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Higher education
Higher education
(also called post-secondary education, third level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education. Often delivered at universities, academies, colleges, seminaries, conservatories, and institutes of technology, higher education is also available through certain college-level institutions, including vocational schools, trade schools, and other career colleges that award academic degrees or professional certifications. Tertiary education
Tertiary education
at non-degree level is sometimes referred to as further education or continuing education as distinct from higher education. The right of access to higher education is mentioned in a number of international human rights instruments. The UN International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of 1966 declares, in Article 13, that "higher education shall be made equally accessible to all, on the basis of capacity, by every appropriate means, and in particular by the progressive introduction of free education". In Europe, Article 2 of the First Protocol to the European Convention on Human Rights, adopted in 1950, obliges all signatory parties to guarantee the right to education. In the days when few pupils progressed beyond primary education or basic education, the term "higher education" was often used to refer to secondary education, which can create some confusion.[6] This is the origin of the term high school for various schools for children between the ages of 14 and 18 (United States) or 11 and 18 (UK and Australia).[7]

Rupert I founded the University
University
of Heidelberg in 1386

Higher education
Higher education
includes teaching, research, exacting applied work (e.g. in medical schools and dental schools), and social services activities of universities.[8] Within the realm of teaching, it includes both the undergraduate level, and beyond that, graduate-level (or postgraduate level). The latter level of education is often referred to as graduate school, especially in North America. In addition to the skills that are specific to any particular degree, potential employers in any profession are looking for evidence of critical thinking and analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, fluency in speaking and writing, problem solving skills, and a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences.[9] Since World War II, developed and many developing countries have increased the participation of the age group who mostly studies higher education from the elite rate, of up to 15 per cent, to the mass rate of 16 to 50 per cent.[10][11][12] In many developed countries, participation in higher education has continued to increase towards universal or, what Trow later called, open access, where over half of the relevant age group participate in higher education.[13] Higher education is important to national economies, both as an industry, in its own right, and as a source of trained and educated personnel for the rest of the economy. College
College
educated workers have commanded a measurable wage premium and are much less likely to become unemployed than less educated workers.[14][15] However, the admission of so many students of only average ability to higher education inevitably requires a decline in academic standards, facilitated by grade inflation.[16][17] Also, the supply of graduates in many fields of study is exceeding the demand for their skills, which aggravates graduate unemployment, underemployment, credentialism and educational inflation.[18][19]

Contents

1 History 2 Entrance standards: reading, mathematics, and writing 3 Types

3.1 General

3.1.1 Liberal arts 3.1.2 Engineering 3.1.3 Performing arts 3.1.4 Plastic or visual arts

3.2 Vocational 3.3 Professional
Professional
higher education 3.4 Statistics

4 Recognition of studies 5 As employers 6 Recent controversy 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] The U.S. system of higher education was heavily influenced by the Humboldtian model of higher education. Wilhelm von Humboldt's educational model goes beyond vocational training. In a letter to the Prussian king, he wrote:

There are undeniably certain kinds of knowledge that must be of a general nature and, more importantly, a certain cultivation of the mind and character that nobody can afford to be without. People obviously cannot be good craftworkers, merchants, soldiers or businessmen unless, regardless of their occupation, they are good, upstanding and – according to their condition – well-informed human beings and citizens. If this basis is laid through schooling, vocational skills are easily acquired later on, and a person is always free to move from one occupation to another, as so often happens in life.[20]

The philosopher Julian Nida-Rümelin
Julian Nida-Rümelin
criticized discrepancies between Humboldt's ideals and the contemporary European education policy, which narrowly understands education as a preparation for the labor market, and argued that we need to decide between McKinsey and Humboldt.[21] Entrance standards: reading, mathematics, and writing[edit] Demonstrated ability in reading, mathematics, and writing, as typically measured in the United States by the SAT
SAT
or similar tests such as the ACT, have often replaced colleges' individual entrance exams, and is often required for admission to higher education.[22] There is some question as to whether advanced mathematical skills or talent are in fact necessary for fields such as history, English, philosophy, or art.[23] Types[edit] General[edit] The general higher education and training that takes place in a university, college, or Institute of technology
Institute of technology
usually includes significant theoretical and abstract elements, as well as applied aspects (although limited offerings of internships or SURF programs attempt to provide practical applications). In contrast, the vocational higher education and training that takes place at vocational universities and schools usually concentrates on practical applications, with very little theory. In addition, professional-level education is always included within Higher Education, and usually in graduate schools since many postgraduate academic disciplines are both vocationally, professionally, and theoretically/research oriented, such as in the law, medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary medicine. A basic requirement for entry into these graduate-level programs is almost always a bachelor's degree, although alternative means of obtaining entry into such programs may be available at some universities. Requirements for admission to such high-level graduate programs is extremely competitive, and admitted students are expected to perform well.

Mean financial wealth of U.S. families by education of the head of household, 1989-2010

Mean income of U.S. families by education of the head of household, 1989-2010

When employers in any profession consider hiring a college graduate, they are looking for evidence of critical thinking, analytical reasoning skills, teamworking skills, information literacy, ethical judgment, decision-making skills, communication skills (using both text and speech), problem solving skills, and a wide knowledge of liberal arts and sciences. However, most employers consider the average graduate to be more or less deficient in all of these areas.[24] In the United States, there are large differences in wages and employment associated with different degrees. Medical doctors and lawyers are generally the highest paid workers, and have among the lowest unemployment rates. Among undergraduate fields of study, science, technology, engineering, math, and business generally offer the highest wages and best chances of employment, while education, communication, and liberal arts degrees generally offer lower wages and a lower likelihood of employment.[14][25] Liberal arts[edit] Main article: Liberal arts
Liberal arts
college Academic areas that are included within the liberal arts include environmental science, great books, history, languages including English, linguistics, literature, mathematics, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, religious studies, science, sociology and theater. Engineering[edit] Main article: Engineering college Teaching engineering is teaching the application of scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge in order to design, build, maintain, and improve structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes. It may encompass using insights to conceive, model and scale an appropriate solution to a problem or objective. The discipline of engineering is extremely broad, and encompasses a range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of technology and types of application. Engineering disciplines include aerospace, biological, civil, chemical, computer, electrical, industrial, and mechanical. Performing arts[edit] Main article: Performing arts
Performing arts
education The performing arts differ from the plastic arts or visual arts, insofar as the former uses the artist's own body, face and presence as a medium; the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint, which can be molded or transformed to create a work of art. Performing arts
Performing arts
institutions include circus schools, dance schools, drama schools and music schools. Plastic or visual arts[edit] Main articles: Art education
Art education
and Art school The plastic arts or visual arts are a class of art forms, that involve the use of materials, that can be moulded or modulated in some way, often in three dimensions. Examples are painting, sculpture, and drawing. Higher educational institutions in these arts include film schools and art schools. Vocational[edit] Main articles: Vocational university, Vocational school, and Technical school Higher vocational education and training takes place at the non-university tertiary level. Such education combines teaching of both practical skills and theoretical expertise. Higher education differs from other forms of post-secondary education such as that offered by institutions of vocational education, which are more colloquially known as trade schools. Higher vocational education might be contrasted with education in a usually broader scientific field, which might concentrate on theory and abstract conceptual knowledge. Professional
Professional
higher education[edit] This describes a distinct form of higher education that offers a particularly intense integration with the world of work in all its aspects (including teaching, learning, research and governance) and at all levels of the overarching Qualifications Framework of the European Higher Education
Education
Area. Its function is to diversify learning opportunities, enhance employability, offer qualifications and stimulate innovation, for the benefit of learners and society. The intensity of integration with the world of work (which includes enterprise, civil society and the public sector) is manifested by a strong focus on application of learning. This approach involves combining phases of work and study, a concern for employability, cooperation with employers, the use of practice-relevant knowledge and use-inspired research.[26] Examples of providers of professional higher education may include graduate colleges of architecture, business, journalism, law, library science, optometry, pharmacy, public policy, human medicine, professional engineering, podiatric medicine, scientific dentistry, K-12
K-12
education, and veterinary medicine. Statistics[edit] A report titled ' Education
Education
at a Glance 2014' published by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
on 9 September 2014, revealed that by 2014, 84 percent of young people were completing upper secondary education over their lifetimes, in high-income countries. Tertiary-educated individuals were earning twice as much as median workers. In contrast to historical trends in education, young women were more likely to complete upper secondary education than young men. Additionally, access to education was expanding and growth in the number of people receiving university education was rising sharply. By 2014, close to 40 percent of people aged 25–34 (and around 25 percent of those aged 55–64), were being educated at university.[27] Recognition of studies[edit] The Lisbon Recognition Convention stipulates that degrees and periods of study must be recognised in all of the Signatory Parties of the Convention. As employers[edit]

University
University
governance generally involves input from the Faculty. Here James D. Kirylo, president of Southeastern Louisiana University's Faculty Senate confers with Kevin L. Cope, president of the LSU Faculty Senate and president of the Association of Louisiana Faculty Senates, during a 2015 panel presentation in Hammond on university funding issues for Fiscal Year
Fiscal Year
2016.

Universities may employ a number of people. Depending on the funding, a university typically hires one teacher per 3–25 students. According to the ideal of research-university, the university teaching staff is actively involved in the research of the institution. In addition, the university usually also has dedicated research staff and a considerable support staff. Typically to work in higher education as a member of the academic faculty, a candidate must first obtain a doctorate in an academic field, although some lower teaching positions require only a master's degree.[citation needed] Most of the administrative staff works in different administrative sections, such as Student Affairs.[citation needed] In addition, there may be central support units, such as a university library which have a dedicated staff.[28] The professional field involving the collection, analysis, and reporting of higher education data is called institutional research. Professionals in this field can be found at locations in addition to universities, e.g. state educational departments.[citation needed] Post-secondary institutions also employ graduate students in various assistantship roles. In the US, close to 50% of graduate students are employed as graduate assistants at some point. These apprenticeship-like positions provide opportunities for students to gain experience in, and exposure to, professional roles in exchange for funding of their academic programs.[29] Recent controversy[edit] From the early 1950s to the present, more and more people in the United States have gone on to pursue degrees or certificates of higher education. However this has sparked some debate in recent years as some advocates say that a degree is not what it was once worth to employers. To clarify some advocates say that the financial costs that universities require from their students has gone up so dramatically that it is leaving many students in debt of loans of an average of $37,172[30] compared to 2000, where the average debt students graduated with was $16,928[31]. In the United States there is an estimated 44 million Americans with a combined $1.3 trillion student loan debt. [32] Advocates advise parents to not send their children to college unless these children are committed to pursuing their future education. An increasing number of freshman every year drop out of their perspective programs or do not possess the maturity to have a balanced life away from home.[33] However statistics from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics indicate that the college educated are employed at a rate nearly twice that of the national average when compared to high school graduates.[34] The type of degree one pursues will determine how safe and prosperous his/her career path is. A study published by the Pew Charitable Trusts, shows that among Americans ages 21 to 24, the drop in employment and income was much steeper among people who lacked a college degree. "Among those whose highest degree was a high school diploma, only 55% had jobs even before the downturn, and that fell to 47% after it. For young people with an associates degree, the employment rate fell from 64 to 57. Bachelor's degree
Bachelor's degree
slipped from 69 to 65."[35] Professor Lisa Kahn of Yale stated that people who graduated from college in the most recent recession were in a position to gain better security than others. Ultimately a survey, the Great Jobs and Great Lives Gallup-Purdue Index report found the type of college that students attend and in some cases even majors they choose have very little to do with their overall success and well-being later in life. What matters more, the index found, is feeling supported and making emotional connections during school.[36] See also[edit]

Book: Education

Education
Education
portal University
University
portal

Higher education
Higher education
by country List of higher education associations and alliances Governance in higher education Graduation Higher education
Higher education
accreditation Higher education
Higher education
bubble Higher education
Higher education
policy Higher Education
Education
Price Index Institute UnCollege Hochschule League of European Research Universities Technical and Further Education
Technical and Further Education
(TAFE)

Notes[edit]

^ Oldest University ^ Verger, Jacques: "Patterns", in: Ridder-Symoens, Hilde de (ed.): A History
History
of the University
University
in Europe. Vol. I: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge
Cambridge
University
University
Press, 2003, ISBN 978-0-521-54113-8, pp. 35–76 (35) ^ Top Universities World University
University
Rankings Retrieved 2010-1-6 ^ Our History
History
- Università di Bologna ^ Paul L. Gaston (2010). The Challenge of Bologna. p. 18. ISBN 1-57922-366-4.  External link in title= (help) ^ For example, Higher Education: General and Technical, a 1933 National Union of Teachers
National Union of Teachers
pamphlet by Lord Eustace Percy, which is actually about secondary education and uses the two terms interchangeably. ^ [1] ^ Pucciarelli F., Kaplan Andreas M. (2016) Competition and Strategy in Higher Education: Managing Complexity and Uncertainty, Business Horizons, Volume 59 ^ "Employers Judge Recent Graduates Ill-Prepared for Today's Workplace, Endorse Broad and Project-Based Learning as Best Preparation for Career Opportunity and Long-Term Success" (Press release). Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2017.  ^ Trow, Martin (1973) Problems in the transition from elite to mass higher education. Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, Berkeley, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED091983&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED091983, accessed 1 August 2013 ^ Brennan, John (2004) The social role of the contemporary university: contradictions, boundaries and change, in Center for Higher Education Research and Information (ed.) ^ Ten years on: changing education in a changing world (Buckingham: The Open University
University
Press), https://www.open.ac.uk/cheri/documents/ten-years-on.pdf, accessed 9 February 2014 ^ Trow, Martin (2007) [2005] Reflections on the transition from elite to mass to universal access: forms and phases of higher education in modern societies since WWII, Springer International Handbooks of Education
Education
volume 18, 2007, 243-280 ^ a b Michael Simkovic, Risk-Based Student Loans (2013) ^ OECD, Education
Education
at a Glance (2011) ^ Cote, James; Allahar, Anton (2007), Ivory Tower Blues: A University System in Crisis, University
University
of Toronto Press, p. 256, ISBN 978-0802091826  ^ Arum, Richard; Roska, Josipa (2011), Academically Adrift: Limited Learning on College
College
Campuses, University
University
of Chicago Press, p. 272, ISBN 978-0226028569  ^ Barshay, Jill (4 August 2014). "Reflections on the underemployment of college graduates". Hechniger Report. Teachers College
College
at Columbia University. Retrieved 30 March 2015.  ^ Coates, Ken; Morrison, Bill (2016), Dream Factories: Why Universities Won't Solve the Youth Jobs Crisis, Toronto: Dundurn Press, p. 232, ISBN 978-1459733770  ^ As quoted in Profiles of educators: Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835) by Karl-Heinz Günther (1988), doi:10.1007/BF02192965 ^ Nida-Rümelin, Julian (29 October 2009). "Bologna-Prozess: Die Chance zum Kompromiss ist da". Die Zeit
Die Zeit
(in German). Retrieved 29 November 2015.  ^ O'Shaughnessy, Lynn (26 July 2009). "The Other Side of 'Test Optional'". The New York Times. p. 6. Retrieved 22 June 2011.  ^ Andrew Hacker (July 28, 2012). "Is Algebra Necessary?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 29, 2012.  ^ "Employers Judge Recent Graduates Ill-Prepared for Today's Workplace, Endorse Broad and Project-Based Learning as Best Preparation for Career Opportunity and Long-Term Success" (Press release). Washington, DC: Association of American Colleges and Universities. 20 January 2015. Retrieved 11 April 2017.  ^ "The Economic Value of College
College
Majors" (Press release). Georgetown University. May 2015. Retrieved 17 August 2016.  ^ "Harmonising Approaches to Professional
Professional
Higher Education
Education
in Europe". Harmonising Approaches to Professional
Professional
Higher Education
Education
in Europe. EURASHE. 2013. Retrieved 2014-10-17.  ^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(September 2014). "Higher levels of education paying off for young, says OECD". Retrieved September 11, 2014.  ^ "Cornell University
University
Library
Library
Staff Web". Retrieved 8 January 2013.  ^ Haley, K., Hephner LaBanc, B., & Koutas, P. (2011). New school, new job, new life: Transitions of graduate assistants in student affairs. Journal of College
College
Orientation and Transition, 18(2), 5 - 19. ^ "U.S. Student Loan Debt Statistics for 2017 Student Loan Hero". Student Loan Hero. Retrieved 2017-12-09.  ^ "Student debt increasingly unmanagable - Mar. 8, 2002". money.cnn.com. Retrieved 2017-12-09.  ^ Friedman, Zack. "Student Loan Debt In 2017: A $1.3 Trillion Crisis". Forbes. Retrieved 2017-12-09.  ^ "Some Career Pathways Require a Four-Year Degree, Many Don't - US News". US News & World Report. Retrieved 2015-10-11.  ^ "U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". www.bls.gov. Retrieved 2015-10-11.  ^ Pérez-peña, Richard (2013-01-09). "Study Shows College
College
Degree's Value During Economic Downturn". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2015-10-11.  ^ " College
College
Grads Question How Much a Degree Is Worth". US News & World Report. 2015-02-10. Retrieved 2015-10-11. 

References[edit]

Bakvis, Herman and David M. Cameron (2000), "Post-secondary education and the SUFA". IRPP. Commission Reports: A National Dialogue: The Secretary of Education's Commission on the Future of Higher Education, United States Department of Education, 2006. [2] Davies, Antony and Thomas W. Cline (2005). The ROI on the MBA, BizEd. Douglass, John A. and Todd Greenspan, eds. "The History
History
of the California Master Plan for Higher Education." El-Khawas, E. (1996). Campus trends. Washington, DC.: American Council on Education. Ewell, P.T. (1999). Assessment of higher education and quality: Promise and politics. In S.J. Messick (Ed.), Assessment in higher education: Issues of access, quality, student development, and public policy. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. Finn, C. E. (1988, Jul.-Aug.). Judgment time for higher education: In the court of public opinion. Change, 20(4), 34-39. Forest, James and Kinser, Kevin. (2002). Higher Education
Education
in the United States: An Encyclopedia. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. Green, Madeleine, F., ed. 1988. Leaders for a New Era: Strategies for Higher Education. New York: Macmillan. Miller, Patrick L. (1979). Choosing a College. Madison, Wis.: Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship. p. 43. Briefly considers the criteria by which a student might select a college or university for study. ISBN 0-87784-172-1 Roszak, Theodore, ed. (1968). The Dissenting Academy. New York: Pantheon Books. x, 304 p. Snyder, Benson R. (1970). The Hidden Curriculum. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Spellings, Margaret, "A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education", A Report of the Commission Appointed by Secretary of Education
Education
Margaret Spellings, September 2006. (highlights of report) Veblen, Thorstein (1918). The Higher Learning in America: A Memorandum on the Conduct of Universities by Businessmen. New York: Huebsch

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Higher education.

Look up higher education in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Association for the Study of Higher Education American Educational Research Association Center for Higher Education
Education
Policy Studies World Bank Tertiary Education college.gov - U.S. Department of Education Accrediting Counsel for Independent Colleges and Schools "College, Inc.", PBS FRONTLINE documentary, May 4, 2010 College
College
Parents Matter ("Tools and scripts to improve communication with your college student")

Preceded by Grade 13 Higher education age varies (usually 18-22) Succeeded by Graduate school

v t e

Levels of academic degree

Undergraduate

ISCED level 5

Associate degree Foundation degree Higher National Diploma/Diploma of Higher Education/Certificate of Higher Education

ISCED level 6

Bachelor's degree Honours degree

Postgraduate

ISCED level 7

Master's degree Magister degree Postgraduate certificate/diploma Diplom degree Specialist degree Engineer's degree

ISCED level 8

Doctorate Candidate of Sciences Magister degree

Other

Postdoctoral

Higher doctorate Doktor nauk Habilitation Docent Tenure Fellow

No dominant classification

Laurea Licentiate Professional
Professional
degree Graduate certificate/diploma Terminal degree

Unearned

Honorary degree Ad eundem degree

Higher education
Higher education
by region

v t e

Higher education
Higher education
in Africa

Sovereign states

Algeria Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi Cameroon Cape Verde (Cabo Verde) Central African Republic Chad Comoros Democratic Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Djibouti Egypt Equatorial Guinea Eritrea Ethiopia Gabon The Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire) Kenya Lesotho Liberia Libya Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mauritius Morocco Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Rwanda São Tomé and Príncipe Senegal Seychelles Sierra Leone Somalia South Africa South Sudan Sudan Swaziland Tanzania Togo Tunisia Uganda Zambia Zimbabwe

States with limited recognition

Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Somaliland

Dependencies and other territories

Canary Islands / Ceuta / Melilla  (Spain) Madeira (Portugal) Mayotte / Réunion (France) Saint Helena / Ascension Island / Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom)

v t e

Higher education
Higher education
in Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus East Timor (Timor-Leste) Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus Palestine South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and other territories

British Indian Ocean Territory Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Hong Kong Macau

v t e

Higher education
Higher education
in Europe

Sovereign states

Albania Andorra Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia and Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland

Italy Kazakhstan Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Macedonia Malta Moldova Monaco Montenegro Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia San Marino Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine United Kingdom

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Transnistria

Dependencies and other entities

Åland Faroe Islands Gibraltar Guernsey Isle of Man Jersey Svalbard

v t e

Higher education
Higher education
in North America

Sovereign states

Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas Barbados Belize Canada Costa Rica Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic El Salvador Grenada Guatemala Haiti Honduras Jamaica Mexico Nicaragua Panama Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago United States

Dependencies and other territories

Anguilla Aruba Bermuda Bonaire British Virgin Islands Cayman Islands Curaçao Greenland Guadeloupe Martinique Montserrat Puerto Rico Saint Barthélemy Saint Martin Saint Pierre and Miquelon Saba Sint Eustatius Sint Maarten Turks and Caicos Islands United States Virgin Islands

v t e

Higher education
Higher education
in Oceania

Sovereign states

Australia Federated States of Micronesia Fiji Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru New Zealand Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

Associated states of New Zealand

Cook Islands Niue

Dependencies and other territories

American Samoa Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Easter Island French Polynesia Guam Hawaii New Caledonia Norfolk Island Northern Mariana Islands Pitcairn Islands Tokelau Wallis and Futuna

v t e

Higher education
Higher education
in South America

Sovereign states

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay Venezuela

Dependencies and other territories

Falkland Islands French Guiana South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands

v t e

School types

By educational stage

Early childhood

Preschool Pre-kindergarten Kindergarten

Primary

Elementary school First school Infant school Junior school Primary school

Secondary

Adult high school Comprehensive school Cadet college Grammar school Gymnasium High school Lyceum Middle school Secondary school Sixth form college Studio school University-preparatory school University
University
technical college Upper school

Tertiary

Continuing education Further education Professional
Professional
school Vocational school

Higher

Academy College Community college Graduate school Institute
Institute
of technology Junior college University Upper division college Vocational university Seminary

By funding / eligibility

Academy
Academy
(England) Charter school Comprehensive school For-profit education Free education Free school (England) Independent school UK Independent school

preparatory public

Private school Selective school Separate school State or public school State-integrated school
State-integrated school
(New Zealand)

By style of education

Adult education Alternative school Boarding school Day school Folk high school Free skool Homeschool International school K-12 Madrasa Magnet school Montessori school One-room schools Parochial school Ranch school Sink school Virtual school Vocal school Yeshiva

By scope

College
College
preparatory Compulsory education Democratic education Gifted education Remedial education Vocational education

Historical

Ancient higher-learning institutions

Platonic Academy Lyceum

Monastic schools Cathedral schools Medieval universities

Schools imposed on indigenous peoples

in Canada in New Zealand in the United States in South Africa

Informal or illegal

in Ireland in Greece in South Tyrol

Category Commons

v t e

Stages of formal education

Early childhood education Primary education Secondary education Tertiary education

Preschool → Kindergarten →

Elementary school →

Infant → Junior →

High school →

Junior high school → Senior high school →

Higher education   Vocational Further continuing

Undergraduate → Postgraduate  

Alternative education

Homeschooling

Adult education Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 12720

.