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Agastya Angiras Aruni Ashtavakra Atri Bharadwaja Gotama Jamadagni Jaimini Kanada Kapila Kashyapa Pāṇini Patanjali Raikva Satyakama Jabala Valmiki Vashistha Vishvamitra Vyasa Yajnavalkya

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Hindu
Hindu
( pronunciation (help·info)) refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.[1][2] It has historically been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.[3][4] The historical meaning of the term Hindu
Hindu
has evolved with time. Starting with the Persian and Greek references to the land of the Indus
Indus
in the 1st millennium BCE through the texts of the medieval era,[5] the term Hindu
Hindu
implied a geographic, ethnic or cultural identifier for people living in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
around or beyond the Sindhu (Indus) river.[6] By the 16th century, the term began to refer to residents of the subcontinent who were not Turkic or Muslims.[6][a][b] The historical development of Hindu
Hindu
self-identity within the local South Asian population, in a religious or cultural sense, is unclear.[3][7] Competing theories state that Hindu
Hindu
identity developed in the British colonial era, or that it developed post-8th century CE after the Islamic invasion and medieval Hindu- Muslim
Muslim
wars.[7][8][9] A sense of Hindu
Hindu
identity and the term Hindu
Hindu
appears in some texts dated between the 13th and 18th century in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and regional languages.[8][10] The 14th- and 18th-century Indian poets such as Vidyapati, Kabir
Kabir
and Eknath used the phrase Hindu
Hindu
dharma (Hinduism) and contrasted it with Turaka dharma (Islam).[11] The Christian
Christian
friar Sebastiao Manrique used the term 'Hindu' in religious context in 1649.[12] In the 18th century, the European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions
Indian religions
collectively as Hindus, in contrast to Mohamedans for Mughals and Arabs following Islam.[3][6] By the mid-19th century, colonial orientalist texts further distinguished Hindus
Hindus
from Buddhists, Sikhs and Jains,[3] but the colonial laws continued to consider all of them to be within the scope of the term Hindu
Hindu
until about mid-20th century.[13] Scholars state that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs is a modern phenomenon.[14][15] Hindoo is an archaic spelling variant, whose use today may be considered derogatory.[16][17] At more than 1.03 billion,[18] Hindus
Hindus
are the world's third largest group after Christians
Christians
and Muslims. The vast majority of Hindus, approximately 966 million, live in India, according to India's 2011 census.[19] After India, the next 9 countries with the largest Hindu populations are, in decreasing order: Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, United States, Malaysia, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Myanmar.[20] These together accounted for 99% of the world's Hindu population, and the remaining nations of the world together had about 6 million Hindus
Hindus
in 2010.[20]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Terminology

2.1 Medieval-era usage (8th to 18th century) 2.2 Colonial-era usage (18th to 20th century) 2.3 Contemporary usage 2.4 Disputes

3 History of Hindu
Hindu
identity

3.1 Hindu
Hindu
identity amidst other Indian religions 3.2 Sacred geography 3.3 Hindu
Hindu
persecution 3.4 Hindu
Hindu
nationalism

4 Demographics 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

7.1 Bibliography

8 Further reading

Etymology

A Hindu wedding
Hindu wedding
ritual in India

Further information: Hinduism The word Hindu
Hindu
is derived from the Indo-Aryan[21] and Sanskrit[21][5] word Sindhu, which means "a large body of water", covering "river, ocean".[22][note 1] It was used as the name of the Indus
Indus
river and also referred to its tributaries. The actual term 'hindu' first occurs, states Gavin Flood, as "a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus
Indus
(Sanskrit: Sindhu)",[5] more specifically in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I.[23] The Punjab
Punjab
region, called Sapta Sindhava in the Vedas, is called Hapta Hindu
Hindu
in Zend Avesta. The 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I mentions the province of Hi[n]dush, referring to northwestern India.[23][24][25] The people of India
India
were referred to as Hinduvān (Hindus) and hindavī was used as the adjective for Indian in the 8th century text Chachnama.[25] The term 'Hindu' in these ancient records is an ethno-geographical term and did not refer to a religion.[5][26] The Arabic equivalent Al-Hind likewise referred to the country of India.[27][23]

Hindu
Hindu
culture in Bali, Indonesia. The Krishna-Arjuna sculpture inspired by the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
in Denpasar
Denpasar
(top), and Hindu
Hindu
dancers in traditional dress.

Among the earliest known records of 'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by the Buddhist scholar Xuanzang. Xuanzang
Xuanzang
uses the transliterated term In-tu whose "connotation overflows in the religious" according to Arvind Sharma.[23] While Xuanzang
Xuanzang
suggested that the term refers to the country named after the moon, another Buddhist scholar I-tsing
I-tsing
contradicted the conclusion saying that In-tu was not a common name for the country.[25] Al-Biruni's 11th-century text Tarikh Al-Hind, and the texts of the Delhi Sultanate period use the term 'Hindu', where it includes all non-Islamic people such as Buddhists, and retains the ambiguity of being "a region or a religion".[23] The 'Hindu' community occurs as the amorphous 'Other' of the Muslim
Muslim
community in the court chronicles, according to Romila Thapar.[28] Wilfred Cantwell Smith notes that 'Hindu' retained its geographical reference initially: 'Indian', 'indigenous, local', virtually 'native'. Slowly, the Indian groups themselves started using the term, differentiating themselves and their "traditional ways" from those of the invaders.[29] The text Prithviraj Raso, by Chanda Baradai, about the 1192 CE defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan
Prithviraj Chauhan
at the hands of Muhammad Ghori, is full of references to "Hindus" and "Turks", and at one stage, says "both the religions have drawn their curved swords;" however, the date of this text is unclear and considered by most scholars to be more recent.[30] In Islamic literature, 'Abd al-Malik Isami's Persian work, Futuhu's-salatin, composed in the Deccan in 1350, uses the word 'hindi' to mean Indian in the ethno-geographical sense and the word 'hindu' to mean 'Hindu' in the sense of a follower of the Hindu religion".[30] The poet Vidyapati's poem Kirtilata contrasts the cultures of Hindus
Hindus
and Turks (Muslims) in a city and concludes "The Hindus
Hindus
and the Turks live close together; Each makes fun of the other's religion (dhamme)."[31] One of the earliest uses of word 'Hindu' in religious context in a European language (Spanish), was the publication in 1649 by Sebastiao Manrique.[12] Other prominent mentions of 'Hindu' include the epigraphical inscriptions from Andhra Pradesh kingdoms who battled military expansion of Muslim
Muslim
dynasties in the 14th century, where the word 'Hindu' partly implies a religious identity in contrast to 'Turks' or Islamic religious identity.[32] The term Hindu
Hindu
was later used occasionally in some Sanskrit
Sanskrit
texts such as the later Rajataranginis of Kashmir (Hinduka, c. 1450) and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts, including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to contrast Hindus
Hindus
from Muslims
Muslims
who are called Yavanas (foreigners) or Mlecchas (barbarians), with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase " Hindu
Hindu
dharma".[10] Terminology

Hindus
Hindus
at Har Ki Pauri, Haridwar
Haridwar
near river Ganges
Ganges
in Uttarakhand state of India.

Medieval-era usage (8th to 18th century) One of the earliest but ambiguous uses of the word Hindu
Hindu
is, states Arvind Sharma, in the 'Brahmanabad settlement' which Muhammad ibn Qasim made with non- Muslims
Muslims
after the Arab invasion of northwestern Sindh region of India, in 712 CE. The term 'Hindu' meant people who were non-Muslims, and it included Buddhists
Buddhists
of the region.[33] In the 11th-century text of Al Biruni, Hindus
Hindus
are referred to as "religious antagonists" to Islam, as those who believe in rebirth, presents them to hold a diversity of beliefs, and seems to oscillate between Hindus holding a centralist and pluralist religious views.[33] In the texts of Delhi Sultanate era, states Sharma, the term Hindu
Hindu
remains ambiguous on whether it means people of a region or religion, giving the example of Ibn Battuta's explanation of the name " Hindu
Hindu
Kush" for a mountain range in Afghanistan. It was so called, wrote Ibn Battuta, because many Indian slaves died there of snow cold, as they were marched across that mountain range. The term Hindu
Hindu
there is ambivalent and could mean geographical region or religion.[34] In the texts from the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
era, the term Hindu
Hindu
appears to refer to the people of India
India
who had not converted to Islam. Pashaura Singh states, "in Persian writings, Sikhs were regarded as Hindu
Hindu
in the sense of non- Muslim
Muslim
Indians".[35] Jahangir, for example, called the Sikh
Sikh
Guru Arjan
Guru Arjan
a Hindu, who pretends to be a saint:[36]

There was a Hindu
Hindu
named Arjan in Gobindwal on the banks of the Beas River. Pretending to be a spiritual guide, he had won over as devotees many simple-minded Indians and even some ignorant, stupid Muslims
Muslims
by broadcasting his claims to be a saint. They called him Guru. ... When Khusraw stopped at his residence, [Arjan] came out and had an interview with [Khusraw]. Giving him some elementary spiritual precepts picked up here and there, he made a mark with saffron on his forehead, which is called qashqa in the idiom of the Hindus
Hindus
and which they consider lucky. — Emperor Jahangir, Jahangirnama, 27b-28a (Translated by Wheeler Thackston)[37][note 2]

Colonial-era usage (18th to 20th century)

The distribution of Indian religions
Indian religions
in British India
India
(1909). The upper map shows distribution of Hindus, the lower of Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs.

During the colonial era, the term Hindu
Hindu
had connotations of native religions of India, that is religions other than Christianity
Christianity
and Islam.[38] In early colonial era Anglo- Hindu
Hindu
laws and British India court system, the term Hindu
Hindu
referred to people of all Indian religions and two non-Indian religions:

The colonial project was itself undermined by its own constitutive contradictions since many of these laws were no more intrinsic to Indian society than the proposed meld of English and Indian systems. (...) The application of laws derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
classical texts leveled the community of Hindus
Hindus
to include all those who were not Muslims
Muslims
or Christians, and it absorbed under the category of "Hindu" both outcastes and members of religions as diverse as Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism, Judaism, and Zoroastrianism. — Gauri Viswanathan, Outside the Fold: Conversion, Modernity, and Belief, [38]

The 20th-century colonial laws of British India
India
segregated people's rights by their religion, evolving to provide Muslims
Muslims
with Sharia
Sharia
law, Christians, Jews and Parsis of British India
India
with their own religious laws. The British government created a compendium of religious laws for Hindus, and the term 'Hindu' in these colonial ' Hindu
Hindu
laws', decades before India's independence, applied to Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs.[13] Beyond the stipulations of British law, colonial orientalists and particularly the influential Asiatick Researches founded in the 18th century, later called The Asiatic Society, initially identified just two religions in India
India
– Islam, and Hinduism. These orientalists included all Indian religions
Indian religions
such as Buddhism
Buddhism
as a subgroup of Hinduism
Hinduism
in the 18th century.[3] These texts called followers of Islam as Mohamedans, and all others as Hindus. The text, by the early 19th century, began dividing Hindus
Hindus
into separate groups, for chronology studies of the various beliefs. Among the earliest terms to emerge were Seeks and their College (later spelled Sikhs by Charles Wilkins), Boudhism (later spelled Buddhism), and in the 9th volume of Asiatick Researches report on religions in India, the term Jainism
Jainism
received notice.[3] According to Pennington, the terms Hindu
Hindu
and Hinduism
Hinduism
were thus constructed for colonial studies of India. The various sub-divisions and separation of subgroup terms were assumed to be result of "communal conflict", and Hindu
Hindu
was constructed by these orientalists to imply people who adhered to "ancient default oppressive religious substratum of India", states Pennington.[3] Followers of other Indian religions so identified were later referred Buddhists, Sikhs or Jains and distinguished from Hindus, in an antagonistic two-dimensional manner, with Hindus
Hindus
and Hinduism
Hinduism
stereotyped as irrational traditional and others as rational reform religions. However, these mid-19th-century reports offered no indication of doctrinal or ritual differences between Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist, or other newly constructed religious identities.[3] These colonial studies, states Pennigton, "puzzled endlessly about the Hindus
Hindus
and intensely scrutinized them, but did not interrogate and avoided reporting the practices and religion of Mughal and Arabs in South Asia", and often relied on Muslim
Muslim
scholars to characterise Hindus.[3] Contemporary usage

A young Nepali Hindu
Hindu
devotee during a traditional prayer ceremony at Kathmandu's Durbar Square

In contemporary era, the term Hindus
Hindus
are individuals who identify with one or more aspects of Hinduism, whether they are practising or non-practicing or Laissez-faire.[39] The term does not include those who identify with other Indian religions
Indian religions
such as Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism
Sikhism
or various animist tribal religions found in India
India
such as Sarnaism.[40][41] The term Hindu, in contemporary parlance, includes people who accept themselves as culturally or ethnically Hindu
Hindu
rather than with a fixed set of religious beliefs within Hinduism.[1] One need not be religious in the minimal sense, states Julius Lipner, to be accepted as Hindu
Hindu
by Hindus, or to describe oneself as Hindu.[42] Hindus
Hindus
subscribe to a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but have no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet(s) nor any binding holy book; Hindus
Hindus
can choose to be polytheistic, pantheistic, monotheistic, monistic, agnostic, atheistic or humanist.[43][44][45] Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult.[5] The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it".[46] A Hindu may, by his or her choice, draw upon ideas of other Indian or non-Indian religious thought as a resource, follow or evolve his or her personal beliefs, and still identify as a Hindu.[1] In 1995, Chief Justice P. B. Gajendragadkar was quoted in an Indian Supreme Court ruling:[47][48]

When we think of the Hindu
Hindu
religion, unlike other religions in the world, the Hindu
Hindu
religion does not claim any one prophet; it does not worship any one god; it does not subscribe to any one dogma; it does not believe in any one philosophic concept; it does not follow any one set of religious rites or performances; in fact, it does not appear to satisfy the narrow traditional features of any religion or creed. It may broadly be described as a way of life and nothing more.

Although Hinduism
Hinduism
contains a broad range of philosophies, Hindus
Hindus
share philosophical concepts, such as but not limiting to dharma, karma, kama, artha, moksha and samsara, even if each subscribes to a diversity of views.[49] Hindus
Hindus
also have shared texts such as the Vedas
Vedas
with embedded Upanishads, and common ritual grammar (Sanskara (rite of passage)) such as rituals during a wedding or when a baby is born or cremation rituals.[50][51] Some Hindus
Hindus
go on pilgrimage to shared sites they consider spiritually significant, practice one or more forms of bhakti or puja, celebrate mythology and epics, major festivals, love and respect for guru and family, and other cultural traditions.[49][52] A Hindu
Hindu
could:

follow any of the Hindu
Hindu
schools of philosophy, such as Advaita (non-dualism), Vishishtadvaita
Vishishtadvaita
(non-dualism of the qualified whole), Dvaita
Dvaita
(dualism), Dvaitadvaita (dualism with non-dualism), etc.[53][54] follow a tradition centred on any particular form of the Divine, such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism, etc.[55] practice any one of the various forms of yoga systems in order to achieve moksha – that is freedom in current life (jivanmukti) or salvation in after-life (videhamukti);[56] practice bhakti or puja for spiritual reasons, which may be directed to one's guru or to a divine image.[57] A visible public form of this practice is worship before an idol or statue. Jeaneane Fowler states that non- Hindu
Hindu
observers often confuse this practice as "stone or idol-worship and nothing beyond it", while for many Hindus, it is an image which represents or is symbolic manifestation of a spiritual Absolute (Brahman).[57] This practice may focus on a metal or stone statue, or a photographic image, or a linga, or any object or tree (pipal) or animal (cow) or tools of one's profession, or sunrise or expression of nature or to nothing at all, and the practice may involve meditation, japa, offerings or songs.[57][58] Inden states that this practice means different things to different Hindus, and has been misunderstood, misrepresented as idolatry, and various rationalisations have been constructed by both Western and native Indologists.[59]

Disputes In the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" has been used in some places to denote persons professing any of these religions: Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism
Buddhism
or Sikhism.[60] This however has been challenged by the Sikhs[40][61] and by neo- Buddhists
Buddhists
who were formerly Hindus.[62] According to Sheen and Boyle, Jains have not objected to being covered by personal laws termed under 'Hindu',[62] but Indian courts have acknowledged that Jainism
Jainism
is a distinct religion.[63] The Republic of India
Republic of India
is in the peculiar situation that the Supreme Court of India
India
has repeatedly been called upon to define "Hinduism" because the Constitution of India, while it prohibits "discrimination of any citizen" on grounds of religion in article 15, article 30 foresees special rights for "All minorities, whether based on religion or language". As a consequence, religious groups have an interest in being recognised as distinct from the Hindu
Hindu
majority in order to qualify as a "religious minority". Thus, the Supreme Court was forced to consider the question whether Jainism
Jainism
is part of Hinduism
Hinduism
in 2005 and 2006. In the 2006 verdict, the Supreme Court found that the "Jain Religion
Religion
is indisputably not a part of the Hindu
Hindu
Religion".[63] History of Hindu
Hindu
identity Starting after the 10th century and particularly after the 12th century Islamic invasion, states Sheldon Pollock, the political response fused with the Indic religious culture and doctrines.[8] Temples dedicated to deity Rama
Rama
were built from north to south India, and textual records as well as hagiographic inscriptions began comparing the Hindu
Hindu
epic of Ramayana
Ramayana
to regional kings and their response to Islamic attacks. The Yadava king of Devagiri
Devagiri
named Ramacandra, for example states Pollock, is described in a 13th-century record as, "How is this Rama
Rama
to be described.. who freed Varanasi
Varanasi
from the mleccha (barbarian, Turk Muslim) horde, and built there a golden temple of Sarngadhara".[8] Pollock notes that the Yadava king Ramacandra is described as a devotee of deity Shiva
Shiva
(Shaivism), yet his political achievements and temple construction sponsorship in Varanasi, far from his kingdom's location in the Deccan region, is described in the historical records in Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
terms of Rama, a deity Vishnu
Vishnu
avatar.[8] Pollock presents many such examples and suggests an emerging Hindu
Hindu
political identity that was grounded in the Hindu
Hindu
religious text of Ramayana, one that has continued into the modern times, and suggests that this historic process began with the arrival of Islam
Islam
in India.[64] Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya has questioned the Pollock theory and presented textual and inscriptional evidence.[65] According to Chattopadhyaya, the Hindu
Hindu
identity and religious response to Islamic invasion and wars developed in different kingdoms, such as wars between Islamic Sultanates and the Vijayanagara kingdom (Karnataka), and Islamic raids on the kingdoms in Tamil Nadu. These wars were described not just using the mythical story of Rama
Rama
from Ramayana, states Chattopadhyaya, the medieval records used a wide range of religious symbolism and myths that are now considered as part of Hindu literature.[9][65] This emergence of religious with political terminology began with the first Muslim
Muslim
invasion of Sindh in the 8th century CE, and intensified 13th century onwards. The 14th-century Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text, Madhuravijayam, a memoir written by Gangadevi, the wife of Vijayanagara prince, for example describes the consequences of war using religious terms,[66]

I very much lament for what happened to the groves in Madhura, The coconut trees have all been cut and in their place are to be seen,   rows of iron spikes with human skulls dangling at the points, In the highways which were once charming with anklets sound of beautiful women,   are now heard ear-piercing noises of Brahmins being dragged, bound in iron-fetters, The waters of Tambraparni, which were once white with sandal paste,   are now flowing red with the blood of cows slaughtered by miscreants, Earth is no longer the producer of wealth, nor does Indra
Indra
give timely rains, The God
God
of death takes his undue toll of what are left lives if undestroyed by the Yavanas [Muslims],[67] The Kali
Kali
age now deserves deepest congratulations for being at the zenith of its power, gone is the sacred learning, hidden is refinement, hushed is the voice of Dharma.

— Madhuravijayam, Translated by Brajadulal Chattopadhyaya[66]

The historiographic writings in Telugu language from the 13th- and 14th-century Kakatiya dynasty
Kakatiya dynasty
period presents a similar "alien other (Turk)" and "self-identity (Hindu)" contrast.[68] Chattopadhyaya, and other scholars,[69] state that the military and political campaign during the medieval era wars in Deccan peninsula of India, and in the north India, were no longer a quest for sovereignty, they embodied a political and religious animosity against the "otherness of Islam", and this began the historical process of Hindu
Hindu
identity formation.[9][c] Andrew Nicholson, in his review of scholarship on Hindu
Hindu
identity history, states that the vernacular literature of Bhakti
Bhakti
movement sants from 15th to 17th century, such as Kabir, Anantadas, Eknath, Vidyapati, suggests that distinct religious identities, between Hindus and Turks (Muslims), had formed during these centuries.[71] The poetry of this period contrasts Hindu
Hindu
and Islamic identities, states Nicholson, and the literature vilifies the Muslims
Muslims
coupled with a "distinct sense of a Hindu
Hindu
religious identity".[71] Hindu
Hindu
identity amidst other Indian religions

Hindus
Hindus
celebrating their major festivals, Holi
Holi
(top) and Diwali.

Scholars state that Hindu, Buddhist and Jain identities are retrospectively-introduced modern constructions.[15] Inscriptional evidence from the 8th century onwards, in regions such as South India suggests that medieval era India, at both elite and folk religious practices level, likely had a "shared religious culture",[15] and their collective identities were "multiple, layered and fuzzy".[72] Even among Hinduism
Hinduism
denominations such as Shaivism
Shaivism
and Vaishnavism, the Hindu
Hindu
identities, states Leslie Orr, lacked "firm definitions and clear boundaries".[72] Overlaps in Jain- Hindu
Hindu
identities have included Jains worshipping Hindu
Hindu
deities, intermarriages between Jains and Hindus, and medieval era Jain temples featuring Hindu
Hindu
religious icons and sculpture.[73][74][75] Beyond India, on Java island of Indonesia, historical records attest to marriages between Hindus
Hindus
and Buddhists, medieval era temple architecture and sculptures that simultaneously incorporate Hindu
Hindu
and Buddhist themes,[76] where Hinduism
Hinduism
and Buddhism merged and functioned as "two separate paths within one overall system", according to Ann Kenney and other scholars.[77] Similarly, there is an organic relation of Sikhs to Hindus, states Zaehner, both in religious thought and their communities, and virtually all Sikhs' ancestors were Hindus.[78] Marriages between Sikhs and Hindus, particularly among Khatris, were frequent.[78] Some Hindu
Hindu
families brought up a son as a Sikh, and some Hindus
Hindus
view Sikhism
Sikhism
as a tradition within Hinduism, even though the Sikh
Sikh
faith is a distinct religion.[78] Julius Lipner states that the custom of distinguishing between Hindus, Buddhists, Jains and Sikhs is a modern phenomena, but one that is a convenient abstraction.[14] Distinguishing Indian traditions is a fairly recent practice, states Lipner, and is the result of "not only Western preconceptions about the nature of religion in general and of religion in India
India
in particular, but also with the political awareness that has arisen in India" in its people and a result of Western influence during its colonial history.[14] Sacred geography Scholars such as Fleming and Eck state that the post-Epic era literature from the 1st millennium CE amply demonstrate that there was a historic concept of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
as a sacred geography, where the sacredness was a shared set religious ideas. For example, the twelve Jyotirlingas of Shaivism
Shaivism
and fifty-one Shaktipithas of Shaktism
Shaktism
are described in the early medieval era Puranas
Puranas
as pilgrimage sites around a theme.[79][80][81] This sacred geography and Shaiva temples with same iconography, shared themes, motifs and embedded legends are found across India, from the Himalayas to hills of South India, from Ellora Caves
Ellora Caves
to Varanasi
Varanasi
by about the middle of 1st millennium.[79][82] Shakti
Shakti
temples, dated to a few centuries later, are verifiable across the subcontinent. Varanasi
Varanasi
as a sacred pilgrimage site is documented in the Varanasimahatmya text embedded inside the Skanda Purana, and the oldest versions of this text are dated to 6th to 8th-century CE.[83][84] The idea of twelve sacred sites in Shiva
Shiva
Hindu
Hindu
tradition spread across the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
appears not only in the medieval era temples but also in copper plate inscriptions and temple seals discovered in different sites.[85] According to Bhardwaj, non- Hindu texts
Hindu texts
such as the memoirs of Chinese Buddhist and Persian Muslim
Muslim
travellers attest to the existence and significance of the pilgrimage to sacred geography among Hindus
Hindus
by later 1st millennium CE.[86] According to Fleming, those who question whether the term Hindu
Hindu
and Hinduism
Hinduism
are a modern construction in a religious context present their arguments based on some texts that have survived into the modern era, either of Islamic courts or of literature published by Western missionaries or colonial-era Indologists aiming for a reasonable construction of history. However, the existence of non-textual evidence such as cave temples separated by thousands of kilometers, as well as lists of medieval era pilgrimage sites is evidence of a shared sacred geography and existence of a community that was self-aware of shared religious premises and landscape.[87][84] Further, it is a norm in evolving cultures that there is a gap between the "lived and historical realities" of a religious tradition and the emergence of related "textual authorities".[85] The tradition and temples likely existed well before the medieval era Hindu
Hindu
manuscripts appeared that describe them and the sacred geography. This, states Fleming, is apparent given the sophistication of the architecture and the sacred sites along with the variance in the versions of the Puranic literature.[87][88] According to Diana L. Eck and other Indologists such as André Wink, Muslim
Muslim
invaders were aware of Hindu
Hindu
sacred geography such as Mathura, Ujjain, and Varanasi
Varanasi
by the 11th-century. These sites became a target of their serial attacks in the centuries that followed.[84] Hindu
Hindu
persecution Main article: Persecution of Hindus The Hindus
Hindus
have been persecuted during the medieval and modern era. The medieval persecution included waves of plunder, killing, destruction of temples and enslavement by Turk-Mongol Muslim
Muslim
armies from central Asia. This is documented in Islamic literature such as those relating to 8th century Muhammad bin-Qasim,[89] 11th century Mahmud of Ghazni,[90][91] the Persian traveler Al Biruni,[92] the 14th century Islamic army invasion led by Timur,[93] and various Sunni Islamic rulers of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire.[94][95][96] There were occasional exceptions such as Akbar
Akbar
who stopped the persecution of Hindus,[96] and occasional severe persecution such as under Aurangzeb,[97][99][d] who destroyed temples, forcibly converted non- Muslims
Muslims
to Islam
Islam
and banned the celebration of Hindu
Hindu
festivals such as Holi
Holi
and Diwali.[100] Other recorded persecution of Hindus
Hindus
include those under the reign of 18th century Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
in south India,[101][102] and during the colonial era.[103][104][105] In the modern era, religious persecution of Hindus
Hindus
have been reported outside India.[106][107][108] Hindu
Hindu
nationalism Main articles: Hindu nationalism
Hindu nationalism
and Hindutva Christophe Jaffrelot states that modern Hindu nationalism
Hindu nationalism
was born in Maharashtra, in the 1920s, as a reaction to the Islamic Khilafat Movement wherein Indian Muslims
Muslims
championed and took the cause of the Turkish Ottoman sultan as the Caliph of all Muslims, at the end of the World War I.[109][110] Hindus
Hindus
viewed this development as one of divided loyalties of Indian Muslim
Muslim
population, of pan-Islamic hegemony, and questioned whether Indian Muslims
Muslims
were a part of an inclusive anti-colonial Indian nationalism.[110] The Hindu
Hindu
nationalism ideology that emerged, states Jeffrelot, was codified by Savarkar while he was a political prisoner of the British colonial empire.[109][111] Chris Bayly traces the roots of Hindu nationalism
Hindu nationalism
to the Hindu identity and political independence achieved by the Maratha confederacy, that overthrew the Islamic Mughal empire in large parts of India, allowing Hindus
Hindus
the freedom to pursue any of their diverse religious beliefs and restored Hindu
Hindu
holy places such as Varanasi.[112] A few scholars view Hindu
Hindu
mobilisation and consequent nationalism to have emerged in the 19th century as a response to British colonialism
British colonialism
by Indian nationalists and neo-Hinduism gurus.[113][114][115] Jaffrelot states that the efforts of Christian missionaries and Islamic proselytizers, during the British colonial era, each of whom tried to gain new converts to their own religion, by stereotyping and stigmatising Hindus
Hindus
to an identity of being inferior and superstitious, contributed to Hindus
Hindus
re-asserting their spiritual heritage and counter cross examining Islam
Islam
and Christianity, forming organisations such as the Hindu
Hindu
Sabhas ( Hindu
Hindu
associations), and ultimately a Hindu-identity driven nationalism in the 1920s.[116] The colonial era Hindu
Hindu
revivalism and mobilisation, along with Hindu nationalism, states Peter van der Veer, was primarily a reaction to and competition with Muslim
Muslim
separatism and Muslim
Muslim
nationalism.[117] The successes of each side fed the fears of the other, leading to the growth of Hindu nationalism
Hindu nationalism
and Muslim
Muslim
nationalism in the Indian subcontinent.[117] In the 20th century, the sense of religious nationalism grew in India, states van der Veer, but only Muslim nationalism succeeded with the formation of the West and East Pakistan (later split into Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bangladesh), as "an Islamic state" upon independence.[118][119][120] Religious riots and social trauma followed as millions of Hindus, Jains, Buddhists
Buddhists
and Sikhs moved out of the newly created Islamic states and resettled into the Hindu-majority post-British India.[121] After the separation of India and Pakistan
Pakistan
in 1947, the Hindu nationalism
Hindu nationalism
movement developed the concept of Hindutva
Hindutva
in second half of the 20th century.[122] The Hindu nationalism
Hindu nationalism
movement has sought to reform Indian laws, that critics say attempts to impose Hindu
Hindu
values on India's Islamic minority. Gerald Larson states, for example, that Hindu
Hindu
nationalists have sought a uniform civil code, where all citizens are subject to the same laws, everyone has equal civil rights, and individual rights do not depend on the individual's religion.[123] In contrast, opponents of Hindu
Hindu
nationalists remark that eliminating religious law from India
India
poses a threat to the cultural identity and religious rights of Muslims, and people of Islamic faith have a constitutional right to Islamic shariah-based personal laws.[123][124] A specific law, contentious between Hindu
Hindu
nationalists and their opponents in India, relates to the legal age of marriage for girls.[125] Hindu nationalists seek that the legal age for marriage be eighteen that is universally applied to all girls regardless of their religion and that marriages be registered with local government to verify the age of marriage. Muslim
Muslim
clerics consider this proposal as unacceptable because under the shariah-derived personal law, a Muslim
Muslim
girl can be married at any age after she reaches puberty.[125] Hindu nationalism
Hindu nationalism
in India, states Katharine Adeney, is a controversial political subject, with no consensus about what it means or implies in terms of the form of government and religious rights of the minorities.[126] Demographics Main article: Hinduism
Hinduism
by country

Hinduism
Hinduism
by country, worldmap (estimate 2010).[127]

According to Pew Research, there are over 1 billion Hindus
Hindus
worldwide (15% of world's population).[128] Along with Christians
Christians
(31.5%), Muslims
Muslims
(23.2%) and Buddhists
Buddhists
(7.1%), Hindus
Hindus
are one of the four major religious groups of the world.[129] Most Hindus
Hindus
are found in Asian countries. The countries with most Hindu
Hindu
residents and citizens include (in decreasing order) are India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, United States, Malaysia, United Kingdom, Myanmar, Canada, Mauritius, Guyana, South Africa, Trinidad and Tobago, Fiji, Suriname.[20][128] The fertility rate, that is children per woman, for Hindus
Hindus
is 2.4, which is less than the world average of 2.5.[130] Pew Research projects that there will be 1.161 billion Hindus
Hindus
by 2020.[131]

Hindus
Hindus
in the World (2010)

Region Total Population Hindus % total

Africa 885,103,542 2,013,705 0.23%

Asia 3,903,418,706 1,014,348,412 26.01%

Europe 728,571,703 2,030,904 0.28%

Americas 883,197,750 6,481,937 0.28%

Oceania 36,659,000 616,000 1.78%

In more ancient times, Hindu
Hindu
kingdoms arose and spread the religion and traditions across Southeast Asia, particularly Thailand, Nepal, Burma, Malaysia, Indonesia, Cambodia,[132] Laos,[132] Philippines,[133] and what is now central Vietnam.[134] Over 3 million Hindus
Hindus
are found in Bali
Bali
Indonesia, a culture whose origins trace back to ideas brought by Tamil Hindu
Hindu
traders to Indonesian islands in the 1st millennium CE. Their sacred texts are also the Vedas
Vedas
and the Upanishads.[135] The Puranas
Puranas
and the Itihasa (mainly Ramayana
Ramayana
and the Mahabharata) are enduring traditions among Indonesian Hindus, expressed in community dances and shadow puppet (wayang) performances. As in India, Indonesian Hindus
Hindus
recognises four paths of spirituality, calling it Catur Marga.[136] Similarly, like Hindus
Hindus
in India, Balinese Hindu
Hindu
believe that there are four proper goals of human life, calling it Catur Purusartha - dharma (pursuit of moral and ethical living), artha (pursuit of wealth and creative activity), kama (pursuit of joy and love) and moksha (pursuit of self-knowledge and liberation).[137][138] See also

Diksha History of Hinduism Hindu
Hindu
festivals Hinduraya Suratrana Samskaram

Notes

^ Flood (1996, p. 6) adds: "(...) 'Hindu', or 'Hindoo', was used towards the end of the eighteenth century by the British to refer to the people of 'Hindustan', the people of northwest India. Eventually 'Hindu' became virtually equivalent to an 'Indian' who was not a Muslim, Sikh, Jain or Christian, thereby encompassing a range of religious beliefs and practices. The '-ism' was added to Hindu
Hindu
in around 1830 to denote the culture and religion of the high-caste Brahmans in contrast to other religions, and the term was soon appropriated by Indians themselves in the context of building a national identity opposed to colonialism, though the term 'Hindu' was used in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Bengali hagiographic texts in contrast to 'Yavana' or Muslim
Muslim
as early as the sixteenth century". ^ von Stietencron (2005, p. 229): For more than 100 years the word Hindu
Hindu
(plural) continued to denote the Indians in general. But when, from AD 712 onwards, Muslims
Muslims
began to settle permanently in the Indus
Indus
valley and to make converts among low-caste Hindus, Persian authors distinguished between Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims
Muslims
in India: Hindus
Hindus
were Indians other than Muslim. We know that Persian scholars were able to distinguish a number of religions among the Hindus. But when Europeans started to use the term Hindoo, they applied it to the non-Muslim masses of India
India
without those scholarly differentiations. ^ David Lorenzen
David Lorenzen
(2010): "When it comes to early sources written in Indian languages (and also Persian and Arabic), the word 'Hindu' is used in a clearly religious sense in a great number of texts at least as early as the sixteenth century. (...) Although al-Biruni's original Arabic text only uses a term equivalent to the religion of the people of India, his description of Hindu
Hindu
religion is in fact remarkably similar to those of nineteenth-century European orientalists. For his part Vidyapati, in his Apabhransha text Kirtilata, makes use of the phrase ' Hindu
Hindu
and Turk dharmas' in a clearly religious sense and highlights the local conflicts between the two communities. In the early sixteenth century texts attributed to Kabir, the references to 'Hindus' and to 'Turks' or 'Muslims' (musalamans) in a clearly religious context are numerous and unambiguous."[70] ^ See also "Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records"; more links at the bottom of that page. For Muslim
Muslim
historian's record on major Hindu temple
Hindu temple
destruction campaigns, from 1193 to 1729 AD, see Richard Eaton (2000), Temple Desecration and Indo- Muslim
Muslim
States, Journal of Islamic Studies, Vol. 11, Issue 3, pages 283-319

^ Flood (2008, p. 3): The Indo-Aryan word Sindhu means "river", "ocean". ^ Prince Khusrau, Jahangir
Jahangir
son, mounted a challenge to the emperor within the first year of his reign. The rebellion was put down and all the collaborators executed. (Pashaura Singh, 2005, pp. 31-34)

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... Hindu
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Asia
and Oceania, Routledge, ISBN 978-1884964046, page 692 ^ Ann Kenney et al (2003), Worshiping Siva and Buddha: The Temple Art of East Java, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0824827793, pages 24-25 ^ a b c Robert Zaehner (1997), Encyclopedia of the World's Religions, Barnes & Noble Publishing, ISBN 978-0760707128, page 409 ^ a b Fleming 2009, pp. 51-56. ^ Knut A. Jacobsen (2013). Pilgrimage in the Hindu
Hindu
Tradition: Salvific Space. Routledge. pp. 122–129. ISBN 978-0-415-59038-9.  ^ André Padoux (2017). The Hindu
Hindu
Tantric World: An Overview. University of Chicago Press. pp. 136–149. ISBN 978-0-226-42412-5.  ^ Linda Kay Davidson; David Martin Gitlitz. Pilgrimage: From the Ganges
Ganges
to Graceland; an Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 239–244. ISBN 978-1-57607-004-8.  ^ Fleming 2009, p. 56. ^ a b c Diana L Eck (2012). India: A Sacred Geography. Harmony. pp. 34–40, 55–58, 88. ISBN 978-0-385-53191-7.  ^ a b Fleming 2009, pp. 57-58. ^ Surinder M. Bhardwaj (1983). Hindu
Hindu
Places of Pilgrimage in India: A Study in Cultural Geography. University of California Press. pp. 75–79. ISBN 978-0-520-04951-2.  ^ a b Fleming 2009, pp. 51-58. ^ Surinder M. Bhardwaj (1983). Hindu
Hindu
Places of Pilgrimage in India: A Study in Cultural Geography. University of California Press. pp. 58–79. ISBN 978-0-520-04951-2.  ^ André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India
India
and the Expansion of Islam
Islam
7Th-11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 154–161, 203–205. ISBN 978-0391041738.  ^ André Wink (2002). Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World: Early Medieval India
India
and the Expansion of Islam
Islam
7Th-11th Centuries. BRILL Academic. pp. 162–163, 184–186. ISBN 978-0391041738.  ^ Victoria Schofield (2010). Afghan Frontier: At the Crossroads of Conflict. Tauris. p. 25. ISBN 978-1-84885-188-7.  ^ Sachau, Edward (1910). Alberuni's India, Vol. 1. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. p. 22. , Quote: "Mahmud utterly ruined the prosperity of the country, and performed there wonderful exploits, by which the Hindus
Hindus
became like atoms of dust scattered in all directions, and like a tale of old in the mouth of the people." ^ Tapan Raychaudhuri; Irfan Habib (1982). Cambridge Economic History Of India
India
Vol-1. Cambridge University Press. p. 91. ISBN 978-81-250-2730-0. , Quote: "When Timur invaded India in 1398-99, collection of slaves formed an important object for his army. 100,000 Hindu
Hindu
slaves had been seized by his soldiers and camp followers. Even a pious saint had gathered together fifteen slaves. Regrettably, all had to be slaughtered before the attack on Delhi for fear that they might rebel. But after the occupation of Delhi the inhabitants were brought out and distributed as slaves among Timur's nobles, the captives including several thousand artisans and professional people." ^ Farooqui Salma Ahmed (2011). A Comprehensive History of Medieval India: Twelfth to the Mid-Eighteenth Century. Pearson. p. 105. ISBN 978-81-317-3202-1.  ^ Hermann Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). A History of India. Routledge. p. 180. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4.  ^ a b David N. Lorenzen (2006). Who Invented Hinduism: Essays on Religion
Religion
in History. Yoda. p. 50. ISBN 978-81-902272-6-1.  ^ Ayalon 1986, p. 271. ^ Abraham Eraly (2000), Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals, Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0141001432 pages 398-399 ^ Avari 2013, p. 115: citing a 2000 study, writes " Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
was perhaps no more culpable than most of the sultans before him; they desecrated the temples associated with Hindu
Hindu
power, not all temples. It is worth noting that, in contrast to the traditional claim of hundreds of Hindu
Hindu
temples having been destroyed by Aurangzeb, a recent study suggests a modest figure of just fifteen destructions."

In contrast to Avari, the historian Abraham Eraly estimates Aurangzeb era destruction to be significantly higher; "in 1670, all temples around Ujjain
Ujjain
were destroyed"; and later, "300 temples were destroyed in and around Chitor, Udaipur
Udaipur
and Jaipur" among other Hindu
Hindu
temples destroyed elsewhere in campaigns through 1705.[98]

The persecution during the Islamic period targeted non- Hindus
Hindus
as well. Avari writes, "Aurangzeb's religious policy caused friction between him and the ninth Sikh
Sikh
guru, Tegh Bahadur. In both Punjab
Punjab
and Kashmir the Sikh
Sikh
leader was roused to action by Aurangzeb's excessively zealous Islamic policies. Seized and taken to Delhi, he was called upon by Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
to embrace Islam
Islam
and, on refusal, was tortured for five days and then beheaded in November 1675. Two of the ten Sikh gurus thus died as martyrs at the hands of the Mughals. (Avari (2013), page 155) ^ Kiyokazu Okita (2014). Hindu
Hindu
Theology
Theology
in Early Modern South Asia: The Rise of Devotionalism and the Politics of Genealogy. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-0-19-870926-8.  ^ Wagoner, Phillip B. (1999). "Review: Tipu Sultan". The Journal of Asian Studies. Cambridge University Press. 58 (2): 541. doi:10.2307/2659463. Retrieved 2016-07-15.  ^ Kate Brittlebank (1997). Tipu Sultan's Search for Legitimacy: Islam and Kingship in a Hindu
Hindu
Domain. Oxford University Press. pp. 12, 34–35. ISBN 978-0-19-563977-3.  ^ Funso S. Afọlayan (2004). Culture and Customs of South Africa. Greenwood. pp. 78–79. ISBN 978-0-313-32018-7.  ^ Singh, Sherry-Ann (2005). " Hinduism
Hinduism
and the State in Trinidad". Inter- Asia
Asia
Cultural Studies. 6 (3): 353–365. doi:10.1080/14649370500169987. Retrieved 2016-07-15.  ^ Derek R. Peterson; Darren R. Walhof (2002). The Invention of Religion: Rethinking Belief in Politics and History. Rutgers University Press. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-8135-3093-2.  ^ Paul A. Marshall (2000). Religious Freedom in the World. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-0-7425-6213-4.  ^ Grim, B. J.; Finke, R. (2007). "Religious Persecution in Cross-National Context: Clashing Civilizations or Regulated Religious Economies?". American Sociological Review. 72 (4): 633–658. doi:10.1177/000312240707200407. Retrieved 2017-06-21. , Quote: " Hindus
Hindus
are fatally persecuted in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and elsewhere." ^ " Hindus
Hindus
from Pakistan
Pakistan
flee to India, citing religious persecution". Washington Post. 2012-08-15. Retrieved 2016-07-15.  ^ a b Christophe Jaffrelot (2007), Hindu
Hindu
Nationalism: A Reader, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691130989, pages 13-15 ^ a b Gail Minault (1982), The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231050722, pages 1-11 and Preface section ^ Amalendu Misra (2004), Identity and Religion, SAGE Publications, ISBN 978-0761932260, pages 148-188 ^ CA Bayly (1985), The pre-history of communialism? Religious conflict in India
India
1700-1860, Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 19, No. 2, pages 186-187, 177-203 ^ Christophe Jaffrelot (2007), Hindu
Hindu
Nationalism: A Reader, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691130989, pages 6-7 ^ Antony Copley (2000), Gurus and their followers: New religious reform movements in Colonial India, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195649581, pages 4-5, 24-27, 163-164 ^ Hardy, F. "A radical assessment of the Vedic heritage" in Representing Hinduism: The Construction of Religious and National Identity, Sage Publ., Delhi, 1995. ^ Christophe Jaffrelot (2007), Hindu
Hindu
Nationalism: A Reader, Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0691130989, pages 13 ^ a b Peter van der Veer (1994), Religious Nationalism: Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims
Muslims
in India, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520082564, pages 11-14, 1-24 ^ Peter van der Veer (1994), Religious Nationalism: Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims in India, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520082564, pages 31, 99, 102 ^ Jawad Syed; Edwina Pio; Tahir Kamran; et al. (2016). Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 49–50. ISBN 978-1-349-94966-3. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ Farahnaz Ispahani (2017). Purifying the Land of the Pure: A History of Pakistan's Religious Minorities. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–37. ISBN 978-0-19-062167-4.  ^ Peter van der Veer (1994), Religious Nationalism: Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims in India, University of California Press, ISBN 978-0520082564, pages 26-32, 53-54 ^ Ram-Prasad, C. "Contemporary political Hinduism" in Blackwell companion to Hinduism, Blackwell Publishing, 2003. ISBN 0-631-21535-2 ^ a b GJ Larson (2002), Religion
Religion
and Personal Law in Secular India: A Call to Judgment, Indiana University Press, ISBN 978-0253214805, pages 55-56 ^ John Mansfield (2005), The Personal Laws or a Uniform Civil Code?, in Religion
Religion
and Law in Independent India
India
(Editor: Robert Baird), Manohar, ISBN 978-8173045882, page 121-127, 135-136, 151-156 ^ a b Sylvia Vatuk (2013), Adjudicating Family Law in Muslim
Muslim
Courts (Editor: Elisa Giunchi), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415811859, pages 52-53 ^ Katharine Adeney and Lawrence Saez (2005), Coalition Politics and Hindu
Hindu
Nationalism, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415359818, pages 98-114 ^ Pew Research Center, Washington DC, Religious Composition by Country (December 2012) (2012) ^ a b Hindu
Hindu
population totals in 2010 by Country Pew Research, Washington DC (2012) ^ Table: Religious Composition (%) by Country Global Religious Composition, Pew Research Center (2012) ^ Total Fertility Rates of Hindus
Hindus
by Region, 2010-2050 Pew Research Center (2015), Washington DC ^ Projected Global Hindu
Hindu
Population, 2010-2050 Pew Research Center (2015), Washington DC ^ a b "Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia". Hunter Publisher.Inc. p. 8.  ^ "Philippine History Module-based Learning I' 2002 Ed". Rex Bookstore.Inc. p. 40.  ^ Gitesh Sharma. "Traces of Indian Culture in Vietnam". Rajkamal Prakshan Group. p. 74.  ^ Martin Ramstedt (2003), Hinduism
Hinduism
in Modern Indonesia, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700715336, pages 2-23 ^ Murdana, I. Ketut (2008), BALINESE ARTS AND CULTURE: A flash understanding of Concept and Behavior, Mudra - JURNAL SENI BUDAYA, Indonesia; Volume 22, page 5-11 ^ Ida Bagus Sudirga (2009), Widya Dharma
Dharma
- Agama Hindu, Ganeca Indonesia, ISBN 978-9795711773 ^ IGP Sugandhi (2005), Seni (Rupa) Bali
Bali
Hindu
Hindu
Dalam Perspektif Epistemologi Brahma
Brahma
Widya, Ornamen, Vol 2, Number 1, pp. 58-69

Bibliography

Avari, Burjor (2013). Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim
Muslim
Power and Presence in the Indian Subcontinent. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-58061-8.  Fleming, Benjamin J. (2009), "Mapping Sacred Geography in Medieval India: The Case of the Twelve "Jyotirliṅgas"", International Journal of Hindu
Hindu
Studies, 13 (1): 51–81  Flood, Gavin (Editor) (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. ISBN 1-4051-3251-5. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Flood, Gavin (2006), The Tantric Body. The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion, I.B Taurus  Flood, Gavin (2008), The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism, John Wiley & Sons  Jha, D. N. (2009), Rethinking Hindu
Hindu
Identity, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-84553-459-2  Lorenzen, David N. (October 1999), "Who Invented Hinduism?", Comparative Studies in Society and History, Cambridge University Press, 41 (4): 630–659, doi:10.1017/s0010417599003084, JSTOR 179424  Lorenzen, David N. (2006), "Who invented Hinduism?", Who Invented Hinduism? Essays on Religion
Religion
in History, Yoda Press, pp. 1–36, ISBN 8190227262  Sridharan, Kripa (2000), "Grasping the Nettle: Indian Nationalism and Globalization", in Leo Suryadinata, Nationalism and globalization: east and west, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, pp. 294–318, ISBN 978-981-230-078-2, ... The term Hindutva
Hindutva
equates religious and national identity: an Indian is a Hindu ... 'the Indian Muslims
Muslims
are not aliens ethnically. They are flesh of our flesh and blood of our blood' ...  Sharma, Arvind (2008), "The Hermeneutics of the word "Religion" and Its Implications for the World of Indian Religions", in Sherma, Rita; Sharma, Arvind, Hermeneutics and Hindu
Hindu
Thought: Toward a Fusion of Horizons, Springer Science & Business Media, pp. 19–32, ISBN 978-1-4020-8192-7  Smith, Wilfred Cantwell (1981), On Understanding Islam: Selected Studies, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-90-279-3448-2  von Stietencron, Heinrich (2005), "Hinduism: On the Proper Use of a Deceptive Term", Hindu
Hindu
Myth, Hindu
Hindu
History, Religion, Art, and Politics, Orient Blackswan, pp. 227–248, ISBN 978-81-7824-122-7  Thapar, Romila (1989), "Imagined religious communities? Ancient history and the modern search for a Hindu
Hindu
identity", Modern Asian Studies, Cambridge University Press, 23 (2): 209–231, doi:10.1017/S0026749X00001049, JSTOR 312738  Thapar, Romila (1993), "Imagined religious communities?", Interpreting Early India, Delhi: Oxford University Press, pp. 60–88  Thapar, Romula (2003), The Penguin History of Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300, Penguin Books India 

Further reading

Esther Bloch; Marianne Keppens; Rajaram Hegde, eds. (2009). Rethinking Religion
Religion
in India: The Colonial Construction of Hinduism. Routledge. ISBN 1135182795.  Dass, Baboo Ishuree (1860). Domestic manners and customs of the Hindoos of northern India, or, more strictly speaking, of the north west provinces of India. Medical Hall Press, Benares. 

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