Demotic → Coptic → Meroitic Byblos syllabary
ISO 15924 Egyh, 060
U+13000–U+1342F (unified with Egyptian hieroglyphs)
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1 Etymology 2 Development 3 Uses and materials 4 Characteristics 5 Influence 6 Unicode 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links
In the 2nd century AD, the term hieratic was first used by Clement of
Alexandria. It derives from the Greek phrase γράμματα
ἱερατικά (grammata hieratika; literally "priestly writing"),
as at that time, hieratic was used only for religious texts, as had
been the case for the previous eight and a half centuries.
One of four official letters to vizier Khay copied onto fragments of limestone (an ostracon).
Through most of its long history, hieratic was used for writing administrative documents, accounts, legal texts, and letters, as well as mathematical, medical, literary, and religious texts. During the Græco-Roman period, when Demotic (and later Greek) had become the chief administrative script, hieratic was limited primarily to religious texts. In general, hieratic was much more important than hieroglyphs throughout Egypt's history, being the script used in daily life. It was also the writing system first taught to students, knowledge of hieroglyphs being limited to a small minority who were given additional training. In fact, it is often possible to detect errors in hieroglyphic texts that came about due to a misunderstanding of an original hieratic text. Most often, hieratic script was written in ink with a reed brush on papyrus, wood, stone or pottery ostraca. Thousands of limestone ostraca have been found at the site of Deir al-Madinah, revealing an intimate picture of the lives of common Egyptian workmen. Besides papyrus, stone, ceramic shards, and wood, there are hieratic texts on leather rolls, though few have survived. There are also hieratic texts written on cloth, especially on linen used in mummification. There are some hieratic texts inscribed on stone, a variety known as lapidary hieratic; these are particularly common on stelae from the 22nd Dynasty. During the late 6th Dynasty, hieratic was sometimes incised into mud tablets with a stylus, similar to cuneiform. About five hundred of these tablets have been discovered in the governor's palace at Ayn Asil (Balat), and a single example was discovered from the site of Ayn al-Gazzarin, both in the Dakhla Oasis. At the time the tablets were made, Dakhla was located far from centers of papyrus production. These tablets record inventories, name lists, accounts, and approximately fifty letters. Of the letters, many are internal letters that were circulated within the palace and the local settlement, but others were sent from other villages in the oasis to the governor. Characteristics
Exercise tablet with hieratic excerpt from The Instructions of Amenemhat. Dynasty XVIII, reign of Amenhotep I, c. 1514–1493 BC. Text reads: "Be on your guard against all who are subordinate to you ... Trust no brother, know no friend, make no intimates."
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2008)
Coptic alphabet Egyptian numerals
^ a b Goedicke 1988:vii–viii.
^ McGregor, W. B., Linguistics: An Introduction (London: Bloomsbury
Academic, 2015), p. 306.
^ Goedicke 1988:vii; Wente 2001:2006. The reference is made in
Clement's Stromata 5:4.
^ Definition of hieratic, Free Online Dictionary. Retrieved
^ Baines 1983:583.
^ During the Roman period reed pens (calami) were also used.
^ Soukiassian, Wuttman, Pantalacci 2002.
^ Posener-Kriéger 1992; Pantalacci 1998.
^ Scribes and craftsmen: the noble art of writing on clay. Feb 29,
2012; UCL Institute of Archaeology
^ Parkinson and Quirke 1995:20.
^ Gardiner 1929.
^ Wente 2001:210. See also Malinine .
^ Hoch 1990.
^ Aharoni 1966; Goldwasser 1991.
Aharoni, Yohanan (1966). "The Use of
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Ancient Egyptian scripts – hieratic
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See also English internet slang (at Wiktio