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HERZOG is a German hereditary title held by one who rules a territorial duchy, exercises feudal authority over an estate called a duchy , or possesses a right by law or tradition to be referred to by the ducal title. The word is usually translated by the English duke and the Latin dux . Generally, a Herzog
Herzog
ranks below a king and above a count . Whether the title is deemed higher or lower than titles translated into English as "prince" ( Fürst
Fürst
) has depended upon the language, country and era in which the titles co-existed.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Current usage * 3 See also * 4 References

HISTORY

Image of a Herzogshut, the ducal hat of a Herzog
Herzog

Herzog
Herzog
is not related to Herz ('heart'), but is derived from German(ic) HE(E)R (English: 'army') and ZOG (ZIEHEN) (English: 'to move', also: in die Schlacht ziehen – "to go into battle"), a military leader (compare to Slavic voivode ). It may have originated from the Proto-Germanic
Proto-Germanic
title of Harjanaz, who were elected by their tribes to lead them into battle. Thus, Herzog
Herzog
was a title borne by Germanic warriors who exercised military authority over a tribe by general acclaim among its members or warriors, especially in the stem duchies .

During the medieval era, some of the most powerful vassals whose territories lay within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire took or were granted the title of Herzog
Herzog
by the Emperor. Several dynasties, such as the Habsburgs of Austria, Hohenzollerns of Prussia, Welfs of Hanover, Wettins of Saxony, Wittelsbachs of Bavaria and the House of Württemberg , held the Herzogswürde (dukedom) before becoming kings.

Although a Herzog
Herzog
ranked below a Prince Elector within the Empire, he also belonged by hereditary right to the Fürstenbank (Chamber of Princes) within the Reichstag , exercised Landeshoheit within his Imperial state and enjoyed Reichsunmittelbarkeit within the Empire. Therefore, Herzöge were regarded as members of the Hoher Adel (reigning nobility ) whose families inter-married with sovereign dynasties outside as well as within the Empire. They ranked as royalty, distinct from nobles who were subject to a lesser suzerain than the Emperor.

Occasionally, the Emperor conferred the title of Herzog
Herzog
on a nobleman who was not necessarily a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire and did not rule a duchy. Such a person ranked only as a Titularherzog (duke-by-title) in Germany's non-reigning nobility.

CURRENT USAGE

Herzog
Herzog
was borrowed into many other languages, with the chief meaning of the word being "duke", such as Russian gertsog, Belarusian hertsag, Croatian, Serbian and Bosnian herceg (e.g., Herzegovina
Herzegovina
), Bulgarian hertsog, Latvian hercogs, Lithuanian hercogas, Estonian hertsog, Finnish herttua, Hungarian herceg, Georgian herts’ogi, and Danish/Norwegian/Icelandic/Swedish hertug/hertogi/hertig.

Herzog
Herzog
also translated into other languages as the equivalent of "duke", e.g. Italian duca, Danish hertug, Afrikaans hertog, Dutch hertog, Icelandic hertogi, Luxemburgish Herzog, Norwegian hertug, Swedish hertig, Spanish and Portuguese duque, Cyrillic герцог, Russian воевода. The Slavic semantic equivalent of Herzog
Herzog
(for example in Polish) is voivode, where voi- (army) and -vode (to lead, to guide).

Some historical territories of the former Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
have both names of Herzegovina
Herzegovina
and Vojvodina
Vojvodina
.

Herzog
Herzog
is not uncommon as a surname in German-speaking countries. The surname does not indicate an aristocratic origin (as the family name "King" in English does not indicate a royal ancestry).

Standartenführer (Oberst) Herzog, the leader of an undead SS Einsatzgruppe division, is the main antagonist in the Norwegian Dead Snow horror-comedy films.

SEE ALSO

Look up HERZOG in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

* Dukes in Italy, Germany and Austria * Voivode
Voivode

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Pine, L.G. . Titles: How the King
King
became His Majesty. Titles in Western Europe.Barnes position: absolute;" /> Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Herzog
Herzog
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