High Middle Ages
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The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the
period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical composition * Period, a descriptor for a historical or period drama ...
of
European history The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of written records. During the Neolith ...
that lasted from around AD 1000 to 1250. The High
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...
were preceded by the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
and were followed by the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical comp ...
, which ended around AD 1500 (by
historiographical Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC and one of the earliest historians whose work survives. A historian is a person who studies and writes about the p ...

historiographical
convention). Key historical trends of the High Middle Ages include the rapidly increasing population of Europe, which brought about great social and political change from the preceding era, and the
Renaissance of the 12th century The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full sto ...
, including the first developments of
rural exodus Rural flight (or rural exodus) is the migratory pattern of peoples from rural areas A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000. In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outsid ...
and
urbanization Urbanization (or urbanisation) refers to the population shift from rural A rural landscape in Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finland. 15 July 2000.">South_Karelia.html" ;"title="Lappeenranta, South Karelia">Lappeenranta, South Karelia, Finla ...
. By 1250, the robust population increase had greatly benefited the European economy, which reached levels that would not be seen again in some areas until the 19th century. That trend faltered during the Late Middle Ages because of a series of calamities, most notably the
Black Death The Black Death (also known as the Pestilence, the Great Mortality or the Plague) was a pandemic occurring in from 1346 to 1353. It is the recorded in human history, causing the death of people in and , peaking in from 1347 to 1351. Bubo ...

Black Death
, but also numerous wars as well as economic stagnation. From around 780, Europe saw the last of the
barbarian invasions The Migration Period or better known as the Barbarian Invasions (from the Roman and Greek perspective) was a period in the history of Europe, during and after the decline of the Roman Empire, decline of the Western Roman Empire, during which the ...
and became more socially and politically organized. The
Carolingian Renaissance The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances, a period of cultural activity in the Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Franks, Frankish-dominated empire in western and central Europe dur ...
stimulated scientific and philosophical activity in Northern Europe. The first universities started operating in Bologna, Oxford, Paris, Salamanca, Cambridge and Modena. The
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a Subregion#Europe, subregion in Northern Europe ...

Viking
s settled in the British Isles, France and elsewhere, and Norse Christian kingdoms started developing in their Scandinavian homelands. The
Magyars Hungarians, also known as Magyars ( ; hu, magyarok ), are a nation and ethnic group native to Hungary (Hungarian: Magyarország) and Kingdom of Hungary, historical Hungarian lands who share a common Hungarian culture, culture, Hungarian histor ...

Magyars
ceased their expansion in the 10th century, and by the year 1000, a Christian
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
had become a recognized state in
Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on a common History, historical, Society, social and cultural identity. The Thirty Years' War between Catholic Church, Catholicism and Protestantism was a signifi ...

Central Europe
that was forming alliances with regional powers. With the brief exception of the
Mongol invasions The Mongol invasions and conquests took place during the 13th and 14th centuries, creating history's largest contiguous empire - The Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of the 13th and 14th centuries was the List of largest empires, largest conti ...
in the 13th century, major nomadic incursions ceased. The powerful
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

Byzantine Empire
of the
Macedonian Macedonian most often refers to someone or something from or related to Macedonia (disambiguation), Macedonia. Macedonian may specifically refer to: People Modern * Macedonians (ethnic group), the South Slavic ethnic group primarily associated w ...
and
Komnenos Komnenos ( gr, Κομνηνός; Latinized Latinisation or Latinization can refer to: * Latinisation of names, the practice of rendering a non-Latin name in a Latin style * Latinisation in the Soviet Union, the campaign in the USSR during the 1920s ...
dynasties gradually gave way to the resurrected
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may refe ...
and
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
and to a successor
crusader state The Crusader states were feudal polities created by the Latin Catholic leaders of the First Crusade through conquest and political subterfuge. Four states were established: the county of Edessa (1097–1150); the principality of Antioch ...

crusader state
(1204 to 1261), who continually fought each other until the end of the Latin Empire. The Byzantine Empire was reestablished in 1261 with the recapture of Constantinople from the Latins, though it was no longer a major power and would continue to falter through the 14th century, with remnants lasting until the mid 15th century. In the 11th century, populations north of the
Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt i ...

Alps
began a more intensive settlement, targeting "new" lands, some of which areas had reverted to wilderness after the end of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used in historiography to describe the period from ...

Western Roman Empire
. In what historian Charles Higounet called the "great clearances", Europeans cleared and cultivated some of the vast forests and marshes that lay across much of the continent. At the same time, settlers moved beyond the traditional boundaries of the
Frankish Empire Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks ( la, Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankland or Frankish Empire, was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most popul ...

Frankish Empire
to new frontiers beyond the
Elbe River The Elbe (, ; cs, Labe ; nds, Ilv or ''Elv''; Upper and dsb, Łobjo), historically in English also Elve, is one of the major river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or ...
, which tripled the size of Germany in the process. The
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the , with 1.3 billion Catholics . As the world's oldest and largest continuously functioning international institution, it has played a prominent role in the history ...

Catholic Church
, which reached the peak of its political power around then, called armies from across Europe to a series of
Crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusades
against the Seljuk Turks. The crusaders occupied the
Holy Land The Holy Land (: , la, Terra Sancta; : or ) is an area roughly located between the and the Eastern Bank of the . Traditionally, it is synonymous both with the biblical and with the . The term "Holy Land" usually refers to a territory ro ...

Holy Land
and founded the
Crusader States The Crusader States, also known as Outremer, were four Roman Catholic realms in the Middle East that lasted from 1098 to 1291. These were created by the leaders of the through and political intrigue. The four states were the (10981150) ...

Crusader States
in the
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
. Other wars led to the
Northern Crusades The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were Christian colonization and Christianization Christianization ( or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once. Various strategie ...
. The Christian kingdoms
took much of the Iberian Peninsula
took much of the Iberian Peninsula
from
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", " ...

Muslim
control, and the
Normans The Normans (: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were a arising in the medieval from the intermingling between settlers and indigenous and . The term is also used to denote emigrants from the duchy who conquered oth ...

Normans
conquered southern Italy, all part of the major population increases and the resettlement patterns of the era. The High Middle Ages produced many different forms of intellectual, spiritual and artistic works. The age also saw the rise of
ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism in social science and anthropology Anthropology is the Science, scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, and society, societies, in both the present and past, including Homo, past ...
, which evolved later into modern national identities in most of Europe, the ascent of the great Italian
city-state A city-state is an independent sovereignty, sovereign city which serves as the center of political, economic, and cultural life over its contiguous territory. They have existed in many parts of the world since the dawn of history, including c ...
s and the rise and fall of the Islamic civilization of
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
. The rediscovery of the works of
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
, at first indirectly through Medieval Jewish and
Islamic Philosophy Islamic philosophy is a development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from an Islamic tradition. Two terms traditionally used in the Islamic world are sometimes translated as philosophy—falsafa (literally: "philosophy"), which refer ...
, led
Maimonides Moses ben Maimon ; (1138–1204), commonly known as Maimonides ( ) grc-gre, Μωυσής Μαϊμωνίδης ; la, Moses Maimonides and also referred to by the acronym Rambam ( he, רמב״ם),, for ''Rabbeinu Mōše bēn Maimun'', "Our Rab ...

Maimonides
,
Ibn Sina Ibn Sina ( fa, ابن سینا), also known as Abu Ali Sina (), Pur Sina (), and often known in the West as Avicenna (;  – June 1037), was a Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' ...
,
Ibn Rushd Ibn Rushd ( ar, ; full name 300px, First/given, middle and last/family/surname with John Fitzgerald Kennedy as example. This shows a structure typical for the Anglosphere, among others. Other cultures use other structures for full names. ...

Ibn Rushd
,
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, ...

Thomas Aquinas
and other thinkers of the period to expand
Scholasticism Scholasticism was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people ...
, a combination of Judeo-Islamic and Catholic ideologies with the ancient philosophy. For much of this period,
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (), Tsargrad (), Qustantiniya (), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City"), Πό ...

Constantinople
remained Europe's most populous city, and Byzantine art reached a peak in the 12th century. In architecture, many of the most notable
Gothic cathedrals Gothic cathedrals and churches are religious buildings created in Europe between the mid-12th century and the beginning of the 16th century. The cathedral A cathedral is a church that contains the '' cathedra'' () of a bishop A bishop is ...
were built or completed around this period. The
Crisis of the Late Middle Ages The Crisis of the Late Middle Ages was a series of events in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that ended centuries of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convent ...
began at the start of the 14th century and marked the end of the period.


Historical events and politics


Great Britain and Ireland

In England, the
Norman Conquest The Norman Conquest (or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and ...
of 1066 resulted in a kingdom ruled by a
Francophone This article details the geographical distribution of speakers of the French language French ( or ) is a Romance language The Romance languages, less commonly Latin or Neo-Latin languages, are the modern languages that evolved from ...

Francophone
nobility. The
Normans The Normans (: ''Normaunds''; french: Normands; la, Nortmanni/Normanni) were a arising in the medieval from the intermingling between settlers and indigenous and . The term is also used to denote emigrants from the duchy who conquered oth ...

Normans
invaded Ireland in 1169 and soon established themselves throughout most of the country, although their stronghold was the southeast. Likewise,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Tele ...

Scotland
and
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign ...

Wales
were subdued to vassalage at about the same time, though Scotland later asserted its independence and Wales remained largely under the rule of independent native princes until the death of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in 1282. The
Exchequer In the civil service The civil service is a collective term for a sector of government composed mainly of career civil servants hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transiti ...
was founded in the 12th century under
King Henry I
King Henry I
, and the first
parliaments In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of socia ...
were convened. In 1215, after the loss of
Normandy Normandy (; french: link=no, Normandie ; nrf, Normaundie; from Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, ...

Normandy
,
King John of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg, Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen re ...

King John
signed the
Magna Carta (Medieval Latin for "Great Charter of Freedoms"), commonly called (also ''Magna Charta''; "Great Charter"), is a Royal charter, royal charter of rights agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, Berkshire, Windsor, on ...

Magna Carta
into law, which limited the power of
English monarchs This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 12 July 927, when it emerged from various History of Anglo-Saxon England, Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, unti ...
.


Iberia

A key geo-strategic development in the
Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula , ** * Aragonese Aragonese or Aragones may refer to: * Something related to Aragon, an autonomous community and former kingdom in Spain * the Aragonese people, those originating from or living in the historical region o ...

Iberian Peninsula
was the Christian conquest of
Toledo Toledo most commonly refers to: * Toledo, Spain, a city in Spain * Province of Toledo, Spain * Toledo, Ohio, a city in the United States Toledo may also refer to: Places Belize * Toledo District * Toledo Settlement Bolivia * Toledo, Oruro ...
in 1085. Dominated by war, the societal structures and relations in the northern Christian kingdoms were subordinated to the demands of omnipresent military conflict. The territorial expansion of the northern Christian kingdoms to the south brought the creation of border societies, where military demands on knights and foot soldiers and the promotion of settlement were privileged to possible seigneurial income; military orders also played an important role in the borderlands in the
southern meseta
southern meseta
. Agricultural models in areas with Mediterranean climate were generally based on biennial crop rotation. Despite population growth, agricultural output remained relatively rigid throughout the period; between the 10th and 13th centuries, migration southwards to exposed areas was incentivized by the possibility of enjoying privileges and acquiring properties. Conversely, the
intensive agriculture Intensive agriculture, also known as intensive farming (as opposed to extensive farming) and industrial agriculture, is a type of agriculture Agriculture is the science, art and practice of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was ...
-prevalent model in Muslim-ruled lands did not require territorial expansion. While Muslim lands enjoyed from a certain demographic and financial edge,
Almoravid The Almoravid dynasty ( ar, المرابطون, translit=Al-Murābiṭūn, lit=those from the ribats) was an imperial Berbers, Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco. It established an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the weste ...
s and
Almohad The Almohad Caliphate (IPA IPA commonly refers to: * India pale ale, a style of beer * International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin ...
s from northern Africa featured volatile state structures. Barring (unsuccessful) attempts to take Toledo, Almoravids and Almohads did not stand out for carrying out an expansionist policy.


Italy

In Italy, independent city states grew affluent on eastern maritime trade. These were in particular the
thalassocracies A thalassocracy or thalattocracy (from grc-x-classical, θάλασσα, translit=thalassa () , and grc, κρατεῖν, translit=kratein, lit=power; giving grc-x-koine, θαλασσοκρατία, translit=thalassokratia, lit=sea power) is a s ...
of
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune'' in Tuscany, central Italy, straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Pisa. Although Pisa is known worldwide for its Leaning Tower of Pisa, ...

Pisa
,
Amalfi Amalfi (, , ) is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a local administrative division of Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern It ...

Amalfi
,
Genoa Genoa ( ; it, Genova ; locally ; lij, Zêna ; English, historically, and la, Genua) is the capital of the of and the . In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits. As of the 2011 Italian census, the , which in 2015 ...

Genoa
and
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a Northern Italy, continental part, d ...

Venice
, which played a key role in European trade from then on, making these cities become major financial centers.


Scandinavia

From the mid-tenth to the mid-11th centuries, the Scandinavian kingdoms were unified and Christianized, resulting in an end of
Viking Vikings—"pirate", non, víkingr is the modern name given to seafaring people primarily from Scandinavia Scandinavia; Sami languages, Sami: ''Skadesi-suolu''/''Skađsuâl''. ( ) is a Subregion#Europe, subregion in Northern Europe ...

Viking
raids, and greater involvement in European politics. King
Cnut Cnut the Great (; ang, Cnut cyning; non, Knútr inn ríki; or , no, Knut den mektige, sv, Knut den Store. died 12 November 1035), also known as Canute, was King of Denmark The Monarchy of Denmark is a constitutional political system, ...
of Denmark ruled over both England and Norway. After Cnut's death in 1035, England and Norway were lost, and with the defeat of
Valdemar II Valdemar II (9 May 117028 March 1241), called Valdemar the Victorious or Valdemar the Conqueror (''Valdemar Sejr''), was the King of Denmark The Monarchy of Denmark is a constitutional political system, institution and a historic office o ...
in 1227, Danish predominance in the region came to an end. Meanwhile, Norway extended its Atlantic possessions, ranging from
Greenland Greenland ( kl, Kalaallit Nunaat, ; da, Grønland, ) is an * * * within the and the , located between the and oceans, east of the . Though a part of the continent of , Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with (spec ...

Greenland
to the
Isle of Man ) , anthem = " O Land of Our Birth" , image = Isle of Man by Sentinel-2.jpg , image_map = Europe-Isle_of_Man.svg , mapsize = 290px , map_alt = Location of the Isle of Man in Europe , map_caption = Location of the Isle of Man (green) in E ...

Isle of Man
, while Sweden, under
Birger Jarl (c. 121021 October 1266), or Birger Magnusson, was a Swedes, Swedish statesman, Jarl in Sweden, Jarl of Sweden and a member of the House of Bjelbo, who played a pivotal role in the consolidation of Sweden. Birger also led the Second Swedish Crus ...
, built up a power-base in the
Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the , enclosed by , , , , , , northeast , , and the . The sea stretches from to and from to . A of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two water bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the int ...

Baltic Sea
. However, the Norwegian influence started to decline already in the same period, marked by the
Treaty of Perth The Treaty of Perth, signed 2 July 1266, ended military conflict between Magnus VI of Norway Magnus, meaning "Great" in Latin, was used as cognomen of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus in the first century BCE. The best-known use of the name during the R ...
of 1266. Also, civil wars raged in Norway between 1130 and 1240.


France and Germany

By the time of the High Middle Ages, the
Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient nort ...
had been divided and replaced by separate successor kingdoms called France and Germany, although not with their modern boundaries. Germany was under the banner of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
, which reached its high-water mark of unity and political power.


Georgia

During the successful reign of King
David IV of Georgia David IV, also known as David the Builder ( ka, დავით აღმაშენებელი, ') (1073– 24 January 1125), of the Bagrationi dynasty, was a List of monarchs of Georgia, king of Kingdom of Georgia, Georgia from 1089 until h ...
(1089–1125),
Kingdom of Georgia Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File:Nezahualpiltzintli.jpg">Aztec King Nezahualpiltzintli of Texcoco King is the t ...
grew in strength and expelled the
Seljuk Empire The Great Seljuk Empire or the Seljuk Empire, was a empire, originating from the branch of . At the time of its greatest extent, the Seljuk Empire controlled a vast area, stretching from western and the in the west to the in the east, and ...

Seljuk Empire
from its lands. David's decisive victory in the
Battle of Didgori The Battle of Didgori was fought between the armies of the Kingdom of Georgia Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king of the King of the Romans (variant used in the early modern period) File ...
(1121) against the Seljuk Turks, as a result of which Georgia recaptured its lost capital
Tbilisi Tbilisi ( ; ka, თბილისი ), in some languages still known by its pre-1936 name Tiflis ( ), is the Capital city, capital and the List of cities and towns in Georgia (country), largest city of Georgia (country), Georgia, lying on the ...

Tbilisi
, marked the beginning of the
Georgian Golden Age The Georgian Golden Age ( ka, საქართველოს ოქროს ხანა, tr) describes a historical period in the High Middle Ages, spanning from roughly the late 11th to 13th centuries, during which the Kingdom of Georgia reach ...
. David's granddaughter
Queen Tamar Tamar the Great ( ka, თამარ მეფე, tr, lit. "King Tamar") ( 1160 – 18 January 1213) reigned as the Queen of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sa ...
continued the upward rise, successfully neutralizing internal opposition and embarking on an energetic foreign policy aided by further decline of the hostile Seljuk Empire, Seljuk Turks. Relying on a powerful military élite, Tamar was able to build on the successes of her predecessors to consolidate an empire which dominated vast lands spanning from present-day southern Russian Federation, Russia on the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. Georgia remained a leading regional power until its collapse under the Mongol Empire, Mongol attacks within two decades after Tamar's death.


Hungary

In the High Middle Ages, the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy in Central Europe that existed from the Middle Ages into the 20th century (1000–1946 with the exception of 1918–1920). The Principality of Hungary emerged as a Christian kingdom upon the Coronation of th ...

Kingdom of Hungary
(founded in 1000), became one of the most powerful medieval states in central Europe and Western Europe. King Saint Stephen I of Hungary introduced Christianity to the region; he was remembered by the contemporary chroniclers as a very religious monarch, with wide knowledge in Latin grammar, strict with his own people but kind to the foreigners. He eradicated the remnants of the tribal organisation in the Kingdom and forced the people to sedentarize and adopt the Christianity, Christian religion, ethics, way of life and founded the Hungarian medieval state, organising it politically in counties using the Germanic system as a model. The following monarchs usually kept a close relationship with Rome like Saint Ladislaus I of Hungary, and a tolerant attitude with the paganism, pagans that escaped to the Kingdom searching for sanctuary (for example Cumans in the 13th century), which eventually created certain discomfort for some Popes. With entering in Personal union with the Kingdom of Croatia (medieval)#Controversies, Kingdom of Croatia and the establishment of other vassal states, Hungary became a small empire that extended its control over the Balkans and the Carpathian region. The Hungarians, Hungarian royal house was the one that gave the most saints to the Catholic Church during medieval times.


Lithuania

During the High Middle Ages Lithuania emerged as a Duchy of Lithuania in the early 13th century, then briefly becoming the Kingdom of Lithuania from 1251 to 1263. After the assassination of its first Christian king Mindaugas Lithuania was known as Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Unconquered during the Lithuanian Crusade, Lithuania itself rapidly expanded to the East due to conquests and became one of the largest states in Europe.


Poland

In the mid-10th century Poland emerged as a duchy after Mieszko I, the ruler of the Western Polans, Polans, conquered the surrounding Lechites, Lechitic tribes in the region. Then in 1025 under the rule of Bolesław I the Brave, Poland became a kingdom.


Southeastern Europe

The High Middle Ages saw the height and decline of the Slavic state of Kievan Rus' and emergence of Cumania. Later, the Mongol invasions, Mongol invasion in the 13th century had great impact on the east of Europe, as many countries of the region were invaded, pillaged, conquered and/or vassalized. During the first half of this period (1185) the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

Byzantine Empire
dominated the Balkans, and under the Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty, Komnenian emperors there was a revival of prosperity and urbanization; however, their domination of Southeastern Europe came to an end with a successful Uprising of Asen and Peter, Vlach-Bulgarian rebellion in 1185, and henceforth the region was divided between the Byzantines in Greece, some parts of Macedonia (region), Macedonia, and Thrace, the Bulgarians in Moesia and most of Thrace and Macedonia, and the Serbian Grand Principality, Serbs to the northwest. Eastern and Western churches had formally split in the 11th century, and despite occasional periods of co-operation during the 12th century, in 1204 the Fourth Crusade treacherously captured
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (), Tsargrad (), Qustantiniya (), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City"), Πό ...

Constantinople
. This severely damaged the Byzantines, and their power was ultimately weakened by the Seljuq Empire, Seljuks and the rising Ottoman Empire in the 14–15th century. The power of the Latin Empire, however, was short-lived after the Crusader army was routed by list of Bulgarian monarchs, Bulgarian Emperor Kaloyan of Bulgaria, Kaloyan in the Battle of Adrianople (1205).


Climate and agriculture

The Medieval Warm Period, the period from the 10th century to about the 14th century in Europe, was a relatively warm and gentle interval ended by the generally colder Little Ice Age. Farmers grew wheat well north into Scandinavia, and wine grapes in northern England, although the maximum expansion of vineyards appears to occur within the Little Ice Age period. During this time, a high demand for wine and steady volume of alcohol consumption inspired a viticulture revolution of progress. This protection from famine allowed Europe's population to increase, despite the famine in 1315 that killed 1.5 million people. This increased population contributed to the founding of new towns and an increase in industrial and economic activity during the period. They also established trade and a comprehensive production of alcohol. Food production also increased during this time as new ways of farming were introduced, including the use of a heavier plow, horses instead of oxen, and a three-field system that allowed the cultivation of a greater variety of crops than the earlier two-field system—notably legumes, the growth of which prevented the depletion of important nitrogen from the soil.


The rise of chivalry

During the High Middle Ages, the idea of a Christian warrior started to change as Christianity grew more prominent in Medieval Europe. The Codes of Chivalry promoted the ideal knight to be selfless, faithful, and fierce against those who threaten the weak. Household heavy cavalry (knights) became common in the 11th century across Europe, and Tournament (medieval), tournaments were invented. Tournaments allowed knights to establish their family name while being able to gather vast wealth and renown through victories. In the 12th century, the Cluny monks promoted ethical warfare and inspired the formation of order of chivalry, orders of chivalry, such as the Knights Templar, Templar Knights. Inherited titles of nobility were established during this period. In 13th-century Germany, knighthood became another inheritance, inheritable title, although one of the less prestigious, and the trend spread to other countries.


Religion


Christian Church

The East–West Schism of 1054 formally separated the Christian church into two parts: Roman Catholicism in Western Europe and Eastern Orthodoxy in the east. It occurred when Pope Leo IX and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch Michael I excommunication, excommunicated each other, mainly over disputes as to the use of unleavened bread in the liturgy and fasting days, existence of papal authority over the four Eastern patriarchs, as well as disagreement over the filioque.


Crusades

The Catholic Crusades occurred between the 11th and 13th centuries. They were conducted under papal authority, initially with the intent of reestablishing Christian rule in ''The Holy Land'' by taking the area from the Muslim Fatimid Caliphate. The Fatimids had captured Palestine in AD 970, lost it to the Seljuk Turks in 1073 and recaptured it in 1098, just before they lost it again in 1099 as a result of the First Crusade.


Military orders

In the context of the crusades, monastic Military order (society), military orders were founded that would become the template for the late medieval chivalric orders. The Knights Templar were a Christian military order founded after the First Crusade to help protect Christian pilgrims from hostile locals and highway bandits. The order was deeply involved in banking, and in 1307 Philip IV of France, Philip the Fair (Philippine le Bel) had the entire order arrested in France and dismantled on charges of heresy. The Knights Hospitaller were originally a Christianity, Christian organization founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide care for poor, sick, or injured pilgrimage, pilgrims to the Holy Land. After Jerusalem was taken in the First Crusade, it became a religious order, religious/Military order (society), military order that was charged with the care and defence of the Holy Lands. After the Holy Lands were eventually taken by Muslim forces, it moved its operations to Rhodes, and later Malta. The Teutonic Knights were a German religious order formed in 1190, in the city of Acre,, Acre, to aid Christian pilgrims on their way to the Holy Lands and to operate hospitals for the sick and injured in Outremer. After Muslim forces captured the Holy Lands, the order moved to Transylvania in 1211 and later, after being expelled, invaded pagan Prussia with the intention of Christianizing the Baltic region. Yet, both before and after the Order's main pagan opponent, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Lithuania, Christianization of Lithuania, converted to Christianity, the Order had already attacked other Christian nations such as Novgorod Republic, Novgorod and Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385), Poland. The Teutonic Knights' power hold, which became considerable, was broken in 1410, at the Battle of Grunwald, where the Order suffered a devastating defeat against a joint Polish-Lithuanian army. After Grunwald, the Order declined in power until 1809 when it was officially dissolved. There were ten crusades in total.


Scholasticism

The new Christianity, Christian method of learning was influenced by Anselm of Canterbury (1033–1109) from the rediscovery of the works of
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
, at first indirectly through Medieval Jewish and Muslim Philosophy (
Maimonides Moses ben Maimon ; (1138–1204), commonly known as Maimonides ( ) grc-gre, Μωυσής Μαϊμωνίδης ; la, Moses Maimonides and also referred to by the acronym Rambam ( he, רמב״ם),, for ''Rabbeinu Mōše bēn Maimun'', "Our Rab ...

Maimonides
, Avicenna, and Averroes) and then through
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
's own works brought back from Byzantine and Muslim libraries; and those whom he influenced, most notably Albertus Magnus, Bonaventure and Peter Abelard, Abélard. Many scholastics believed in empiricism and supporting Roman Catholic doctrines through secular study, reason, and logic. They opposed Christian mysticism, and the Platonist-Augustinian belief that the Dualism (philosophy of mind), mind is an immaterial substance. The most famous of the Scholasticism, scholastics was
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, ...

Thomas Aquinas
(later declared a "Doctor of the Church"), who led the move away from the Platonism, Platonic and Augustine of Hippo, Augustinian and towards Aristotelianism. Aquinas developed a philosophy of mind by writing that the mind was at birth a ''tabula rasa'' ("blank slate") that was given the ability to think and recognize forms or ideas through a divine spark. Other notable scholastics included Averroes, Muhammad Averroes, Roscellinus, Roscelin, Abélard, Peter Lombard, and Francisco Suárez. One of the main questions during this time was the problem of universals. Prominent opponents of various aspects of the scholastic mainstream included Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Peter Damian, Bernard of Clairvaux, and the Victorines.


Golden age of monasticism

* The late 11th century/early-mid 12th century was the height of the golden age of Christian monasticism (8th-12th centuries). ** Benedictine Order – black-robed monks ** Cistercian Order – white-robed monks *** Bernard of Clairvaux


Mendicant orders

* The 13th century saw the rise of the Mendicant orders such as the: ** Franciscans (Friars Minor, commonly known as the Grey Friars), founded 1209 ** Carmelites (Hermits of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Carmel, commonly known as the White Friars), founded 1206–1214 ** Dominican Order, Dominicans (Order of Preachers, commonly called the Black Friars), founded 1215 ** Augustinians (Hermits of St. Augustine, commonly called the Austin Friars), founded 1256


Heretical movements

Christian Heresy, heresies existed in Europe before the 11th century but only in small numbers and of local character: in most cases, a rogue priest, or a village returning to pagan traditions. Beginning in the 11th century, however mass-movement heresies appeared. The roots of this can be partially sought in the rise of urban cities, free merchants, and a new money-based economy. The rural values of monasticism held little appeal to urban people who began to form sects more in tune with urban culture. The first large-scale heretical movements in Western Europe originated in the newly urbanized areas such as southern France and northern Italy and were probably influenced by the Bogomilism, Bogomils and other Dualistic cosmology, dualist movements. These heresies were on a scale the Catholic Church had never seen before; the response was one of elimination for some (such as the Cathars), and acceptance and integration of others (such as the veneration of Francis of Assisi, the son of an urban merchant who renounced money).


Cathars

Catharism was a movement with Gnosticism, Gnostic elements that originated around the middle of the 10th century, branded by the contemporary Roman Catholic Church as heresy, heretical. It existed throughout much of Western Europe, but its origination was in Languedoc and surrounding areas in southern France. The name ''Cathar'' stems from Greek language, Greek ''katharos'', "pure". One of the first recorded uses is Eckebert, Eckbert von Schönau who wrote on heretics from Cologne in 1181: "Hos nostra Germania catharos appellat." The Cathars are also called Albigensians. This name originates from the end of the 12th century, and was used by the chronicler Geoffroy du Breuil of Vigeois in 1181. The name refers to the southern town of Albi (the ancient Albiga). The designation is hardly exact, for the centre was at Toulouse and in the neighbouring districts. The Catharism, Albigensians were strong in southern France, northern Italy, and the southwestern
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
. The Bogomilism, Bogomils were strong in the Balkans, and became the Bosnian Church, official religion supported by the Bosnian kings. * Dualistic cosmology, Dualists believed that historical events were the result of struggle between a good force and an evil force and that evil ruled the world, though it could be controlled or defeated through asceticism and good works. * Albigensian Crusade, Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester, Simon de Montfort, Montségur, Château de Quéribus


Waldensians

Peter Waldo of Lyon was a wealthy merchant who gave up his riches around 1175 after a religious experience and became a preacher. He founded the Waldensians which became a Christian sect believing that all religious practices should have scriptural basis. Waldo was denied the right to preach his sermons by the Third Lateran Council in 1179, which he did not obey and continued to speak freely until he was excommunicated in 1184. Waldo was critical of the Christian clergy saying they did not live according to the word. He rejected the practice of selling indulgences, as well as the common saint cult practices of the day. Waldensians are considered a forerunner to the Protestant Reformation, and they melted into Protestantism with the outbreak of the Reformation and became a part of the wider Reformed tradition after the views of John Calvin and his theological successors in Geneva proved very similar to their own theological thought. Waldensian churches still exist, located on several continents.


Trade and commerce

In Northern Europe, the Hanseatic League, a federation of free cities to advance trade by sea, was founded in the 12th century, with the foundation of the city of Lübeck, which would later dominate the League, in 1158–1159. Many northern cities of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western, Central Europe, Central and Southern Europe that developed during the Early Middle Age ...
became hanseatic cities, including Amsterdam, Cologne, Bremen, Hanover and Berlin. Hanseatic cities outside the Holy Roman Empire were, for instance, Bruges and the Polish city of Gdańsk (Danzig), as well as Königsberg, capital of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. In Bergen, Norway and Veliky Novgorod, Russia the league had factories and middlemen. In this period the Germans started colonising Europe beyond the Empire, into Prussia and Silesia. In the late 13th century, a Venice, Venetian explorer named Marco Polo became one of the first Europeans to travel the Silk Road to China. Westerners became more aware of the Far East when Polo documented his travels in ''The Travels of Marco Polo, Il Milione''. He was followed by numerous Christian missionaries to the East, such as William of Rubruck, Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, André de Longjumeau, Odoric of Pordenone, Giovanni de' Marignolli, John of Montecorvino, Giovanni di Monte Corvino, and other travellers such as Niccolò de' Conti.


Science

Philosophical and scientific teaching of the
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
was based upon few copies and commentaries of ancient Greek texts that remained in Western Europe after the collapse of the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used in historiography to describe the period from ...

Western Roman Empire
. Most of them were studied only in Latin as knowledge of Greek was very limited. This scenario changed during the
Renaissance of the 12th century The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the High Middle Ages The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full sto ...
. The intellectual revitalization of Europe started with the birth of Medieval university, medieval universities. The increased contact with the Islamic world in Al-Andalus, Spain and History of Islam in southern Italy, Sicily during the Reconquista, and the Byzantine world and Muslim
Levant The Levant () is an term referring to a large area in the region of . In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the , which included present-day , , , , and most of southwest of the middle . In its widest historical sense, the Levant ...

Levant
during the
Crusades The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

Crusades
, allowed Europeans access to scientific Arabic and Greek texts, including the works of
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental quest ...

Aristotle
, Ibn al-Haytham, Alhazen, and Averroes. The European universities aided materially in the Latin translations of the 12th century, translation and propagation of these texts and started a new infrastructure which was needed for science, scientific communities. At the beginning of the 13th century there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main works of almost all the intellectually crucial ancient authors, allowing a sound transfer of scientific ideas via both the universities and the monasteries. By then, the natural science contained in these texts began to be extended by notable scholastics such as Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Albertus Magnus and Duns Scotus. Precursors of the modern scientific method can be seen already in Grosseteste's emphasis on mathematics as a way to understand nature, and in the empirical approach admired by Bacon, particularly in his ''Opus Majus''.


Technology

During the 12th and 13th century in Europe there was a radical change in the rate of new inventions, innovations in the ways of managing traditional means of production, and economic growth. In less than a century there were more inventions developed and applied usefully than in the previous thousand years of human history all over the globe. The period saw major technology, technological advances, including the adoption or invention of windmills, watermills, printing (though not yet with movable type), gunpowder, the astrolabe, glasses, scissors of the modern shape, a better clock, and greatly improved ships. The latter two advances made possible the dawn of the Age of Discovery. These inventions were influenced by foreign culture and society. Alfred W. Crosby described some of this technological revolution in ''The Measure of Reality: Quantification in Western Europe, 1250-1600'' and other major historians of technology have also noted it. * The earliest written record of a windmill is from Yorkshire, England, dated 1185. * Paper manufacture began in Italy around 1270. * The spinning wheel was brought to Europe (probably from India) in the 13th century. * The magnetic compass aided navigation, first reaching Europe some time in the late 12th century. * Eye glasses were invented in Italy in the late 1280s. * The astrolabe returned to Europe via Islamic Spain. * Fibonacci introduces Hindu-Arabic numerals to Europe with his book ''Liber Abaci'' in 1202. * The West's oldest known depiction of a stern-mounted rudder can be found on church carvings dating to around 1180.


Arts


Visual arts

Art in the High Middle Ages includes these important movements: * Anglo-Saxon art was influential on the British Isles until the Norman Invasion of 1066 * Romanesque art continued traditions from the Classical world (not to be confused with Romanesque architecture) * Gothic art developed a distinct Germanic flavor (not to be confused with Gothic architecture). * Indo-Islamic architecture begins when Muhammad of Ghor made Delhi a Muslim capital * Byzantine art continued earlier Byzantine traditions, influencing much of Eastern Europe. * Illuminated manuscripts gained prominence both in the Catholic and Orthodox churches


Architecture

Gothic architecture superseded the Romanesque architecture, Romanesque style by combining flying buttresses, gothic (or pointed) arches and ribbed vaults. It was influenced by the spiritual background of the time, being religious in essence: thin horizontal lines and grates made the building strive towards the sky. Architecture was made to appear light and weightless, as opposed to the dark and bulky forms of the previous Romanesque architecture, Romanesque style. Saint Augustine of Hippo taught that light was an expression of God. Architectural techniques were adapted and developed to build churches that reflected this teaching. Colorful glass windows enhanced the spirit of lightness. As color was much rarer at medieval times than today, it can be assumed that these virtuoso works of art had an awe-inspiring impact on the common man from the street. High-rising intricate ribbed, and later fan vaultings demonstrated movement toward heaven. Veneration of God was also expressed by the relatively large size of these buildings. A gothic cathedral therefore not only invited the visitors to elevate themselves spiritually, it was also meant to demonstrate the greatness of God. The floor plan of a gothic cathedral corresponded to the rules of scholasticism: According to Erwin Panofsky's ''Gothic Architecture and Scholasticism'', the plan was divided into sections and uniform subsections. These characteristics are exhibited by the most famous sacral building of the time: Notre Dame de Paris.


Literature

A variety of cultures influenced the literature of the High Middle Ages, one of the strongest among them being Christianity. The connection to Christianity was greatest in Latin literature, which influenced the vernacular languages in the Literature cycle, literary cycle of the Matter of Rome. Other literary cycles, or interrelated groups of stories, included the Matter of France (stories about Charlemagne and his court), the Acritic songs dealing with the chivalry of Byzantine Empire, Byzantium's frontiersmen, and perhaps the best known cycle, the Matter of Britain, which featured tales about King Arthur, his court, and related stories from Brittany, Cornwall,
Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or citizenship. A country may be an independent sovereign ...

Wales
and Ireland. An anonymous German poet tried to bring the Germanic myths from the Migration Period to the level of the French and British epics, producing the Nibelungenlied. There was also a quantity of poetry and historical writings which were written during this period, such as ''Historia Regum Britanniae'' by Geoffrey of Monmouth. Despite political decline during the late 12th and much of the 13th centuries, the Byzantine scholarly tradition remained particularly fruitful over the time period. One of the most prominent philosophers of the 11th century, Michael Psellos, reinvigorated Neoplatonism on Christian foundations and bolstered the study of Ancient Greek philosophy, ancient philosophical texts, along with contributing to history, grammar, and rhetorics. His pupil and successor at the head of Philosophy at the University of Constantinople John Italus, Ioannes Italos continued the Platonic line in Byzantine thought and was criticized by the Church for holding opinions it considered heretical, such as the doctrine of Reincarnation, transmigration. Two Orthodox theologians important in the dialogue between the eastern and western churches were Nikephoros Blemmydes and Maximus Planudes. Byzantine historical tradition also flourished with the works of the brothers Niketas Choniates, Niketas and Michael Choniates in the beginning of the 13th century and George Akropolites a generation later. Dating from 12th century Byzantine Empire is also Timarion, an Orthodox Christian anticipation of Divine Comedy. Around the same time the so-called Byzantine novel rose in popularity with its synthesis of ancient pagan and contemporaneous Christian themes. At the same time southern France gave birth to Occitan literature, which is best known for troubadours who sang of courtly love. It included elements from Latin literature and Arab-influenced Spain and North Africa. Later its influence spread to several cultures in Western Europe, notably in Portugal and the Minnesänger in Germany. Provençal literature also reached Sicily and Northern Italy laying the foundation of the Dolce Stil Nuovo, "sweet new style" of Dante Alighieri, Dante and later Petrarch, Petrarca. Indeed, the most important poem of the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical comp ...
, the allegorical ''Divine Comedy,'' is to a large degree a product of both the Summa Theologica, theology of Thomas Aquinas and the largely secular Occitan literature.


Music

The surviving music of the High Middle Ages is primarily religious in nature, since music notation developed in religious institutions, and the application of notation to secular music was a later development. Early in the period, Gregorian chant was the dominant form of church music; other forms, beginning with organum, and later including Clausula (music), clausulae, conductus, and the motet, developed using the chant as source material. During the 11th century, Guido of Arezzo was one of the first to develop musical notation, which made it easier for singers to remember Gregorian chants. It was during the 12th and 13th centuries that Gregorian plainchant gave birth to polyphony, which appeared in the works of French Notre Dame School (Léonin and Pérotin). Later it evolved into the ''ars nova'' (Philippe de Vitry, Guillaume de Machaut) and the musical genres of late Middle Ages. An important composer during the 12th century was the nun Hildegard of Bingen. The most significant secular movement was that of the troubadours, who arose in Occitania (Southern France) in the late 11th century. The troubadours were often itinerant entertainer, itinerant, came from all classes of society, and wrote songs on a variety of topics, though with a particular focus on courtly love. Their style went on to influence the trouvères of northern France, the minnesingers of Germany, and the composers of secular music of the Trecento in northern Italy.


Theatre

Economic and political changes in the High Middle Ages led to the formation of guilds and the growth of towns, and this would lead to significant changes for theatre starting in this time and continuing into the
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical comp ...
. Trade guilds began to perform plays, usually religiously based, and often dealing with a biblical story that referenced their profession. For instance, a baker's guild would perform a reenactment of the Last Supper. In the British Isles, plays were produced in some 127 different towns during the Middle Ages. These vernacular Mystery plays were written in cycles of a large number of plays: York Mystery Plays, York (48 plays), Chester Mystery Plays, Chester (24), Wakefield Mystery Plays, Wakefield (32) and N-Town Plays, Unknown (42). A larger number of plays survive from France and Germany in this period and some type of religious dramas were performed in nearly every European country in the Late Middle Ages. Many of these plays contained comedy, devils, villains and clowns. There were also a number of secular performances staged in the Middle Ages, the earliest of which is ''The Play of the Greenwood'' by Adam de la Halle in 1276. It contains satirical scenes and Folk culture, folk material such as faeries and other supernatural occurrences. Farces also rose dramatically in popularity after the 13th century. The majority of these plays come from France and Germany and are similar in tone and form, emphasizing sex and bodily excretions.Brockett and Hildy (2003, 96)


Timeline

* 1003 – death of Pope Sylvester II * 1018 – the First Bulgarian Empire is conquered by the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

Byzantine Empire
under Basil II. * 1027 – the Salian Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II succeeds the last Ottonian Henry II the Saint * 1054 – East–West Schism * 1066 – Battle of Hastings * 1066–1067 Bayeux Tapestry * 1073–1085 – Pope Gregory VII * 1071 – Battle of Manzikert * 1077 – Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV's Walk to Canossa * 1086 – Domesday Book * 1086 – Battle of az-Zallaqah * 1088 – University of Bologna founded * 1091 – Battle of Levounion * 1096 – University of Oxford founded * 1096–1099 – First Crusade * 1123 – First Lateran Council * 1139 – Second Lateran Council * 1145–1149 – Second Crusade * 1147 – Wendish Crusade * – University of Paris founded * 1155–1190 – Frederick I Barbarossa * 1158 – foundation of the Hanseatic League * 1169 - Norman invasion of Ireland * 1185 – reestablishment of the Second Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian Empire * 1189–1192 – Third Crusade * 1200–1204 – Fourth Crusade * 1205 – Battle of Adrianople (1205), battle of Adrianople * 1209 – University of Cambridge founded * 1209 – foundation of the Franciscan Order * 1209–1229 – Albigensian Crusade * 1212 – Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa * 1215 –
Magna Carta (Medieval Latin for "Great Charter of Freedoms"), commonly called (also ''Magna Charta''; "Great Charter"), is a Royal charter, royal charter of rights agreed to by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, Berkshire, Windsor, on ...

Magna Carta
* 1216 – recognition of the Dominican Order * 1215 – Fourth Lateran Council * 1217–1221 – Fifth Crusade * 1218 – University of Salamanca founded * 1220–1250 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II * 1222 – University of Padua founded * 1223 – approval of the Franciscan Rule of Life * 1228–1229 – Sixth Crusade * 1230 – Prussian Crusade * 1230 – battle of Klokotnitsa * 1237–1242 – Mongol invasion of Europe * 1241 – Battle of Legnica and Battle of Mohi * 1242 – Battle of the Ice * 1248–1254 – Seventh Crusade * 1257 – foundation of the Collège de Sorbonne * 1261 – the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages ...

Byzantine Empire
reconquers
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (), Tsargrad (), Qustantiniya (), Basileuousa ("Queen of Cities"), Megalopolis ("the Great City"), Πό ...

Constantinople
. * 1274 – death of
Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (; it, Tommaso d'Aquino, lit=Thomas of Aquino; 1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican Dominican may refer to: * Someone or something from or related to the Dominican Republic The Dominican Republic ( ; es, ...

Thomas Aquinas
; ''Summa Theologica'' published * 1277-1280 – Uprising of Ivaylo – Medieval Europe's only successful peasant uprising * 1280 – death of Albertus Magnus * 1291 – Akko, Acre, the last European outpost in the Near East, is captured by the Mamluks under Al-Ashraf Khalil, Khalil. * 1299 – Peak of Mongol supremacy in Southeastern Europe with Chaka of Bulgaria * 1299 – Osman I founds the Ottoman Empire.


See also

*
Early Middle Ages The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, sometimes referred to as the Dark Ages, is typically regarded by historians as lasting from the late 5th or early 6th century to the 10th century. They marked the start of the Middle Ages ...
*
Late Middle Ages The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in musical comp ...
*
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of w ...


Notes


Further reading

* Fuhrmann, Horst. ''Germany in the High Middle Ages: c. 1050-1200'' (Cambridge UP, 1986). * Jordan, William C. ''Europe in the High Middle Ages'' (2nd ed. Penguin, 2004). * Mundy, John H. ''Europe in the High Middle Ages, 1150–1309'' (2014)
online
* Power, Daniel, ed. ''The Central Middle Ages: Europe 950–1320'' (Oxford UP, 2006).


External links





in the ''Columbia Encyclopedia'' at Infoplease
Provençal literature
in the ''Columbia Encyclopedia'' at Infoplease {{Authority control High Middle Ages, Middle Ages, .02 11th century in Europe, . 12th century in Europe, . 13th century in Europe, . 11th-century establishments in Europe, . 13th-century disestablishments in Europe, . pt:Idade Média#Alta Idade Média