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HiRISE
HiRISE
being prepared before it is shipped for attachment to the spacecraft

High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is a camera on board the Mars
Mars
Reconnaissance Orbiter. The 65 kg (143 lb), $40 million USD instrument was built under the direction of the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory
Lunar and Planetary Laboratory
by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. It consists of a 0.5 m (19.7 in) aperture reflecting telescope, the largest so far of any deep space mission, which allows it to take pictures of Mars
Mars
with resolutions of 0.3 m/pixel (about 1 foot), resolving objects below a meter across. HiRISE
HiRISE
has imaged Mars
Mars
landers on the surface, including the ongoing Curiosity and Opportunity rover
Opportunity rover
missions.[1]

Contents

1 History 2 Purpose 3 Design 4 Images naming conventions 5 Footnotes 6 External links

History[edit]

Crop of one of the first images of Mars
Mars
from the HiRISE
HiRISE
camera

In the late 1980s, Alan Delamere of Ball Aerospace began planning the kind of high-resolution imaging needed to support sample return and surface exploration of Mars. In early 2001 he teamed up with Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona
University of Arizona
to propose such a camera for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
(MRO), and NASA formally accepted it November 9, 2001.[2] Ball Aerospace was given the responsibility to build the camera and they delivered HiRISE
HiRISE
to NASA on December 6, 2004 for integration with the rest of the spacecraft.[3] It was prepared for launch on board the MRO on August 12, 2005, to the cheers of the HiRISE
HiRISE
team who were present.[4]

Artist's rendition of HiRISE
HiRISE
at Mars

During the cruise phase of MRO, HiRISE
HiRISE
took multiple test shots including several of the Moon
Moon
and the Jewel Box cluster. These images helped to calibrate the camera and prepare it for taking pictures of Mars. On March 10, 2006, MRO achieved Martian
Martian
orbit and primed HiRISE
HiRISE
to acquire some initial images of Mars.[5] The instrument had two opportunities to take pictures of Mars
Mars
(the first was on March 24, 2006) before MRO entered aerobraking, during which time the camera was turned off for six months.[6] It was turned on successfully on September 27, and took its first high-resolution pictures of Mars
Mars
on September 29. On October 6, 2006 HiRISE
HiRISE
took the first image of Victoria Crater, a site which is also under study by the Opportunity rover.[7] In February 2007 seven detectors showed signs of degradation, with one IR channel almost completely degraded, and one other showing advanced signs of degradation. The problems seemed to disappear when higher temperatures were used to take pictures with the camera.[8] As of March, the degradation appeared to have stabilized, but the underlying cause remained unknown.[9] Subsequent experiments with the Engineering Model (EM) at Ball Aerospace provided definitive evidence for the cause: contamination in the analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) which results in flipping bits to create the apparent noise or bad data in the images, combined with design flaws leading to delivery of poor analog waveforms to the ADCs. Further work showed that the degradation can be reversed by heating the ADCs. On 2007-10-03, HiRISE
HiRISE
was turned toward Earth, and took a picture of it and the Moon. In a full-resolution color image, Earth
Earth
was 90 pixels across and the Moon
Moon
was 24 pixels across from a distance of 142 million km.[10] On May 25, 2008, HiRISE
HiRISE
imaged NASA's Mars
Mars
Phoenix Lander parachuting down to Mars. It was the first time that one spacecraft imaged the final descent of another spacecraft onto a planetary body.[11] On April 1, 2010, NASA released the first images under the HiWish program in which the public suggested places for HiRISE
HiRISE
to photograph. One of the eight locations was Aureum Chaos.[12] The first image below gives a wide view of the area. The next two images are from the HiRISE image.[13] By 2010, HiRISE
HiRISE
had imaged about one percent of Mars's surface[14] and by 2016 the coverage was around 2.4%.[15] It was designed to capture smaller areas at high resolution—other instruments scan much more area to find things like fresh impact craters.

THEMIS image of wide view of following HiRISE
HiRISE
images. Black box shows approximate location of HiRISE
HiRISE
images. This image is just a part of the vast area known as Aureum Chaos. Click on image to see more details.

Aureum Chaos, as seen by HiRISE, under the HiWish program. Image is located in Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle.

Close up view of previous image, as seen by HiRISE
HiRISE
under HiWish program. Small round dots are boulders.

Glacier moving out of valley, as seen by HiRISE
HiRISE
under HiWish program Location is Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.

Close view of possible pingo with scale, as seen by HiRISE
HiRISE
under HiWish program
HiWish program
Pingos may contain a core of pure ice.

Close view of mantle, as seen by HiRISE
HiRISE
under HiWish program
HiWish program
Arrows show craters along edge which highlight the thickness of mantle. Location is Ismenius Lacus quadrangle.

Defrosting dunes and ice in troughs of polygons, as seen by HiRISE under HiWish program

False color view of a Martian
Martian
avalanche

Close-up of layers in Firsoff Crater, as seen by HiRISE

Large group of concentric cracks, as seen by HiRISE, under HiWish program Location is Ismenius Lacus quadrangle. Cracks were formed by a volcano under ice.[16]

Scalloped terrain, as seen by HiRISE
HiRISE
under HiWish program
HiWish program
The location is the Casius quadrangle.

Wide view of field of mud volcanoes, as seen by HiRISE
HiRISE
under HiWish program

Close view under HiWish program, of ring mold crater formed when an impact reaches down to a layer of ice. The rebound of ice makes the shape of a ring-mold (like what is used for baking).

Purpose[edit]

Comparison of resolution of MRO HiRISE
HiRISE
camera with predecessor, the MOC aboard MGS

The HiRISE
HiRISE
camera is designed to view surface features of Mars
Mars
in greater detail than has previously been possible.[17] It has provided a closer look at fresh martian craters, revealing alluvial fans, viscous flow features and ponded regions of pitted materials containing breccia clast.[18] This allows for the study of the age of Martian
Martian
features, looking for landing sites for future Mars
Mars
landers, and in general, seeing the Martian surface
Martian surface
in far greater detail than has previously been done from orbit. By doing so, it is allowing better studies of Martian
Martian
channels and valleys, volcanic landforms, possible former lakes and oceans, sand dune fields such as Hagal and Nili Patera, and other surface landforms as they exist on the Martian surface.[19] The general public is allowed to request sites for the HiRISE
HiRISE
camera to capture (see HiWish). For this reason, and due to the unprecedented access of pictures to the general public, shortly after they have been received and processed, the camera has been termed "The People's Camera".[20] The pictures can be viewed online, downloaded, or with the free HiView software. Design[edit]

Earth
Earth
and Moon
Moon
from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
taken by HiRISE

HiRISE
HiRISE
was designed to be a high resolution camera from the beginning. It consists of a large mirror, as well as a large CCD camera. Because of this, it achieves a resolution of 1 microradian, or 0.3 meter at a height of 300 km. (For comparison purposes, satellite images on Google Mars
Google Mars
are available to 1 meter.[21]) It can image in three color bands, 400–600 nm (blue-green or B-G), 550–850 nm (red) and 800–1,000 nm (near infrared or NIR).[22] HiRISE
HiRISE
incorporates a 0.5-meter primary mirror, the largest optical telescope ever sent beyond Earth's orbit. The mass of the instrument is 64.2 kg.[23] Red
Red
color images are at 20,048 pixels wide (6 km in a 300 km orbit), and blue-green and NIR are at 4,048 pixels wide (1.2 km). These are gathered by 14 CCD sensors, 2048 × 128 pixels. HiRISE's onboard computer reads out these lines in time with the orbiter's ground speed, meaning the images are potentially unlimited in height. Practically this is limited by the onboard computer's 28 Gbit (3.5 GByte) memory capacity. The nominal maximum size of red images (compressed to 8 bits per pixel) is about 20,000 × 126,000 pixels, or 2520 megapixels and 4,000 × 126,000 pixels (504 megapixels) for the narrower images of the B-G and NIR bands. A single uncompressed image uses up to 28 Gbit. However, these images are transmitted compressed,with a typical max size of 11.2 Gigabits. These images are released to the general public on the HiRISE
HiRISE
website via a new format called JPEG 2000.[24][25] To facilitate the mapping of potential landing sites, HiRISE
HiRISE
can produce stereo pairs of images from which the topography can be measured to an accuracy of 0.25 meter. Images naming conventions[edit]

Whirlwind trails on Martian
Martian
sand dunes

Gullies in the southern highlands of Mars

Slope streaks[26]

HiRISE
HiRISE
images are available to the public, so it can be useful to know how they are named. This is an excerpt from the official documentation:

Name: ppp_oooooo_tttt_ffff_c.IMG

ppp = Mission Phase:

INT = Integration and Testing CAL = Calibration Observations ATL = ATLO Observations KSC = Kennedy Space Center Observations SVT = Sequence Verification Test LAU = Launch CRU = Cruise Observations APR = Mars
Mars
Approach Observations AEB = Aerobraking Phase TRA = Transition Phase PSP = Primary Science Orbit (nov 2006-nov 2008) REL = Relay phase E01 = 1st Extended Mission Phase if needed Exx = Additional extended Missions if needed

oooooo = MRO orbit number

tttt = Target code

ffff Filter/CCD designation: RED0-RED9 - Red
Red
filter CCDs IR10-IR11 – Near-Infrared filter CCDs BG12-BG13 – Blue- Green
Green
filter CCDs

c = Channel number of CCD (0 or 1)

The target code refers to the latitudinal position of the center of the planned observation relative to the start of orbit. The start of orbit is located at the equator on the descending side (night side) of the orbit. A target code of 0000 refers to the start of orbit. The target code increases in value along the orbit track ranging from 0000 to 3595. This convention allows the file name ordering to be time sequential. The first three digits refers to the number of whole degrees from the start of orbit, the fourth digit refers to the fractional degrees rounded to the nearest 0.5 degrees. Values greater than 3595 identify observations as off- Mars
Mars
or special observations. Examples of target code:

0000 – planned observation at the equator on descending side of orbit. 0900 – planned observation at the south pole. 1800 – planned observation at the equator on the ascending side (day side) of the orbit. 2700 – planned observation at the north pole.

Off- Mars
Mars
and Special
Special
Observations Values:

4000 – Star Observation 4001 – Phobos Observation 4002 – Deimos Observation 4003 – Special
Special
Calibration Observation

Footnotes[edit]

^ VOA News - Mars
Mars
Orbiter Photographs Old NASA Lander (February 9, 2012) ^ "UA-Led Team's Ultra-High Resolution Camera Selected for 2005 Launch to Mars" (Press release). UANews. 2001-11-09. Retrieved 2006-06-08. [permanent dead link] ^ "Ultra-sharp, Mars-Bound HiRISE
HiRISE
Camera Delivered" (Press release). UANews. 2004-12-06. Retrieved 2006-06-08. [permanent dead link] ^ "UA Team Cheers Launch of Mars
Mars
Reconnaissance Orbiter, HiRISE" (Press release). UANews. 2005-08-08. Retrieved 2006-06-08. [permanent dead link] ^ " Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter
Successfully Enters Orbit Around Mars!". NASA MRO website. Archived from the original on 2006-06-03. Retrieved 2006-06-08.  ^ "UA Team Cheers Launch of Mars
Mars
Reconnaissance Orbiter, HiRISE" (Press release). NASA. 2006-03-24. Retrieved 2006-06-08.  ^ HiRISE
HiRISE
Victoria Crater
Victoria Crater
at Meridiani Planum (TRA_000873_1780) ^ "Spacecraft Set to Reach Milestone, Reports Technical Glitches" (Press release). NASA. 2007-02-07. Retrieved 2007-03-06.  ^ Shiga, David (16 March 2007). "Ailing Mars
Mars
camera is stable – for now". NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved 2007-03-18.  ^ " Earth
Earth
and Moon
Moon
as Seen from Mars". NASA. 2008-03-03. Retrieved 2008-06-21.  ^ "Camera on Mars
Mars
Orbiter Snaps Phoenix During Landing". JPL website. Retrieved 2008-05-28.  ^ http://uahirise.org/releases/hiwish-captions.php ^ http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu/ESP_016869_1775 ^ "Microsoft and NASA Bring Mars
Mars
Down to Earth
Earth
Through the WorldWide Telescope". NASA. Retrieved 2012-12-07.  ^ "HiRISE: 45,000 Mars
Mars
Orbits and Counting". The University of Arizona. Retrieved 2016-03-23.  ^ Levy, J., et al. 2017. Candidate volcanic and impact-induced ice depressions on Mars. Icarus: 285, 185-194. ^ Alan Delamere (2003). "MRO HiRISE: Instrument Development" (PDF). 6th International Mars
Mars
Conference. Retrieved 2008-05-25.  ^ "Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Science Targeting Meeting - Program and Abstract Volume". NASA. NASA Technical Reports Server. Retrieved 26 September 2011.  ^ "Science Goals". Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona. Retrieved June 7, 2006.  ^ "HiRISE". Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona. Retrieved 19 March 2006.  ^ "Google Earth
Earth
FAQ" Google Earth
Earth
Website. ^ "MRO HiRISE
HiRISE
Camera Specifications". HiRISE
HiRISE
website. Retrieved 2 January 2006.  ^ Mission to Mars: the HiRISE
HiRISE
camera on-board MRO, Focal plane arrays for space telescopes III, 27–28 August 2007, San Diego, California, USA ^ "HiRISE: Instrument Development" (PDF). NASA Ames Research Center website. Retrieved 7 February 2006.  ^ "Fact Sheet: HiRISE" (PDF). National Air and Space Museum. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2006.  ^ [1]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Photos by HiRISE.

HiRISE
HiRISE
official website Beautiful Mars
Mars
Tumblr from HiRISE Help NASA categorize images taken by HiRISE Patterns of Mars
Mars
- 12 High Resolution Photos by HiRISE
HiRISE
on www.time.com Browse Map of Images from ASU How HiRISE
HiRISE
Works - Lesson One: Camera Basics How HiRISE
HiRISE
Works - Lesson Two: Resolution and Binning Multimedia created with HiRISE
HiRISE
imagery/data by Kevin Gill & Seán Doran

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