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HDMI
HDMI
(High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device.[4] HDMI
HDMI
is a digital replacement for analog video standards. HDMI
HDMI
implements the EIA/ CEA-861 standards, which define video formats and waveforms, transport of compressed, uncompressed, and LPCM audio, auxiliary data, and implementations of the VESA EDID.[5][6](p. III) CEA-861 signals carried by HDMI
HDMI
are electrically compatible with the CEA-861 signals used by the digital visual interface (DVI). No signal conversion is necessary, nor is there a loss of video quality when a DVI-to- HDMI
HDMI
adapter is used.[6](§C) The CEC ( Consumer
Consumer
Electronics Control) capability allows HDMI
HDMI
devices to control each other when necessary and allows the user to operate multiple devices with one handheld remote control device.[6](§6.3) Several versions of HDMI
HDMI
have been developed and deployed since initial release of the technology but all use the same cable and connector. Other than improved audio and video capacity, performance, resolution and color spaces, newer versions have optional advanced features such as 3D, Ethernet
Ethernet
data connection, and CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) extensions. Production of consumer HDMI
HDMI
products started in late 2003.[7] In Europe either DVI-HDCP or HDMI
HDMI
is included in the HD ready
HD ready
in-store labeling specification for TV sets for HDTV, formulated by EICTA with SES Astra
SES Astra
in 2005. HDMI
HDMI
began to appear on consumer HDTVs in 2004 and camcorders and digital still cameras in 2006.[8][9] As of January 6, 2015 (twelve years after the release of the first HDMI
HDMI
specification), over 4 billion HDMI
HDMI
devices have been sold.[10]

Contents

1 History 2 Specifications

2.1 Audio/video 2.2 Communication channels

2.2.1 Display Data Channel (DDC) 2.2.2 Transition-Minimized Differential Signaling (TMDS) 2.2.3 Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) 2.2.4 HDMI
HDMI
Ethernet
Ethernet
and Audio Return Channel

2.3 Compatibility with DVI 2.4 Content protection (HDCP) 2.5 Connectors 2.6 Cables 2.7 Extenders 2.8 Cost

3 Versions

3.1 Version 1.0 3.2 Version 1.1 3.3 Version 1.2 3.4 Version 1.3 3.5 Version 1.4 3.6 Version 2.0 3.7 Version 2.1 3.8 Version comparison

4 Applications

4.1 Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc and HD DVD
DVD
players 4.2 Digital cameras and camcorders 4.3 Personal computers 4.4 Gaming consoles 4.5 Tablet computers 4.6 Mobile phones 4.7 Legacy compatibility

5 HDMI
HDMI
Alternate Mode for USB
USB
Type-C 6 Relationship with DisplayPort 7 Relationship with MHL 8 See also 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] The HDMI
HDMI
founders were Hitachi, Panasonic, Philips, Silicon Image, Sony, Thomson, RCA and Toshiba.[1] Digital Content Protection, LLC provides HDCP (which was developed by Intel) for HDMI.[11] HDMI
HDMI
has the support of motion picture producers Fox, Universal, Warner Bros. and Disney, along with system operators DirecTV, EchoStar (Dish Network) and CableLabs.[4] The HDMI
HDMI
founders began development on HDMI
HDMI
1.0 on April 16, 2002, with the goal of creating an AV connector that was backward-compatible with DVI.[12][13] At the time, DVI-HDCP ( DVI
DVI
with HDCP) and DVI-HDTV (DVI-HDCP using the CEA-861-B video standard) were being used on HDTVs.[13][14][15] HDMI
HDMI
1.0 was designed to improve on DVI- HDTV by using a smaller connector and adding audio capability and enhanced YCbCr
YCbCr
capability and consumer electronics control functions.[13][14] The first Authorized Testing Center (ATC), which tests HDMI
HDMI
products, was opened by Silicon Image
Silicon Image
on June 23, 2003, in California, United States.[16] The first ATC in Japan was opened by Panasonic
Panasonic
on May 1, 2004, in Osaka.[17] The first ATC in Europe was opened by Philips
Philips
on May 25, 2005, in Caen, France.[18] The first ATC in China was opened by Silicon Image
Silicon Image
on November 21, 2005, in Shenzhen.[19] The first ATC in India was opened by Philips
Philips
on June 12, 2008, in Bangalore.[20] The HDMI
HDMI
website contains a list of all the ATCs.[21] According to In-Stat, the number of HDMI
HDMI
devices sold was 5 million in 2004, 17.4 million in 2005, 63 million in 2006, and 143 million in 2007.[22][23][24] HDMI
HDMI
has become the de facto standard for HDTVs, and according to In-Stat, around 90% of digital televisions in 2007 included HDMI.[22][25][26][27][28] In-Stat has estimated that 229 million HDMI
HDMI
devices were sold in 2008.[29] On April 8, 2008 there were over 850 consumer electronics and PC companies that had adopted the HDMI
HDMI
specification ( HDMI
HDMI
adopters).[30][31] On January 7, 2009, HDMI
HDMI
Licensing, LLC announced that HDMI
HDMI
had reached an installed base of over 600 million HDMI
HDMI
devices.[31] In-Stat has estimated that 394 million HDMI
HDMI
devices would sell in 2009 and that all digital televisions by the end of 2009 would have at least one HDMI
HDMI
input.[31] On January 28, 2008, In-Stat reported that shipments of HDMI
HDMI
were expected to exceed those of DVI
DVI
in 2008, driven primarily by the consumer electronics market.[22][32] In 2008, PC Magazine
PC Magazine
awarded a Technical Excellence Award in the Home Theater category for an "innovation that has changed the world" to the CEC portion of the HDMI
HDMI
specification.[33] Ten companies were given a Technology and Engineering Emmy Award for their development of HDMI
HDMI
by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences on January 7, 2009.[34] On October 25, 2011, the HDMI
HDMI
Forum was established by the HDMI founders to create an open organization so that interested companies can participate in the development of the HDMI
HDMI
specification.[35][36] All members of the HDMI
HDMI
Forum have equal voting rights, may participate in the Technical Working Group, and if elected can be on the Board of Directors.[36] There is no limit to the number of companies allowed in the HDMI
HDMI
Forum though companies must pay an annual fee of US$15,000 with an additional annual fee of $5,000 for those companies who serve on the Board of Directors.[36] The Board of Directors is made up of 11 companies who are elected every 2 years by a general vote of HDMI
HDMI
Forum members.[36] All future development of the HDMI
HDMI
specification take place in the HDMI
HDMI
Forum and are built upon the HDMI
HDMI
1.4b specification.[36] Also on the same day HDMI
HDMI
Licensing, LLC announced that there were over 1,100 HDMI
HDMI
adopters and that over 2 billion HDMI-enabled products had shipped since the launch of the HDMI standard.[1][35] From October 25, 2011, all development of the HDMI specification became the responsibility of the newly created HDMI Forum.[35] On January 8, 2013, HDMI
HDMI
Licensing, LLC announced that there were over 1,300 HDMI
HDMI
adopters and that over 3 billion HDMI
HDMI
devices had shipped since the launch of the HDMI
HDMI
standard.[10][37] The day also marked the 10-year anniversary of the release of the first HDMI specification.[10][37] Specifications[edit] The HDMI
HDMI
specification defines the protocols, signals, electrical interfaces and mechanical requirements of the standard.[6](p. V) The maximum pixel clock rate for HDMI
HDMI
1.0 is 165 MHz, which is sufficient to allow 1080p
1080p
and WUXGA
WUXGA
(1920×1200) at 60 Hz. HDMI 1.3 increases that to 340 MHz, which allows for higher resolution (such as WQXGA, 2560×1600) across a single digital link.[38] An HDMI connection can either be single-link (type A/C/D) or dual-link (type B) and can have a video pixel rate of 25 MHz to 340 MHz (for a single-link connection) or 25 MHz to 680 MHz (for a dual-link connection). Video formats with rates below 25 MHz (e.g., 13.5 MHz for 480i/NTSC) are transmitted using a pixel-repetition scheme.[4] Audio/video[edit] HDMI
HDMI
uses the Consumer
Consumer
Electronics Association/Electronic Industries Alliance 861 standards. HDMI
HDMI
1.0 to HDMI
HDMI
1.2a uses the EIA/CEA-861-B video standard, HDMI
HDMI
1.3 uses the CEA-861-D video standard, and HDMI 1.4 uses the CEA-861-E video standard.[6](p. III) The CEA-861-E document defines "video formats and waveforms; colorimetry and quantization; transport of compressed and uncompressed, as well as Linear Pulse Code Modulation
Linear Pulse Code Modulation
(LPCM), audio; carriage of auxiliary data; and implementations of the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) Enhanced Extended Display Identification Data Standard (E-EDID)".[39] On July 15, 2013, the CEA announced the publication of CEA-861-F, a standard that can be used by interfaces such as DVI, HDMI, and LVDS.[40] CEA-861-F adds the ability to transmit several Ultra HD video
HD video
formats and additional color spaces.[40] To ensure baseline compatibility between different HDMI
HDMI
sources and displays (as well as backward compatibility with the electrically compatible DVI
DVI
standard) all HDMI
HDMI
devices must implement the sRGB color space at 8 bits per component.[6](§6.2.3) Ability to use the YCbCr
YCbCr
color space and higher color depths ("deep color") is optional. HDMI
HDMI
permits sRGB 4:4:4 chroma subsampling (8–16 bits per component), xvYCC 4:4:4 chroma subsampling (8–16 bits per component), YCbCr
YCbCr
4:4:4 chroma subsampling (8–16 bits per component), or YCbCr
YCbCr
4:2:2 chroma subsampling (8–12 bits per component). The color spaces that can be used by HDMI
HDMI
are ITU-R BT.601, ITU-R BT.709-5 and IEC 61966-2-4.[6](§§6.5,6.7.2) For digital audio, if an HDMI
HDMI
device has audio, it is required to implement the baseline format: stereo (uncompressed) PCM. Other formats are optional, with HDMI
HDMI
allowing up to 8 channels of uncompressed audio at sample sizes of 16-bit, 20-bit and 24-bit, with sample rates of 32 kHz, 44.1 kHz, 48 kHz, 88.2 kHz, 96 kHz, 176.4 kHz and 192 kHz.[6](§7) HDMI
HDMI
also carries any IEC 61937-compliant compressed audio stream, such as Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
and DTS, and up to 8 channels of one-bit DSD audio (used on Super Audio CDs) at rates up to four times that of Super Audio CD.[6](§7) With version 1.3, HDMI
HDMI
allows lossless compressed audio streams Dolby TrueHD
Dolby TrueHD
and DTS-HD Master Audio.[6](§7) As with the YCbCr
YCbCr
video, audio capability is optional. Audio return channel (ARC) is a feature introduced in the HDMI
HDMI
1.4 standard.[41] "Return" refers to the case where the audio comes from the TV and can be sent "upstream" to the AV receiver using the HDMI
HDMI
cable connected to the AV receiver.[41] An example given on the HDMI
HDMI
website is that a TV that directly receives a terrestrial/satellite broadcast, or has a video source built in, sends the audio "upstream" to the AV receiver.[41] The HDMI
HDMI
standard was not designed to pass closed caption data (for example, subtitles) to the television for decoding.[42] As such, any closed caption stream must be decoded and included as an image in the video stream(s) prior to transmission over an HDMI
HDMI
cable to appear on the DTV. This limits the caption style (even for digital captions) to only that decoded at the source prior to HDMI
HDMI
transmission. This also prevents closed captions when transmission over HDMI
HDMI
is required for upconversion. For example, a DVD
DVD
player that sends an upscaled 720p/ 1080i
1080i
format via HDMI
HDMI
to an HDTV has no way to pass Closed Captioning data so that the HDTV can decode it, as there is no line 21 VBI in that format. Communication channels[edit] HDMI
HDMI
has three physically separate communication channels, which are the DDC, TMDS and the optional CEC.[6](§8.1) HDMI
HDMI
1.4 added ARC and HEC.[41][43] Display Data Channel (DDC)[edit] Main article: Display Data Channel The Display Data Channel (DDC) is a communication channel based on the I²C
I²C
bus specification. HDMI
HDMI
specifically requires the device implement the Enhanced Display Data Channel (E-DDC), which is used by the HDMI
HDMI
source device to read the E-EDID data from the HDMI
HDMI
sink device to learn what audio/video formats it can take.[6](§§8.1,CEC-1.2–CEC-1.3) HDMI
HDMI
requires that the E-DDC implement I²C
I²C
standard mode speed (100 kbit/s) and allows it to optionally implement fast mode speed (400 kbit/s).[6](§4.2.8) The DDC channel is actively used for High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP). Transition-Minimized Differential Signaling (TMDS)[edit] Transition-minimized differential signaling
Transition-minimized differential signaling
(TMDS) on HDMI
HDMI
interleaves video, audio and auxiliary data using three different packet types, called the Video Data Period, the Data Island Period and the Control Period. During the Video Data Period, the pixels of an active video line are transmitted. During the Data Island period (which occurs during the horizontal and vertical blanking intervals), audio and auxiliary data are transmitted within a series of packets. The Control Period occurs between Video and Data Island periods.[6](§5.1.2) Both HDMI
HDMI
and DVI
DVI
use TMDS to send 10-bit characters that are encoded using 8b/10b encoding
8b/10b encoding
that differs from the original IBM form for the Video Data Period and 2b/10b encoding for the Control Period. HDMI adds the ability to send audio and auxiliary data using 4b/10b encoding for the Data Island Period. Each Data Island Period is 32 pixels in size and contains a 32-bit Packet Header, which includes 8 bits of BCH ECC parity data for error correction and describes the contents of the packet. Each packet contains four subpackets, and each subpacket is 64 bits in size, including 8 bits of BCH ECC parity data, allowing for each packet to carry up to 224 bits of audio data. Each Data Island Period can contain up to 18 packets. Seven of the 15 packet types described in the HDMI
HDMI
1.3a specifications deal with audio data, while the other 8 types deal with auxiliary data. Among these are the General Control Packet and the Gamut Metadata Packet. The General Control Packet carries information on AVMUTE (which mutes the audio during changes that may cause audio noise) and Color Depth (which sends the bit depth of the current video stream and is required for deep color). The Gamut Metadata Packet carries information on the color space being used for the current video stream and is required for xvYCC.[6](§§5.2–5.3,6.5.3,6.7.2,6.7.3) Consumer Electronics Control (CEC)[edit] Main article: Consumer
Consumer
Electronics Control Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) is an HDMI
HDMI
feature designed to allow the user to command and control up to 15 CEC-enabled devices, that are connected through HDMI,[44][45] by using only one of their remote controls (for example by controlling a television set, set-top box, and DVD
DVD
player using only the remote control of the TV). CEC also allows for individual CEC-enabled devices to command and control each other without user intervention.[6](§CEC-3.1) It is a one-wire bidirectional serial bus that is based on the CENELEC standard AV.link protocol to perform remote control functions.[46] CEC wiring is mandatory, although implementation of CEC in a product is optional.[6](§8.1) It was defined in HDMI
HDMI
Specification 1.0 and updated in HDMI
HDMI
1.2, HDMI
HDMI
1.2a and HDMI
HDMI
1.3a (which added timer and audio commands to the bus).[6](§§CEC-1.2,CEC-1.3,CEC-3.1,CEC-5) USB to CEC adapters exist that allow a computer to control CEC-enabled devices.[47][48][49][50] HDMI
HDMI
Ethernet
Ethernet
and Audio Return Channel[edit] Introduced in HDMI
HDMI
1.4, HDMI
HDMI
Ethernet
Ethernet
and Audio Return Channel (HEAC) adds a high-speed bidirectional data communication link (HEC) and the ability to send audio data upstream to the source device (ARC). HEAC utilizes two lines from the connector: the previously unused Reserved pin (called HEAC+) and the Hot Plug Detect pin (called HEAC−).[51](§HEAC-2.1) If only ARC transmission is required, a single mode signal using the HEAC+ line can be used, otherwise, HEC is transmitted as a differential signal over the pair of lines, and ARC as a common mode component of the pair.[51](§HEAC-2.2) Audio Return Channel (ARC) ARC is an audio link meant to replace other cables between the TV and the A/V receiver or speaker system.[41] This direction is used when the TV is the one that generates or receives the video stream instead of the other equipment.[41] A typical case is the running of an app on a smart TV such as Netflix, but reproduction of audio is handled by the other equipment.[41] Without ARC, the audio output from the TV must be routed by another cable, typically TOS-Link or coax, into the speaker system.[41][52] HDMI
HDMI
Ethernet
Ethernet
Channel (HEC) HDMI
HDMI
Ethernet
Ethernet
Channel technology consolidates video, audio, and data streams into a single HDMI
HDMI
cable, and the HEC feature enables IP-based applications over HDMI
HDMI
and provides a bidirectional Ethernet communication at 100 Mbit/s.[43] The physical layer of the Ethernet
Ethernet
implementation uses a hybrid to simultaneously send and receive attenuated 100BASE-TX
100BASE-TX
type signals through a single twisted pair.[52][not in citation given][53][not in citation given] Compatibility with DVI[edit]

An adapter with HDMI
HDMI
(male) and DVI
DVI
(female) connectors

An adapter with DVI
DVI
and HDMI
HDMI
(female) connectors

HDMI
HDMI
is backward compatible with single-link Digital Visual Interface digital video (DVI-D or DVI-I, but not DVI-A). No signal conversion is required when an adapter or asymmetric cable is used, so there is no loss of video quality.[6](appx. C) From a user's perspective, an HDMI
HDMI
display can be driven by a single-link DVI-D source, since HDMI
HDMI
and DVI-D define an overlapping minimum set of allowed resolutions and framebuffer formats to ensure a basic level of interoperability. In the reverse case, a DVI-D monitor has the same level of basic interoperability unless content protection with High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) interferes—or the HDMI
HDMI
color encoding is in component color space YCbCr
YCbCr
instead of [RGB], which is not possible in DVI. An HDMI
HDMI
source, such as a Blu-ray player, may require an HDCP-compliant display, and refuse to output HDCP-protected content to a non-compliant display.[54] A further complication is that there is a small amount of display equipment, such as some high-end home theater projectors, designed with HDMI inputs but not HDCP-compliant. Any DVI-to- HDMI
HDMI
adapter can function as an HDMI-to- DVI
DVI
adapter (and vice versa).[citation needed] Typically, the only limitation is the gender of the adapter's connectors and the gender of the cables and sockets it is used with. Features specific to HDMI, such as remote-control and audio transport, are not available in devices that use legacy DVI-D signalling. However, many devices output HDMI
HDMI
over a DVI
DVI
connector (e.g., ATI 3000-series and NVIDIA GTX 200-series video cards),[6](appx. C) [55] and some multimedia displays may accept HDMI
HDMI
(including audio) over a DVI
DVI
input. Exact capabilities beyond basic compatibility vary. Adapters are generally bi-directional. Content protection (HDCP)[edit] Main article: High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) is a newer form of digital rights management. Intel
Intel
created the original technology to make sure that digital content followed the guidelines set by the Digital Content Protection group. HDMI
HDMI
can use HDCP to encrypt the signal if required by the source device. CSS, CPRM and AACS require the use of HDCP on HDMI
HDMI
when playing back encrypted DVD
DVD
Video, DVD
DVD
Audio, HD DVD
DVD
and Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc. The HDCP Repeater bit controls the authentication and switching/distribution of an HDMI
HDMI
signal. According to HDCP Specification 1.2 (beginning with HDMI
HDMI
CTS 1.3a), any system that implements HDCP must do so in a fully compliant manner. HDCP testing that was previously only a requirement for optional tests such as the "Simplay HD" testing program is now part of the requirements for HDMI compliance.[6](§9.2)[56][57] HDCP accommodates up to 127 connected devices with up to 7 levels, using a combination of sources, sinks and repeaters.[58] A simple example of this is several HDMI
HDMI
devices connected to an HDMI
HDMI
AV receiver that is connected to an HDMI display.[58] Devices called HDCP strippers can remove the HDCP information from the video signal so the video can play on non-HDCP-compliant displays,[59] though a fair use and non-disclosure form must usually be signed with a registering agency before use. Connectors[edit]

Connector types for HDMI.

HDMI
HDMI
connector plugs (male): Type D (Micro), Type C (Mini), and Type A.

HDMI
HDMI
type A receptacle (female) connector

There are five HDMI
HDMI
connector types. Type A/B are defined in the HDMI 1.0 specification, type C is defined in the HDMI
HDMI
1.3 specification, and type D/E are defined in the HDMI
HDMI
1.4 specification.

Type A The plug (male) connector outside dimensions are 13.9 mm × 4.45 mm, and the receptacle (female) connector inside dimensions are 14 mm × 4.55 mm.[6](§4.1.9.2) There are 19 pins, with bandwidth to carry all SDTV, EDTV, HDTV, UHD, and 4K modes.[6](§6.3) It is electrically compatible with single-link DVI-D.[6](§4.1.3)

Type B This connector is 21.2 mm × 4.45 mm and has 29 pins, carrying six differential pairs instead of three, for use with very high-resolution displays such as WQUXGA (3,840×2,400). It is electrically compatible with dual-link DVI-D, but has not yet been used in any products.[60] With the introduction of HDMI
HDMI
1.3, the maximum bandwidth of single-link HDMI
HDMI
exceeded that of dual-link DVI-D. As of HDMI
HDMI
1.4, the pixel clock rate crossover frequency from single to dual-link has not been defined.[51](§§4.1.3,4.1.9.4)

Type C This Mini connector is smaller than the type A plug, measuring 10.42 mm × 2.42 mm but has the same 19-pin configuration.[6](§§4.1.9.4,4.1.9.6) It is intended for portable devices.[4][6](§4.1.1)[61] The differences are that all positive signals of the differential pairs are swapped with their corresponding shield, the DDC/CEC Ground is assigned to pin 13 instead of pin 17, the CEC is assigned to pin 14 instead of pin 13, and the reserved pin is 17 instead of pin 14.[6](§4.1.10.5) The type C Mini connector can be connected to a type A connector using a type A-to-type C cable.[6](§4.1.1)[61]

Type D This Micro connector shrinks the connector size to something resembling a micro- USB
USB
connector,[61][62][63] measuring only 5.83 mm × 2.20 mm[6](fig. 4–9) For comparison, a micro- USB
USB
connector is 6.85 mm × 1.8 mm and a USB
USB
Type-A connector is 11.5 mm × 4.5 mm. It keeps the standard 19 pins of types A and C, but the pin assignment is different from both.[64]

Type E The Automotive Connection System[65] has a locking tab to keep the cable from vibrating loose and a shell to help prevent moisture and dirt from interfering with the signals. A relay connector is available for connecting standard consumer cables to the automotive type.[66]

The HDMI
HDMI
alternate mode lets a user connect the reversible USB-C connector with the HDMI
HDMI
source devices (mobile, tablet, laptop). This cable connects to video display/sink devices using any of the native HDMI
HDMI
connectors. This is an HDMI
HDMI
cable, in this case a USB-C
USB-C
to HDMI cable.[67] Cables[edit]

A standard HDMI
HDMI
cable.

An HDMI
HDMI
cable is composed of four shielded twisted pairs, with impedance of the order of 100 Ω (±15%), plus seven separate conductors. HDMI
HDMI
cables with Ethernet
Ethernet
differ in that three of the separate conductors instead form an additional shielded twisted pair (with the CEC/DDC ground as a shield).[51](§HEAC-2.9) Although no maximum length for an HDMI
HDMI
cable is specified, signal attenuation (dependent on the cable's construction quality and conducting materials) limits usable lengths in practice[68][69] and certification is difficult to achieve for lengths beyond 13 m.[70] HDMI
HDMI
1.3 defines two cable categories: Category 1-certified cables, which have been tested at 74.5 MHz (which would include resolutions such as 720p60 and 1080i60), and Category 2-certified cables, which have been tested at 340 MHz (which would include resolutions such as 1080p60 and 4K30).[6](§4.2.6)[62][71] Category 1 HDMI
HDMI
cables are marketed as "Standard" and Category 2 HDMI
HDMI
cables as "High Speed".[4] This labeling guideline for HDMI
HDMI
cables went into effect on October 17, 2008.[72][73] Category 1 and 2 cables can either meet the required parameter specifications for interpair skew, far-end crosstalk, attenuation and differential impedance, or they can meet the required nonequalized/equalized eye diagram requirements.[6](§4.2.6) A cable of about 5 meters (16 feet) can be manufactured to Category 1 specifications easily and inexpensively by using 28 AWG (0.081 mm²) conductors.[68] With better quality construction and materials, including 24 AWG (0.205 mm²) conductors, an HDMI cable can reach lengths of up to 15 meters (49 feet).[68] Many HDMI cables under 5 meters of length that were made before the HDMI 1.3 specification can work as Category 2 cables, but only Category 2-tested cables are guaranteed to work for Category 2 purposes.[74] As of the HDMI
HDMI
1.4 specification, the following cable types are defined for HDMI
HDMI
in general:[75][76]

Standard HDMI
HDMI
Cable – up to 1080i
1080i
and 720p Standard HDMI
HDMI
Cable with Ethernet Standard Automotive HDMI
HDMI
Cable High Speed HDMI
HDMI
Cable – 1080p, 4K 30 Hz, 3D and deep color High Speed HDMI
HDMI
Cable with Ethernet

A new certification program was introduced in October 2015 to certify that cables work at the 18 Gbit/s maximum bandwidth of the HDMI
HDMI
2.0 specification.[77] In addition to expanding the set of cable testing requirements, the certification program introduces an EMI test to ensure cables minimize interference with wireless signals. These cables are marked with an anti-counterfeiting authentication label and are defined as:[78]

Premium High Speed HDMI
HDMI
Cable Premium High Speed HDMI
HDMI
Cable with Ethernet

In conjunction with the HDMI
HDMI
2.1 specification, a third category of cable was announced on January 4, 2017, called "48G".[79] Also known as Category 3 HDMI
HDMI
or "Ultra High Speed" HDMI, the cable is designed to support the 48  Gbit/s bandwidth of HDMI
HDMI
2.1, supporting 4K, 5K, 8K and 10K at 120 Hz.[80] The cable is backwards compatible with the earlier HDMI
HDMI
devices, using existing HDMI
HDMI
type A, C and D connectors, and includes HDMI
HDMI
Ethernet.

Ultra High Speed HDMI
HDMI
Cable (48G Cable) – 4K, 5K, 8K and 10K at 120 Hz

Extenders[edit] An HDMI
HDMI
extender is a single device (or pair of devices) powered with an external power source or with the 5V DC from the HDMI source.[81][82][83] Long cables can cause instability of HDCP and blinking on the screen, due to the weakened DDC signal that HDCP requires. HDCP DDC signals must be multiplexed with TMDS video signals to comply with HDCP requirements for HDMI
HDMI
extenders based on a single Category 5/ Category 6 cable.[84][85] Several companies offer amplifiers, equalizers and repeaters that can string several standard HDMI
HDMI
cables together. Active HDMI
HDMI
cables use electronics within the cable to boost the signal and allow for HDMI
HDMI
cables of up to 30 meters (98 feet);[81] those based on HDBaseT
HDBaseT
can extend to 100 meters; HDMI extenders that are based on dual Category 5/ Category 6 cable
Category 6 cable
can extend HDMI
HDMI
to 250 meters (820 feet); while HDMI
HDMI
extenders based on optical fiber can extend HDMI
HDMI
to 300 meters (980 feet).[82][83] Cost[edit] HDMI
HDMI
manufacturers pay an annual fee of US$10,000 plus a royalty rate of $0.15 per unit, reduced to $0.05 if the HDMI
HDMI
logo is used, and further reduced to $0.04 if HDCP is also implemented.[86] An alternative fee for HDMI
HDMI
manufacturers making fewer than 10,000 units per year is an annual fee of $5,000 with a royalty rate of $1 per unit.[86] The royalty only applies to final products and does not apply to products that are included in, or with, a licensed HDMI product that is already subject to the royalty.[86] For example, an HDMI
HDMI
cable sold directly to consumers is paid for by the cable manufacturer; however, if the cable manufacturer sells the HDMI
HDMI
cable to a HDTV manufacturer (who then includes the cable with an HDTV subject to the royalty) then the HDTV manufacturer pays only the royalty on the HDTV.[86] Versions[edit] HDMI
HDMI
devices are manufactured to adhere to various versions of the specification, in which each version is given a number or letter, such as 1.0, 1.2, or 1.4b.[6](p. III) Each subsequent version of the specification uses the same kind of cable but increases the bandwidth or capabilities of what can be transmitted over the cable.[6](p. III) A product listed as having an HDMI
HDMI
version does not necessarily mean that it has all features in that version,[87] since some HDMI
HDMI
features are optional, such as deep color and xvYCC (which is branded by Sony as "x.v.Color").[88][89] Note that since the release of HDMI
HDMI
1.4, the HDMI Licensing
HDMI Licensing
LLC group (which oversees the HDMI
HDMI
standard) has banned the use of version numbers to identify cables.[90] Non-cable HDMI products, starting on January 1, 2012, may no longer reference the HDMI
HDMI
number, and must state which features of the HDMI
HDMI
specification the product implements.[91] Version 1.0[edit] HDMI
HDMI
1.0 was released on December 9, 2002 and is a single-cable digital audio/video connector interface. The link architecture is based on DVI, using exactly the same video transmission format but sending audio and other auxiliary data during the blanking intervals of the video stream. HDMI
HDMI
1.0 allows a maximum TMDS clock of 165 MHz (4.95 Gbit/s bandwidth per link), the same as DVI. It defines two connectors called Type A and Type B, with pinouts based on the Single-Link DVI-D and Dual-Link DVI-D connectors respectively, though the Type B connector was never used in any commercial products. HDMI
HDMI
1.0 uses 8b/10b encoding
8b/10b encoding
for video transmission, giving it 3.96  Gbit/s of video bandwidth (1920 × 1080 or 1920 × 1200 at 60 Hz) and 8 channel LPCM/192 kHz/24-bit audio. HDMI
HDMI
1.0 requires support for RGB video, with optional support for YCBCR 4:4:4 and 4:2:2 (mandatory if the device has support for YCBCR on other interfaces). Color depth
Color depth
of 10 bpc (30 bit/px) or 12 bpc (36 bit/px) is allowed when using 4:2:2 subsamling, but only 8 bpc (24 bit/px) color depth is permitted when using RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4. Only the Rec. 601
Rec. 601
and Rec. 709
Rec. 709
color spaces are supported. HDMI 1.0 allows only specific pre-defined video formats, including all the formats defined in EIA/CEA-861-B and some additional formats listed in the HDMI
HDMI
Specification itself. All HDMI
HDMI
sources/sinks must also be capable of sending/receiving native Single-Link DVI
DVI
video and be fully compliant with the DVI
DVI
Specification.[92] Version 1.1[edit] HDMI
HDMI
1.1 was released on May 20, 2004 and added support for DVD-Audio. Version 1.2[edit] HDMI
HDMI
1.2 was released on August 8, 2005 and added the option of One Bit Audio, used on Super Audio CDs, at up to 8 channels. To make HDMI more suitable for use on PC devices, version 1.2 also removed the requirement that only explicitly supported formats be used. It added the ability for manufacturers to create vendor-specific formats, allowing any arbitrary resolution and refresh rate rather than being limited to a pre-defined list of supported formats. In addition, it added explicit support for several new formats including 720p
720p
at 100 and 120 Hz and relaxed the pixel format support requirements so that sources with only native RGB output (PC sources) would not be required to support YCBCR output.[93](§6.2.3) HDMI
HDMI
1.2a was released on December 14, 2005 and fully specifies Consumer
Consumer
Electronic Control (CEC) features, command sets and CEC compliance tests.[93] Version 1.3[edit] HDMI
HDMI
1.3 was released on June 22, 2006, and increased the maximum TMDS clock to 340 MHz (10.2 Gbit/s).[6][38][94] Like previous versions, it uses 8b/10b encoding, giving it a maximum video bandwidth of 8.16  Gbit/s (1920 × 1080 at 120 Hz or 2560 × 1440 at 60 Hz). It added support for 10 bpc, 12 bpc, and 16 bpc color depth (30, 36, and 48 bit/px), called deep color. It also added support for the xvYCC color space, in addition to the Rec. 601
Rec. 601
and Rec. 709
Rec. 709
color spaces supported by previous versions, and added the ability to carry metadata defining color gamut boundaries. It also optionally allows output of Dolby TrueHD
Dolby TrueHD
and DTS-HD Master Audio
DTS-HD Master Audio
streams for external decoding by AV receivers.[95] It incorporates automatic audio syncing (audio video sync) capability.[38] It defined cable Categories 1 and 2, with Category 1 cable being tested up to 74.25 MHz and Category 2 being tested up to 340 MHz.[6](§4.2.6) It also added the new type C Mini connector for portable devices.[6](§4.1.1)[96] HDMI
HDMI
1.3a was released on November 10, 2006, and had Cable and Sink modifications for type C, source termination recommendations, and removed undershoot and maximum rise/fall time limits. It also changed CEC capacitance limits, and CEC commands for timer control were brought back in an altered form, with audio control commands added. It also added the optional ability to stream SACD in its bitstream DST format rather than uncompressed raw DSD.[6] Version 1.4[edit]

HDMI
HDMI
1.4 with audio return channel

HDMI
HDMI
1.4 was released on May 28, 2009, and the first HDMI
HDMI
1.4 products were available in the second half of 2009.[62][97] HDMI
HDMI
1.4 added support for 4096×2160 at 24 Hz, 3840×2160 at 24, 25, and 30 Hz, and 1920×1080 at 120 Hz.[98](§6.3.2) It also added an HDMI
HDMI
Ethernet
Ethernet
Channel (HEC) that accommodates a 100 Mbit/s Ethernet
Ethernet
connection between the two HDMI
HDMI
connected devices so they can share an Internet connection,[43] introduced an audio return channel (ARC),[41] 3D Over HDMI, a new Micro HDMI
HDMI
Connector, an expanded set of color spaces with the addition of sYCC601, Adobe RGB
Adobe RGB
and Adobe YCC601, and an Automotive Connection System.[62][99][100][101][102] HDMI
HDMI
1.4 defined several stereoscopic 3D formats including field alternative (interlaced), frame packing (a full resolution top-bottom format), line alternative full, side-by-side half, side-by-side full, 2D + depth, and 2D + depth + graphics + graphics depth (WOWvx).[61][103][104] HDMI
HDMI
1.4 requires that 3D displays implement the frame packing 3D format at either 720p50 and 1080p24 or 720p60 and 1080p24.[104] High Speed HDMI
HDMI
cables as defined in HDMI
HDMI
1.3 work with all HDMI
HDMI
1.4 features except for the HDMI
HDMI
Ethernet
Ethernet
Channel, which requires the new High Speed HDMI
HDMI
Cable with Ethernet
Ethernet
defined in HDMI 1.4.[61][103][104] HDMI
HDMI
1.4a was released on March 4, 2010, and added two mandatory 3D formats for broadcast content, which was deferred with HDMI
HDMI
1.4 pending the direction of the 3D broadcast market.[105][106] HDMI
HDMI
1.4a has defined mandatory 3D formats for broadcast, game, and movie content.[105] HDMI
HDMI
1.4a requires that 3D displays implement the frame packing 3D format at either 720p50 and 1080p24 or 720p60 and 1080p24, side-by-side horizontal at either 1080i50 or 1080i60, and top-and-bottom at either 720p50 and 1080p24 or 720p60 and 1080p24.[106] HDMI
HDMI
1.4b was released on October 11, 2011,[107] containing only minor clarifications to the 1.4a document. HDMI
HDMI
1.4b is the last version of the standard that HDMI
HDMI
Licensing, LLC is responsible for. All future versions of the HDMI
HDMI
Specification will be produced by the HDMI
HDMI
Forum, created on October 25, 2011.[35][108] Version 2.0[edit] HDMI
HDMI
2.0, referred to by some manufacturers as HDMI
HDMI
UHD, was released on September 4, 2013.[109] HDMI
HDMI
2.0 increases the maximum bandwidth to 18.0 Gbit/s.[109][110][111] HDMI
HDMI
2.0 uses 8b/10b encoding
8b/10b encoding
for video transmission like previous versions, giving it a maximum video bandwidth of 14.4 Gbit/s. This enables HDMI
HDMI
2.0 to carry 4K video at 60 Hz with 24 bit/px color depth.[109][112][113] Other features of HDMI
HDMI
2.0 include support for the Rec. 2020
Rec. 2020
color space, up to 32 audio channels, up to 1536 kHz audio sample frequency, dual video streams to multiple users on the same screen, up to four audio streams, 4:2:0 chroma subsampling, 25 fps 3D formats, support for the 21:9 aspect ratio, dynamic synchronization of video and audio streams, the HE-AAC and DRA audio standards, improved 3D capability, and additional CEC functions.[109][114] HDMI
HDMI
2.0a was released on April 8, 2015 and added support for High Dynamic Range (HDR) video with static metadata.[115] HDMI
HDMI
2.0b was released March, 2016.[116] HDMI
HDMI
2.0b initially supported the same HDR10
HDR10
standard as HDMI
HDMI
2.0a as specified in the CTA-861.3 specification.[114] In December 2016 additional support for HDR Video transport was added to HDMI
HDMI
2.0b in the recently released CTA-861-G specification, which extends the static metadata signaling to include Hybrid Log-Gamma
Hybrid Log-Gamma
(HLG).[114][117][118] Version 2.1[edit] HDMI
HDMI
2.1 was officially announced by the HDMI
HDMI
Forum on January 4, 2017,[79][80] and was released on November 28, 2017.[119] It adds support for higher resolutions and higher refresh rates, including 4K 120 Hz and 8K 120 Hz. HDMI
HDMI
2.1 also introduces a new HDMI cable category called 48G, which certifies cables at the new higher speeds that these formats require. 48G HDMI
HDMI
cables are backwards compatible with older HDMI
HDMI
devices, and older cables are compatible with new HDMI
HDMI
2.1 devices, though the full 48  Gbit/s bandwidth is not possible without the new cables. Additional details for HDMI
HDMI
2.1:[120][119]

Maximum supported resolution is 10K at 120 Hz Dynamic HDR for specifying HDR metadata on a scene-by-scene or even a frame-by-frame basis Display Stream Compression
Display Stream Compression
(DSC) 1.2 is used for video formats higher than 8K with 4:2:0 chroma subsampling High Frame Rate (HFR) for 4K, 8K, and 10K, which adds support for refresh rates up to 120 Hz Enhanced Audio Return Channel (eARC) for object-based audio formats such as Dolby Atmos
Dolby Atmos
and DTS:X Enhanced refresh rate features:

Variable Refresh Rate (VRR) reduces or eliminates lag, stutter and frame tearing for more fluid motion in games Quick Media Switching (QMS) for movies and video eliminates the delay that can result in blank screens before content is displayed Quick Frame Transport (QFT) reduces latency

Auto Low Latency Mode (ALLM) automatic latency setting to the lowest ideal latency

Video formats that require more bandwidth than 4K 60 Hz 8 bpc, such as 4K 60 Hz 10 bpc (HDR), 4K 120 Hz, and 8K 60 Hz, require the new "48G" or "48G with Ethernet" cables.[80] HDMI
HDMI
2.1's other new features are supported with existing HDMI
HDMI
cables. The increase in maximum bandwidth is achieved by increasing both the bitrate of the data channels and the number of channels. Previous HDMI versions use three data channels (operating at 6 GHz or 6  Gbit/s in HDMI
HDMI
2.0), with an additional channel for the TMDS clock signal, which runs at one tenth the speed (600 MHz for HDMI 2.0). HDMI
HDMI
2.1 doubles the signaling rate of the data channels to 12 GHz (12 Gbit/s). The structure of the data has been changed to use a new packet-based format with an embedded clock signal, which allows what was formerly the TMDS clock channel to be used as a fourth data channel instead, increasing the signaling rate across that channel from 600 MHz to 12 GHz as well. These changes increase the aggregate bandwidth from 18.0  Gbit/s (3 × 6.0 Gbit/s) to 48.0  Gbit/s (4 × 12.0 Gbit/s), a 2.66x increase in bandwidth. In addition, the data is encoded using a 16b/18b scheme as opposed to the 8b/10b scheme used by previous versions, which lets a larger percentage of the bandwidth be used for data rather than DC balancing (88.8% compared to 80%). This, in combination with the 2.66x bandwidth increase, raises the maximum data rate of HDMI
HDMI
2.1 from 14.4  Gbit/s to 42.66 Gbit/s, a ≈2.96x increase.[121][122] The 48  Gbit/s bandwidth provided by HDMI
HDMI
2.1 is enough for 8K resolution at approximately 50 Hz, with 8 bpc RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4 color. To achieve even higher formats, HDMI
HDMI
2.1 can use Display Stream Compression with a compression ratio of up to 3:1. Using DSC, formats up to 8K (7680 × 4320) 120 Hz or 10K (10240 × 4320) 100 Hz at 8 bpc RGB/4:4:4 are possible. Using YCBCR with 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 chroma subsampling in combination with DSC can allow for even higher formats.[120] Version comparison[edit] Note that the "version" of a connection depends on the versions of the HDMI
HDMI
ports on the source and sink devices, not on the HDMI
HDMI
cable. The different categories of HDMI
HDMI
cable only affect the bandwidth (maximum resolution / refresh rate) of the connection. Other features such as audio, 3D, chroma subsampling, or variable refresh rate depend only on the versions of the ports, and are not affected by what type of HDMI cable is used. The only exceptions to this are Ethernet-over- HDMI
HDMI
and ARC, which require an " HDMI
HDMI
with Ethernet" cable. Also note that products are not required to implement all features of a version to be considered compliant with that version, as most features are optional. For example, displays with HDMI
HDMI
1.4 ports do not necessarily support the full 340 MHz TMDS clock allowed by HDMI 1.4; they are commonly limited to lower speeds such as 300 MHz ( 1080p
1080p
120 Hz) or even as low as 165 MHz (1080p 60 Hz) at the manufacturer's discretion, but are still considered HDMI
HDMI
1.4-compliant. Likewise, features like 10 bpc (30 bit/px) color depth may also not be supported, even if the HDMI
HDMI
version allows it and the display supports it over other interfaces such as DisplayPort.[88] Feature support will therefore vary from device to device, even within the same HDMI
HDMI
version. Main Specifications

  HDMI
HDMI
Version

1.0–1.2a 1.3–1.3a 1.4–1.4b 2.0–2.0b 2.1

Release Date Dec 2002 (1.0)[123] May 2004 (1.1) Aug 2005 (1.2)[124] Dec 2005 (1.2a)[125] Jun 2006 (1.3)[126] Nov 2006 (1.3a)[6] Jun 2009 (1.4)[127] Mar 2010 (1.4a)[105] Oct 2011 (1.4b) Sep 2013 (2.0)[109] Apr 2015 (2.0a)[128] Mar 2016 (2.0b) Nov 2017[129]

Signal Specifications

Transmission Bandwidth[a] 4.95 Gbit/s 10.2 Gbit/s 10.2 Gbit/s 18.0 Gbit/s 48.0 Gbit/s

Maximum Data Rate[b] 3.96 Gbit/s 8.16 Gbit/s 8.16 Gbit/s 14.4 Gbit/s 42.6 Gbit/s

Maximum Character Rate[c] 165 MHz[92](§3) 340 MHz[126] 340 MHz 600 MHz[110](§6.1.1) 1.2 GHz

Data Channels 3 3 3 3 4

Encoding Scheme[d] 8b/10b[92](§5.1) 8b/10b 8b/10b 8b/10b 16b/18b[122]

Compression (Optional) - - - - DSC 1.2[130]

Color Format Support

RGB Yes[92](§6.2.3) Yes Yes Yes Yes

YCBCR 4:4:4 Yes[92](§6.2.3) Yes Yes Yes Yes

YCBCR 4:2:2 Yes[92](§6.2.3) Yes Yes Yes Yes

YCBCR 4:2:0 No No No[e] Yes[110](§7.1) Yes

Color Depth Support

08 bpc (24 bit/px) Yes[92](§3) Yes Yes Yes Yes

10 bpc (30 bit/px) Yes[f] Yes Yes Yes Yes

12 bpc (36 bit/px) Yes[f] Yes Yes Yes Yes

16 bpc (48 bit/px) No Yes[6](§6.5) Yes Yes Yes

Color Space Support

SMPTE 170M Yes[92](§6.7.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes

ITU-R BT.601 Yes[92](§6.7.1) Yes Yes Yes Yes

ITU-R BT.709 Yes[92](§6.7.2) Yes Yes Yes Yes

sRGB No Yes[6](§6.7.1.3) Yes Yes Yes

xvYCC No Yes[6](§6.7.2.3) Yes Yes Yes

sYCC601 No No Yes[98](§6.7.2.4) Yes Yes

AdobeYCC601 No No Yes[98](§6.7.2.5) Yes Yes

Adobe RGB
Adobe RGB
(1998) No No Yes[98](§6.7.2.5) Yes Yes

ITU-R BT.2020 No No No Yes[110](§7.2.2) Yes

Audio Specifications

Max. Sample Rate Per Channel 192 kHz[92](§7.3) 192 kHz 192 kHz 192 kHz 192 kHz

Max. Aggegrate Sample Rate ? ? 768 kHz[98](§7.3) 1536 kHz[110](§9.2) 1536 kHz

Sample Size 16–24 bits[92](§7.3) 16–24 bits 16–24 bits 16–24 bits 16–24 bits

Maximum Audio Channels 8[92](§7.3.1) 8 8 32[110](§8.3.1) 32

  1.0–1.2a 1.3–1.3a 1.4–1.4b 2.0–2.0b 2.1

HDMI
HDMI
Version

^ Total transmission bandwidth is equal to the number of data channels multiplied by the bandwidth per channel (binary digits transmitted per second). Each channel transmits one bit (binary digit) per signal, and signals at ten times the character rate. Therefore, the total bandwidth (in Mbit/s) = 10 × (character rate in MHz) × (# of data channels). ^ Some of the transmitted bits are used for encoding purposes rather than representing data, so the rate at which video data can be transmitted across the HDMI
HDMI
interface is only a portion of the total bandwidth. ^ The character rate is the number of 10-bit characters per second transmitted across one HDMI
HDMI
data channel. This is sometimes informally referred to as the pixel clock or TMDS clock because these terms were once equivalent in past HDMI
HDMI
versions.[110](§4.2.2) ^ 8b/10b encoding
8b/10b encoding
uses 10 bits of bandwidth to send 8 bits of data, so only 80% of the bandwidth is available for data throughput. 16b/18b encoding uses 18 bits of bandwidth to send 16 bits of data, so 88.8% of the bandwidth is available for data throughput. ^ Although HDMI
HDMI
1.4 does not officially allow 4:2:0 chroma subsampling, NVIDIA and AMD
AMD
have added 4:2:0 support to their HDMI
HDMI
1.4 graphics cards via driver updates[131] ^ a b HDMI
HDMI
1.0 and 1.1 permit 10 bpc and 12 bpc color depth only when YCBCR 4:2:2 color format is used. When using RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4, only 8 bpc color is permitted.[92](§6.5)

Refresh Frequency Limits at Various Resolutions HDMI
HDMI
1.0 and 1.1 are restricted to transmitting only certain video formats,[92](§6.1) defined in EIA/CEA-861-B and in the HDMI Specification itself.[92](§6.3) HDMI
HDMI
1.2 and all later versions allow any arbitrary resolution and frame rate (within the bandwidth limit). Formats that are not supported by the HDMI
HDMI
Specification (i.e., no standardized timings defined) may be implemented as a vendor-specific format. Successive versions of the HDMI
HDMI
Specification continue to add support for additional formats (such as 4K resolutions), but the added support is to establish standardized timings to ensure interoperability between products, not to establish which formats are or aren't permitted. Video formats do not require explicit support from the HDMI
HDMI
Specification in order to be transmitted and displayed.[93](§6.1) Individual products may have heavier limitations than those listed below, since HDMI
HDMI
devices are not required to support the maximum bandwidth of the HDMI
HDMI
version that they implement. Therefore, it is not guaranteed that a display will support the refresh rates listed in this table, even if the display has the required HDMI
HDMI
version. Uncompressed 8 bpc (24 bit/px) color depth and RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4 color format are assumed on this table except where noted.

Video Format HDMI
HDMI
Version / Maximum Data Rate

Shorthand Resolution Refresh Rate (Hz) Data Rate Required[a] 1.0–1.1 1.2–1.2a 1.3–1.4b 2.0–2.0b 2.1

3.96 Gbit/s 3.96 Gbit/s 8.16 Gbit/s 14.4 Gbit/s 42.6 Gbit/s

720p 1280 × 720 30 720 Mbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

60 1.45 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

120 2.99 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes

1080p 1920 × 1080 30 1.58 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

60 3.20 Gbit/s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

120 6.59 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes

144 8.00 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes

240 14.00 Gbit/s No No 4:2:0[b] Yes Yes

1440p 2560 × 1440 30 2.78 Gbit/s No Yes Yes Yes Yes

60 5.63 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes

75 7.09 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes

120 11.59 Gbit/s No No 4:2:2[b] Yes Yes

144 14.08 Gbit/s No No 4:2:0[b] Yes Yes

240 24.62 Gbit/s No No No 4:2:0[b] Yes

4K 3840 × 2160 30 6.18 Gbit/s No No Yes Yes Yes

60 12.54 Gbit/s No No 4:2:0[b] Yes Yes

75 15.79 Gbit/s No No 4:2:0[b] 4:2:2[b] Yes

120 25.82 Gbit/s No No No 4:2:0[b] Yes

144 31.35 Gbit/s No No No No Yes

240 54.84 Gbit/s No No No No DSC[c]

5K 5120 × 2880 30 10.94 Gbit/s No No 4:2:2[b] Yes Yes

60 22.18 Gbit/s No No No 4:2:0[b] Yes

120 45.66 Gbit/s No No No No DSC[c]

8K 7680 × 4320 30 24.48 Gbit/s No No No 4:2:0[b] Yes

60 49.65 Gbit/s No No No No DSC[c]

120 102.2 Gbit/s No No No No DSC[c]

1.0–1.1 1.2–1.2a 1.3–1.4b 2.0–2.0b 2.1

HDMI
HDMI
Version

^ Uncompressed 8 bpc (24 bit/px) color depth with RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4 color format and CVT-R2 timing are used to calculate these data rates. Uncompressed data rate for RGB images in bits per second is calculated as bits per pixel × pixels per frame × frames per second. Pixels per frame includes blanking intervals as defined by CVT-R2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Possible by using YCBCR with 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 subsampling (as noted) ^ a b c d Possible by using Display Stream Compression
Display Stream Compression
(DSC)

Refresh Frequency Limits for HDR10
HDR10
Video HDR10
HDR10
requires 10 bpc (30 bit/px) color depth, which uses 25% more bandwidth than standard 8 bpc video. Uncompressed 10 bpc color depth and RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4 color format are assumed on this table except where noted.

Video Format HDMI
HDMI
Version / Maximum Data Rate

Shorthand Resolution Refresh Rate (Hz) Data Rate Required[a] 2.0a–2.0b 2.1

14.4 Gbit/s 42.6 Gbit/s

1080p 1920 × 1080 60 4.00 Gbit/s Yes Yes

120 8.24 Gbit/s Yes Yes

144 10.00 Gbit/s Yes Yes

240 17.50 Gbit/s 4:2:0[b] Yes

1440p 2560 × 1440 60 7.04 Gbit/s Yes Yes

100 11.96 Gbit/s Yes Yes

120 14.49 Gbit/s 4:2:2[b] Yes

144 17.60 Gbit/s 4:2:2[b] Yes

240 30.77 Gbit/s No Yes

4K 3840 × 2160 50 13.00 Gbit/s Yes Yes

60 15.68 Gbit/s 4:2:2[b] Yes

120 32.27 Gbit/s No Yes

144 39.19 Gbit/s No Yes

5K 5120 × 2880 30 13.67 Gbit/s Yes Yes

60 27.72 Gbit/s 4:2:0[b] Yes

120 57.08 Gbit/s No DSC[c]

8K 7680 × 4320 30 30.60 Gbit/s No Yes

60 62.06 Gbit/s No DSC[c]

120 127.75 Gbit/s No DSC[c]

2.0–2.0b 2.1

HDMI
HDMI
Version

^ Uncompressed 10 bpc (30 bit/px) color depth with RGB or YCBCR 4:4:4 color format and CVT-R2 timing are used to calculate these data rates. Uncompressed data rate for RGB images in bits per second is calculated as bits per pixel × pixels per frame × frames per second. Pixels per frame includes blanking intervals as defined by CVT-R2. ^ a b c d e Possible by using YCBCR with 4:2:2 or 4:2:0 subsampling (as noted) ^ a b c Possible by using Display Stream Compression
Display Stream Compression
(DSC)

Feature Support

  HDMI
HDMI
version

1.0 1.1 1.2–1.2a 1.3–1.3a 1.4–1.4b 2.0–2.0b 2.1

Full HD Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc and HD DVD
DVD
video[a] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Consumer
Consumer
Electronic Control (CEC)[b] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

DVD-Audio No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Super Audio CD
Super Audio CD
(DSD)[c] No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Auto lip-sync No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes

Dolby TrueHD
Dolby TrueHD
/ DTS-HD Master Audio
DTS-HD Master Audio
bitstream capable No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes

Updated list of CEC commands[d] No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes

3D video[100] No No No No Yes Yes Yes

Ethernet
Ethernet
channel (100 Mbit/s) No No No No Yes Yes Yes

Audio return channel (ARC) No No No No Yes Yes Yes

4 audio streams[114] No No No No No Yes Yes

2 video streams (Dual View)[114] No No No No No Yes Yes

Perceptual Quantizer
Perceptual Quantizer
(PQ) HDR OETF (SMPTE ST 2084)[135] No No No No No Yes Yes

Hybrid Log-Gamma
Hybrid Log-Gamma
(HLG) HDR OETF[114][117][118] No No No No No Yes Yes

Static HDR metadata (SMPTE ST 2086) No No No No No Yes Yes

Dynamic HDR metadata (SMPTE ST 2094) No No No No No No Yes

Enhanced audio return channel (eARC) No No No No No No Yes

Variable Refresh Rate (VRR) No No No No No No Yes

Quick Media Switching (QMS) No No No No No No Yes

Quick Frame Transport (QFT) No No No No No No Yes

Auto Low Latency Mode (ALLM) No No No No No No Yes

Display Stream Compression
Display Stream Compression
(DSC) No No No No No No Yes

  1.0 1.1 1.2–1.2a 1.3–1.3a 1.4–1.4b 2.0–2.0b 2.1

HDMI
HDMI
version

^ Even for a compressed audio codec that a given HDMI
HDMI
version cannot transport, the source device may be able to decode the audio codec and transmit the audio as uncompressed LPCM. ^ CEC has been in the HDMI
HDMI
specification since version 1.0, but only began appear in consumer electronics products with HDMI
HDMI
version 1.3a.[132][133] ^ Playback of SACD may be possible for older HDMI
HDMI
versions if the source device (such as the Oppo 970) converts to LPCM.[134] ^ Large number of additions and clarifications for CEC commands. One addition is CEC command, allowing for volume control of an AV receiver.[6](§CEC-1.3)

Applications[edit] Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc and HD DVD
DVD
players[edit] Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc and HD DVD, introduced in 2006, offer high-fidelity audio features that require HDMI
HDMI
for best results. HDMI
HDMI
1.3 can transport Dolby Digital
Dolby Digital
Plus, Dolby TrueHD, and DTS-HD Master Audio
DTS-HD Master Audio
bitstreams in compressed form.[6](§7) This capability allows for an AV receiver with the necessary decoder to decode the compressed audio stream. The Blu-ray
Blu-ray
specification does not include video encoded with either deep color or xvYCC; thus, HDMI
HDMI
1.0 can transfer Blu-ray
Blu-ray
discs at full video quality.[136] The HDMI
HDMI
1.4 specification (released in 2009) added support for 3D video and is used by all Blu-ray
Blu-ray
3D compatible players. The Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc Association (BDA) spokespersons have stated (Sept. 2014 at IFA show in Berlin, Germany) that the Blu-ray, Ultra HD players, and 4K discs are expected to be available starting in the second half to 2015. It is anticipated that such Blu-ray
Blu-ray
UHD players will be required to include a HDMI
HDMI
2.0 output that supports HDCP 2.2. Blu-ray
Blu-ray
permits secondary audio decoding, whereby the disc content can tell the player to mix multiple audio sources together before final output.[137] Some Blu-ray
Blu-ray
and HD DVD
DVD
players can decode all of the audio codecs internally and can output LPCM audio over HDMI. Multichannel LPCM can be transported over an HDMI
HDMI
connection, and as long as the AV receiver implements multichannel LPCM audio over HDMI and implements HDCP, the audio reproduction is equal in resolution to HDMI
HDMI
1.3 bitstream output. Some low-cost AV receivers, such as the Onkyo
Onkyo
TX-SR506, do not allow audio processing over HDMI
HDMI
and are labelled as " HDMI
HDMI
pass through" devices.[138][139] [10/2014 Update] Virtually all modern AV Receivers now offer HDMI
HDMI
1.4 inputs and output(s) with processing for all of the audio formats offered by Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Discs and other HD video
HD video
sources. During 2014 several manufacturers introduced premium AV Receivers that include one, or multiple, HDMI
HDMI
2.0 inputs along with a HDMI
HDMI
2.0 output(s). However, not until 2015 did most major manufacturers of AV receivers also support HDCP 2.2 as needed to support certain high quality UHD video sources, such as Blu-ray
Blu-ray
UHD players. Digital cameras and camcorders[edit] As of 2012, most consumer camcorders, as well as many digital cameras, are equipped with a mini- HDMI
HDMI
connector (type C connector). As of 2014, some cameras also have 4K capability and 3D, even some cameras costing less than US$900. It needs at least a TV/monitor with HDMI
HDMI
1.4a port.[140] Although often HD video
HD video
capable cameras include an HDMI
HDMI
interface for playback or even live preview, the image processor and the video processor of cameras usable for uncompressed video must be able to deliver the full image resolution at the specified frame rate in realtime without any missing frames causing jitter. Therefore, usable uncompressed video out of HDMI
HDMI
is often called "clean HDMI".[141][citation needed] Personal computers[edit] PCs with a DVI
DVI
interface are capable of video output to an HDMI-enabled monitor.[6](appx. C) Some PCs include an HDMI
HDMI
interface and may also be capable of HDMI
HDMI
audio output, depending on specific hardware.[142] For example, Intel's motherboard chipsets since the 945G and NVIDIA’s GeForce 8200/8300 motherboard chipsets are capable of 8-channel LPCM output over HDMI.[142][143] Eight-channel LPCM audio output over HDMI
HDMI
with a video card was first seen with the ATI Radeon HD 4850, which was released in June 2008 and is implemented by other video cards in the ATI Radeon HD 4000 series.[143][144][145][146][147] Linux
Linux
can drive 8-channel LPCM audio over HDMI
HDMI
if the video card has the necessary hardware and implements the Advanced Linux
Linux
Sound Architecture (ALSA).[148] The ATI Radeon HD 4000 series implements ALSA.[148][149] Cyberlink announced in June 2008 that they would update their Power DVD
DVD
playback software to allow 192 kHz/24-bit Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc audio decoding in Q3-Q4 of 2008.[150] Corel's Win DVD
DVD
9 Plus currently has 96 kHz/24-bit Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc audio decoding.[151] Even with an HDMI
HDMI
output, a computer may not be able to produce signals that implement HDCP, Microsoft's Protected Video Path, or Microsoft's Protected Audio Path.[143][152] Several early graphic cards were labelled as "HDCP-enabled" but did not have the hardware needed for HDCP;[153] this included some graphic cards based on the ATI X1600 chipset and certain models of the NVIDIA Geforce 7900 series.[153] The first computer monitors that could process HDCP were released in 2005; by February 2006 a dozen different models had been released.[154][155] The Protected Video Path was enabled in graphic cards that had HDCP capability, since it was required for output of Blu-ray
Blu-ray
Disc video. In comparison, the Protected Audio Path was required only if a lossless audio bitstream (such as Dolby TrueHD
Dolby TrueHD
or DTS-HD MA) was output.[143] Uncompressed LPCM audio, however, does not require a Protected Audio Path, and software programs such as PowerDVD and Win DVD
DVD
can decode Dolby TrueHD
Dolby TrueHD
and DTS-HD MA and output it as LPCM.[143][150][151] A limitation is that if the computer does not implement a Protected Audio Path, the audio must be downsampled to 16-bit 48 kHz but can still output at up to 8 channels.[143] No graphic cards were released in 2008 that implemented the Protected Audio Path.[143] The Asus
Asus
Xonar HDAV1.3 became the first HDMI
HDMI
sound card that implemented the Protected Audio Path and could both bitstream and decode lossless audio ( Dolby TrueHD
Dolby TrueHD
and DTS-HD MA), although bitstreaming is only available if using the ArcSoft TotalMedia Theatre software.[156][157] It has an HDMI
HDMI
1.3 input/output, and Asus
Asus
says that it can work with most video cards on the market.[156][157][158]

Legacy interfaces such as VGA, DVI
DVI
and LVDS
LVDS
have not kept pace, and newer standards such as DisplayPort
DisplayPort
and HDMI
HDMI
clearly provide the best connectivity options moving forward. In our opinion, DisplayPort
DisplayPort
1.2 is the future interface for PC monitors, along with HDMI
HDMI
1.4a for TV connectivity. “ ”

"Leading PC Companies Move to All Digital Display Technology, Phasing out Analog". Intel. December 8, 2010. Retrieved September 14, 2012. 

In September 2009, AMD
AMD
announced the ATI Radeon HD 5000 series video cards, which have HDMI
HDMI
1.3 output (deep color, xvYCC wide gamut capability and high bit rate audio), 8-channel LPCM over HDMI, and an integrated HD audio controller with a Protected Audio Path that allows bitstream output over HDMI
HDMI
for AAC, Dolby AC-3, Dolby TrueHD
Dolby TrueHD
and DTS Master Audio formats.[159][160][161] The ATI Radeon HD 5870 released in September 2009 is the first video card that allows bitstream output over HDMI
HDMI
for Dolby TrueHD
Dolby TrueHD
and DTS-HD Master Audio.[161] The AMD Radeon HD 6000 Series
Radeon HD 6000 Series
implements HDMI
HDMI
1.4a. The AMD
AMD
Radeon HD 7000 Series implements HDMI
HDMI
1.4b.[162] In December 2010, it was announced that several computer vendors and display makers including Intel, AMD, Dell, Lenovo, Samsung, and LG would stop using LVDS
LVDS
(actually, FPD-Link) from 2013 and legacy DVI and VGA
VGA
connectors from 2015, replacing them with DisplayPort
DisplayPort
and HDMI.[163][164] On August 27, 2012, Asus
Asus
announced a new 27 in (69 cm) monitor that produces its native resolution of 2560×1440 via HDMI 1.4.[165][166] On September 18, 2014, Nvidia
Nvidia
launched GeForce GTX 980 and GTX 970 (with GM204 chip) with HDMI
HDMI
2.0 support. On January 22, 2015, GeForce GTX 960 (with GM206 chip) launched with HDMI
HDMI
2.0 support. On March 17, 2015, GeForce GTX TITAN X (GM200) launched with HDMI
HDMI
2.0 support. On June 1, 2015, GeForce GTX 980 Ti (with GM200 chip) launched with HDMI 2.0 support. On August 20, 2015, GeForce GTX 950 (with GM206 chip) launched with HDMI
HDMI
2.0 support. On May 6, 2016, Nvidia
Nvidia
launched the GeForce GTX 1080 (GP104 GPU) with HDMI
HDMI
2.0b support.[167] Gaming consoles[edit] The Xbox 360, Xbox One, Xbox One
Xbox One
X, PS3, PS TV, PS4, Wii U, and Nintendo Switch
Nintendo Switch
consoles support HDMI. Tablet computers[edit] Some tablet computers, such as the Microsoft
Microsoft
Surface, Motorola Xoom, BlackBerry PlayBook, Vizio Vtab 1008 and Acer Iconia Tab A500, implement HDMI
HDMI
using Micro- HDMI
HDMI
(Type D) ports. Others, such as the ASUS Eee Pad
Eee Pad
Transformer implement the standard using mini- HDMI
HDMI
(type C) ports. All iPad models have a special A/V adapter that converts Apple's data line to a standard HDMI
HDMI
(Type A) port. Samsung
Samsung
has a similar proprietary thirty-pin port for their Galaxy Tab 10.1
Galaxy Tab 10.1
that can adapt to HDMI
HDMI
as well as USB
USB
drives. The Dell
Dell
Streak 5 smartphone/tablet hybrid is capable of outputting over HDMI. While the Streak uses a PDMI port, a separate cradle adds HDMI
HDMI
compatibility. Most Chinese-made tablets running Android OS
Android OS
provide HDMI
HDMI
output using a mini- HDMI
HDMI
(type C) port. Most new laptops and desktops now have built in HDMI
HDMI
as well. Mobile phones[edit] Many recent mobile phones can produce output of HDMI
HDMI
video via either a micro- HDMI
HDMI
connector or MHL output.[168][169][170][171][172][173][174] Some older phones may use SlimPort
SlimPort
to achieve similar result. Legacy compatibility[edit] HDMI
HDMI
can only be used with older analog-only devices (using connections such as SCART, VGA, RCA, etc.) by means of a digital-to-analog converter or AV receiver, as the interface does not carry any analog signals (unlike DVI, where devices with DVI-I ports accept or provide either digital or analog signals). Cables are available that contain the necessary electronics, but it is important to distinguish these active converter cables from passive HDMI
HDMI
to VGA cables (which are typically cheaper as they don't include any electronics). The passive cables are only useful if you have a device that is generating or expecting HDMI
HDMI
signals on a VGA
VGA
connector, or VGA
VGA
signals on an HDMI
HDMI
connector; this is a non-standard feature, not implemented by most devices. HDMI
HDMI
Alternate Mode for USB
USB
Type-C[edit] The HDMI
HDMI
Alternate Mode for USB-C
USB-C
allows HDMI-enabled sources with a USB-C
USB-C
connector to directly connect to standard HDMI
HDMI
display devices, without requiring an adapter.[175] The standard was released in September 2016, and supports all HDMI
HDMI
1.4b features such as video resolutions up to Ultra HD 30 Hz, and Consumer
Consumer
Electronic Control (CEC).[176] Previously, the similar DisplayPort
DisplayPort
Alternate Mode could be used to connect to HDMI
HDMI
displays from USB
USB
Type-C sources, but where in that case, active adapters were required to convert from DisplayPort
DisplayPort
to HDMI, HDMI
HDMI
Alternate Mode connects to the display natively.[177] The Alternate Mode reconfigures the four SuperSpeed differential pairs present in USB-C
USB-C
to carry the three HDMI
HDMI
TMDS channels and the clock signal. The two Sideband Use pins (SBU1 and SBU2) are used to carry the HDMI
HDMI
Ethernet
Ethernet
and Audio Return Channel and the Hot Plug Detect functionality (HEAC+/Utility pin and HEAC−/HPD pin). As there are not enough reconfigurable pins remaining in USB-C
USB-C
to accommodate the DDC clock (SCL), DDC data (SDA), and CEC – these three signals are bridged between the HDMI
HDMI
source and sink via the USB
USB
Power Delivery 2.0 (USB-PD) protocol, and are carried over the USB-C
USB-C
Configuration Channel (CC) wire.[175] This is possible because the cable is electronically marked (i.e., it contains a USB-PD node) that serves to tunnel the DDC and CEC from the source over the Configuration Channel to the node in the cable, these USB-PD messages are received and relayed to the HDMI
HDMI
sink as regenerated DDC (SCL and SDA signals), or CEC signals.[175]

HDMI
HDMI
Alternate Mode for USB
USB
Type-C pin mapping[175]

Relationship with DisplayPort[edit]

Dual-mode DisplayPort
DisplayPort
logo

DisplayPort
DisplayPort
audio/video interface was introduced in May 2006. In the recent years, DisplayPort
DisplayPort
connectors have become a common feature of premium[178] products -- displays, desktop computers, and video cards; most of the companies producing DisplayPort
DisplayPort
equipment are in the computer sector. The DisplayPort
DisplayPort
website states that DisplayPort
DisplayPort
is expected to complement HDMI,[179] but as of 2016 100% of the HD and UHD TVs had HDMI
HDMI
connectivity.[180] DisplayPort
DisplayPort
supported some advanced features which are useful for multimedia content creators and gamers (e.g. 5K, Adaptive-Sync), which was the reason most GPUs had DisplayPort. These features were added to the official HDMI specification slightly later, but with the introduction of HDMI
HDMI
2.1 these gaps are already leveled off. DisplayPort
DisplayPort
uses a self-clocking, micro-packet-based protocol that allows for a variable number of differential LVDS
LVDS
lanes as well as flexible allocation of bandwidth between audio and video, and allows encapsulating multi-channel compressed audio formats in the audio stream.[181][182] DisplayPort
DisplayPort
1.2 supports multiple audio/video streams, variable refresh rate (FreeSync), Display Stream Compression (DSC), and Dual-mode LVDS/TDMS transmitters compatible with HDMI
HDMI
1.2 or 1.4.[181][183][184] Revision 1.3 increases overall transmission bandwidth to 32.4  Gbit/s with the new HBR3 mode featuring 8.1  Gbit/s per lane; it requires Dual-mode with mandatory HDMI 2.0 compatibility and HDCP 2.2.[185][186] Revision 1.4 adds support BT.2020
BT.2020
color space and HDR10
HDR10
extensions from CTA-861.3, including static and dynamic metadata.[187] DisplayPort
DisplayPort
connector is compatible with HDMI
HDMI
and can transmit single-link DVI
DVI
and HDMI
HDMI
1.2/1.4/2.0 signals using attached passive adapters or adapter cables.[188][181][188] The source device includes a dual-mode transmitter that supports both LVDS
LVDS
signals for DisplayPort
DisplayPort
and TMDS signals for DVI/HDMI. The same external connector is used for both protocols - when DVI/ HDMI
HDMI
passive adapter is attached, the transmitter circuit switches to TDMS mode. DisplayPort Dual-mode ports and cables/adapters are typically marked with the DisplayPort++ logo. Thunderbolt ports with mDP connector also supports Dual-mode passive HDMI
HDMI
adapters/cables. Conversion to dual-link DVI and component video (VGA/YPbPr) requires active powered adapters.[181][188] The USB
USB
3.1 Type-C connector is an emerging standard that replaces legacy video connectors such as mDP, Thunderbolt, HDMI, and VGA
VGA
in mobile devices. USB-C
USB-C
connectors can transmit DisplayPort
DisplayPort
video to docks and displays using standard USB
USB
Type-C cables or Type-C to DisplayPort
DisplayPort
cables and adapters; USB-C
USB-C
also supports HDMI
HDMI
adapters that actively convert from DisplayPort
DisplayPort
to HDMI
HDMI
1.4 or 2.0. DisplayPort Alternate Mode for USB
USB
Type-C specification was published in 2015. USB Type-C chipsets are not required to include Dual-mode transmitters and only support DisplayPort
DisplayPort
LVDS
LVDS
protocol, so passive DP- HDMI
HDMI
adapters do not work with Type-C sources. DisplayPort
DisplayPort
has a royalty rate of US$0.20 per unit (from patents licensed by MPEG LA), although this claim is contested,[189] while HDMI
HDMI
has an annual fee of US$10,000 and a per unit royalty rate of between $0.04 and $0.15.[190] HDMI
HDMI
has a few advantages over DisplayPort, such as ability to carry Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) signals, and electrical compatibility with DVI
DVI
(though practically limited to single-link DVI rates).[184][191] Also, HDMI
HDMI
can sustain full bandwidth for up to 10 meters of cable length and there are certification programs to ensure this;[citation needed] DisplayPort
DisplayPort
cables, conversely, don't ensure full bandwidth beyond 3 meters,[192] however some active cables extend the distance to 15 meters at certain resolutions,[193] and specialist optical extender solutions exists to extend distances even farther by sending the signal over fiber optic cable.[194] Relationship with MHL[edit] Main article: Mobile High-Definition Link Mobile High-Definition Link
Mobile High-Definition Link
(MHL) is an adaptation of HDMI
HDMI
intended to connect mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets to high-definition televisions (HDTVs) and displays.[195][196] Unlike DVI, which is compatible with HDMI
HDMI
using only passive cables and adapters, MHL requires that the HDMI
HDMI
socket be MHL-enabled, otherwise an active adapter (or dongle) is required to convert the signal to HDMI. MHL is developed by a consortium of five consumer electronics manufacturers, several of which are also behind HDMI.[197] MHL pares down the three TMDS channels in a standard HDMI
HDMI
connection to a single one running over any connector that provides at least five pins.[197] This lets existing connectors in mobile devices – such as micro- USB
USB
– be used, avoiding the need for additional dedicated video output sockets.[198] The USB
USB
port switches to MHL mode when it detects a compatible device is connected. In addition to the features in common with HDMI
HDMI
(such as HDCP encrypted uncompressed high-definition video and eight-channel surround sound), MHL also adds the provision of power charging for the mobile device while in use, and also enables the TV remote to control it. Although support for these additional features requires connection to an MHL-enabled HDMI
HDMI
port, power charging can also be provided when using active MHL to HDMI
HDMI
adapters (connected to standard HDMI
HDMI
ports), provided there is a separate power connection to the adapter. Like HDMI, MHL defines a USB-C
USB-C
Alternate Mode to support the MHL standard over USB-C
USB-C
connections. Version 1.0 supported 720p/ 1080i
1080i
60 Hz (RGB/4:4:4 pixel encoding) with a bandwidth of 2.25 Gbit/s. Versions 1.3 and 2.0 added support for 1080p
1080p
60 Hz ( YCbCr
YCbCr
4:2:2) with a bandwidth of 3 Gbit/s in PackedPixel mode.[196] Version 3.0 increased the bandwidth to 6 Gbit/s to support Ultra HD (3840 × 2160) 30 Hz video, and also changed from being frame-based, like HDMI, to packet-based.[199] The fourth version, superMHL, increased bandwidth by operating over multiple TMDS differential pairs (up to a total of six) allowing a maximum of 36 Gbit/s.[200] The six lanes are supported over a reversible 32-pin superMHL connector, while four lanes are supported over USB-C
USB-C
Alternate Mode (only a single lane is supported over micro-USB/HDMI). Display Stream Compression
Display Stream Compression
(DSC) is used to allow up to 8K Ultra HD (7680 × 4320) 120 Hz HDR video, and to support Ultra HD 60 Hz video over a single lane.[200] See also[edit]

List of display interfaces DisplayPort Thunderbolt (interface) USB-C

References[edit]

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External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to High-Definition Multimedia Interface.

HDMI
HDMI
Licensing, LLC. Dolby Podcast Episode 60 – March 26, 2009 – Part one of a two-part discussion with Steve Venuti, President, and Jeff Park, Technology Evangelist, of HDMI
HDMI
Licensing. Dolby Podcast Episode 62 – April 23, 2009 – Part two of a two-part discussion with Steve Venuti, President, and Jeff Park, Technology Evangelist, of HDMI
HDMI
Licensing.

v t e

Audio and video connectors

Analog audio

Banana plug Binding post D-subminiature Euroblock DIN

Mini-DIN

Jack plug RCA Speaker spring terminal Speakon XLR

Digital audio

BNC D-sub S/PDIF TOSLINK XLR

Video

BNC Component RGB Component YPbPr Composite video D-Terminal DB13W3 DFP DIN

Mini-DIN

DMS-59

LFH

DVI

Mini-DVI Micro-DVI

RCA S-Video VGA

Mini-VGA

Audio and Video

ADC Belling-Lee EVC Type F HDBaseT HDMI DisplayPort

mDP

MHL (superMHL) Minijack P&D PDMI SCART

Visual charts

List of video connectors

Other

Thunderbolt USB

v t e

Audio and video interfaces and connectors

Audio only

Analog

Interface: PC System Design Guide Connectors: TRS 3.5 mm Interface: Balanced audio Connectors: TRS 6.53 mm XLR

Digital

Interface: S/PDIF Connectors: RCA jack (coaxial) TOSLINK
TOSLINK
(optical) BNC Interface: AES3
AES3
(AES/EBU) Connectors: RCA jack XLR TOSLINK
TOSLINK
(optical) BNC

Video only

Analog

Interface: VGA Connectors: DB-15 DVI-A Interface: Composite Connectors: RCA jack yellow Interface: S-Video Connectors: Mini-DIN 4 Pin Interface: Component Connectors: RCA jacks × 3 Interface: Composite S-Video, and Component Connectors: VIVO using Mini-DIN 9 Pin

Digital and analog

Interface: DVI Connectors: DVI-I/DVI-D

Video and audio

Digital

Interface: HDMI Connectors: HDMI
HDMI
connector Interface: DisplayPort Connectors: DisplayPort
DisplayPort
connector Interface: HDBaseT Connectors: 8P8C
8P8C
connector

v t e

High-definition (HD)

Concepts

High-definition television High-definition video Ultra-high-definition television

Analog broadcast (All defunct)

819 line system HD MAC MUSE (Hi-Vision)

Digital broadcast

ATSC DMB-T/H DVB ISDB SBTVD

Audio

Dolby Digital Surround sound DSD DXD DTS

Filming and storage

DCI HDV

HD media and compression

Blu-ray CBHD D-VHS DVD-Audio H.264 H.265 HD DVD HD VMD MPEG-2 MVC Super Audio CD Ultra HD Blu-ray Uncompressed VC-1

Connectors

Component DisplayPort DVI HDMI VGA

Deployments

List of digital television deployment

.