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The Himalayas, or Himalaya
Himalaya
(/ˌhɪməˈleɪə, hɪˈmɑːləjə/), form a mountain range in Asia
Asia
separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau. The Himalayan range has many of the Earth's highest peaks, including the highest, Mount Everest. The Himalayas
Himalayas
include over fifty mountains exceeding 7,200 metres (23,600 ft) in elevation, including all of the fourteen 8,000-metre peaks. By contrast, the highest peak outside Asia
Asia
(Aconcagua, in the Andes) is 6,961 metres (22,838 ft) tall.[1] Lifted by the subduction of the Indian tectonic plate under the Eurasian Plate, the Himalayan mountain range runs, west-northwest to east-southeast, in an arc 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long.[2] Its western anchor, Nanga Parbat, lies just south of the northernmost bend of Indus
Indus
river. Its eastern anchor, Namcha Barwa, is just west of the great bend of the Yarlung Tsangpo River
Yarlung Tsangpo River
(upper stream of the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
River). The Himalayan range is bordered on the northwest by the Karakoram
Karakoram
and Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
ranges, to the north, the chain is separated from the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
by a 50–60 kilometres (31–37 mi) wide tectonic valley called the Indus-Tsangpo Suture.[3] Towards the south the arc of the Himalaya
Himalaya
is ringed by the very low Indo-Gangetic Plain.[4] The range varies in width from 350 kilometres (220 mi) in the west (Kashmir) to 150 kilometres (93 mi) in the east (Arunachal Pradesh).[5] The Himalayas
Himalayas
are distinct from the other great ranges of central Asia, although sometimes the term Himalaya
Himalaya
is loosely used to include the Karakoram and some of the other ranges. The Himalayas
Himalayas
are inhabited by 52.7 million people[5] and are spread across five countries: Nepal, India, Bhutan, China
China
and Pakistan. Some of the world's major rivers, the Indus, the Ganges
Ganges
and the Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, rise in the Himalayas, and their combined drainage basin is home to roughly 600 million people. The Himalayas have a profound effect on the climate of the region, helping to keep the monsoon rains on the Indian plain and limiting rainfall on the Tibetan plateau. The Himalayas
Himalayas
have profoundly shaped the cultures of the Indian subcontinent; many Himalayan peaks are sacred in Hinduism and Buddhism.

Mount Machapuchare
Machapuchare
(Mount Fishtail) seen from Chomrong, Kaski, Nepal. Elevation: 6,993 m (22,943 ft), prominence: 1,233 m (4,045 ft)

Contents

1 Name 2 Geography and key features 3 Geology 4 Hydrology

4.1 Glaciers 4.2 Lakes

5 Climate 6 Ecology 7 Culture 8 Religions of the region 9 Resources 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Name The name of the range derives from the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Himā-laya (हिमालय, "Abode of Snow"), from himá (हिम, "snow") and ā-laya (आलय, "receptacle, dwelling").[6] They are now known as the " Himalaya
Himalaya
Mountains", usually shortened to the "Himalayas". Formerly, they were described in the singular as the "Himalaya". This was also previously transcribed "Himmaleh", as in Emily Dickinson's poetry[7] and Henry David Thoreau's essays.[8] The mountains are known as the Himālaya in Nepali and Hindi (both written हिमालय), the Himalaya (ཧི་མ་ལ་ཡ་) or 'The Land of Snow' (གངས་ཅན་ལྗོངས་) in Tibetan, the Hamaleh Mountain Range (سلسلہ کوہ ہمالیہ) in Urdu
Urdu
and the Ximalaya Mountain Range (t 喜馬拉雅山脈, > Xǐmǎlāyǎ Shānmài) in Chinese. Geography and key features See also: List of Himalayan peaks and passes In the middle of the great curve of the Himalayan mountains lie the 8000m peaks of Dhaulagiri
Dhaulagiri
and Annapurna
Annapurna
in Nepal, separated by the Kali Gandaki Gorge. The gorge splits the Himalayas
Himalayas
into Western and Eastern sections both ecologically and orographically – the pass at the head of the Kali Gandaki, the Kora La
Kora La
is the lowest point on the ridgeline between Everest
Everest
and K2. To the east of Annapurna
Annapurna
are the 8000 m peaks of Manaslu
Manaslu
and across the border in Tibet, Shishapangma. To the south of these lies Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal
Nepal
and the largest city in the Himalayas. East of the Kathmandu Valley lies valley of the Bhote/ Sun Kosi
Sun Kosi
river which rises in Tibet and provides the main overland route between Nepal
Nepal
and China
China
– the Araniko Highway/ China
China
National Highway 318. Further east is the Mahalangur Himal
Mahalangur Himal
with four of the world's six highest mountains, including the highest: Cho Oyu, Everest, Lhotse
Lhotse
and Makalu. The Khumbu region, popular for trekking, is found here on the south-western approaches to Everest. The Arun river drains the northern slopes of these mountains, before turning south and flowing through the range to the east of Makalu. In the far east of Nepal
Nepal
the Himalayas
Himalayas
rise to the Kanchenjunga
Kanchenjunga
massif on the border with India, the third highest mountain in the world, the most easterly 8000 m summit and the highest point of India. The eastern side of Kanchenjunga
Kanchenjunga
is in the Indian state of Sikkim. Formerly an independent Kingdom, it lies on the main route from India to Lhasa, Tibet, which passes over the Nathu La
Nathu La
pass into Tibet. East of Sikkim
Sikkim
lies the ancient Buddhist Kingdom of Bhutan. The highest mountain in Bhutan
Bhutan
is Gangkhar Puensum, which is also a strong candidate for the highest unclimbed mountain in the world. The Himalayas
Himalayas
here are becoming increasingly rugged with heavily forested steep valleys. The Himalayas
Himalayas
continue, turning slightly north east, through the Indian State of Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
as well as Tibet, before reaching their easterly conclusion in the peak of Namche Barwa, situated in Tibet
Tibet
inside the great bend of the Yarlang Tsangpo river. On the other side of the Tsangpo, to the east, are the Kangri Garpo mountains. The high mountains to the north of the Tsangpo including Gyala Peri, however, are also sometimes also included in the Himalayas. Going west from Dhaulagiri, Western Nepal
Nepal
is somewhat remote and lacks major high mountains, but is home to Rara Lake, the largest lake in Nepal. The Karnali River
River
rises in Tibet
Tibet
but cuts through the centre of the region. Further west, the border with India
India
follows the Sarda River
River
and provides a trade route into China, where on the Tibetan plateau lies the high peak of Gurla Mandhata. Just across Lake Manasarovar from this lies the sacred Mount Kailash, which stands close to the source of the four main rivers of Himalayas
Himalayas
and is revered in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism
Jainism
and Bonpo. In the newly created Indian state of Uttarkhand, the Himalayas
Himalayas
rise again as the Garwhal Himalayas
Himalayas
with the high peaks of Nanda Devi
Nanda Devi
and Kamet. The state is also an important pilgrimage destination, with the source of the Ganges
Ganges
at Gangotri
Gangotri
and the Yamuna
Yamuna
at Yamunotri, and the temples at Badrinath
Badrinath
and Kedarnath.

Panoramic view of Langtang
Langtang
Range in Nepal

The next Himalayan Indian state, Himachal Pradesh, lacks very high mountains, but is noted for its hill stations, particularly Shimla, the summer capital of the British Raj, and Dharmasala, the centre of the Tibetan community in exile in India. This area marks the start of the Punjab
Punjab
Himalaya
Himalaya
and the Sutlej
Sutlej
river, the most easterly of the five tributaries of the Indus, cuts through the range here. Further west, the Himalayas
Himalayas
form most of the southern portion of the disputed Indian State of Jammu & Kashmir. The twin peaks of Nun Kun
Nun Kun
are the only mountains over 7000 m in this part of the Himalayas. Beyond lies the renown Kashmir Valley
Kashmir Valley
and the town and lakes of Srinagar. Finally, the Himalayas
Himalayas
cross the Line of Control
Line of Control
into Pakistan
Pakistan
and reach their western end in the dramatic 8000 m peak of Nanga Parbat, which rises over 7000 m above the Indus
Indus
valley and is the most westerly of the 8000 m summits. Geology

The 6,000-kilometre-plus journey of the India
India
landmass (Indian Plate) before its collision with Asia
Asia
(Eurasian Plate) about 40 to 50 million years ago[9]

Main article: Geology
Geology
of the Himalaya The Himalayan range is one of the youngest mountain ranges on the planet and consists mostly of uplifted sedimentary and metamorphic rock. According to the modern theory of plate tectonics, its formation is a result of a continental collision or orogeny along the convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate
Indo-Australian Plate
and the Eurasian Plate. The Arakan Yoma
Arakan Yoma
highlands in Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
were also formed as a result of this collision. During the Upper Cretaceous, about 70 million years ago, the north-moving Indo-Australian Plate
Indo-Australian Plate
(which has subsequently broken into the Indian Plate
Indian Plate
and the Australian Plate[10]) was moving at about 15 cm per year. About 50 million years ago this fast moving Indo-Australian Plate
Indo-Australian Plate
had completely closed the Tethys Ocean, the existence of which has been determined by sedimentary rocks settled on the ocean floor and the volcanoes that fringed its edges. Since both plates were composed of low density continental crust, they were thrust faulted and folded into mountain ranges rather than subducting into the mantle along an oceanic trench.[9] An often-cited fact used to illustrate this process is that the summit of Mount Everest
Mount Everest
is made of marine limestone from this ancient ocean.[11] Today, the Indian plate continues to be driven horizontally at the Tibetan Plateau, which forces the plateau to continue to move upwards.[12] The Indian plate is still moving at 67 mm per year, and over the next 10 million years it will travel about 1,500 km into Asia. About 20 mm per year of the India- Asia
Asia
convergence is absorbed by thrusting along the Himalaya
Himalaya
southern front. This leads to the Himalayas
Himalayas
rising by about 5 mm per year, making them geologically active. The movement of the Indian plate into the Asian plate also makes this region seismically active, leading to earthquakes from time to time. During the last ice age, there was a connected ice stream of glaciers between Kangchenjunga
Kangchenjunga
in the east and Nanga Parbat
Nanga Parbat
in the west.[13][14] In the west, the glaciers joined with the ice stream network in the Karakoram, and in the north, they joined with the former Tibetan inland ice. To the south, outflow glaciers came to an end below an elevation of 1,000–2,000 metres (3,300–6,600 ft).[13][15] While the current valley glaciers of the Himalaya
Himalaya
reach at most 20 to 32 kilometres (12 to 20 mi) in length, several of the main valley glaciers were 60 to 112 kilometres (37 to 70 mi) long during the ice age.[13] The glacier snowline (the altitude where accumulation and ablation of a glacier are balanced) was about 1,400–1,660 metres (4,590–5,450 ft) lower than it is today. Thus, the climate was at least 7.0 to 8.3 °C (12.6 to 14.9 °F) colder than it is today.[16] Hydrology

Indus
Indus
River
River
in the Himalayas

The Himalayan range at Yumesongdong in Sikkim, in the Yumthang
Yumthang
River valley

Despite their scale the Himalayas
Himalayas
do not form a major watershed, and a number of rivers cut through the range, particularly in the eastern part of the range. As a result, the main ridge of the Himalayas
Himalayas
is not clearly defined, and mountain passes are not as significant for traversing the range as with other mountain ranges. The rivers of the Himalayas
Himalayas
drain into two large river systems:

The western rivers combine into the Indus
Indus
Basin. The Indus
Indus
itself forms the northern and western boundaries of the Himalayas. It begins in Tibet
Tibet
at the confluence of Sengge and Gar rivers and flows north-west through India
India
into Pakistan
Pakistan
before turning south-west to the Arabian Sea. It is fed by several major tributaries draining the southern slopes of the Himalayas, including the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej
Sutlej
rivers, the five rivers of the Punjab. The other Himalayan rivers drain the Ganges- Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
Basin. Its main rivers are the Ganges, the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and the Yamuna, as well as other tributaries. The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
originates as the Yarlung Tsangpo River
River
in western Tibet, and flows east through Tibet
Tibet
and west through the plains of Assam. The Ganges
Ganges
and the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
meet in Bangladesh and drain into the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
through the world's largest river delta, the Sunderbans.[17]

The northern slopes of Gyala Peri
Gyala Peri
and the peaks beyond the Tsangpo, sometimes included in the Himalayas, drain into the Irrawaddy River, which originates in eastern Tibet
Tibet
and flows south through Myanmar to drain into the Andaman Sea. The Salween, Mekong, Yangtze and Yellow River
River
all originate from parts of the Tibetan Plateau
Tibetan Plateau
that are geologically distinct from the Himalaya
Himalaya
mountains and are therefore not considered true Himalayan rivers. Some geologists refer to all the rivers collectively as the circum-Himalayan rivers.[18]

Glacier

Glaciers The great ranges of central Asia, including the Himalayas, contain the third-largest deposit of ice and snow in the world, after Antarctica and the Arctic.[19] The Himalayan range encompasses about 15,000 glaciers, which store about 12,000 km3 (3,000 cubic miles) of fresh water.[20] Its glaciers include the Gangotri
Gangotri
and Yamunotri (Uttarakhand) and Khumbu
Khumbu
glaciers ( Mount Everest
Mount Everest
region), Langtang glacier ( Langtang
Langtang
region) and Zemu (Sikkim). Owing to the mountains' latitude near the Tropic of Cancer, the permanent snow line is among the highest in the world at typically around 5,500 metres (18,000 ft).[21] In contrast, equatorial mountains in New Guinea, the Rwenzoris
Rwenzoris
and Colombia
Colombia
have a snow line some 900 metres (2,950 ft) lower.[22] The higher regions of the Himalayas
Himalayas
are snowbound throughout the year, in spite of their proximity to the tropics, and they form the sources of several large perennial rivers. In recent years, scientists have monitored a notable increase in the rate of glacier retreat across the region as a result of global climate change.[23] For example, glacial lakes have been forming rapidly on the surface of debris-covered glaciers in the Bhutan Himalaya
Himalaya
during the last few decades. Although the effect of this will not be known for many years, it potentially could mean disaster for the hundreds of millions of people who rely on the glaciers to feed the rivers during the dry seasons.[24] Lakes

Tilicho lake in Manang, Nepal

The Himalayan region is dotted with hundreds of lakes. Most lakes are found at altitudes of less than 5,000 m, with the size of the lakes diminishing with altitude. Tilicho Lake
Tilicho Lake
in Nepal
Nepal
in the Annapurna massif is one of the highest lakes in the world. Pangong Tso, which is spread across the border between India
India
and China, and Yamdrok Tso, located in central Tibet, are amongst the largest with surface areas of 700 km², and 638 km², respectively. Other notable lakes include She- Phoksundo Lake
Phoksundo Lake
in the Shey Phoksundo National Park
Shey Phoksundo National Park
of Nepal, Gurudongmar Lake, in North Sikkim, Gokyo Lakes
Gokyo Lakes
in Solukhumbu district of Nepal
Nepal
and Lake Tsongmo, near the Indo- China
China
border in Sikkim. Some of the lakes present a danger of a glacial lake outburst flood. The Tsho Rolpa glacier lake in the Rowaling Valley, in the Dolakha District of Nepal, is rated as the most dangerous. The lake, which is located at an altitude of 4,580 metres (15,030 ft) has grown considerably over the last 50 years due to glacial melting.[25][26] The mountain lakes are known to geographers as tarns if they are caused by glacial activity. Tarns are found mostly in the upper reaches of the Himalaya, above 5,500 metres.[27] Climate

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The vast size, huge altitude range and complex topography of the Himalayas
Himalayas
mean they experience a wide range of climates, from humid subtropical in the foothills to cold, dry desert conditions on the Tibetan side of the range. For much of Himalayas
Himalayas
– that on the south side of the high mountains, except in the furthest west, the most characteristic feature of the climate is the monsoon. Heavy rain arrives on the south-west monsoon in June and persists until September. The monsoon can seriously impact transport and cause major landslides. It restricts tourism – the trekking and mountaineering season is limited to either before the monsoon in April/May or after the monsoon in October/November (autumn). In Nepal
Nepal
and Sikkim, there are often considered to be five seasons: summer, monsoon, autumn (or post-monsoon), winter and spring. Using the Köppen climate classification, the lower elevations of the Himalayas, reaching in mid elevations in central Nepal
Nepal
(including the Kathmandu
Kathmandu
valley), are classified as Cwa, Humid subtropical climate with dry winters. Higher up, most of the Himalayas
Himalayas
have a subtropical highland climate (Cwb). In the furthest west of the Himalayas, in the west of the Kashmir valley and the Indus
Indus
valley, the South Asian monsoon is no longer a dominant factor and most precipitation falls in the spring. Srinagar receives around 723 millimetres (28 in) around half the rainfall of locations such as Shimla
Shimla
and Kathmandu, with the wettest months being March and April. The northern side of the Himalayas, also known as the Tibetan Himalaya, is dry, cold and generally wind swept particularly in the west where it has a cold desert climate. The vegetation is sparse and stunted and the winters are severely cold. Most of the precipitation in the region is in the form of snow during late winter and spring months. Local impacts on climate are significant throughout the Himalayas. Temperatures fall by 6.5 °C (11.7 °F) for every 1000m rise in altitude. This gives rise to a variety of climates from nearly tropical in the foothills to tundra and permanent snow and ice. Local climate is also affected by the topography: The leeward side of the mountains receive less rain while the well exposed slopes get heavy rainfall and the rain shadow of large mountains can be significant, for example leading to near desert conditions in the Upper Mustang which is sheltered from the monsoon rains by the Annapurna
Annapurna
and Dhaulagiri
Dhaulagiri
massifs and has annual precipitation of around 300mm, while Pokhara
Pokhara
on the southern side of the massifs has substantial rainfall (3,900mm/year). Thus although annual precipitation is generally higher in east than the west, local variations are often more important. The Himalayas
Himalayas
have a profound effect on the climate of the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan Plateau. They prevent frigid, dry winds from blowing south into the subcontinent, which keeps South Asia
Asia
much warmer than corresponding temperate regions in the other continents. It also forms a barrier for the monsoon winds, keeping them from traveling northwards, and causing heavy rainfall in the Terai
Terai
region. The Himalayas
Himalayas
are also believed to play an important part in the formation of Central Asian deserts, such as the Taklamakan
Taklamakan
and Gobi.[28]

Vulture

Ecology Main article: Ecology of the Himalayas

Captive snow leopard

The flora and fauna of the Himalayas
Himalayas
vary with climate, rainfall, altitude, and soils. The climate ranges from tropical at the base of the mountains to permanent ice and snow at the highest elevations. The amount of yearly rainfall increases from west to east along the southern front of the range. This diversity of altitude, rainfall and soil conditions combined with the very high snow line supports a variety of distinct plant and animal communities. The extremes of high altitude (low atmospheric pressure) combined with extreme cold favor extremophile organisms.[29]

Male Himalayan Tahr in Nepal

Red Panda

At high altitudes, the elusive and endangered snow leopard is the main predator. Its prey includes members of the goat family grazing on the alpine pastures and living on the rocky terrain, notably the endemic bharal or Himalayan blue sheep. The Himalayan musk deer
Himalayan musk deer
is also found at high altitude. Hunted for its musk, it is now rare and endangered. Other endemic or near endemic herbivores include the Himalayan tahr, the takin, the Himalayan serow, and the Himalayan goral. The critically endangered Himalayan subspecies of the brown bear is found sporadically across the range as is the Asian black bear. In the mountainous mixed deciduous and conifer forests of the eastern Himalayas, Red panda
Red panda
feed in the dense understories of bamboo. Lower down the forests of the foothills are inhabited by several different primates, including the endangered Gee's golden langur
Gee's golden langur
and the Kashmir gray langur, with highly restricted ranges in the east and west of the Himalayas
Himalayas
respectively. The unique floral and faunal wealth of the Himalayas
Himalayas
is undergoing structural and compositional changes due to climate change. Hydrangea hirta is an example of floral species that can be found in this area. The increase in temperature is shifting various species to higher elevations. The oak forest is being invaded by pine forests in the Garhwal Himalayan region. There are reports of early flowering and fruiting in some tree species, especially rhododendron, apple and box myrtle. The highest known tree species in the Himalayas
Himalayas
is Juniperus tibetica located at 4,900 metres (16,080 ft) in Southeastern Tibet.[30] Culture The Himalayan population belongs to four distinct cultural groups, who throughout history have systematically penetrated the isolated indigenous Himalayan population. Those migrating cultures – Hindu (Indian), Buddhist (Tibetan), Islamic (Afghanistan–Iran) and Animist (Burmese and south-eastern Asian) – without any doubt have created here their own individual and unique place.[5] Their current arrangement, though with a few exceptions, is linked to specific geographical regions, and the relative altitude at which they occur. There are many cultural aspects of the Himalayas. For the Hindus, the Himalayas
Himalayas
are personified as Himavath, the father of the goddess Parvati.[31] The Himalayas
Himalayas
is also considered to be the father of the river Ganges. The Mountain Kailash is a sacred peak to the Hindus and is where the Lord Shiva is believed to live.[citation needed] Two of the most sacred places of pilgrimage for the Hindus is the temple complex in Pashupatinath and Muktinath, also known as Saligrama because of the presence of the sacred black rocks called saligrams.[32] The Buddhists also lay a great deal of importance on the mountains of the Himalayas. Paro Taktsang
Paro Taktsang
is the holy place where Buddhism
Buddhism
started in Bhutan.[citation needed] The Muktinath is also a place of pilgrimage for the Tibetan Buddhists. They believe that the trees in the poplar grove came from the walking sticks of eighty-four ancient Indian Buddhist magicians or mahasiddhas. They consider the saligrams to be representatives of the Tibetan serpent deity known as Gawo Jagpa.[33] The Himalayan people’s diversity shows in many different ways. It shows through their architecture, their languages and dialects, their beliefs and rituals, as well as their clothing.[33] The shapes and materials of the people’s homes reflect their practical needs and the beliefs. Another example of the diversity amongst the Himalayan peoples is that handwoven textiles display colors and patterns unique to their ethnic backgrounds. Finally, some people place a great importance on jewellery. The Rai and Limbu women wear big gold earrings and nose rings to show their wealth through their jewellery.[33] Religions of the region

The Taktsang Monastery, Bhutan, also known as the "Tiger's Nest"

Several places in the Himalayas
Himalayas
are of religious significance in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism
Jainism
and Sikhism. A notable example of a religious site is Paro Taktsang, where Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
is said to have founded Buddhism
Buddhism
in Bhutan.[34] Padmasambhava
Padmasambhava
is also worshipped as the patron saint of Sikkim. There are also Muslim
Muslim
and Hindhu Shaivite Kashmiri Pandit
Kashmiri Pandit
in the area of Kashmir. In Hinduism, the Himalayas
Himalayas
have been personified as the king of all Mountain – "Giriraj Himavat", father of Ganga and Parvati
Parvati
(form of Adi Shakti
Adi Shakti
Durga).[35] A number of Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhist sites are situated in the Himalayas, in Tibet, Bhutan
Bhutan
and in the Indian regions of Ladakh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Spiti and Darjeeling. There were over 6,000 monasteries in Tibet, including the residence of the Dalai Lama.[36] Bhutan, Sikkim and Ladakh
Ladakh
are also dotted with numerous monasteries. The Tibetan Muslims have their own mosques in Lhasa
Lhasa
and Shigatse.[37] Resources The Himalayas
Himalayas
are home to a diversity of medicinal resources. Plants from the forests have been used for millennia to treat conditions ranging from simple coughs to snake bites.[32] Different parts of the plants – root, flower, stem, leaves, and bark – are used as remedies for different ailments. For example, a bark extract from an abies pindrow tree is used to treat coughs and bronchitis. Leaf and stem paste from an arachne cordifolia is used for wounds and as an antidote for snake bites. The bark of a callicarpa arborea is used for skin ailments.[32] Nearly a fifth of the gymnosperms, angiosperms and pteridophytes in the Himalayas
Himalayas
are found to have medicinal properties, and more are likely to be discovered.[32] Most of the population in some Asian and African countries depend on medicinal plants rather than prescriptions and such.[31] Since so many people use medicinal plants as their only source of healing in the Himalayas, the plants are an important source of income. This contributes to economic and modern industrial development both inside and outside the region.[31] The only problem is that locals are rapidly clearing the forests on the Himalayas
Himalayas
for wood, often illegally.[38] This means that the number of medicinal plants is declining and that some of them might become rarer or, in some cases, go extinct. Although locals are clearing out portions of the forests in the Himalayas, there is still a large amount of greenery ranging from the tropical forests to the Alpine forests. These forests provide wood for fuel and other raw materials for use by industries. There are also many pastures for animals to graze upon.[citation needed] The many varieties of animals that live in these mountains do so based on the elevation. For example, elephants and rhinoceros live in the lower elevations of the Himalayas, also called the Terai
Terai
region. Also, found in these mountains are the Kashmiri stag, black bears, musk deer, langur, and snow leopards. The Tibetan yak are also found on these mountains and are often used by the people for transportation. However, the populations of many of these animals and still others are declining and are on the verge of going extinct.[citation needed] The Himalayas
Himalayas
are also a source of many minerals and precious stones. Amongst the tertiary rocks, are vast potentials of mineral oil. There is coal located in Kashmir, and precious stones located in the Himalayas. There is also gold, silver, copper, zinc, and many other such minerals and metals located in at least 100 different places in these mountains.[citation needed] See also

List of Himalayan topics Eastern, Garhwal and Western Himalaya List of Himalayan peaks and passes and of Himalayan peaks of Uttarakhand Indian Himalayan Region List of mountains in India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Nepal
Nepal
and China List of Ultras of the Himalayas Mahalangur Himal Trekking peak

References

^ Yang, Qinye; Zheng, Du (2004). Himalayan Mountain System. ISBN 9787508506654. Retrieved 30 July 2016.  ^ Wadia, D. N. (1931). The syntaxis of the northwest Himalaya: its rocks, tectonics and orogeny. Record Geol. Survey of India
India
65(2): 189–220. ^ Valdiya, K. S. (1998). Dynamic Himalaya
Himalaya
. Hyderabad: Universities Press. ^ Le Fort, P. (1975). Himalayas: The collided range. Present knowledge of the continental arc. American Journal Science 275A: 1–44. ^ a b c Apollo, M. (2017). The population of Himalayan regions – by the numbers: Past, present and future. [In:] R. Efe, M. Öztürk (eds.), Contemporary Studies in Environment and Tourism, Chapter: 9 (pp.143–159). Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. ^ "Definition of Himalayas". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 9 May 2011.  ^ Dickinson, Emily, "The Himmaleh was known to stoop" . ^ Thoreau, Henry David (1849), A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers . ^ a b "The Himalayas: Two continents collide". USGS. 5 May 1999. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ (1995) Geologists Find: An Earth
Earth
Plate Is Breaking in Two ^ Mount Everest
Mount Everest
- Overview and Information by Matt Rosenberg. ThoughtCo Updated 17 March 2017 ^ "Plate Tectonics -The Himalayas". The Geological Society. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ a b c Kuhle, M. (2011). "The High Glacial (Last Ice Age and Last Glacial Maximum) Ice Cover of High and Central Asia, with a Critical Review of Some Recent OSL and TCN Dates". In Ehlers, J.; Gibbard, P.L.; Hughes, P.D. Quaternary Glaciation – Extent and Chronology, A Closer Look. Amsterdam: Elsevier BV. pp. 943–965.  ^ glacier maps downloadable ^ Kuhle, M. (1987). "Subtropical mountain- and highland-glaciation as ice age triggers and the waning of the glacial periods in the Pleistocene". GeoJournal. 14 (4): 393–421. doi:10.1007/BF02602717.  ^ Kuhle, M. (2005). "The maximum Ice Age (Würmian, Last Ice Age, LGM) glaciation of the Himalaya
Himalaya
– a glaciogeomorphological investigation of glacier trim-lines, ice thicknesses and lowest former ice margin positions in the Mt. Everest-Makalu- Cho Oyu
Cho Oyu
massifs (Khumbu- and Khumbakarna Himal) including informations on late-glacial-, neoglacial-, and historical glacier stages, their snow-line depressions and ages". GeoJournal. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 62 (3–4): 193–650. doi:10.1007/s10708-005-2338-6.  ^ " Sunderbans
Sunderbans
the world's largest delta". gits4u.com. Archived from the original on 3 January 2015. Retrieved 3 January 2015.  ^ Gaillardet, J.; Métivier, F.; Lemarchand, D.; Dupré, B.; Allègre, C. J.; Li, W.; Zhao, J. (2003). "Geochemistry of the Suspended Sediments of Circum-Himalayan Rivers and Weathering Budgets over the Last 50 Myrs" (PDF). Geophysical Research Abstracts. European Geophysical Society. 5. Bibcode:2003EAEJA....13617G. Abstract 13617. Retrieved 4 November 2006.  ^ "The Himalayas
Himalayas
- Himalayas
Himalayas
Facts - Nature - PBS". Nature on PBS. Retrieved 21 January 2014.  ^ "the Himalayan Glaciers". Fourth assessment report on climate change. IPPC. 2007. Retrieved 22 January 2014.  ^ Shi, Yafeng; Xie, Zizhu; Zheng, Benxing; Li, Qichun (1978). "Distribution, Feature and Variations of Glaciers in China" (PDF). World Glacier
Glacier
Inventory. Riederalp Workshop. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 December 2012.  ^ Henderson-Sellers, Ann; McGuffie, Kendal. The Future of the World's Climate: A Modelling Perspective. pp. 199–201. ISBN 9780123869173.  ^ "Vanishing Himalayan Glaciers Threaten a Billion". Reuters. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 13 March 2018.  ^ "Glaciers melting at alarming speed". People's Daily Online. 24 July 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2009.  ^ Photograph of Tsho Rolpa ^ Tsho Rolpa ^ Drews, Carl. "Highest Lake in the World". Retrieved 14 November 2010.  ^ Devitt, Terry (3 May 2001). "Climate shift linked to rise of Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau". University of Wisconsin–Madison News. Retrieved 1 November 2011.  ^ Hogan, C. Michael (2010). Monosson, E., ed. "Extremophile". Encyclopedia of Earth. Washington DC: National Council for Science and the Environment.  ^ Miehe, Georg; Miehe, Sabine; Vogel, Jonas; Co, Sonam; Duo, La (May 2007). "Highest Treeline in the Northern Hemisphere Found in Southern Tibet" (PDF). Mountain Research and Development. 27 (2): 169–173. doi:10.1659/mrd.0792. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 June 2013.  ^ a b c Gupta, Pankaj; Sharma, Vijay Kumar (2014). Healing Traditions of the Northwestern Himalayas. Springer Briefs in Environmental Science. ISBN 8132219252.  ^ a b c d Jahangeer A. Bhat, Munesh Kumar and Rainer W. Bussmann (2 January 2013). "Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath
Kedarnath
Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India". Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. BioMed Central. 9: 1. doi:10.1186/1746-4269-9-1. PMC 3560114 . PMID 23281594. Retrieved 22 January 2016.  ^ a b c Zurick, David; Julsun, Pacheco; Basanta, Raj Shrestha; Birendra, Bajracharya (2006). Illustrated Atlas of the Himalaya. Lexington: U of Kentucky.  ^ Pommaret, Francoise (2006). Bhutan
Bhutan
Himalayan Mountains Kingdom (5th ed.). Odyssey Books and Guides. pp. 136–7. ISBN 978-9622178106.  ^ Dallapiccola, Anna (2002). Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend. ISBN 0-500-51088-1.  ^ "Tibetan monks: A controlled life". BBC News. 20 March 2008.  ^ "Mosques in Lhasa, Tibet". People's Daily Online. 27 October 2005.  ^ "Himalayan Forests Disappearing". Earth
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Island Journal. 21 (4): 7–8. 2006. 

Further reading

Aitken, Bill, Footloose in the Himalaya, Delhi, Permanent Black, 2003. ISBN 81-7824-052-1 Berreman, Gerald Duane, Hindus of the Himalayas: Ethnography and Change, 2nd rev. ed., Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1997. Bisht, Ramesh Chandra, Encyclopedia of the Himalayas, New Delhi, Mittal Publications, c2008. Everest, the IMAX movie (1998). ISBN 0-7888-1493-1 Fisher, James F., Sherpas: Reflections on Change in Himalayan Nepal, 1990. Berkeley, University of California Press, 1990. ISBN 0-520-06941-2 Gansser, Augusto, Gruschke, Andreas, Olschak, Blanche C., Himalayas. Growing Mountains, Living Myths, Migrating Peoples, New York, Oxford: Facts On File, 1987. ISBN 0-8160-1994-0 and New Delhi: Bookwise, 1987. Gupta, Raj Kumar, Bibliography of the Himalayas, Gurgaon, Indian Documentation Service, 1981 Hunt, John, Ascent of Everest, London, Hodder & Stoughton, 1956. ISBN 0-89886-361-9 Isserman, Maurice and Weaver, Stewart, Fallen Giants: The History of Himalayan Mountaineering from the Age of Empire to the Age of Extremes. Yale University Press, 2008. ISBN 978-0-300-11501-7 Ives, Jack D. and Messerli, Bruno, The Himalayan Dilemma: Reconciling Development and Conservation. London / New York, Routledge, 1989. ISBN 0-415-01157-4 Lall, J.S. (ed.) in association with Moddie, A.D., The Himalaya, Aspects of Change. Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1981. ISBN 0-19-561254-X Nandy, S.N., Dhyani, P.P. and Samal, P.K., Resource Information Database of the Indian Himalaya, Almora, GBPIHED, 2006. Palin, Michael, Himalaya, London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson Illustrated, 2004. ISBN 0-297-84371-0 Swami Sundaranand, Himalaya: Through the Lens of a Sadhu. Published by Tapovan Kuti Prakashan (August 2001). ISBN 81-901326-0-1 Swami Tapovan Maharaj, Wanderings in the Himalayas, English Edition, Madras, Chinmaya Publication Trust, 1960. Translated by T.N. Kesava Pillai. Tilman, H. W., Mount Everest, 1938, Cambridge University Press, 1948. 'The Mighty Himalaya: A Fragile Heritage,’ National Geographic, 174:624–631 (November 1988). Turner, Bethan, et al. Seismicity of the Earth
Earth
1900–2010: Himalaya and Vicinity. Denver, United States Geological Survey, 2013.

External links

Wikimedia Commons
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Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Himalayas.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Himalayas

The Digital Himalaya
Himalaya
research project at Cambridge and Yale Pierre Dèzes (1999). "The making of the Himalaya
Himalaya
and major tectonic subdivisions". The geology of Zanskar.  Geology
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of the Himalayan mountains Birth of the Himalaya WEEK 11 INFO: MOUNTAIN GEOGRAPHY [1] Geology
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South

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South

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Desert

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Australasia

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Maralinga

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Melanesia

Islands Region

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Fiji New Caledonia Papua New Guinea Vanuatu

Micronesia

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Polynesia

Easter Island Hawaiian Islands Cook Islands French Polynesia

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Regions of South America

East

Amazon basin Atlantic Forest Caatinga Cerrado

North

Caribbean South America West Indies Los Llanos The Guianas Amazon basin

Amazon rainforest

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South

Tierra del Fuego Patagonia Pampas Pantanal Gran Chaco Chiquitano dry forests Valdes Peninsula

West

Andes

Tropical Andes Wet Andes Dry Andes Pariacaca mountain range

Altiplano Atacama Desert

Latin Hispanic American Cordillera Ring of Fire LAC

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Polar regions

Antarctic

Antarctic
Antarctic
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Arctic

Arctic
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Territories Canadian Arctic
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Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic
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Ocean

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Greenland
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Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland
Greenland
Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor
Timor
Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China
China
Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China
China
Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140840481 GND: 4024923-2 SUDOC: 027484505 BNF: cb119795732 (d

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