HETERODYNING is a signal processing technique invented in 1901 by
Canadian inventor-engineer
A major application of the heterodyne process is in the superheterodyne radio receiver circuit, which is used in virtually all modern radio receivers. CONTENTS * 1 History * 1.1
* 2 Applications * 2.1 Up and down converters * 2.2 Analog videotape recording * 2.3 Music synthesis * 2.4 Optical heterodyning * 3 Mathematical principle * 3.1 Mixer * 3.2 Output of a mixer * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORY Fessenden's heterodyne radio receiver circuit. The incoming radio frequency and local oscillator frequency mix in the crystal diode detector. In 1901,
In radio telegraphy, the characters of text messages are translated
into the short duration dots and long duration dashes of Morse code
that are broadcast as radio signals.
With the development of the arc converter radio transmitter in 1904,
continuous wave (CW) modulation began to be used for radiotelegraphy.
CW
The "heterodyne" or "beat" receiver has a local oscillator that
produces a radio signal adjusted to be close in frequency to the
incoming signal being received. When the two signals are mixed, a
"beat" frequency equal to the difference between the two frequencies
is created. By adjusting the local oscillator frequency correctly, the
beat frequency is in the audio range, and can be heard as a tone in
the receiver's earphones whenever the transmitter signal is present.
Thus the
SUPERHETERODYNE RECEIVER Block diagram of a typical superheterodyne receiver. Red parts are those that handle the incoming radio frequency (RF) signal; green are parts that operate at the intermediate frequency (IF), while blue parts operate at the modulation (audio) frequency. An important and widely used application of the heterodyne technique
is in the superheterodyne receiver (superhet), which was invented by
U.S. engineer
The superheterodyne receiver has several advantages over previous receiver designs. One advantage is easier tuning; only the RF and LO are tuned by the operator; the fixed-frequency IF is tuned ("aligned") at the factory and is not adjusted. In older designs such as the tuned radio frequency receiver (TRF), all of the receiver stages had to be simultaneously tuned. In addition, since the IF filters are fixed-tuned, the receiver's selectivity is the same across the receiver's entire frequency band. Another advantage is that the IF signal can be at a much lower frequency than the incoming radio signal, and that allows each stage of the IF amplifier to provide more gain. To first order, an amplifying device has a fixed gain-bandwidth product . If the device has a gain-bandwidth product of 60 MHz, then it can provide a voltage gain of 3 at an RF of 20 MHz or a voltage gain of 30 at an IF of 2 MHz. At a lower IF, it would take fewer gain devices to achieve the same gain. The regenerative radio receiver obtained more gain out of one gain device by using positive feedback, but it required careful adjustment by the operator; that adjustment also changed the selectivity of the regenerative receiver. The superheterodyne provides a large, stable, gain and constant selectivity without troublesome adjustment. The superior superheterodyne system replaced the earlier TRF and regenerative receiver designs, and since the 1930s most commercial radio receivers have been superheterodynes. APPLICATIONS Heterodyning, also called frequency conversion, is used very widely in communications engineering to generate new frequencies and move information from one frequency channel to another. Besides its use in the superheterodyne circuit found in almost all radio and television receivers, it is used in radio transmitters , modems , satellite communications and set-top boxes, radar , radio telescopes , telemetry systems, cell phones , cable television converter boxes and headends , microwave relays , metal detectors , atomic clocks , and military electronic countermeasures (jamming) systems. UP AND DOWN CONVERTERS In large scale telecommunication networks such as telephone network trunks, microwave relay networks, cable television systems, and communication satellite links, large bandwidth capacity links are shared by many individual communication channels by using heterodyning to move the frequency of the individual signals up to different frequencies, which share the channel. This is called frequency division multiplexing (FDM). For example, a coaxial cable used by a cable television system can carry 500 television channels at the same time because each one is given a different frequency, so they don't interfere with one another. At the cable source or headend , electronic upconverters convert each incoming television channel to a new, higher frequency. They do this by mixing the television signal frequency, fCH with a local oscillator at a much higher frequency fLO, creating a heterodyne at the sum fCH + fLO, which is added to the cable. At the consumer's home, the cable set top box has a downconverter that mixes the incoming signal at frequency fCH + fLO with the same local oscillator frequency fLO creating the difference heterodyne, converting the television channel back to its original frequency: (fCH + fLO) − fLO = fCH. Each channel is moved to a different higher frequency. The original lower basic frequency of the signal is called the baseband , while the higher channel it is moved to is called the passband . ANALOG VIDEOTAPE RECORDING Many analog videotape systems rely on a downconverted color
subcarrier to record color information in their limited bandwidth.
These systems are referred to as "heterodyne systems" or "color-under
systems". For instance, for
The heterodyne system in these cases is used to convert quadrature phase-encoded and amplitude modulated sine waves from the broadcast frequencies to frequencies recordable in less than 1 MHz bandwidth. On playback, the recorded color information is heterodyned back to the standard subcarrier frequencies for display on televisions and for interchange with other standard video equipment. Some
MUSIC SYNTHESIS The theremin , an electronic musical instrument , traditionally uses the heterodyne principle to produce a variable audio frequency in response to the movement of the musician 's hands in the vicinity of one or more antennas, which act as capacitor plates. The output of a fixed radio frequency oscillator is mixed with that of an oscillator whose frequency is affected by the variable capacitance between the antenna and the thereminist as that person moves her or his hand near the pitch control antenna. The difference between the two oscillator frequencies produces a tone in the audio range. The ring modulator is a type of heterodyne incorporated into some synthesizers or used as a stand-alone audio effect. OPTICAL HETERODYNING
Since optical frequencies are far beyond the manipulation capacity of any feasible electronic circuit, all photon detectors are inherently energy detectors not oscillating electric field detectors. However, since energy detection is inherently "square-law" detection, it intrinsically mixes any optical frequencies present on the detector. Thus, sensitive detection of specific optical frequencies necessitates optical heterodyne detection, in which two different (close-by) wavelengths of light illuminate the detector so that the oscillating electrical output corresponds to the difference between their frequencies. This allows extremely narrow band detection (much narrower than any possible color filter can achieve) as well as precision measurements of phase and frequency of a light signal relative to a reference light source, as in a laser Doppler vibrometer . This phase sensitive detection has been applied for Doppler measurements of wind speed, and imaging through dense media. The high sensitivity against background light is especially useful for lidar . In optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy, optical heterodyning of the OKE signal and a small part of the probe signal produces a mixed signal consisting of probe, heterodyne OKE-probe and homodyne OKE signal. The probe and homodyne OKE signals can be filtered out, leaving the heterodyne signal for detection. MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLE Heterodyning is based on the trigonometric identity : sin 1 sin 2 = 1 2 cos ( 1 2 ) 1 2 cos ( 1 + 2 ) {displaystyle sin theta _{1}sin theta _{2}={frac {1}{2}}cos(theta _{1}-theta _{2})-{frac {1}{2}}cos(theta _{1}+theta _{2})} The product on the left hand side represents the multiplication ("mixing") of a sine wave with another sine wave. The right hand side shows that the resulting signal is the difference of two sinusoidal terms, one at the sum of the two original frequencies, and one at the difference, which can be considered to be separate signals. Using this trigonometric identity, the result of multiplying two sine wave signals, sin ( 2 f 1 t ) {displaystyle sin(2pi f_{1}t),} and sin ( 2 f 2 t ) {displaystyle sin(2pi f_{2}t),} can be calculated: sin ( 2 f 1 t ) sin ( 2 f 2 t ) = 1 2 cos 1 2 cos {displaystyle sin(2pi f_{1}t)sin(2pi f_{2}t)={frac {1}{2}}cos-{frac {1}{2}}cos,} The result is the sum of two sinusoidal signals, one at the sum f1 + f2 and one at the difference f1 − f2 of the original frequencies MIXER The two signals combine in a device called a mixer . As seen in the previous section, an ideal mixer would be a device that multiplies the two signals. Some widely used mixer circuits, such as the Gilbert cell , operate in this way, but they are limited to lower frequencies. However, any nonlinear electronic component also multiplies signals applied to it, producing heterodyne frequencies in its output—so a variety of nonlinear components serve as mixers. A nonlinear component is one in which the output current or voltage is a nonlinear function of its input. Most circuit elements in communications circuits are designed to be linear . This means they obey the superposition principle ; if F(v) is the output of a linear element with an input of v: F ( v 1 + v 2 ) = F ( v 1 ) + F ( v 2 ) {displaystyle F(v_{1}+v_{2})=F(v_{1})+F(v_{2}),} So if two sine wave signals at frequencies f1 and f2 are applied to a linear device, the output is simply the sum of the outputs when the two signals are applied separately with no product terms. Thus, the function F must be nonlinear to create heterodynes (mixer products). A perfect multiplier only produces mixer products at the sum and difference frequencies (f1 ± f2), but more general nonlinear functions produce higher order mixer products: n⋅f1 + m⋅f2 for integers n and m. Some mixer designs, such as double-balanced mixers, suppress some high order undesired products, while other designs, such as harmonic mixers exploit high order differences. Examples of nonlinear components that are used as mixers are vacuum tubes and transistors biased near cutoff (class C ), and diodes . Ferromagnetic core inductors driven into saturation can also be used at lower frequencies. In nonlinear optics , crystals that have nonlinear characteristics are used to mix laser light beams to create heterodynes at optical frequencies . OUTPUT OF A MIXER To demonstrate mathematically how a nonlinear component can multiply
signals and generate heterodyne frequencies, the nonlinear function F
can be expanded in a power series (
To simplify the math, the higher order terms above α2 are indicated by an ellipsis (". . .") and only the first terms are shown. Applying the two sine waves at frequencies ω1 = 2πf1 and ω2 = 2πf2 to this device: v out = F ( A 1 sin 1 t + A 2 sin 2 t ) {displaystyle v_{text{out}}=F(A_{1}sin omega _{1}t+A_{2}sin omega _{2}t),} v out = 1 ( A 1 sin 1 t + A 2 sin 2 t ) + 2 ( A 1 sin 1 t + A 2 sin 2 t ) 2 + {displaystyle v_{text{out}}=alpha _{1}(A_{1}sin omega _{1}t+A_{2}sin omega _{2}t)+alpha _{2}(A_{1}sin omega _{1}t+A_{2}sin omega _{2}t)^{2}+cdots ,} v out = 1 ( A 1 sin 1 t + A 2 sin 2 t ) + 2 ( A 1 2 sin 2 1 t + 2 A 1 A 2 sin 1 t sin 2 t + A 2 2 sin 2 2 t ) + {displaystyle v_{text{out}}=alpha _{1}(A_{1}sin omega _{1}t+A_{2}sin omega _{2}t)+alpha _{2}(A_{1}^{2}sin ^{2}omega _{1}t+2A_{1}A_{2}sin omega _{1}tsin omega _{2}t+A_{2}^{2}sin ^{2}omega _{2}t)+cdots ,} It can be seen that the second term above contains a product of the two sine waves. Simplifying with trigonometric identities : v out = 1 ( A 1 sin 1 t + A 2 sin 2 t ) + 2 ( A 1 2 2 + A 1 A 2 + A 2 2 2 ) + {displaystyle {begin{aligned}v_{text{out}}={}&alpha _{1}(A_{1}sin omega _{1}t+A_{2}sin omega _{2}t)\ width:101.449ex; height:10.843ex;" alt="{displaystyle {begin{aligned}v_{text{out}}={}&alpha _{1}(A_{1}sin omega _{1}t+A_{2}sin omega _{2}t)\"> v out = 2 A 1 A 2 cos ( 1 2 ) t 2 A 1 A 2 cos ( 1 + 2 ) t + {displaystyle v_{text{out}}=alpha _{2}A_{1}A_{2}cos(omega _{1}-omega _{2})t-alpha _{2}A_{1}A_{2}cos(omega _{1}+omega _{2})t+cdots ,} So the output contains sinusoidal terms with frequencies at the sum ω1 + ω2 and difference ω1 − ω2 of the two original frequencies. It also contains terms at the original frequencies and at multiples of the original frequencies 2ω1, 2ω2, 3ω1, 3ω2, etc.; the latter are called harmonics , as well as more complicated terms at frequencies of Mω1 + Nω2, called intermodulation products . These unwanted frequencies, along with the unwanted heterodyne frequency, must be filtered out of the mixer output by an electronic filter to leave the desired heterodyne. SEE ALSO *
NOTES * ^ Christopher E. Cooper (January 2001). Physics. Fitzroy Dearborn
Publishers. pp. 25–. ISBN 978-1-57958-358-3 . Retrieved 27 July
2013.
* ^ A B C United States Bureau of Naval Personnel (1973). Basic
Electronics. USA: Courier Dover. p. 338. ISBN 0-486-21076-6 .
* ^ A B Graf, Rudolf F. (1999). Modern dictionary of electronics,
7th Ed. USA: Newnes. p. 344. ISBN 0-7506-9866-7 .
* ^ Horowitz, Paul; Winfield Hill (1989). The Art of Electronics,
2nd Ed. London: Cambridge University Press. pp. 885, 897. ISBN
0-521-37095-7 .
* ^ Tesla, Nikola, The Inventions, Researches and Writings of
Nikola Tesla, Thomas Commerford Martin, editor, "Mechanical and
Electrical Oscillators," August 25, 1893, lecture before a meeting of
the International Electrical Congress at the Columbian Exposition in
Chicago.
* ^ Nahin 2001 , p. 91, stating "Fessenden's circuit was ahead of
its time, however, as there simply was no technology available then
with which to build the required local oscillator with the necessary
frequency stability." Figure 7.10 shows a simplified 1907 heterodyne
detector.
* ^ Fessenden 1905 , p. 4
* ^ Ashley, Charles Grinnell; Heyward, Charles Brian (1912).
Wireless
REFERENCES * US 1050441, Fessenden, Reginald A. , "Electric Signaling Apparatus", published July 27, 1905, issued January 14, 1913 * Glinsky, Albert (2000), Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, ISBN 0-252-02582-2 * Nahin, Paul J. (2001), The Science of Radio with Matlab and Electronics Workbench Demonstrations (second ed.), New York: Springer-Verlag, AIP Press, ISBN 0-387-95150-4 EXTERNAL LINKS * Hogan, John V. L. (April |