Hijri year (Arabic: سَنة هِجْريّة) or era
(التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is the era used in
the Islamic lunar calendar, which begins its count from the Islamic
New Year in 622 AD. During that year,
Muhammad and his followers
Mecca to Yathrib (now Medina). This event, known as the
Hijra, is commemorated in
Islam for its role in the founding of the
first Muslim community (ummah).
In the West, this era is most commonly denoted as AH (Latin: Anno
Hegirae /ˈænoʊ ˈhɛdʒɪriː/, "in the year of the Hijra") in
parallel with the Christian (AD) and Jewish eras (AM) and can
similarly be placed before or after the date. In Muslim countries, it
is also commonly abbreviated H ("Hijra") from its Arabic abbreviation
hāʾ (هـ). Years prior to AH 1 are reckoned in English as BH
("Before the Hijra"), which should follow the date.
Islamic lunar calendar
Islamic lunar calendar has only 354 or 355 days in its
year, it slowly rotates within the Gregorian year. The year
2018 AD corresponds to the Islamic years AH 1439 – 1440.
4 See also
6 External links
The Hijri era is calculated according to the Islamic lunar calendar
and not the Julian or Gregorian solar one. It thus does not begin on
January 1, 1 CE, but on the first day of the month of Muharram
which occurred in 622 CE. Its Julian equivalent was April 19
but it is sometimes mistakenly placed on July 16. The error derives
from the tabular
Islamic calendar which was devised by later Islamic
astronomers. This reckons time backwards according to the lunar
calendar, which causes it to miss the three intercalary months (about
88 days) added to the then-lunisolar calendar between the time of the
Hijra and AH 10, when
Muhammad is recorded as having received a
revelation prohibiting their use.
The date of the Hijra itself did not form the Islamic New Year.
Instead, the system continues the earlier ordering of the months with
the Hijra occurring around the 8th day of Rabi al-Awwal, 66 days into
the first year.
By the age of Muhammad, there was already an Arabian lunar calendar
with named months. The years of its calendar, however, used
conventional names rather than numbers: for example, the year of
Muhammad and Ammar ibn Yasir's birth (570 CE) was known as the
"Year of the Elephant". The year of the Hijra (622-23 CE) was
initially named the "Permission to Travel".
17 years after the Hijra, a complaint from Abu Musa Ashaari
prompted the caliph
Umar to abolish the practice of named years and to
establish a new calendar era. Rejected proposals included dating from
the year of Muhammad's birth or death. Tradition
ʿAli with the proposal to date from the year during which the
Muslims established a new community (Ummah) in Medina.[citation
needed] The order of the months within the calendar was then debated.
Rejected proposals included Rajab, which had been a sacred month in
the pre-Islamic period; Ramadan, which is a sacred month for Muslims;
and Dhu al-Hijjah, the month of the Hajj. Tradition
credits Othman with the successful proposal, simply continuing the
order of the months that had already been established, beginning with
Muharram. Adoption of this calendar was then enforced
Different approximate conversion formulas between the Gregorian (AD or
CE) and Islamic calendars (AH) are possible:
AH = 1.030684 × (CE − 621.5643)
CE = 0.970229 × AH + 621.5643
AH = (CE − 622) × 33 ÷ 32
CE = AH + 622 − (AH ÷ 32)
Nevertheless, as the Islamic year does not begin 1 January there is no
strict correspondence between years of the two eras, e. g. 2015 CE is
1436/1437 AH, while 1436 AH is 2014/2015 CE.
List of Islamic years
Tabular Islamic calendar
Battle of Badr
Sirah Rasul Allah
Glossary of Islam
^ Official site, Government of Sharjah, retrieved 21 January
^ Fazlur Rehman Shaikh, Chronology of Prophetic Events (London: Ta-Ha
Publishers Ltd., 2001), p. 157.
^ Quran 9:36–37.
^ a b c Aisha El-Awady (2002-06-11). "
Ramadan and the Lunar Calendar".
Islamonline.net. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
Muhammad Said (1981). "The History of the Islamic Calendar in
the Light of the Hijra". Ahlul Bayt Digital Islamic Library Project.
Umar bin Al-Khattab (2002). "Islamic Actions and Social Mandates:
The Hijri Calendar". witness-pioneer.org. Retrieved 2006-12-16.
^ Islamic and Christian Dating Systems
^ Clark, Malcolm (2013).
Islam for dummies. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley
& Sons. p. 489. ISBN 1118053966.
^ Hodgson, Marshall G. S. (1977). The venture of
Islam conscience and
history in a world civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
p. 21. ISBN 0226346862.
F. A. Shamsi (1984). "The Date of Hijrah". Islamic Studies. 23:
189–224 & 289–332.
Wikisource has the text of a 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
about Hijri year.
Omar asked "Which Sha'ban?"