The "MEXICAN NATIONAL ANTHEM" (Spanish : Himno Nacional Mexicano), also known as "MEXICANS, AT THE CRY OF WAR" (Spanish : Mexicanos, al grito de guerra), is the national anthem of the United Mexican States . The anthem first started being used in 1854, although it was not officially adopted de jure until 1943. The lyrics of the national anthem, which allude to historical Mexican military victories in the heat of battle and including cries of defending the homeland, were composed by poet Francisco González Bocanegra after a Federal contest in 1853. Later in 1854 he asked, Jaime Nunó to compose the music which now accompanies González's poem. The anthem, consisting of ten stanzas and a chorus, effectively entered into use on September 16, 1854.
* 1 Composition
* 1.1 Lyrics competition * 1.2 Music competition
* 2 Lyrics * 3 Copyright status * 4 National regulations * 5 Cultural significance * 6 Other languages * 7 Musical score * 8 References * 9 External links
On November 12, 1853, President Antonio López de Santa Anna announced a competition to write a national anthem for Mexico. The competition offered a prize for the best poetic composition representing patriotic ideals. Francisco González Bocanegra , a talented poet, was not interested in participating in the competition. He argued that writing love poems involved very different skills from the ones required to write a national anthem. His fiancée, Guadalupe González del Pino (or Pili), had undaunted faith in her fiancé's poetic skills and was displeased with his constant refusal to participate in spite of her constant prodding and requests from their friends. Under false pretenses, she lured him to a secluded bedroom in her parents' house, locked him into the room, and refused to let him out until he produced an entry for the competition. Inside the room in which he was temporarily imprisoned were pictures depicting various events in Mexican history which helped to inspire his work. After four hours of fluent (albeit forced) inspiration, Francisco regained his freedom by slipping all ten verses of his creation under the door. After Francisco received approval from his fiancée and her father, he submitted the poem and won the competition by unanimous vote. González was announced the winner in the publication Official Journal of the Federation (DOF) on February 3, 1854.
A musical composition was chosen at the same time as the lyrics. The
Juan Bottesini , but his entry was disliked due to
aesthetics. This rejection caused a second national contest to find
music for the lyrics. At the end of the second contest, the music
that was chosen for González's lyrics was composed by
Jaime Nunó ,
the then Catalan -born
King of Spain
Officially since 1943, the full national anthem consists of the
chorus and 1st, 5th, 6th, and 10th stanzas. The modification of the
lyrics was ordered by President
Manuel Ávila Camacho
Mexicanos, al grito de guerra el acero aprestad y el bridón. Y retiemble en sus centros la Tierra, al sonoro rugir del cañón. Y retiemble en sus centros la Tierra, al sonoro rugir del cañón!
CHORUS (LITERAL TRANSLATION)
CHORUS (SINGABLE ADAPTATION)
At the loud cry of war all assemble, Then your swords and your steeds all prepare, and the Earth to its center shall tremble when the cannon's deep roar rends the air. and the Earth to its center shall tremble when the cannon's deep roar rends the air!
Ciña ¡oh Patria! tus sienes de oliva de la paz el arcángel divino, que en el cielo tu eterno destino por el dedo de Dios se escribió. Mas si osare un extraño enemigo profanar con su planta tu suelo, piensa ¡oh Patria querida! que el cielo un soldado en cada hijo te dio.
Gird, Oh Fatherland !, your temples with olive by the peace of the divine archangel , for in heaven your eternal destiny was written by the finger of God. If, however, a foreign enemy would dare to profane Your ground with its sole, think, Oh beloved Fatherland!, that Heaven has given you a soldier in every son.
Oh my country entwine on thy temples boughs of olive so fresh and so vernal, when inscribed in the heavens eternal blessed peace for all the land thou dost see. But if stranger and foe in their boldness dare to tread on thy soil, they must perish, then, oh my country, this thought only cherish every son is but a soldier for thee.
¡Guerra, guerra! sin tregua al que intente De la patria manchar los blasones! ¡Guerra, guerra! Los patrios pendones En las olas de sangre empapad. ¡Guerra, guerra! En el monte, en el valle Los cañones horrísonos truenen, Y los ecos sonoros resuenen Con las voces de ¡Unión! ¡Libertad!
War, war! without quarter to any who dare to tarnish the coats of arms of the country! War, war! Let the national banners be soaked in waves of blood. War, war! In the mountain, in the valley, let the cannons thunder in horrid unison and may the sonorous echoes resound with cries of Union! Liberty!
Antes, patria, que inermes tus hijos Bajo el yugo su cuello dobleguen, Tus campiñas con sangre se rieguen, Sobre sangre se estampe su pie. Y tus templos, palacios y torres Se derrumben con hórrido estruendo, Y sus ruinas existan diciendo: De mil héroes la patria aquí fue.
O, Fatherland, ere your children, defenseless bend their neck beneath the yoke, may your fields be watered with blood, may their foot be printed in blood. And may your temples, palaces and towers collapse with horrid clamor, and may their ruins continue on, saying: Of one thousand heroes, here the Fatherland began.
¡Patria! ¡Patria! Tus hijos te juran Exhalar en tus aras su aliento, Si el clarín con su bélico acento los convoca a lidiar con valor. ¡Para ti las guirnaldas de oliva! ¡Un recuerdo para ellos de gloria! ¡Un laurel para ti de victoria! ¡Un sepulcro para ellos de honor!
Fatherland! Fatherland! Your children swear to you to breathe their last for your sake, if the bugle with its bellicose accent calls them together to battle with courage. For you, the olive wreaths! For them, a reminder of glory! For you, a laurel of victory! For them, a tomb of honor!
An urban legend about the copyright status of the anthem states that years after its first performance, family sold the musical rights to a German music publishing company named Wagner House. Originally, Nunó was supposed to have turned the music rights over to the state in exchange for a prize from the Mexican government. However, according to the myth, the copyright changed hands again, this time to Nunó himself and two Americans , Harry Henneman and Phil Hill.
In reality, however, this is not correct. It is true that Nunó, Henneman and Hill did register the music with the company BMI (BMI Work #568879), with the Edward B. Marks Music Company as the listed publisher of the anthem. This might be the version that some have suggested is copyrighted in the United States. However, United States copyright law declares the Mexican anthem to be in the public domain inside the United States, since both the lyrics and music were published before 1909. Furthermore, under Mexican copyright law, Article 155 states that the government holds moral rights , but not property rights, of the national symbols, including the anthem, coat of arms and the national flag .
In the second chapter of the Law on the National Arms, Flag, and Anthem (Ley sobre el Escudo, la Bandera y el Himno Nacionales), the national anthem is described in very brief terms. While Articles 2 and 3 discuss in detail the coat of arms and the flag , respectively, Article 4 mentions only that the national anthem will be designated by law. Article 4 also mentions that a copy of the lyrics and the musical notation will be kept at two locations, the General National Archive and at the National Library, located in the National Museum of History (Biblioteca Nacional en el Museo Nacional de Historia ).
Chapter 5 of the Law goes into more detail about how to honor,
respect and properly perform the national anthem. Article 38 states
that the singing, playing, reproduction and circulation of the
national anthem are regulated by law and that any interpretation of
the anthem must be performed in a "respectful way and in a scope that
allows to observe the due solemnity" of the anthem. Article 39
prohibits the anthem from being altered in any fashion, prohibits it
from being sung for commercial or promotional purposes, and also
disallows the singing or playing of national anthems from other
nations, unless you have permission from the Secretary of the Interior
Secretaría de Gobernación ) and the diplomatic official from the
nation in question. The Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of
Public Education (
Secretaría de Educación Pública
Article 42 states that the anthem may only be used during the
following occasions: solemn acts of official, civic, cultural,
scholastic or sport character. The anthem can also be played to render
honors to the Mexican flag and to the President of
Mexican soccer fans sing the Mexican national anthem before an association football match in March 2009.
At the time the anthem was written,
On the rare occasions when someone performs the anthem incorrectly, the federal government has been known to impose penalties to maintain the "dignity" of the national symbols. One example is when a performer forgot some of the lyrics at a soccer match in Guadalajara , she was fined 400 MXN by the Interior Ministry and released an apology letter to the country through the Interior Ministry. In addition, the anthem is sometimes used as a tool against people who might not be "true Mexicans". In one case, a young man of Afro-Mexican descent was stopped by police and forced to sing the anthem to prove his nationality. In a separate incident in Japan, police officers asked four men to sing the Mexican anthem after they were arrested in Tokyo on charges of breaking and entering. However, when the men could not sing the anthem, it was discovered that they were Colombian nationals holding forged Mexican passports. They were later charged with more counts on theft of merchandise and money.
Though the de facto language of
Officially, the national anthem has been translated into the
following native languages:
Hña Hñu ,
Mixteco , Maya ,
First page of music and lyrics *
Second page of music and lyrics
* ^ David Kendall National Anthems—Mexico
* ^ A B Embassy of