus of Panama Gulf of Panama

Pearl Islands

Azuero Peninsula Mosquito Coast West Indies Antilles

Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Leeward Leeward Antilles Windward

Lucayan Archipelago Southern Caribbean

Aridoamerica Mesoamerica Oasisamerica Northern Middle Anglo Latin

French Hispanic

American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Regions of Oceania

Australasia

Gulf of Carpentaria New Guinea

Bonis Peninsula Papuan Peninsula Huon Peninsula Huon Gulf Bird's Head Peninsula Gazelle Peninsula

New Zealand

South Island North Island

Coromandel Peninsula

Zealandia New Caledonia Solomon Islands (archipelago) Vanuatu

Kula Gulf

Australia Capital Country Eastern Australia Lake Eyre basin Murray–Darling basin Northern Australia Nullarbor Plain Outback Southern Australia

Maralinga

Sunraysia Great Victoria Desert Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf St Vincent Lefevre Peninsula Fleurieu Peninsula Yorke Peninsula Eyre Peninsula Mornington Peninsula Bellarine Peninsula Mount Henry Peninsula

Melanesia

Islands Region

Bismarck Archipelago Solomon Islands Archipelago

Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

Caroline Islands

Federated States of Micronesia Palau

Guam Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru Northern Mariana Islands Wake Island

Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

Austral Islands Gambier Islands Marquesas Islands Society Islands Tuamotu

Kermadec Islands Mangareva Islands Samoa Tokelau Tonga Tuvalu

Ring of Fire

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

Gulf of Paria Paria Peninsula Paraguaná Peninsula Orinoco Delta

South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
Peninsula East Antarctica West Antarctica Eklund Islands Ecozone Extreme points Islands

Arctic

Arctic
Arctic
Alaska British Arctic
Arctic
Territories Canadian Arctic
Arctic
Archipelago Finnmark Greenland Northern Canada Northwest Territories Nunavik Nunavut Russian Arctic Sakha Sápmi Yukon North American Arctic

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
Arctic
Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China
China
Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China
China
Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 237687320 GND: 4024960-8 BNF: cb11937245p (d

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