The "Mexican National Anthem" (Spanish: Himno Nacional Mexicano), also
known as "Mexicans, at the cry of war" (Spanish: Mexicanos, al grito
de guerra), is the national anthem of the United Mexican States. The
anthem was first used in 1854, although it was not officially adopted
de jure until 1943. The lyrics of the national anthem, which allude to
historical Mexican military victories in the heat of battle and
including cries of defending the homeland, were composed by poet
Francisco González Bocanegra
1.1 Lyrics competition 1.2 Music competition
2 Lyrics 3 Copyright status 4 National regulations 5 Cultural significance 6 Other languages 7 Musical score 8 References 9 External links
Performed in 1967
Instrumental version from the 1970s, with all verses and stanzas
Vocal version with original 19th century verses and stanzas
Francisco González Bocanegra
On November 12, 1853, President
Antonio López de Santa Anna
A musical composition was chosen at the same time as the lyrics. The
winner was Juan Bottesini, but his entry was disliked due to
aesthetics. This rejection caused a second national contest to find
music for the lyrics. At the end of the second contest, the music
that was chosen for González's lyrics was composed by Jaime Nunó,
the then Catalan-born King of Spain's band leader. At the time of the
second anthem competition, Nunó was the leader of several Mexican
military bands. He had been invited to direct these bands by President
Santa Anna, whom he had met in Cuba. About the time that Nunó first
Coro Mexicanos, al grito de guerra el acero aprestad y el bridón. Y retiemble en sus centros la Tierra, al sonoro rugir del cañón. Y retiemble en sus centros la Tierra, ¡al sonoro rugir del cañón!
Chorus (literal translation) Mexicans, at the cry of war, make ready the steel and the bridle, and may the Earth tremble at its core at the resounding roar of the cannon. and may the Earth tremble at its core at the resounding roar of the cannon!
Chorus (singable adaptation) At the loud cry of war all assemble, Then your swords and your steeds all prepare, and the Earth to its center shall tremble when the cannon's deep roar rends the air. and the Earth to its center shall tremble when the cannon's deep roar rends the air!
Estrofa I Ciña ¡oh Patria! tus sienes de oliva de la paz el arcángel divino, que en el cielo tu eterno destino por el dedo de Dios se escribió. Mas si osare un extraño enemigo profanar con su planta tu suelo, piensa ¡oh Patria querida! que el cielo un soldado en cada hijo te dio.
1st stanza Gird, Oh Fatherland!, your temples with olive by the peace of the divine archangel, for in heaven your eternal destiny was written by the finger of God. If, however, a foreign enemy would dare to profane Your ground with its sole, think, Oh beloved Fatherland!, that Heaven has given you a soldier in every son.
1st stanza Oh my country entwine on thy temples boughs of olive so fresh and so vernal, when inscribed in the heavens eternal blessed peace for all the land thou dost see. But if stranger and foe in their boldness dare to tread on thy soil, they must perish, then, oh my country, this thought only cherish every son is but a soldier for thee.
Estrofa V ¡Guerra, guerra! sin tregua al que intente De la patria manchar los blasones! ¡Guerra, guerra! Los patrios pendones En las olas de sangre empapad. ¡Guerra, guerra! En el monte, en el valle Los cañones horrísonos truenen, Y los ecos sonoros resuenen Con las voces de ¡Unión! ¡Libertad!
Stanza V War, war! without quarter to any who dare to tarnish the coats of arms of the country! War, war! Let the national banners be soaked in waves of blood. War, war! In the mountain, in the valley, let the cannons thunder in horrid unison and may the sonorous echoes resound with cries of Union! Liberty!
Estrofa VI Antes, patria, que inermes tus hijos Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen, Tus campiñas con sangre se rieguen, Sobre sangre se estampe su pie. Y tus templos, palacios y torres Se derrumben con hórrido estruendo, Y sus ruinas existan diciendo: De mil héroes la patria aquí fue.
Stanza VI O, Fatherland, ere your children, defenseless bend their neck beneath the yoke, may your fields be watered with blood, may their foot be printed in blood. And may your temples, palaces and towers collapse with horrid clamor, and may their ruins continue on, saying: Of one thousand heroes, here the Fatherland began.
Estrofa X ¡Patria! ¡Patria! Tus hijos te juran Exhalar en tus aras su aliento, Si el clarín con su bélico acento los convoca a lidiar con valor. ¡Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva! ¡Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria! ¡Un laurel para ti de victoria! ¡Un sepulcro para ellos de honor!
Stanza X Fatherland! Fatherland! Your children swear to you to breathe their last for your sake, if the bugle with its bellicose accent calls them together to battle with courage. For you, the olive wreaths! For them, a reminder of glory! For you, a laurel of victory! For them, a tomb of honor!
Copyright status An urban legend about the copyright status of the anthem states that years after its first performance, family sold the musical rights to a German music publishing company named Wagner House. Originally, Nunó was supposed to have turned the music rights over to the state in exchange for a prize from the Mexican government. However, according to the myth, the copyright changed hands again, this time to Nunó himself and two Americans, Harry Henneman and Phil Hill. In reality, however, this is not correct. It is true that Nunó, Henneman and Hill did register the music with the company BMI (BMI Work #568879), with the Edward B. Marks Music Company as the listed publisher of the anthem. This might be the version that some have suggested is copyrighted in the United States. However, United States copyright law declares the Mexican anthem to be in the public domain inside the United States, since both the lyrics and music were published before 1909. Furthermore, under Mexican copyright law, Article 155 states that the government holds moral rights, but not property rights, of the national symbols, including the anthem, coat of arms and the national flag. National regulations In the second chapter of the Law on the National Arms, Flag, and Anthem (Ley sobre el Escudo, la Bandera y el Himno Nacionales), the national anthem is described in very brief terms. While Articles 2 and 3 discuss in detail the coat of arms and the flag, respectively, Article 4 mentions only that the national anthem will be designated by law. Article 4 also mentions that a copy of the lyrics and the musical notation will be kept at two locations, the General National Archive and at the National Library, located in the National Museum of History (Biblioteca Nacional en el Museo Nacional de Historia). Chapter 5 of the Law goes into more detail about how to honor, respect and properly perform the national anthem. Article 38 states that the singing, playing, reproduction and circulation of the national anthem are regulated by law and that any interpretation of the anthem must be performed in a "respectful way and in a scope that allows [one] to observe the due solemnity" of the anthem. Article 39 prohibits the anthem from being altered in any fashion, prohibits it from being sung for commercial or promotional purposes, and also disallows the singing or playing of national anthems from other nations, unless you have permission from the Secretary of the Interior (Secretaría de Gobernación) and the diplomatic official from the nation in question. The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Public Education (Secretaría de Educación Pública), in Article 40, must grant permission for all reproductions of the national anthem to be produced, unless the anthem is being played during official ceremonies carried on radio or television. Article 41 states that the national anthem is required to be played at the sign-on or sign-off of radio and television programming; with the advent of 24-hour programming schedules in the 1990s and 2000s, many stations now do so at or as close to midnight and 6 a.m. local time as possible by interpretation of the former traditional times of sign-on and sign-off. The extra requirement for television programming is that photos of the Mexican flag must be displayed at the same time the anthem is playing. Article 42 states that the anthem may only be used during the following occasions: solemn acts of official, civic, cultural, scholastic or sport character. The anthem can also be played to render honors to the Mexican flag and to the President of Mexico. If the national anthem is being used to honor the national flag or the President, the short version of the anthem is played. Article 43 says that special musical honors may be paid to the President and the flag, but no more than once during the same ceremony. Article 44 says that during solemn occasions, if a choir is singing the anthem, the military bands will keep silent. Article 45 says that those who are watching the national anthem performance must stand at attention (firmes) and remove any headgear. Article 46 states that the national anthem must be taught to children who are attending primary or secondary school; this article was amended in 2005 to add pre-school to the list. The article also states that each school in the National Education System (Sistema Educativo Nacional) will be asked to sing the national anthem each year. Article 47 states that in an official ceremony in which is need to play another anthem, the Mexican anthem will be played first, then the guest's anthem. Article 48 states that at embassies and consulates of Mexico, the national anthem is played at ceremonies of a solemn nature that involves the Mexican people. If the anthem is played outside of Mexico, Article 48 requires that the Secretary of External Relations (Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores), through proper channels, must grant permission for the national anthem to be played and will also ensure that the anthem is not sung for commercial purposes. Cultural significance
Mexican soccer fans sing the Mexican national anthem before an association football match in March 2009.
At the time the Mexican national anthem was written,
Second page of music and lyrics
^ David Kendall National Anthems—Mexico
^ a b Embassy of
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mexicanos, al grito de guerra.
President of Mexico's page about the anthem, with two recordings (in
Free sheet music of
Himno Nacional Mexicano
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