Devanagari : हिन्दी,
IAST : Hindī), or MODERN
STANDARD HINDI (
Devanagari : मानक हिन्दी,
Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and sanskritised register of the
Hindustani language . Modern
Hindi and its literary tradition evolved
towards the end of the 18th century.
Along with the
English language ,
Hindi written in the Devanagari
script is the official language of the Government of
India . On 14
September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of
India adopted Hindi
Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic
India . To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied
India in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along
Hazari Prasad Dwivedi ,
Kaka Kalelkar ,
Maithili Sharan Gupt and
Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue. As such,
on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949,
the efforts came to fruition following adoption of
Hindi as the
official language. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the
India . However, it is not the national language of India
because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution
Hindi is the lingua franca of the so-called
Hindi belt , and to a
lesser extent the whole of
India (usually in a simplified or
pidginized variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or
Haflong Hindi ).
Outside India, several other languages are recognized officially as
"Hindi" but do not refer to the
Standard Hindi language described here
and instead descend from other related
Indo-Aryan languages such as
Bhojpuri . Such languages include
Fiji Hindi , which is
Fiji , and recognised regional languages in
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago ,
Guyana , and
Suriname . Apart from
specialized vocabulary ,
Hindi is mutually intelligible with Standard
Urdu , another recognized register of Hindustani.
Individually, as a linguistic variety ,
Hindi is the fourth
most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin , Spanish and
English . Alongside
Urdu as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken
language in the world, after Mandarin and English .
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Modern status
* 2.1.1 Outside
* 3 Comparison with Modern
* 4 Script
* 4.1 Romanization
* 5.1.1 Neologisms
* 5.2 Persian
* 6 Media
* 6.1 Literature
* 6.2 Internet
* 7 Sample text
* 8 See also
* 9 References
* 9.1 Notes
* 9.2 Bibliography
* 10 External links
The term hindī originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the
region east of the Indus . It was borrowed from Classical Persian
hindī (Iranian Persian hendi), meaning "Indian", from the proper noun
History of Hindustani
Like other Indo-Aryan languages,
Hindi a direct descendant of an
early form of
Vedic Sanskrit , through
Sauraseni Prakrit and
Sanskrit apabhraṃśa "corrupted"),
which emerged in the 7th century A.D.
Standard Hindi is based on the
Khariboli dialect , the vernacular of
Delhi and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier
prestige dialects such as
Awadhi , Maithili (sometimes regarded as
separate from the
Hindi dialect continuum) and
Urdu – another
form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the later
Mughal period (1800s), and underwent significant Persian influence. In
the late 19th century, a movement to develop
Hindi as a standardised
form of Hindustani separate from
Urdu took form. In 1881, Bihar
Hindi as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, and thus
became the first state of
India to adopt Hindi.
After independence, the government of
India instituted the following
* standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of
up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi; The committee's report
was released in 1958 as A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi.
* standardisation of the orthography, using the
Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and
Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of
Devanagari characters, and introducing diacritics to express
sounds from other languages.
The Constituent Assembly adopted
Hindi as an official language of
India on 14 September 1949. Now, it is celebrated as
Hindi Day .
Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language
of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages
of the Union has been prescribed, which includes
Hindi in Devanagari
script and English:
(1) The official language of the Union shall be
Hindi in Devanagari
script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of
the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals.
(2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen
years from the commencement of this Constitution, the ENGLISH LANGUAGE
SHALL CONTINUE TO BE USED FOR ALL THE OFFICIAL PURPOSES OF THE UNION
for which it was being used immediately before such commencement:
Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order
authorize the use of the
Hindi language in addition to the English
language and of the
Devanagari form of numerals in addition to the
international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes
of the Union
Article 351 of the
Indian constitution states
It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi
language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression
for all the elements of the composite culture of
India and to secure
its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius,
the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other
India specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing,
wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on
Sanskrit and secondarily on other languages.
It was envisioned that
Hindi would become the sole working language
of the Union Government by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and
Article 351), with state governments being free to function in the
language of their own choice. However, widespread resistance to the
Hindi on non-native speakers, especially in South India
(such as the those in Tamil Nadu ) led to the passage of the Official
Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English
indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional
directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi
was retained and has strongly influenced its policies.
Article 344 (2b) stipulates that official language commission shall
be constituted every ten years to recommend steps for progressive use
Hindi language and imposing restrictions on the use of the English
language by the union government. In practice, the official language
commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote
Hindi but not
imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union
At the state level,
Hindi is the official language of the following
Himachal Pradesh ,
Madhya Pradesh ,
Uttar Pradesh , and
Uttarakhand . Each may also designate a "co-official language"; in
Uttar Pradesh, for instance, depending on the political formation in
power, this language is generally
Urdu . Similarly,
Hindi is accorded
the status of official language in the following
Union Territories :
Andaman & Nicobar Islands ,
Dadra & Nagar Haveli , Daman
United States of America ; 450,170 in
Mauritius ; 380,000
Fiji ; 250,292 in
South Africa ; 150,000 in
Suriname ; 100,000 in
Uganda ; 45,800 in
United Kingdom ; 20,000 in
New Zealand ; 20,000 in
Germany ; 16,000 in
Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago ; 3,000 in
COMPARISON WITH MODERN STANDARD URDU
Main articles: Hindi–
Urdu controversy ,
Hindustani phonology , and
Urdu are two registers of the same
Hindi is written in the
Devanagari script and uses more
Sanskrit words, whereas
Urdu is written in the
Perso-Arabic script and
Arabic and Persian words.
Hindi is the most commonly used
official language in India.
Urdu is the national language and lingua
Pakistan and is one of 22 official languages of
Hindi is written in the
Devanagari script, an abugida . Devanagari
consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to
The Government of
Hunterian transliteration as its
official system of writing
Hindi in the Latin script. Various other
systems also exist, such as
ISO 15919 .
Hindustani etymology and List of
Persian roots in
Hindi words are divided into five principal categories
according to their etymology:
* TATSAM (तत्सम "same as that") words: These are words
which are spelled the same in
Hindi as in
Sanskrit (except for the
absence of final case inflections). They include words inherited from
Prakrit which have survived without modification (e.g.
Hindi नाम nām /
Sanskrit नाम nāma, "name"; Hindi
कर्म karm /
Sanskrit कर्म karma, "deed, action; karma
"), as well as forms borrowed directly from
Sanskrit in more modern
times (e.g. प्रार्थना prārthanā, "prayer").
Pronunciation, however, conforms to
Hindi norms and may differ from
that of classical Sanskrit. Amongst nouns, the tatsam word could be
Sanskrit non-inflected word-stem, or it could be the nominative
singular form in the
Sanskrit nominal declension.
* ARDHATATSAM (अर्धतत्सम "semi-tatsama") words:
Such words are typically earlier loanwords from
Sanskrit which have
undergone sound changes subsequent to being borrowed. (e.g. Hindi
सूरज sūraj from
Sanskrit सूर्य surya)
* TADBHAV (तद्भव "born of that") words: These are native
Hindi words derived from
Sanskrit after undergoing phonological rules
Sanskrit कर्म karma, "deed" becomes Sauraseni Prakrit
कम्म kamma, and eventually
Hindi काम kām, "work") and
are spelled differently from Sanskrit.
* DESHAJ (देशज) words: These are words that were not
borrowings but do not derive from attested Indo-Aryan words either.
Belonging to this category are onomatopoetic words or ones borrowed
from local non-
Indo-Aryan languages .
* VIDESHī (विदेशी "foreign") words: These include all
loanwords from non-indigenous languages. The most frequent source
languages in this category are Persian ,
Arabic , English and
Portuguese . Examples are कमेटी kameṭī from English
committee and साबुन sābun "soap" from Arabic.
Hindi also makes extensive use of loan translation (calqueing ) and
occasionally phono-semantic matching of English .
Much of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary is derived from Sanskrit,
either as native tadbhav words or tatsam borrowings from Sanskrit,
especially in technical and academic fields. The formal Hindi
standard, from which much of the Persian,
Arabic and English
vocabulary has been replaced by neologisms compounding tatsam words,
is called Śuddh
Hindi (pure Hindi), and is viewed as a more
prestigious dialect over other more colloquial forms of Hindi.
Excessive use of tatsam words sometimes creates problems for native
speakers. They may have
Sanskrit consonant clusters which do not exist
in native Hindi, causing difficulties in pronunciation.
As a part of the process of
Sanskritization , new words are coined
Sanskrit components to be used as replacements for supposedly
foreign vocabulary. Usually these neologisms are calques of English
words already adopted into spoken Hindi. Some terms such as
dūrbhāṣ "telephone", literally "far-speech" and dūrdarśan
"television", literally "far-sight" have even gained some currency in
Hindi in the place of the English borrowings (ṭeli)fon and
Hindi also features significant Persian influence, standardised from
spoken Hindustani . Early borrowings, beginning in the mid-12th
century, were specific to
Islam (e.g. Muhammad, islām) and so Persian
was simply an intermediary for Arabic. Later, under the Delhi
Mughal Empire , Persian became the primary
administrative language in the
Hindi heartland. Persian borrowings
reached a heyday in the 17th century, pervading all aspects of life.
Even grammatical constructs, namely the izafat , were assimilated into
Post-Partition the Indian government advocated for a policy of
Sanskritization leading to a marginalization of the Persian element in
Hindi. However, many Persian words (e.g. muśkil "difficult", bas
"enough", havā "air", x(a)yāl "thought") have remained entrenched in
spoken Modern Standard Hindi, and a larger amount are still used in
Urdu poetry written in the
Arabic also shows influence in Hindi, often via Persian but sometimes
Hindi literature is broadly divided into four prominent forms or
Bhakti (devotional – Kabir ,
Raskhan ); Śṛṇgār
Keshav , Bihari ); Vīgāthā (epic); and Ādhunik
Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti
movement and the composition of long, epic poems. It was primarily
written in other varieties of
Hindi , particularly
Avadhi and Braj
Bhasha , but to a degree also in Khariboli , the basis for Modern
Standard Hindi. During the
British Raj , Hindustani became the
Chandrakanta , written by
Devaki Nandan Khatri in 1888, is considered
the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. The person who
brought realism in the
Hindi prose literature was
Munshi Premchand ,
who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi
fiction and progressive movement. Literary, or Sāhityik,
popularised by the writings of
Swami Dayananda Saraswati , Bhartendu
Harishchandra and others. The rising numbers of newspapers and
magazines made Hindustani popular with the educated people.
The Dvivedī Yug ("Age of Dwivedi") in
Hindi literature lasted from
1900 to 1918. It is named after
Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi , who played a
major role in establishing Modern
Standard Hindi in poetry and
broadening the acceptable subjects of
Hindi poetry from the
traditional ones of religion and romantic love.
In the 20th century,
Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is
known as Chāyāvād (shadow-ism) and the literary figures belonging
to this school are known as Chāyāvādī.
Jaishankar Prasad ,
Suryakant Tripathi \'Nirala\' ,
Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant
, are the four major Chāyāvādī poets.
Uttar Ādhunik is the post-modernist period of
marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well
as the excessive ornamentation of the Chāyāvādī movement, and by a
return to simple language and natural themes.
Hindi was the first Indic-language wiki to reach
Hindi literature, music , and film have all been
disseminated via the internet.
Urdu § Sample text
The following is a sample text in High Hindi, of the Article 1 of the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations): Hindi
अनुच्छेद 1 (एक) – सभी
मनुष्यों को गौरव और
अधिकारों के विषय में
जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और
समानता प्राप्त हैं।
उन्हें बुद्धि और
अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त
है और परस्पर उन्हें
भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव
करना चाहिए। Transliteration (
IAST ) Anucched 1
(ek) – Sabhī manuṣyõ ko gaurav aur adhikārõ ke viṣay mẽ
janmajāt svatantratā aur samāntā prāpt hai. Unhẽ buddhi aur
antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unhẽ bhāīcāre ke
bhāv se bartāv karnā cāhie. Transcription (IPA ) Gloss
(word-to-word) Article 1 (one) – All human-beings to dignity and
rights' matter in from-birth freedom and equality acquired is. Them to
reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to
brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should. Translation
(grammatical) Article 1 – All human beings are born free and equal
in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and
should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu
Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu
Bengali Language Movement (Manbhum)
Hindi Divas – the official day to celebrate
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HINDI EDITION of , the free encyclopedia
Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for HINDI .
Hindi at Curlie (based on
* The Union: Official Language
* Official Unicode Chart for
Khari Boli (Registers :
Standard Urdu ;
* Sansi Boli
PIDGINS AND CREOLES
Andaman Creole Hindi
Anti-Hindi agitations of Karnataka