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(i) (i)

HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: हिन्दी, IAST
IAST
: Hindī), or MODERN STANDARD HINDI ( Devanagari
Devanagari
: मानक हिन्दी, IAST
IAST
: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and sanskritised register of the Hindustani language . Modern Hindi
Hindi
and its literary tradition evolved towards the end of the 18th century.

Along with the English language
English language
, Hindi
Hindi
written in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Government of India
India
. On 14 September 1949, the Constituent Assembly of India
India
adopted Hindi written in Devanagari script as the official language of the Republic of India
India
. To this end, several stalwarts rallied and lobbied pan- India
India
in favor of Hindi, most notably Beohar Rajendra Simha along with Hazari Prasad Dwivedi , Kaka Kalelkar , Maithili Sharan Gupt and Seth Govind Das who even debated in Parliament on this issue. As such, on the 50th birthday of Beohar Rajendra Simha on 14 September 1949, the efforts came to fruition following adoption of Hindi
Hindi
as the official language. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India
India
. However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution .

Hindi
Hindi
is the lingua franca of the so-called Hindi belt
Hindi belt
, and to a lesser extent the whole of India
India
(usually in a simplified or pidginized variety such as Bazaar Hindustani or Haflong Hindi ). Outside India, several other languages are recognized officially as "Hindi" but do not refer to the Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
language described here and instead descend from other related Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
such as Awadhi and Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri
. Such languages include Fiji Hindi , which is official in Fiji
Fiji
, and recognised regional languages in Mauritius
Mauritius
, Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
, Guyana
Guyana
, and Suriname
Suriname
. Apart from specialized vocabulary , Hindi
Hindi
is mutually intelligible with Standard Urdu
Urdu
, another recognized register of Hindustani.

Individually, as a linguistic variety , Hindi
Hindi
is the fourth most-spoken first language in the world, after Mandarin , Spanish and English . Alongside Urdu
Urdu
as Hindustani, it is the third most-spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Modern status

* 2.1.1 Outside India
India

* 3 Comparison with Modern Standard Urdu

* 4 Script

* 4.1 Romanization

* 5 Vocabulary

* 5.1 Sanskrit
Sanskrit

* 5.1.1 Neologisms

* 5.2 Persian * 5.3 Arabic
Arabic

* 6 Media

* 6.1 Literature * 6.2 Internet

* 7 Sample text * 8 See also

* 9 References

* 9.1 Notes * 9.2 Bibliography

* 10 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The term hindī originally was used to refer to inhabitants of the region east of the Indus . It was borrowed from Classical Persian hindī (Iranian Persian hendi), meaning "Indian", from the proper noun Hind "India".

HISTORY

Further information: History of Hindustani

Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi
Hindi
a direct descendant of an early form of Vedic Sanskrit , through Sauraseni Prakrit and Śauraseni Apabhraṃśa (from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
apabhraṃśa "corrupted"), which emerged in the 7th century A.D.

Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
is based on the Khariboli dialect , the vernacular of Delhi
Delhi
and the surrounding region, which came to replace earlier prestige dialects such as Awadhi , Maithili (sometimes regarded as separate from the Hindi
Hindi
dialect continuum) and Braj . Urdu
Urdu
– another form of Hindustani – acquired linguistic prestige in the later Mughal period (1800s), and underwent significant Persian influence. In the late 19th century, a movement to develop Hindi
Hindi
as a standardised form of Hindustani separate from Urdu
Urdu
took form. In 1881, Bihar accepted Hindi
Hindi
as its sole official language, replacing Urdu, and thus became the first state of India
India
to adopt Hindi.

After independence, the government of India
India
instituted the following conventions:

* standardisation of grammar: In 1954, the Government of India
India
set up a committee to prepare a grammar of Hindi; The committee's report was released in 1958 as A Basic Grammar of Modern Hindi. * standardisation of the orthography, using the Devanagari
Devanagari
script, by the Central Hindi Directorate of the Ministry of Education and Culture to bring about uniformity in writing, to improve the shape of some Devanagari
Devanagari
characters, and introducing diacritics to express sounds from other languages.

The Constituent Assembly adopted Hindi
Hindi
as an official language of India
India
on 14 September 1949. Now, it is celebrated as Hindi Day .

MODERN STATUS

Part XVII of the Indian Constitution deals with the official language of the Indian Commonwealth. Under Article 343, the official languages of the Union has been prescribed, which includes Hindi
Hindi
in Devanagari script and English:

(1) The official language of the Union shall be Hindi
Hindi
in Devanagari script. The form of numerals to be used for the official purposes of the Union shall be the international form of Indian numerals. (2) Notwithstanding anything in clause (1), for a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, the ENGLISH LANGUAGE SHALL CONTINUE TO BE USED FOR ALL THE OFFICIAL PURPOSES OF THE UNION for which it was being used immediately before such commencement: Provided that the President may, during the said period, by order authorize the use of the Hindi
Hindi
language in addition to the English language and of the Devanagari
Devanagari
form of numerals in addition to the international form of Indian numerals for any of the official purposes of the Union

Article 351 of the Indian constitution states

It shall be the duty of the Union to promote the spread of the Hindi language, to develop it so that it may serve as a medium of expression for all the elements of the composite culture of India
India
and to secure its enrichment by assimilating without interfering with its genius, the forms, style and expressions used in Hindustani and in the other languages of India
India
specified in the Eighth Schedule, and by drawing, wherever necessary or desirable, for its vocabulary, primarily on Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and secondarily on other languages.

It was envisioned that Hindi
Hindi
would become the sole working language of the Union Government by 1965 (per directives in Article 344 (2) and Article 351), with state governments being free to function in the language of their own choice. However, widespread resistance to the imposition of Hindi
Hindi
on non-native speakers, especially in South India (such as the those in Tamil Nadu ) led to the passage of the Official Languages Act of 1963, which provided for the continued use of English indefinitely for all official purposes, although the constitutional directive for the Union Government to encourage the spread of Hindi was retained and has strongly influenced its policies.

Article 344 (2b) stipulates that official language commission shall be constituted every ten years to recommend steps for progressive use of Hindi
Hindi
language and imposing restrictions on the use of the English language by the union government. In practice, the official language commissions are constantly endeavouring to promote Hindi
Hindi
but not imposing restrictions on English in official use by the union government.

At the state level, Hindi
Hindi
is the official language of the following Indian states: Bihar
Bihar
, Chhattisgarh , Haryana , Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh
, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
, Madhya Pradesh , Rajasthan
Rajasthan
, Uttar Pradesh
Uttar Pradesh
, and Uttarakhand . Each may also designate a "co-official language"; in Uttar Pradesh, for instance, depending on the political formation in power, this language is generally Urdu
Urdu
. Similarly, Hindi
Hindi
is accorded the status of official language in the following Union Territories : Andaman & Nicobar Islands , Chandigarh
Chandigarh
, Dadra & Nagar Haveli , Daman 649,000 in United States
United States
of America ; 450,170 in Mauritius
Mauritius
; 380,000 in Fiji
Fiji
; 250,292 in South Africa
South Africa
; 150,000 in Suriname
Suriname
; 100,000 in Uganda
Uganda
; 45,800 in United Kingdom
United Kingdom
; 20,000 in New Zealand
New Zealand
; 20,000 in Germany
Germany
; 16,000 in Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago
; 3,000 in Singapore
Singapore
.

COMPARISON WITH MODERN STANDARD URDU

Main articles: Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
controversy , Hindustani phonology , and Hindustani grammar

Linguistically , Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
are two registers of the same language. Hindi
Hindi
is written in the Devanagari script and uses more Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words, whereas Urdu
Urdu
is written in the Perso-Arabic script and uses more Arabic
Arabic
and Persian words. Hindi
Hindi
is the most commonly used official language in India. Urdu
Urdu
is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan
Pakistan
and is one of 22 official languages of India
India
.

SCRIPT

Main article: Devanagari script

Hindi
Hindi
is written in the Devanagari
Devanagari
script, an abugida . Devanagari consists of 11 vowels and 33 consonants and is written from left to right.

ROMANIZATION

Main article: Devanagari
Devanagari
transliteration

The Government of India
India
uses Hunterian transliteration as its official system of writing Hindi
Hindi
in the Latin script. Various other systems also exist, such as IAST
IAST
, ITRANS and ISO 15919 .

VOCABULARY

Further information: Hindustani etymology and List of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Persian roots in Hindi
Hindi

Traditionally, Hindi
Hindi
words are divided into five principal categories according to their etymology:

* TATSAM (तत्सम "same as that") words: These are words which are spelled the same in Hindi
Hindi
as in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
(except for the absence of final case inflections). They include words inherited from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
via Prakrit
Prakrit
which have survived without modification (e.g. Hindi
Hindi
नाम nām / Sanskrit
Sanskrit
नाम nāma, "name"; Hindi कर्म karm / Sanskrit
Sanskrit
कर्म karma, "deed, action; karma "), as well as forms borrowed directly from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
in more modern times (e.g. प्रार्थना prārthanā, "prayer"). Pronunciation, however, conforms to Hindi
Hindi
norms and may differ from that of classical Sanskrit. Amongst nouns, the tatsam word could be the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
non-inflected word-stem, or it could be the nominative singular form in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
nominal declension. * ARDHATATSAM (अर्धतत्सम "semi-tatsama") words: Such words are typically earlier loanwords from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
which have undergone sound changes subsequent to being borrowed. (e.g. Hindi सूरज sūraj from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
सूर्य surya) * TADBHAV (तद्भव "born of that") words: These are native Hindi
Hindi
words derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
after undergoing phonological rules (e.g. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
कर्म karma, "deed" becomes Sauraseni Prakrit कम्म kamma, and eventually Hindi
Hindi
काम kām, "work") and are spelled differently from Sanskrit. * DESHAJ (देशज) words: These are words that were not borrowings but do not derive from attested Indo-Aryan words either. Belonging to this category are onomatopoetic words or ones borrowed from local non- Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
. * VIDESHī (विदेशी "foreign") words: These include all loanwords from non-indigenous languages. The most frequent source languages in this category are Persian , Arabic
Arabic
, English and Portuguese . Examples are कमेटी kameṭī from English committee and साबुन sābun "soap" from Arabic.

Hindi
Hindi
also makes extensive use of loan translation (calqueing ) and occasionally phono-semantic matching of English .

SANSKRIT

Much of Modern Standard Hindi's vocabulary is derived from Sanskrit, either as native tadbhav words or tatsam borrowings from Sanskrit, especially in technical and academic fields. The formal Hindi standard, from which much of the Persian, Arabic
Arabic
and English vocabulary has been replaced by neologisms compounding tatsam words, is called Śuddh Hindi
Hindi
(pure Hindi), and is viewed as a more prestigious dialect over other more colloquial forms of Hindi.

Excessive use of tatsam words sometimes creates problems for native speakers. They may have Sanskrit
Sanskrit
consonant clusters which do not exist in native Hindi, causing difficulties in pronunciation.

Neologisms

As a part of the process of Sanskritization , new words are coined using Sanskrit
Sanskrit
components to be used as replacements for supposedly foreign vocabulary. Usually these neologisms are calques of English words already adopted into spoken Hindi. Some terms such as dūrbhāṣ "telephone", literally "far-speech" and dūrdarśan "television", literally "far-sight" have even gained some currency in formal Hindi
Hindi
in the place of the English borrowings (ṭeli)fon and ṭīvī.

PERSIAN

Hindi
Hindi
also features significant Persian influence, standardised from spoken Hindustani . Early borrowings, beginning in the mid-12th century, were specific to Islam
Islam
(e.g. Muhammad, islām) and so Persian was simply an intermediary for Arabic. Later, under the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
, Persian became the primary administrative language in the Hindi
Hindi
heartland. Persian borrowings reached a heyday in the 17th century, pervading all aspects of life. Even grammatical constructs, namely the izafat , were assimilated into Hindi.

Post-Partition the Indian government advocated for a policy of Sanskritization leading to a marginalization of the Persian element in Hindi. However, many Persian words (e.g. muśkil "difficult", bas "enough", havā "air", x(a)yāl "thought") have remained entrenched in spoken Modern Standard Hindi, and a larger amount are still used in Urdu
Urdu
poetry written in the Devanagari
Devanagari
script.

ARABIC

Arabic
Arabic
also shows influence in Hindi, often via Persian but sometimes directly.

MEDIA

LITERATURE

Main article: Hindi literature

Hindi literature is broadly divided into four prominent forms or styles, being Bhakti
Bhakti
(devotional – Kabir , Raskhan ); Śṛṇgār (beauty – Keshav , Bihari ); Vīgāthā (epic); and Ādhunik (modern).

Medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and the composition of long, epic poems. It was primarily written in other varieties of Hindi
Hindi
, particularly Avadhi and Braj Bhasha , but to a degree also in Khariboli , the basis for Modern Standard Hindi. During the British Raj
British Raj
, Hindustani became the prestige dialect.

Chandrakanta , written by Devaki Nandan Khatri in 1888, is considered the first authentic work of prose in modern Hindi. The person who brought realism in the Hindi
Hindi
prose literature was Munshi Premchand , who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. Literary, or Sāhityik, Hindi
Hindi
was popularised by the writings of Swami Dayananda Saraswati , Bhartendu Harishchandra and others. The rising numbers of newspapers and magazines made Hindustani popular with the educated people.

The Dvivedī Yug ("Age of Dwivedi") in Hindi literature lasted from 1900 to 1918. It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi , who played a major role in establishing Modern Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of Hindi
Hindi
poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love.

In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chāyāvād (shadow-ism) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chāyāvādī. Jaishankar Prasad , Suryakant Tripathi \'Nirala\' , Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant , are the four major Chāyāvādī poets.

Uttar Ādhunik is the post-modernist period of Hindi
Hindi
literature, marked by a questioning of early trends that copied the West as well as the excessive ornamentation of the Chāyāvādī movement, and by a return to simple language and natural themes.

INTERNET

The Hindi
Hindi
was the first Indic-language wiki to reach 100,000 articles. Hindi
Hindi
literature, music , and film have all been disseminated via the internet.

SAMPLE TEXT

See also: Urdu
Urdu
§ Sample text

The following is a sample text in High Hindi, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (by the United Nations): Hindi अनुच्छेद 1 (एक) – सभी मनुष्यों को गौरव और अधिकारों के विषय में जन्मजात स्वतन्त्रता और समानता प्राप्त हैं। उन्हें बुद्धि और अन्तरात्मा की देन प्राप्त है और परस्पर उन्हें भाईचारे के भाव से बर्ताव करना चाहिए। Transliteration ( IAST
IAST
) Anucched 1 (ek) – Sabhī manuṣyõ ko gaurav aur adhikārõ ke viṣay mẽ janmajāt svatantratā aur samāntā prāpt hai. Unhẽ buddhi aur antarātmā kī den prāpt hai aur paraspar unhẽ bhāīcāre ke bhāv se bartāv karnā cāhie. Transcription (IPA ) Gloss (word-to-word) Article 1 (one) – All human-beings to dignity and rights' matter in from-birth freedom and equality acquired is. Them to reason and conscience's endowment acquired is and always them to brotherhood's spirit with behaviour to do should. Translation (grammatical) Article 1 – All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

SEE ALSO

* Book: Hindi
Hindi

* Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu
Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu
* Bengali Language Movement (Manbhum) * Hindi Divas – the official day to celebrate Hindi
Hindi
as a language. * Languages of India
India
and Languages with official status in India
India
* List of English words of Hindi
Hindi
or Urdu
Urdu
origin * List of Hindi television channels broadcast in Europe (by country) * List of Hindi channels in Europe (by type) * list of Hindi
Hindi
words at Wiktionary
Wiktionary
, the free dictionary * List of languages by number of native speakers in India
India
* List of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Persian roots in Hindi
Hindi
* Stop Hindi Imposition Campaign * World Hindi Secretariat

* India
India
portal * Languages portal * Writing portal * Linguistics
Linguistics
portal

REFERENCES

NOTES

* ^ Hindi
Hindi
at Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016) * ^ A B Hindustani (2005). Keith Brown , ed. Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics
Linguistics
(2 ed.). Elsevier. ISBN 0-08-044299-4 . * ^ "Central Hindi
Hindi
Directorate: Introduction". Archived from the original on 4 May 2012. * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hindi". Glottolog 3.0 . Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ "Constitution of India". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 21 March 2012. * ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 30 August 2006. Retrieved 9 October 2006. * ^ "Constitutional Provisions: Official Language Related Part-17 of The Constitution Of India". Department of Official Language, Government of India
India
. Archived from the original on 13 January 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017. * ^ "हिन्दी दिवस विशेष: इनके प्रयास से मिला था हिन्दी को राजभाषा का दर्जा". Archived from the original on 11 September 2017. * ^ "PART A Languages specified in the Eighth Schedule (Scheduled Languages)". Archived from the original on 2013-10-29. * ^ A B Khan, Saeed (25 January 2010). "There\'s no national language in India: Gujarat High Court". The Times of India
India
. Ahmedabad: The Times Group . Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014. * ^ A B "Hindi, not a national language: Court". The Hindu
Hindu
. Ahmedabad: Press Trust of India
India
. 25 January 2010. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 23 December 2014. * ^ A B "Sequence of events with reference to official language of the Union". Archived from the original on 2 August 2011. * ^ रिपब्लिक ऑफ फीजी का संविधान (Constitution of the Republic of Fiji, the Hindi version) Archived 1 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Caribbean Languages and Caribbean Linguistics" (PDF). University of the West Indies Press. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016. * ^ Richard K. Barz (8 May 2007). "The cultural significance of Hindi
Hindi
in Mauritius". Taylor&Francis Online. 3: 1–13. doi :10.1080/00856408008722995 . Retrieved 12 January 2013. * ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin
Nationalencyklopedin
. Asterisks mark the 2010 estimates Archived 11 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. for the top dozen languages. * ^ "Hindustani". Columbia University press. encyclopedia.com. Archived from the original on 29 July 2017. * ^ Steingass, Francis Joseph (1892). A comprehensive Persian-English dictionary. London: Routledge & K. Paul. p. 1514. Retrieved 13 February 2018. * ^ A B "Brief History of Hindi". Central Hindi
Hindi
Directorate. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014. Retrieved 21 March 2012. * ^ Parthasarathy, Kumar, p.120 * ^ " Hindi
Hindi
Diwas celebration: How it all began". The Indian Express . 14 September 2016. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2017. * ^ "The Constitution of India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 September 2014. * ^ "Rajbhasha" (PDF) (in Hindi
Hindi
and English). india.gov.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 January 2012. * ^ "THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGES ACT, 1963 (AS AMENDED, 1967) (Act No. 19 of 1963)". Department of Official Language. Archived from the original on 16 December 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016. * ^ " Gujarat High Court order". Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. * ^ " Fiji Hindi alphabet, pronunciation and language". www.omniglot.com. Archived from the original on 8 June 2017. Retrieved 22 June 2017. * ^ "Section 4 of Fiji
Fiji
Constitution". servat.unibe.ch. Archived from the original on 9 June 2009. Retrieved 3 May 2009. * ^ "Constitution of Fiji". Official site of the Fijian Government. Archived from the original on 11 October 2016. Retrieved 14 October 2016. * ^ A B "Hindi, Fiji". Ethnologue . Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. * ^ "United States- Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 11 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. * ^ A B Frawley, p. 481 * ^ "United Kingdom- Languages". Ethnologue. Archived from the original on 1 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017. * ^ " Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
are classified as literary registers of the same language". Archived from the original on 2 June 2016. * ^ A B Masica, p. 65 * ^ Masica, p. 66 * ^ Masica, p. 67 * ^ Arnold, David; Robb, Peter (2013). Institutions and Ideologies: A SOAS South Asia
Asia
Reader. Routledge. p. 79. ISBN 9781136102349 . Archived from the original on 9 February 2018. * ^ Ohala, Manjari (1983). Aspects of Hindi
Hindi
Phonology. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. p. 38. ISBN 9780895816702 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Arnold, David; Robb, Peter (2013). Institutions and Ideologies: A SOAS South Asia
Asia
Reader. Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 9781136102349 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Kachru, Yamuna (2006). Hindi. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 9789027238122 . * ^ Bhatia, Tej K.; Ritchie, William C. (2006). The Handbook of Bilingualism. John Wiley and Sons. p. 789. ISBN 9780631227359 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ D., S. " Arabic
Arabic
and Hindi". The Economist. The Economist. Archived from the original on 22 April 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016. * ^ "Stop outraging over Marathi – Hindi
Hindi
and English chauvinism is much worse in India". Archived from the original on 19 September 2015.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Bhatia, Tej K. (11 September 2002). Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-134-83534-8 . Retrieved 19 July 2014. * Grierson, G. A. Linguistic Survey of India
India
Vol I-XI , Calcutta, 1928, ISBN 81-85395-27-6 (searchable database). * Koul, Omkar N. (2008). Modern Hindi
Hindi
grammar (PDF). Springfield, VA: Dunwoody Press. ISBN 978-1-931546-06-5 . Retrieved 19 July 2014. * McGregor, R.S. (1995). Outline of Hindi
Hindi
grammar: With exercises (3. ed.). Oxford: Clarendon Pr. ISBN 0-19-870008-3 . Retrieved 19 July 2014. * Frawley, William (2003). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics: AAVE-Esparanto. Vol.1. Oxford University Press. p. 481. ISBN 978-0-195-13977-8 . * Parthasarathy, R.; Kumar, Swargesh (2012). Bihar
Bihar
Tourism: Retrospect and Prospect. Concept Publishing Company. p. 120. ISBN 978-8-180-69799-9 . * Masica, Colin (1991). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2 . * Ohala, Manjari (1999). "Hindi". In International Phonetic Association . Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: a Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet. Cambridge University Press. pp. 100–103. ISBN 978-0-521-63751-0 . * Sadana, Rashmi (2012). English Heart, Hindi
Hindi
Heartland: the Political Life of Literature in India. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-26957-6 . Retrieved 19 July 2014. * Shapiro, Michael C. (2001). "Hindi". In Garry, Jane; Rubino, Carl. An encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. New England Publishing Associates. pp. 305–309. * Shapiro, Michael C. (2003). "Hindi". In Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 250–285. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5 . * Snell, Rupert; Weightman, Simon (1989). Teach Yourself Hindi
Hindi
(2003 ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-142012-9 . * Taj, Afroz (2002) A door into Hindi. Retrieved 8 November 2005. * Tiwari, Bholanath ( 2004) हिन्दी भाषा (Hindī Bhasha), Kitab Pustika, Allahabad, ISBN 81-225-0017-X .

Dictionaries

* McGregor, R.S. (1993), Oxford Hindi–English Dictionary (2004 ed.), Oxford University Press, USA . * Hardev Bahri (1989), Learners\' Hindi-English dictionary, Delhi: Rajapala * Mahendra Caturvedi (1970), A practical Hindi-English dictionary, Delhi: National Publishing House * Academic Room Hindi
Hindi
Dictionary Mobile App developed in the Harvard Innovation Lab (iOS, Android and Blackberry) * John Thompson Platts (1884), A dictionary of Urdū, classical Hindī, and English (reprint ed.), LONDON: H. Milford, p. 1259, retrieved 6 July 2011

Further reading

* Bhatia, Tej K A History of the Hindi
Hindi
Grammatical Tradition. Leiden, Netherlands & New York, NY: E.J. Brill, 1987. ISBN 90-04-07924-6 * Tiwari, Deepa (April 2015). "The Hindi
Hindi
Stories". www.badikhabar.com. * Gyani, Pandit (September 2016). " Hindi
Hindi
Biography & History". www.gyanipandit.com.

EXTERNAL LINKS

HINDI EDITION of , the free encyclopedia

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for HINDI .

* Hindi
Hindi
at Curlie (based on DMOZ
DMOZ
) * The Union: Official Language * Official Unicode Chart for Devanagari
Devanagari
(PDF)

* v * t * e

Hindi
Hindi

* Grammar * Phonology * Devanagari
Devanagari
* Braille * History * Vocabulary * Hindustani

VARIETIES

WESTERN

* Braj Bhasha * Bundeli * Haryanvi * Kannauji * Khari Boli (Registers : * Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
* Standard Urdu ; Dialects : * Dakhini
Dakhini
) * Sansi Boli

EASTERN

* Awadhi * Bagheli * Caribbean Hindi
Hindi
* Chhattisgarhi * Fiji Hindi

PIDGINS AND CREOLES

* Andaman Creole Hindi * Bombay Hindi * Haflong Hindi * Hinglish

LANGUAGE POLITICS

* Anti-Hindi agitations of Karnataka *

.