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The Hilalian dialects are a continuum of Arabic dialects native to North Africa. Etymology[edit] The term Hilalian dialects refer to the Banu Hilal, a confederation of Arab nomadic tribes who invaded North Africa
North Africa
in the eleventh century. Along with the pre-existing sedentary pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects, they constitute the larger Maghrebi Arabic
Maghrebi Arabic
family. Varieties and distribution[edit] Hilalian dialects are found across North Africa, from the western plains of Morocco
Morocco
and the Mauritanian desert to western Egypt, including Libya, the Algerian Hauts-Plateaux
Hauts-Plateaux
and coast, and Tunisia. Nevertheless, there are several enclaves of Pre-Hilalian Arabic dialects in this area, including old urban dialect-speaking cities (such as Fez, Rabat, Tlemcen, Constantine, Tunis) and four major sedentary rural dialects speaking areas as well as several Berber speaking areas. Hilalian Arabic has four major varieties:[1][2]

Sulaym dialects: in Libya
Libya
and southern Tunisia; Eastern Hilal dialects: in central Tunisia
Tunisia
and eastern Algeria; Central Hilal dialects: in central and southern Algeria; Maqil dialects: in western Algeria
Algeria
and Morocco.

Hassaniya Arabic, spoken in Mauritania, Western Sahara, southern Morocco
Morocco
and parts of northern Mali, is also classified as Maqil. Hilalian dialects strongly influenced some old urban dialects, such as those of Tripoli
Tripoli
and Marrakesh. They also represent the bulk of modern urban dialects (koiné languages) such as those of Casablanca, Oran and Algiers. References[edit]

^ Kees Versteegh, Dialects of Arabic : Maghreb Dialects, TeachMideast.org ^ Mélissa Barkat, « Les dialectes Maghrébins » (lien), dans: Détermination d'indices acoustiques robustes pour l'identification automatique des parlers arabes, Thèse, Université Lumière Lyon 2 (2000)

v t e

Varieties of Arabic

Pre-Islamic

Old Arabic

Modern literary

Classical Modern Standard

Nilo-Egyptian

Egyptian Chadian Sa'idi Sudanese

Peninsular

Northeastern

Gulf

Omani Shihhi Dhofari Kuwaiti

Najdi

Western

Bareqi Hejazi

Sedentary Bedouin

Southern

Baharna Yemeni

Hadhrami San'ani Ta'izzi-Adeni Tihami Judeo-Yemeni

Northwestern

Northwest Arabian

Eastern

Mesopotamian

North Mesopotamian

Cypriot Anatolian Judeo-Iraqi

South Mesopotamian

Baghdad Koiné Khuzestani

Central Asian

Afghani Khorasani Central Asian Arabic

Levantine

North Levantine

North Syrian Central Levantine

Central Syrian Lebanese

South Levantine

Jordanian Palestinian

Urban Central village

Outer southern

Western

Iberian

Andalusian

Maghrebi

Pre-Hilalian

Urban

North-Eastern Tunisian

Eastern Village

Sahel Sfaxian Lesser Kabylia

Western Village

Traras-Msirda Mountain

Judeo-Maghrebi Arabic

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian

Hilalian

Sulaym

Libyan koiné

Eastern Hilal

Tunisian koiné

Central Hilal

Algerian koiné Algerian Saharan Eastern Algerian Western Algerian

Maqil

Western Moroccan Eastern Moroccan Moroccan koiné Hassānīya

Siculo-Arabic

Sicilian Arabic (extinct ancestor of Maltese which is not part of the Arabic macrolanguage[1])

Undescribed

Shirvani

Judeo-Arabic

Judeo-Iraqi

Judeo-Baghdadi

Judeo-Moroccan Judeo-Tripolitanian Judeo-Tunisian Judeo-Yemeni

Creoles and pidgins

Babalia Bimbashi Juba Nubi Maridi Turku

Italics indicate extinct languages.

^ "Documentation for ISO 639 ident

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