The Info List - Hiligaynon Language

The Hiligaynon language, also colloquially referred often by most of its speakers simply as Ilonggo, is an Austronesian regional language spoken in the Philippines
by about 9.1 million people, mainly in Western Visayas
Western Visayas
and SOCCSKSARGEN, most of whom belong to the Visayan ethnic group, mainly the Hiligaynons.[4] It is the second-most widely spoken language and a member of the so-named Visayan language family and is more distantly related to other Philippine languages. Hiligaynon is mainly concentrated in the regions of Western Visayas (Iloilo, Capiz, Guimaras, and Negros Occidental), as well as in South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat, and North Cotabato
North Cotabato
in SOCCSKSARGEN. It is also spoken in other neighboring provinces, such as Antique and Aklan (also in Western Visayas), Negros Oriental
Negros Oriental
in Central Visayas, Masbate in Bicol Region, Romblon
and Palawan
in MIMAROPA, as well as some parts of Northern Mindanao. It is also spoken as a second language by Kinaray-a
speakers in Antique, Aklanon/Malaynon speakers in Aklan, Capiznon
speakers in Capiz
and Cebuano speakers in Negros Oriental.[5] There are approximately 9,300,000 people in and out of the Philippines who are native speakers of Hiligaynon and an additional 5,000,000 capable of speaking it with a substantial degree of proficiency.[2] The language is also often referred to as Ilonggo (Spanish: Iloŋgo) in Iloilo
and Negros Occidental. Many speakers outside Iloilo
argue, however, that this is an incorrect usage of the word "Ilonggo". In precise usage, "Ilonggo" should be used only in relation to the ethnolinguistic group of native inhabitants of Iloilo
and the culture associated with native Hiligaynon speakers in the place including their dialect. The disagreement over the usage of "Ilonggo" to refer to the language extends to Philippine language specialists and native laypeople.[6] It also has the one of the largest native language-speaking population of the Philippines
despite not being taught and studied formally in schools and universities until 2012.[7] Hiligaynon is given the ISO 639-2 three-letter code hil, but has no ISO 639-1 two-letter code.


1 History 2 Classification

2.1 Dialects

2.1.1 Related languages

3 Writing system

3.1 Alphabet 3.2 Additional symbols

4 Grammar

4.1 Determiners 4.2 Personal pronouns 4.3 Demonstrative pronouns 4.4 Copula 4.5 Existential 4.6 Hiligaynon linkers 4.7 Interrogative words 4.8 Verbs

4.8.1 Focus[16] 4.8.2 Aspect 4.8.3 Mode 4.8.4 Summary

4.9 Reduplication

5 Phonology

5.1 Consonants 5.2 Vowels

6 Loanwords 7 Examples

7.1 Numbers 7.2 Days of the week 7.3 Months of the year 7.4 Quick phrases 7.5 Greetings 7.6 This/that/what 7.7 Space and Time 7.8 Ancient Times of the Day 7.9 When buying 7.10 The Lord's Prayer 7.11 The Ten Commandments 7.12 Universal Declaration of Human Rights

8 Children's books

8.1 Ang Bukid nga Nagpalangga sang Pispis

9 See also 10 Notable Hiligaynon writers 11 References 12 External links

History[edit] Historical evidence from observations of early Spanish explorers in the Archipelago shows that the nomenclature used to refer to this language had its origin among the people of the coasts or people of the Ilawod ("los [naturales] de la playa"), whom Loarca called Yligueynes [8] (or the more popular term Hiligaynon, also referred to by the Karay-a people as "Siná"). In contrast, the "Kinaray-a" has been used by what the Spanish colonizers called Arayas, which is most probably a Spanish misconception (as they often misinterpreted what they heard from the natives) of the Hiligaynon words Iraya or taga-Iraya, or the current and more popular version Karay-a (highlanders - people of Iraya/highlands).[9] Classification[edit]

The Water cycle
Water cycle
diagram in Hiligaynon.

Dialects[edit] Similar to many languages in the Philippines, very little research on dialectology has been done on Hiligaynon. Some of the widely recognized varieties of the language are Standard or Urban Hiligaynon ( Iloilo
provincial and Iloilo
City variant), simply called "Ilonggo", Bacolodnon Hiligaynon ( Metro Bacolod
Metro Bacolod
variant), Negrense Hiligaynon (provincial Negros Occidental
Negros Occidental
variant which is composed of 3 sub-variants: Northern, Central and Southern Negrense Hiligaynon), Guimaras
Hiligaynon, and Mindanao
Hiligaynon. Some native speakers also consider Kinaray-a
(also known as Hiniraya or Antiqueño) and Capiznon
as dialects of Hiligaynon; however, these have been classified by linguists as separate (Western) Visayan languages.[10][11] Related languages[edit] According to H. Otley Beyer
H. Otley Beyer
and other anthropologists, the term Visayan was first applied only to the people of Panay and to their settlements eastward in the island of Negros (especially its western portion), and northward in the smaller islands, which now compose the province of Romblon. In fact, at the early part of Spanish colonialization of the Philippines, the Spaniards used the term Visayan only for these areas. While the people of Cebu, Bohol and Leyte were for a long time known only as Pintados. The name Visayan was later extended to these other islands because, as several of the early writers state, their languages are closely allied to the Visayan dialect of Panay.[12] Writing system[edit] Until the second half of the 20th century, Hiligaynon was widely written based on Spanish orthography consisting of 32 letters called ABECEDARIO: A B C Ch D E F G H I J K L Ll M N Ng Ñ N͠g/Ng̃/Ñg O P Q R Rr S T U V W X Y Z[13][14] The core alphabet consists of 20 letters used for expressing consonants and vowels in Hiligaynon, each of which comes in an upper case and lower case variety. Alphabet[edit]

The 1st to 10th letters

Symbol A a B b K k D d E e G g H h I i L l M m

Name a ba ka da e ga ha i la ma

Pronunciation [a/ə] [aw] [aj] [b] [k] [d] [ɛ/e] [ɡ] [h] [ɪ/i] [ɪo] [l] [m]

in context a aw/ao ay b k d e g h i iw/io l m

The 11th to 20th letters

Symbol N n Ng ng O o P p R r S s T t U u W w Y y

Name na nga o pa ra sa ta u wa ya

Pronunciation [n] [ŋ] [ɔ/o] [oj] [p] [r] [s] [ʃʲ] [t] [ʊ/u] [w] [w] [j]

in context n ng o oy p r s sy t u ua w y

Additional symbols[edit] The apostrophe ⟨'⟩ and hyphen ⟨-⟩ also appear in Hiligaynon writing, and might be considered separate letters. The hyphen, in particular, is used medially in some words to indicate the glottal stop san-o ‘when’ gab-e ‘evening; night’. It is also used to indicate the point in a word where reduplication is present: adlaw-adlaw ‘daily, every day’, from adlaw ‘day, sun’. However, the use of this means of marking reduplication is not always consistent: pispis ‘bird’. In addition, some English letters may be used in borrowed words. Grammar[edit] Determiners[edit] Hiligaynon has three types of case markers: absolutive, ergative, and oblique. These types in turn are divided into personal, that have to do with names of people, and impersonal, that deal with everything else, and further into singular and plural types, though the plural impersonal case markers are just the singular impersonal case markers + mga (a contracted spelling for /maŋa/), a particle used to denote plurality in Hiligaynon.[15]

  Absolutive Ergative Oblique

singular impersonal ang sang, sing* sa

plural impersonal ang mga sang mga, sing mga* sa mga

singular personal si ni kay

plural personal** sanday nanday kanday

(*)The articles sing and sing mga means the following noun is indefinite, while sang tells of a definite noun, like the use of a in English as opposed to the, however, it is not as common in modern speech, being replaced by sang. It appears in conservative translations of the Bible into Hiligaynon and in traditional or formal speech (**)The plural personal case markers are not used very often and not even by all speakers. Again, this is an example of a case marker that has fallen largely into disuse, but is still occasionally used when speaking a more traditional form of Hiligaynon, using less Spanish loan words. The case markers do not determine which noun is the subject and which is the object; rather, the affix of the verb determines this, though the ang-marked noun is always the topic.


Ang lalaki nagkaon sang tinapay. ≈ Ang tinapay ginkaon sang lalaki.

"The man ate the bread" "The bread was eaten by the man" (literal)

Personal pronouns[edit]

  Absolutive Ergative₁ (Postposed) Ergative₂ (Preposed) Oblique

1st person singular ako, ko nakon, ko akon sa akon

2nd person singular ikaw, ka nimo, mo imo sa imo

3rd person singular siya niya iya sa iya

1st person plural inclusive kita naton, ta aton sa aton

1st person plural exclusive kami namon amon sa amon

2nd person plural kamo ninyo inyo sa inyo

3rd person plural sila nila ila sa ila

Demonstrative pronouns[edit]

  Absolutive Ergative/Oblique Locative Existential

Nearest to speaker (this, here) * iní siní dirí (y)ári

Near to addressee or closely removed from speaker and addressee (that, there) inâ sinâ dirâ (y)ára'

Remote (yon, yonder) ató sadtó didtó (y)á(d)to

In addition to this, there are two verbal deictics, karí, meaning come to speaker, and kadto, meaning to go yonder. Copula[edit] Hiligaynon lacks the marker of sentence inversion "ay" of Tagalog/Filipino or "hay" of Akeanon. Instead sentences in SV form (Filipino: Di karaniwang anyo) are written without any marker or copula. Examples: "Si Maria ay maganda" (Tagalog) "Si Maria matahum/ Si Maria guapa" (Hiligaynon) = "Maria is beautiful." "Maria is beautiful" (English) There is no direct translation for the English copula "to be" in Hiligaynon. However, the prefixes mangin- and nangin- may be used to mean will be and became, respectively. Example: Manamì mangín manggaránon. "It is nice to become rich." The Spanish copula "estar" (to be) has also become a part of the Hiligaynon lexicon. Its meaning and pronunciation have changed compared to its Spanish meaning, however. In Hiligaynon it is pronounced as "istar" and means "to live (in)/location"(Compare with the Hiligaynon word "puyô"). Example: Nagaistar ako sa tabuc suba "I live in tabuc suba" "tabuc suba" translates to "other side of the river" and is also a barangay in Jaro, Iloilo. Existential[edit] To indicate the existence of an object, the word may is used. Example: May idô (a)ko "I have a dog" Hiligaynon linkers[edit] When an adjective modifies a noun, the linker nga links the two. Example: Itom nga ido Black dog Sometimes, if the linker is preceded by a word that ends in a vowel, glottal stop or the letter N, it becomes acceptable to contract it into -ng, as in Filipino. This is often used to make the words sound more poetic or to reduce the number of syllables. Sometimes the meaning may change as in maayo nga aga and maayong aga. The first meaning: (the) good morning; while the other is the greeting for 'good morning'. The linker ka is used if a number modifies a noun. Example: Anum ka ido six dogs Interrogative words[edit] The interrogative words of Hiligaynon are as follows: diin, san-o, sin-o, nga-a, kamusta, ano, and pila Diin means where. Example: Diin ka na subong? "Where are you now?" A derivation of diin, tagadiin, is used to inquire the birthplace or hometown of the listener. Example: Tagadiin ka? "Where are you from?" San-o means when Example: San-o inâ? "When is that?" Sin-o means who Example: Sin-o imo abyan? "Who is your friend?" Nga-a means why Example: Nga-a indi ka magkadto? "Why won't you go?" Kamusta means how, as in "How are you?" Example: Kamusta ang tindahan? "How is the store?" Ano means what Example: Ano ang imo ginabasa? "What are you reading?" A derivative of ano, paano, means how, as in "How do I do that?" Example: Paano ko makapulî? "How can I get home?" A derivative of paano is paanoano an archaic phrase which can be compared with kamusta Example: Paanoano ikaw? "How art thou?" Pila means how much/how many Example: Pila ang maupod sa imo? "How many are with you?" A derivative of pila, ikapila, asks the numerical order of the person, as in, "What place were you born in your family?"(first-born, second-born, etc.) This word is notoriously difficult to translate into English, as English has no equivalent. Example: Ikapila ka sa inyo pamilya? "What place were you born into your family?" A derivative of pila, tagpila, asks the monetary value of something, as in, "How much is this beef?" Example: Tagpila ini nga karne sang baka? "How much is this beef?" Verbs[edit] Focus[16][edit] See also: Austronesian alignment As it is essential for sentence structure and meaning, focus is a key concept in Hiligaynon and other Philippine languages. In English, in order to emphasize a part of a sentence, variation in intonation is usually employed – the voice is stronger or louder on the part emphasized. For example:

The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister. The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister. The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister. The man is stealing rice from the market for his sister.

Furthermore, active and passive grammatical constructions can be used in English to place focus on the actor or object as the subject:

The man stole the rice. vs. The rice was stolen by the man.

In contrast, sentence focus in Philippine languages
Philippine languages
is built into the construction by grammatical elements. Focus is marked by verbal affixes and a special particle prior to the noun in focus. Consider the following Hiligaynon translations of the above sentences:

Nagakawat ang lalaki sang bugas sa tinda para sa iya utod. Ginakawat sang lalaki ang bugas sa tinda para sa iya utod. Ginakawatan sang lalaki sang bugas ang tinda para sa iya utod. Ginakawatan sang lalaki sang bugas sa tinda para sa iya utod.

(lalaki = man; kawat = to steal; bugas = rice; tinda = market; sibling = utod; kamot = hand)

Aspect[edit] Mode[edit] Summary[edit]

Trigger, Mode and Aspect Affixes for Hiligaynon[17]


Neutral Purposive Durative Causative Distributive Cooperative Dubitative

Agent Goal Unreal -on pag—on paga—on pa—on pang—on pakig—on iga—on

Real gin- gin- gina- ginpa- ginpang- ginpakig- ø

Referent Unreal -an pag—an paga—an pa—an pang—an pakig—an iga—an

Real gin—an gin—an gina—an ginpa—an ginpang—an ginpakig—an ø

Accessory Unreal i- ipag- ipaga- ipa- ipang- ipakig- iga-

Real gin- gin- gina- ginpa- ginpang- ginpakig- ø

Actor Unreal -um- mag- maga- ø mang- makig- ø

Real -um- nag- naga- ø nang- nakig- ø

Patient Actor Unreal maka- makapag- makapaga- makapa- makapang- mapapakig- ø

Real naka- nakapag- nakapaga- nakapa- nakapang- napapakig- ø

Goal Unreal ma- mapag- mapaga- mapa- mapang- mapakig- ø

Real na- napag- napaga- napa- napang- napakig- ø

Reduplication[edit] Hiligaynon, like other Philippine languages, employs reduplication, the repetition of a root or stem of a word or part of a word for grammatical or semantic purposes. Reduplication in Hiligaynon tends to be limited to roots instead of affixes, as the only inflectional or derivational morpheme that seems to reduplicate is -pa-. Root reduplication suggests 'non-perfectiveness' or 'non-telicity'. Used with nouns, reduplication of roots indicate particulars which are not fully actualized members of their class.[18] Note the following examples.

(1) balay-bálay


toy-house, playhouse

(2) maestra-maestra


make-believe teacher

Reduplication of verbal roots suggests a process lacking a focus or decisive goal. The following examples describe events which have no apparent end, in the sense of lacking purpose or completion. A lack of seriousness may also be implied. Similarly, reduplication can suggest a background process in the midst of a foreground activity, as shown in (5).[19]

(3) Nag-a- hìbî-híbî ang bátâ.

NAG-IMP- cry-cry FOC child

The child has been crying and crying.

(4) Nag-a- tinlò-tinlò akó sang lamésa

NAG-IMP- clean-clean 1SG.FOC UNFOC table

I'm just cleaning off the table (casually).

(5) Nag-a- kàon-káon gid silá sang nag-abót ang íla bisíta.

NAG-IMP- eat-eat just 3PL.FOC UNFOC MAG-arrive FOC 3PL.UNFOC visitor

They were just eating when their visitor arrived.

When used with adjectival roots, non-telicity may suggest a gradualness of the quality, such as the comparison in (6). In comparative constructions the final syllables of each occurrence of the reduplicated root are accented. If the stress of the second occurrence is shifted to the first syllable, then the reduplicated root suggests a superlative degree, as in (7). Note that superlatives can also be created through prefixation of pinaka- to the root, as in pinaka-dakô. While non-telicity can suggest augmentation, as shown in (7), it can also indicate diminishment as in shown in (9), in contrast with (8) (note the stress contrast). In (8b), maàyoáyo, accented in the superlative pattern, suggests a trajectory of improvement that has not been fully achieved. In (9b), maàyoayó suggests a trajectory of decline when accented in the comparative pattern. The reduplicated áyo implies sub-optimal situations in both cases; full goodness/wellness is not achieved.[20]

(6) Iní nga kwárto ma-dulùm-dulúm sang sa sinâ

this.FOC LINK room MA-dark-dark UNFOC OBL that.UNFOC

This room is darker than that one.

(7) (a) dakô-dakô



(b) dakô-dákô (gid)

big-big (really)


(8) (a) Ma-áyo ang reló.

MA-good FOC watch

The watch is good/functional.

(b) Ma-àyo-áyo na ang reló.

MA-good-good now FOC watch

The watch is semi-fixed.

(9) (a) Ma-áyo akó.

MA-good 1SG.FOC

I'm well.

(b) Ma-àyo-ayó na akó.

MA-good-good now 1SG.FOC

I'm so so.

Phonology[edit] Consonants[edit]

Main consonant phonemes

Bilabial Dental/ Alveolar

Velar Glottal





Stop p b t d k ɡ










Consonants [d] and [ɾ] were once allophones but cannot interchange as in other Philippine languages: patawaron (to forgive) [from patawad, forgiveness] but not patawadon, and tagadiín (from where) [from diín, where] but not tagariín. Vowels[edit] There are three main vowels: /a/, /ɛ ~ i/, and /o ~ ʊ/. [i] and [ɛ] (both spelled i) are allophones, with [i] in the beginning and middle and sometimes final syllables and [ɛ] in final syllables. The vowels [ʊ] and [o] are also allophones, with [ʊ] always being used when it is the beginning of a syllable, and [o] always used when it ends a syllable. Loanwords[edit] Hiligaynon has a large number of words that derive from Spanish words including nouns (e.g., santo from santo, saint), adjectives (e.g., berde from verde, green), prepositions (e.g., antes from antes, before), and conjunctions (e.g., pero from pero, but). Moreover, Spanish provides the Hiligaynon base for items introduced by Spain, e.g., barko (barco, ship), sapatos (zapatos, shoes), kutsilyo (cuchillo, knife), kutsara (cuchara, spoon), tenedor (fork), plato (plate), kamiseta (camiseta, shirt), and kambiyo (cambio, change, as in money). Spanish verbs used in Hiligaynon often remain unconjugated (have the verb endings -ar, -er or -ir) which in Filipino would almost always be conjugated in the 'vos' form,[citation needed] e.g., komparar, mandar, pasar, tener, disponer, mantener, and asistir. Examples[edit] Numbers[edit]

Number Hiligaynon

1 isá

2 duhá

3 tátlo

4 ápat

5 limá

6 ánum

7 pitó

8 waló

9 siyám

10 pulò / napulò

100 gatós

1,000 líbo

10,000 laksâ

1,000,000 hámbad / ramák

First tig-una / panguná

Second ikaduhá

Third ikatlo / ikatátlo

Fourth ikap-at / ikaápat

Fifth ikalimá

Sixth ikán-um / ikaánum

Seventh ikapitó

Eighth ikawaló

Ninth ikasiyám

Tenth ikapulò

Days of the week[edit] The names of the days of the week are derived from their Spanish equivalents.

Day Native Names Meaning Castilian Derived

Sunday Tigburukad root word: Bukad, open; Starting Day Domingo

Monday Dumasaon root word: Dason, next; Next Day Lunes

Tuesday Dukot-dukot literal meaning: Busy Day; Busiest Day Martes

Wednesday Baylo-baylo root word: Baylo, exchange; Barter or Market Day Miyerkoles

Thursday Danghos literal meaning: rush; Rushing of the Work Day Huwebes

Friday Hingot-hingot literal meaning: Completing of the Work Day Biyernes

Saturday Ligid-ligid root word: Ligid, lay-down to rest; Rest Day Sábado

Months of the year[edit] The first set of Hiligaynon names of the months are derived from Spanish.

Month Bulan

January Enero; ulalong

February Pebrero; dagangkahoy

March Marso; dagangbulan

April Abril; kiling

May Mayo; himabuyan

June Hunio; kabay

July Hulyo; hidapdapan

August Agosto; lubadlubad

September Septiyembre; kangurolsol

October Oktubre; bagyo-bagyo

November Nobiyembre; panglot-diotay

December Disiyembre; panglot-daku

Quick phrases[edit]

English Hiligaynon

Yes. Hu-o.

No. Indî.

Thank you. Salamat.

Thank you very much! Salamat gid./ Madamo gid nga salamat!

I'm sorry. Patawaron mo ako. / Pasaylo-a 'ko. / Pasensyahon mo ako. / Pasensya na.

Help me! Buligi (a)ko! / Tabangi (a)ko!

Delicious! Namit!

Take care. Halong.

Are you angry/scared? Akig/hadlok ka?

Do you feel happy/sad? Nalipay/Nasubo-an ka?

I don't know/I didn't know Ambot / Wala ko kabalo / Wala ko nabal-an

I don't care Wa-ay ko labot!

That's wonderful/marvelous! Námì-námì ba! / Nami ah!

I like this/that! Nanámìan ko sini/sina!

I love you. Palangga ta ka./Ginahigugma ko ikaw.


English Hiligaynon

Hello! Kamusta/Maayong adlaw (lit. Good day)

Good morning. Maayong aga.

Good noon. Maayong ugto/Maayong udto

Good afternoon. Maayong hapon.

Good evening. Maayong gab-i.

How are you? Kamusta ka?/Kamusta ikaw?/Musta na? (Informal)

I'm fine. Maayo man.

I am fine, how about you? Maayo man, ikaw ya?

How old are you? Pila na ang edad (ni)mo? / Ano ang edad mo? / Pila ka tuig ka na?

I am 24 years old. Beinte kwatro anyos na (a)ko./ Duha ka pulo kag apat ka tuig na (a)ko.

My name is... Ang pangalan ko...

I am Erman. Ako si Erman./Si Erman ako.

What is your name? Ano imo ngalan?/ Ano ngalan (ni)mo?

Until next time. Asta sa liwat.


English Hiligaynon

What is this/that? Ano (i)ni/(i)nâ?

This is a sheet of paper. Isa ni ka panid sang papel./Isa ka panid ka papel ini.

That is a book. Libro (i)nâ.

What will you do?/What are you going to do? Ano ang himu-on (ni)mo? / Ano ang buhaton (ni)mo? / Maano ka?

What are you doing? Ano ang ginahimo (ni)mo? / Gaano ka?

My female friend Ang akon babaye nga abyan/miga

My male friend Ang akon lalake nga abyan/migo

My girlfriend/boyfriend Ang akon nubya/nubyo

Space and Time[edit]

English Hiligaynon

Where are you now? Diin ka (na) subong?

Where shall we go? Diin (ki)ta makadto?

Where are we going? Diin (ki)ta pakadto?

Where are you going? (Sa) diin ka makadto?

We shall go to Iloilo. Makadto (ki)ta sa Iloilo.

We're going to Bacolod. Makadto kami sa Bacolod.

I am going home. Mapa-uli na ko (sa balay). / (Ma)puli na ko.

Where do you live? Diin ka naga-istar?/Diin ka naga-puyô?

Where did you come from? (Where have you just been?) Diin ka (nag)-halin?

Have you been here long? Dugay ka na di(ri)?

(To the) left. (Sa) wala.

(To the) right. (Sa) tuo.

What time is it? Ano('ng) takna na?/Ano('ng) oras na?

It's ten o'clock. Alas diyes na.

What time is it now? Ano ang oras subong?/Ano oras na?

Ancient Times of the Day[edit]

Time Name Meaning

06:00 AM Butlak Adlaw Day Break

10:00 AM Tig-ilitlog or Tig-iritlog Time for chickens to lay eggs

12:00 noon Udto Adlaw or Ugto Adlaw Noon Time or midday

02:00 PM Huyog Adlaw Early afternoon

04:00 PM Tigbarahog Time for feeding the swine

06:00 PM Sirom Twilight

08:00 PM Tingpanyapon or Tig-inyapon Supper time

10:00 PM Tigbaranig Time to lay the banig or sleeping mat

11:00 PM Unang Pamalò First cockerel's crow

12:00 midnight Tungang Gab-i Midnight

02:00 AM Ikaduhang Pamalò Second cockerel's crow

04:00 AM Ikatatlong Pamalò Third cockerel's crow

05:00 AM Tigbulugtaw or Tigburugtaw Waking up time

When buying[edit]

English Hiligaynon

May/Can I buy? Pwede ko ma(g)-bakal?

How much is this/that? Tag-pilá iní/inâ?

I'll buy the... Baklon ko ang...

Is this expensive? Mahal ba (i)ni?

Is that cheap? Barato ba (i)na?

The Lord's Prayer[edit] Amay namon, nga yara ka sa mga langit Pagdayawon ang imo ngalan Umabot sa amon ang imo ginharian Matuman ang imo buot Diri sa duta siling sang sa langit Hatagan mo kami nian sing kan-on namon Sa matag-adlaw Kag patawaron mo kami sa mga sala namon Siling nga ginapatawad namon ang nakasala sa amon Kag dili mo kami ipagpadaug sa mga panulay Hinunuo luwason mo kami sa kalaut Amen. The Ten Commandments[edit]

The Catholic version of the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
in Hiligaynon at Molo Church, Molo, Iloilo

Literal translation as per photo:

Believe in God and worship only him Do not use the name of God without purpose Honor the day of the Lord Honor your father and mother Do not kill Do not pretend to be married against virginity (don't commit adultery) Do not steal Do not lie Do not have desire for the wife of your fellow man Do not covet the riches of your fellow man

Universal Declaration of Human Rights[edit] Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Ang Kalibutánon nga Pahayag sang mga Kinamaatárung sang Katáwhan)

“ Ang tanán nga táwo ginbún-ag nga hílway kag may pag-alalangay sa dungóg kag kinamatárong. Silá ginhatágan sang pagpamat-ud kag balatyágon kag nagakadápat nga magbinuligáy sa kahulugan sang pag-inuturáy. ”

“ Every person is born free and equal with honor and rights. They are given reason and conscience and they must always trust each other for the spirit of brotherhood. ”

Children's books[edit] Ang Bukid nga Nagpalangga sang Pispis[edit] Ang Bukid nga Nagpalangga sang Pispis is a fully illustrated, colored children's picture book. The original story is The Mountain That Loved A Bird by Alice McLerran. Originally published in the United States with illustrations by Eric Carle, the story has been translated to Hiligaynon by Genevieve L. Asenjo and illustrated with new art by Beaulah Pedregosa Taguiwalo drawn from the landscapes of the Philippines. The publisher is Mother Tongue Publishing Inc.[1], a new publishing company based in Manila, Philippines
formed in November 2006 by Mario and Beaulah Taguiwalo. Their mission is to publish books in as many languages as possible. They are inspired by the words of science fiction writer Ursula K. Le Guin: “Literature takes shape and life in the body, in the wombs of the mother tongue.”[citation needed] They also agree with neuro-scientist Elkhonon Goldberg who refers to mother tongues as “an extremely adaptive and powerful device for modeling not only what is, but also what will be, what could be, and what we want and do not want to be.”[citation needed] See also[edit]

portal Language portal

Hiligaynon people Languages of the Philippines Kinaray-a
language Capiznon

Notable Hiligaynon writers[edit]

Peter Solis Nery
Peter Solis Nery
(born 1969) Prolific writer, poet, playwright, novelist, editor, "Hari sang Binalaybay", and champion of the Hiligaynon language. Born in Dumangas, Iloilo. [2] Antonio Ledesma Jayme (1854–1937) Lawyer, revolutionary, provincial governor and assemblyman. Born in Jaro, lived in Bacolod City. Graciano López Jaena
Graciano López Jaena
(1856–1896) Journalist, orator, and revolutionary from Iloilo, well known for his written works, La Solidaridad and Fray Botod. Born in Jaro. Flavio Zaragoza y Cano (1892–1994) Lawyer, journalist and the "Prince of Visayan poets". Born in Janipaan.[3]. Conrado Saquian Norada (1921– ) Lawyer, intelligence officer and governor of Iloilo
from 1969 to 1986. Co-founder and editor of Yuhum magazine. Born in Iloilo
City. [4] Ramon Muzones (?-?) Born in Molo. [5] Magdalena Jalandoni (1891–1978) Prolific writer, novelist and feminist. Born in Jaro.[6] Angel Magahum Sr. (1876–1931) Writer, editor and composer. Composed the classic Iloilo
ang Banwa Ko, the unofficial song of Iloilo. Born in Molo.[7] Valente Cristobal (1875–1945) Noted Hiligaynon playwright. Born in Polo (now Valenzuela City), Bulacan. [8] Elizabeth Batiduan Navarro Hiligaynon drama writer for radio programs of Bombo Radyo Philippines.


^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in Nationalencyklopedin ^ a b Philippine Census, 2000. Table 11. Household Population by Ethnicity, Sex and Region: 2000 ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Hiligaynon". Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Lewis, M. Paul (2009). "Hiligaynon". http://www.ethnologue.com/. Retrieved July 23, 2011.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ "Islas de los Pintados: The Visayan Islands". Ateneo de Manila University. Archived from the original on September 27, 2011. Retrieved March 29, 2013.  ^ "My Working Language Pairs". http://www.bj-informatique.com/. Retrieved January 3, 2011.  External link in publisher= (help) ^ Ulrich Ammon; Norbert Dittmar; Klaus J. Mattheier (2006). Sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society. Volume 3. Walter de Gruyter. p. 2018. ISBN 978-3-11-018418-1.  ^ Cf. BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 05 of 55 (1582–1583). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC
769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the Catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", pp. 120-121. ^ Cf. Miguel de Loarca, Relacion de las Yslas Filipinas (Arevalo, June 1582) in BLAIR, Emma Helen & ROBERTSON, James Alexander, eds. (1903). The Philippine Islands, 1493–1803. Volume 05 of 55 (1582–1583). Historical introduction and additional notes by Edward Gaylord BOURNE. Cleveland, Ohio: Arthur H. Clark Company. ISBN 978-0554259598. OCLC
769945704. "Explorations by early navigators, descriptions of the islands and their peoples, their history and records of the catholic missions, as related in contemporaneous books and manuscripts, showing the political, economic, commercial and religious conditions of those islands from their earliest relations with European nations to the beginning of the nineteenth century.", pp. 128 and 130. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=cps ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=krj ^ G. Nye Steiger, H. Otley Beyer, Conrado Benitez, A History of the Orient, Oxford: 1929, Ginn and Company, pp. 122-123. ^ Gómez Rivera, Guillermo (April 10, 2001). "The evolution of the native Tagalog alphabet". Philippines: Emanila Community (emanila.com). Views & Reviews. Archived from the original on August 3, 2010. Retrieved August 15, 2010.  ^ Signey, Richard. "Philippine Journal of Linguistics". Manila, Philippines: Linguistic Society of the Philippines. The Evolution and Disappearance of the "Ğ" in Tagalog orthography since the 1593 Doctrina Cristiana. ISSN 0048-3796. OCLC 1791000. Retrieved August 15, 2010.  ^ Wolfenden, Elmer (1971). Hiligaynon Reference Grammar. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 61–67. ISBN 0-87022-867-6.  ^ Motus, Cecile (1971). Hiligaynon Lessons. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 112–4. ISBN 0-87022-546-4.  ^ Wolfenden, Elmer (1971). Hiligaynon Reference Grammar. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 136–7. ISBN 0-87022-867-6.  ^ Spitz, Walter L. (February 1997), Lost Causes: Morphological Causative Constructions in Two Philippine Languages, Digital Scholarship Archive, Rice University, p. 513  ^ Spitz, Walter L. (February 1997), Lost Causes: Morphological Causative Constructions in Two Philippine Languages, Digital Scholarship Archive, Rice University, p. 514  ^ Spitz, Walter L. (February 1997), Lost Causes: Morphological Causative Constructions in Two Philippine Languages, Digital Scholarship Archive, Rice University, pp. 514–515 

English-Tagalog Ilongo Dictionary (2007) by Tomas Alvarez Abuyen, National Book Store. ISBN 971-08-6865-9.

External links[edit]

Hiligaynon language
Hiligaynon language
test of at Wikimedia Incubator

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Hiligaynon phrasebook.

Omniglot on Hiligaynon Writing Ilonggo Community & Discussion Board


Hiligaynon Dictionary Hiligaynon to English Dictionary English to Hiligaynon Dictionary Bansa.org Hiligaynon Dictionary Kaufmann's 1934 Hiligaynon dictionary on-line Diccionario de la lengua Bisaya Hiligueina y Haraya de la Isla de Panay (by Alonso de Méntrida, published in 1841)

Learning Resources

Some information about learning Ilonggo Hiligaynon Lessons (by Cecile L. Motus. 1971) Hiligaynon Reference Grammar (by Elmer Wolfenden 1971)

Writing System (Baybayin)

Baybayin – The Ancient Script of the Philippines The evolution of the native Hiligaynon alphabet The evolution of the native Hiligaynon alphabet: Genocide The importance of the Hiligaynon 32-letter alphabet

Primary Texts

Online E-book of Ang panilit sa pagcasal ñga si D.ª Angela Dionicia: sa mercader ñga contragusto in Hiligaynon, published in Mandurriao, Iloilo
(perhaps, in the early 20th century)

Secondary Literature

Language and Desire in Hiligaynon (by Corazón D. Villareal. 2006) Missionary Linguistics: selected papers from the First International Conference on Missionary Linguistics, Oslo, March 13–16th, 2003 (ed. by Otto Zwartjes and Even Hovdhaugen)

v t e

Visayan languages









Baybayanon Kinabalian Waray


Ati Bantayanon Capiznon Hiligaynon Porohanon

Bisakol ?

Masbateño North Sorsogon (Masbate) South Sorsogon (Gubat)


Aklanon Caluyanon Kinaray-a Onhan


Cuyonon Ratagnon




Butuanon Tausug

See also: Visayan peoples

v t e

Philippine languages

Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilocano Arta † Dicamay Agta †

Cagayan Valley

Ibanag Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang

South-Central Cordilleran

Pangasinan Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Remontado Agta (Sinauna) Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine


Tagalog Kasiguranin


Central Bikol Isarog Agta Mount Iraya Agta Albay Bikol Mount Iriga Agta Rinconada Pandan Bikol




Hiligaynon Waray Tausug Karay-a Aklanon Capiznon Asi Baybayanon Kabalian Bantayanon Porohanon Romblomanon Caluyanon Onhan Cuyunon Ratagnon Surigaonon Butuanon

Bisakol ?

Masbateño Sorsoganon


Sulod Magahat Karolanos Ata †


Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka


Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan
Batak Palawano




Maguindanao Maranao Iranun


Agusan Ata Manobo Matigsalug Obo Ilianen Western Bukidnon Binukid Higaonon Kagayanen Kamigin Cotabato Manobo Sarangani Tagabawa


Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan


Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa


Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray


Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan


Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea


Umiray Dumaget Ati


Inagta Alabat Manide

† indicates extinct status ? indicates classification dispute

v t e

Borneo–Philippine languages


Northern Philippine

Batanic (Bashiic) ?

Itbayat Ivatan Yami

Northern Luzon

Ilocano Pangasinan Ibanag Arta Isnag Atta Itawis Yogad Cagayan Aeta Gaddang Ga'dang Northern Alta Southern Alta Isinai Itneg Kalinga Ifugao Tuwali ? Balangao Bontok-Finallig Kankanaey Ilongot Ibaloi Iwaak Kallahan Karao Dicamay Agta †

Central Luzon

Kapampangan Abellen Ambala Bolinao Botolan Mag-antsi Mag-indi Mariveleño Sambal Remontado Agta (Sinauna)

Northern Mindoro

Alangan Iraya Tadyawan

Greater Central Philippine ?

Southern Mindoro

Buhid Hanuno'o Tawbuid

Central Philippine

Tagalog Cebuano Hiligaynon Waray Central Bikol Tausug Kinaray-a Sulodnon Aklanon Capiznon Masbatenyo Albay Bikol Asi Bantayanon Baybayanon Boholano Butuanon Caluyanon Cuyunon South Sorsogon (Gubat) Central Sorsogon (Masbate) Isarog Agta Kabalian Mount Iraya Agta Mount Iriga Agta Onhan Pandan Bikol Porohanon Ratagnon Rinconada Romblomanon Surigaonon




Davawenyo Kalagan Kamayo Mamanwa Mandaya Mansaka


Aborlan Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Palawan
Batak Palawano


Maguindanao Maranao Agusan Ata Manobo Binukid Cotabato Manobo Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kagayanen Kamigin Matigsalug Obo Sarangani Subanen Tagabawa Western Bukidnon


Bolango Buol Bintauna Gorontalo Kaidipang Lolak Suwawa Mongondow Ponosakan


Agutaynen Calamian Tagbanwa


Bagobo B'laan T'boli Tiruray


Sangirese Talaud Bantik Ratahan


Tonsawang Tontemboan Tombulu Tondano Tonsea


Umiray Dumaget Ati


Inagta Alabat Manide


North Bornean


Ida'an Bonggi Molbog Brunei Bisaya Tatana (Sabah Bisaya) Lotud Dusun Kuijau Eastern Kadazan Gana' Kota Marudu Talantang Kamaragang (Momogun) Klias River Kadazan Coastal Kadazan Yakan Tombonuwo Kinabatangan Sungai Keningau Murut Okolod Tagol Paluan Selungai Murut Timugon Bookan Abai Papar Kalabakan Sembakung Serudung Nonukan Tidong



North Sarawakan

Kenyah (Bakung) Sebob Tutoh Uma' Lasan Wahau Kenyah Penan ? Kelabit Lengilu Lundayeh Sa'ban Tring Berawan Belait Kiput Narom Tutong




Kajaman Lahanan Sekapan Daro-Matu Kanowit-Tanjong Melanau Bukitan Punan Batu Sian Ukit Basap Burusu Bah-Biau Punan Sajau Punan Merap Bukat Seru † Lelak †


Kayan Bahau Modang Segai Hovongan Aoheng Aput Punan Krio Dayak Murik

Land Dayak

Bekati' Sara Lara' Bukar Sadong Rejang Biatah Tringgus Jagoi Jangkang Kembayan Semandang Ribun Benyadu' Sanggau


Malagasy Deyah Malang Witu Ma'anyan Paku Lawangan Kohin Dihoi Siang Bakumpai Ngaju Ampanang Tunjung

Sama-Bajaw ?

Abaknon Bajaw Sinama Pangutaran Sama

Bold indicates languages with more than 1 million speakers ? indicates classification dispute † indicates extinct status

v t e

Languages of the Philippines

Official languages

Filipino English

Regional languages

Aklanon Bikol Cebuano Chavacano Hiligaynon Ibanag Ilocano Ivatan Kapampangan Karay-a Maguindanao Maranao Pangasinan Sambal Surigaonon Tagalog Tausug Waray Yakan

Indigenous languages (by region)





Atta Balangao Bontoc Ga'dang Kalinga Kallahan Kankanaey Ibaloi Ifugao Isnag Itneg Itawis Iwaak Malaweg Tuwali

Cagayan Valley

Arta Atta Central Cagayan Agta Dinapigue Agta Dupaningan Agta Gaddang Ilongot Isinai Itbayat Itawis Kallahan Karao Malaweg Nagtipunan Agta Paranan Agta Paranan Yogad

Central Luzon

Abellen Ambala Antsi Botolan Casiguran Dumagat Agta Indi Kasiguranin Mariveleño Northern Alta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget


Inagta Alabat Manide Remontado Agta Southern Alta Umiray Dumaget

Metro Manila

Hokaglish Taglish


Agutaynen Alangan Asi Calamian Tagbanwa Central Tagbanwa Cuyonon Iraya Kagayanen Molbog Onhan Palawan
Batak Palawano Ratagnon Romblomanon Tadyawan


Albay Bikol Inagta Partido Manide Masbateño Mount Iraya Agta Pandan Bikol Rinconada Bikol Sorsoganon Southern Catanduanes Bikol


Western Visayas

Ati Caluyanon Capiznon Sulod

Negros Island

Ata Karolanos Magahat

Central Visayas

Bantayanon Eskayan Porohanon

Eastern Visayas

Abaknon Baybay Kabalian


Zamboanga Peninsula


Northern Mindanao

Bukid Higaonon Ilianen Iranun Kamigin Matigsalug Subanon Western Bukidnon


Agusan Ata Manobo Butuanon Higaonon Kamayo Mamanwa


Bagobo B'laan Davawenyo Kalagan Mandaya Mansaka Obo Sangirese Sarangani Tagabawa


B'laan Cotabato Manobo Ilianen Iranun Obo Tboli Tiruray

Muslim Mindanao

Iranun Pangutaran Sama Sama

Immigrant languages

Arabic Basque Chinese

Mandarin Hokkien

French German Japanese Korean Malay

Indonesian Malaysian

Sindhi Spanish



Sign languages

American Sign Philippine Sign

Historical languages

Proto-Philippine Old Tagalog

Authority control