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Hickory
Hickory
nuts (Carya spp.), dried

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 2,749 kJ (657 kcal)

Carbohydrates

18.25 g

Dietary fiber 6.4 g

Fat

64.37 g

Saturated 7.038 g

Monounsaturated 32.611 g

Polyunsaturated 21.886 g

Protein

12.72 g

Tryptophan 0.139 g

Threonine 0.422 g

Isoleucine 0.576 g

Leucine 1.027 g

Lysine 0.497 g

Methionine 0.300 g

Cystine 0.271 g

Phenylalanine 0.713 g

Tyrosine 0.454 g

Valine 0.730 g

Arginine 2.086 g

Histidine 0.389 g

Alanine 0.662 g

Aspartic acid 1.368 g

Glutamic acid 2.885 g

Glycine 0.708 g

Proline 0.571 g

Serine 0.806 g

Vitamins

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(75%) 0.867 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(11%) 0.131 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(6%) 0.907 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(35%) 1.746 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(15%) 0.192 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(10%) 40 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B12

(0%) 0.00 μg

Vitamin
Vitamin
C

(2%) 2.0 mg

Minerals

Calcium

(6%) 61 mg

Copper

(37%) 0.738 mg

Iron

(16%) 2.12 mg

Magnesium

(49%) 173 mg

Manganese

(220%) 4.610 mg

Phosphorus

(48%) 336 mg

Potassium

(9%) 436 mg

Selenium

(12%) 8.1 μg

Sodium

(0%) 1 mg

Zinc

(45%) 4.31 mg

Other constituents

Water 2.65 g

Link to USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Hickory
Hickory
is a type of tree, comprising the genus Carya (Ancient Greek: κάρυον, káryon, meaning "nut"). The genus includes 17 to 19 species. Five or six species are native to China, Indochina, and India (State of Assam), as many as 12 are native to the United States, four are found in Mexico, and two to four are from Canada. Hickories are deciduous trees with pinnately compound leaves and large nuts. Hickory
Hickory
flowers are small, yellow-green catkins produced in spring. They are wind-pollinated and self-incompatible. The fruit is a globose or oval nut, 2–5 cm (0.79–1.97 in) long and 1.5–3 cm (0.59–1.18 in) diameter, enclosed in a four-valved husk, which splits open at maturity. The nut shell is thick and bony in most species, and thin in a few, notably the pecan (C. illinoinensis); it is divided into two halves, which split apart when the seed germinates. Beaked hickory ( Annamocarya
Annamocarya
sinensis) is a species formerly classified as Carya sinensis, but now adjudged in the monotypic genus Annamocarya.

Contents

1 Species and classification 2 Ecology 3 Fruit 4 Uses 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Species and classification[edit] In the APG system, genus Carya (and the whole Juglandaceae
Juglandaceae
family) has been recently moved to the Fagales
Fagales
order.

Asia

Carya sect. Sinocarya – Asian hickories

Carya dabieshanensis M.C. Liu – Dabie Shan hickory (may be synonymous with C. cathayensis) Carya cathayensis
Carya cathayensis
Sarg. – Chinese hickory Carya hunanensis W.C.Cheng & R.H.Chang – Hunan hickory Carya kweichowensis Kuang & A.M.Lu – Guizhou hickory Carya poilanei Leroy - Poilane's hickory Carya tonkinensis Lecomte – Vietnamese hickory[2]

North America

Carya sect. Carya – typical hickories

Carya floridana
Carya floridana
Sarg. – Scrub hickory Carya glabra
Carya glabra
(Mill.) Sweet – Pignut hickory, pignut, sweet pignut, coast pignut hickory, smoothbark hickory, swamp hickory, broom hickory Carya laciniosa
Carya laciniosa
(Mill.) K.Koch – Shellbark hickory, shagbark hickory, bigleaf shagbark hickory, kingnut, big shellbark, bottom shellbark, thick shellbark, western shellbark Carya myristiciformis
Carya myristiciformis
(F.Michx.) Nutt. – Nutmeg hickory, swamp hickory, bitter water hickory Carya ovalis
Carya ovalis
(Wangenh.) Sarg. – Red hickory, spicebark hickory, sweet pignut hickory (treated as a synonym of C. glabra by Flora N. Amer.) Carya ovata
Carya ovata
(Mill.) K.Koch – Shagbark hickory

Carya ovata
Carya ovata
var. ovata – Northern shagbark hickory Carya ovata
Carya ovata
var. australis – Southern shagbark hickory, Carolina hickory (syn. C. carolinae-septentrionalis)

Carya pallida
Carya pallida
(Ashe) Engl. & Graebn. – Sand hickory Carya texana
Carya texana
Buckley – Black hickory Carya tomentosa
Carya tomentosa
(Poir.) Nutt. – Mockernut hickory (syn. C. alba) † Carya washingtonensis - Manchester Extinct Miocene

Carya sect. Apocarya – pecans

Carya aquatica
Carya aquatica
(F.Michx.) Nutt. – Bitter pecan or water hickory Carya cordiformis
Carya cordiformis
(Wangenh.) K.Koch – Bitternut hickory Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch – Pecan Carya palmeri W.E. Manning – Mexican hickory

Ecology[edit] Hickory
Hickory
is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species. These include:

Luna moth (Actias luna) Brown-tail
Brown-tail
(Euproctis chrysorrhoea) Coleophora
Coleophora
case-bearers, C. laticornella and C. ostryae Regal moths (Citheronia regalis), whose caterpillars are known as hickory horn-devils Walnut sphinx
Walnut sphinx
(Amorpha juglandis) The Bride (nominate subspecies Catocala neogama
Catocala neogama
neogama) Hickory Tussock Moth
Hickory Tussock Moth
(Lophocampa caryae)

The hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera ( Phylloxera
Phylloxera
caryaecaulis) also uses the hickory tree as a food source. Phylloxeridae are related to aphids and have a similarly complex life cycle. Eggs hatch in early spring and the galls quickly form around the developing insects. Phylloxera
Phylloxera
galls may damage weakened or stressed hickories, but are generally harmless. Deformed leaves and twigs can rain down from the tree in the spring as squirrels break off infected tissue and eat the galls, possibly for the protein content or because the galls are fleshy and tasty to the squirrels. The pecan gall curculio (Conotrachelus elegans) is a true weevil species also found feeding on galls of the hickory leaf stem gall phylloxera. The banded hickory borer (Knulliana cincta) is also found on hickories. Fruit[edit] Some fruits are borderline and difficult to categorize. Hickory
Hickory
nuts (Carya) and walnuts (Juglans) in the Juglandaceae
Juglandaceae
family grow within an outer husk; these fruits are sometimes considered to be drupes or drupaceous nuts, rather than true botanical nuts. "Tryma" is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes.[3][4] Uses[edit]

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Finished hickory in a cabinet

Hickory
Hickory
wood is very hard, stiff, dense and shock resistant. There are woods that are stronger than hickory and woods that are harder, but the combination of strength, toughness, hardness, and stiffness found in hickory wood is not found in any other commercial wood.[5] It is used for tool handles, bows, wheel spokes, carts, drumsticks, lacrosse stick handles, golf club shafts (sometimes still called hickory stick, even though made of steel or graphite), the bottom of skis, walking sticks, and for punitive use as a switch (like hazel), and especially as a cane-like hickory stick in schools and use by parents. Paddles are often made from hickory. This property of hickory wood has left a trace in some Native American languages: in Ojibwe, hickory is called "mitigwaabaak", a compound of mitigwaab "bow" and the final -aakw "hardwood tree" [6] Baseball
Baseball
bats were formerly made of hickory, but are now more commonly made of ash. Hickory
Hickory
is replacing ash as the wood of choice for Scottish shinty sticks (also known as camans). Hickory
Hickory
was extensively used for the construction of early aircraft. Hickory
Hickory
is also highly prized for wood-burning stoves and chimineas because of its high energy content. Hickory
Hickory
wood is also a preferred type for smoking cured meats. In the Southern United States, hickory is popular for cooking barbecue, as hickory grows abundantly in the region and adds flavor to the meat. Hickory
Hickory
is sometimes used for wood flooring due to its durability in resisting wear and character. Hickory
Hickory
wood is not noted for rot resistance. A bark extract from shagbark hickory is also used in an edible syrup similar to maple syrup, with a slightly bitter, smoky taste. The nuts of some species are palatable, while others are bitter and only suitable for animal feed. Shagbark and shellbark hickory, along with pecan, are regarded by some as the finest nut trees. When cultivated for their nuts, clonal (grafted) trees of the same cultivar cannot pollinate each other because of their self-incompatibility. Two or more cultivars must be planted together for successful pollination. Seedlings (grown from hickory nuts) will usually have sufficient genetic variation. Gallery[edit]

Comparison of North American Carya nuts

Chinese hickory nuts, peeled and roasted

Ripe hickory nuts ready to fall

Bitternut hickory (C. cordiformis)

Autumn foliage

See also[edit]

Walnut Hican

References[edit]

^ "Carya Nutt". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-10-19.  ^ "Subordinate Taxa of Carya Nutt". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2009-10-19.  ^ Identification Of Major Fruit
Fruit
Types Archived 2011-11-20 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Nut Photos". waynesword.palomar.edu.  ^ Important Trees of Eastern Forests, USDA, 1974 ^ Valentine, Rudolph 2001. Nishnaabemwin Grammar, Toronto: University of Toronto Press. p.485).

Bibliography[edit]

Philips, Roger. Trees of North America and Europe. Random House, Inc., New York. ISBN 0-394-50259-0, 1979.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Carya.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Hickory.

Flora of North America: Carya Flora of China: Carya USDA Agricultural Research Service: Carya Comparison of eastern North American hickories at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu Comparison of hickory nuts at bioimages.vanderbilt.edu USDA Plants Database Profile for Carya (hickory)

v t e

Nuts

True, or botanical nuts

Acorn Beech

American beech European beech

Breadnut Candlenut Chestnut

Sweet chestnut

Hazelnut

American hazel Beaked hazel European hazel Filbert Asian hazel

Johnstone River almond Kola nut Kurrajong Malabar chestnut Mongongo Palm nut Karuka

Planted karuka Wild karuka

Red bopple nut Yellow walnut

Drupes

Almond Australian cashew nut Betel nut Borneo tallow nut Breadfruit Cashew Chilean hazel Coconut Durian Gabon nut Hickory

Mockernut hickory Pecan Shagbark hickory Shellbark hickory

Irvingia gabonensis Jack nut Panda oleosa Pekea nut Pili nut Pistachio Walnut

Black walnut Butternut English walnut Heartnut

Gymnosperms

Cycad

Burrawang nut

Ginkgo nut Araucaria
Araucaria
spp.

Bunya nut Monkey-puzzle nut

Pine nut

Chilgoza pine Colorado pinyon Korean pine Mexican pinyon Single-leaf pinyon Stone pine

Angiosperms

Brazil nut Macadamia

Macadamia
Macadamia
nut Queensland macadamia nut

Paradise nut Peanut Peanut
Peanut
tree Soybean

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q142788 EoL: 38128 EPPO: 1CYAG FNA: 105766 FoC: 105766 Fossilworks: 54583 GBIF: 3054287 GRIN: 2131 IPNI: 20555-1 ITIS: 19223 NCBI: 13402 PLANTS: CARYA Tropicos: 40002070

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