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HERODOTUS (/hᵻˈrɒdətəs/ ; Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: Ἡρόδοτος, _Hêródotos_, Attic Greek pronunciation: ) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
(modern-day Bodrum , Turkey
Turkey
) and lived in the fifth century BC (c. 484–c. 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides , Socrates
Socrates
, and Euripides
Euripides
. He is often referred to as "The Father of History", a title first conferred by Cicero
Cicero
; he was the first historian known to have broken from Homeric tradition to treat historical subjects as a method of investigation—specifically, by collecting his materials systematically and critically, and then arranging them into a historiographic narrative.

_The Histories _ is the only work which he is known to have produced, a record of his "inquiry" (ἱστορία _historía_ ) on the origins of the Greco-Persian Wars ; it primarily deals with the lives of Croesus , Cyrus , Cambyses , Smerdis , Darius , and Xerxes and the battles of Marathon , Thermopylae , Artemisium , Salamis , Plataea , and Mycale ; however, its many cultural, ethnographical , geographical, historiographical , and other degressions form a defining and essential part of the _Histories_ and contain a wealth of information. Some of his stories are fanciful and others inaccurate; yet he states that he is reporting only what he was told; a sizable portion of the information he provided was later confirmed by historians and archaeologists. Despite Herodotus' historical significance, little is known of his personal life.

CONTENTS

* 1 Place in history

* 1.1 Predecessors * 1.2 Writing style * 1.3 Contemporary and modern critics

* 2 Life

* 2.1 Childhood * 2.2 Early travels * 2.3 Later life * 2.4 Author and orator

* 3 Reliability

* 3.1 Egypt * 3.2 Science * 3.3 Accusations of bias * 3.4 Herodotus\'s use of sources and sense of authority

* 4 Mode of explanation

* 4.1 Types of causality

* 5 Herodotus
Herodotus
and myth * 6 See also * 7 Critical editions * 8 Translations * 9 Notes

* 10 References

* 10.1 Sources

* 11 Further reading * 12 External links

PLACE IN HISTORY

Herodotus
Herodotus
announced the size and scope of his work at the beginning of his _Researches_ or _Histories_:

Here are presented the results of the enquiry carried out by Herodotus
Herodotus
of Halicarnassus . The purpose is to prevent the traces of human events from being erased by time, and to preserve the fame of the important and remarkable achievements produced by both Greeks
Greeks
and non-Greeks; among the matters covered is, in particular, the cause of the hostilities between Greeks
Greeks
and non-Greeks. — Herodotus, _The Histories_ Robin Waterfield translation (2008)

PREDECESSORS

His record of the achievements of others was an achievement in itself, though the extent of it has been debated. Herodotus' place in history and his significance may be understood according to the traditions within which he worked. His work is the earliest Greek prose to have survived intact. However, Dionysius of Halicarnassus , a literary critic of Augustan Rome , listed seven predecessors of Herodotus, describing their works as simple, unadorned accounts of their own and other cities and people, Greek or foreign, including popular legends, sometimes melodramatic and naïve, often charming – all traits that can be found in the work of Herodotus
Herodotus
himself.

Modern historians regard the chronology as uncertain, but according to the ancient account, these predecessors included Dionysius of Miletus, Charon of Lampsacus, Hellanicus of Lesbos , Xanthus of Lydia and, the best attested of them all, Hecataeus of Miletus . Of these, only fragments of Hecataeus's works survived, and the authenticity of these is debatable, but they provide a glimpse into the kind of tradition within which Herodotus
Herodotus
wrote his own _Histories_.

WRITING STYLE

In his introduction to Hecataeus's work, _Genealogies_: _ Fragment from the Histories_ VIII on Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 2099, early 2nd century AD

Hecataeus the Milesian speaks thus: I write these things as they seem true to me; for the stories told by the Greeks
Greeks
are various and in my opinion absurd.

This points forward to the "folksy" yet "international" outlook typical of Herodotus. However, one modern scholar has described the work of Hecataeus as "a curious false start to history", since despite his critical spirit, he failed to liberate history from myth. Herodotus
Herodotus
mentions Hecataeus in his _Histories_, on one occasion mocking him for his naive genealogy and, on another occasion, quoting Athenian complaints against his handling of their national history. It is possible that Herodotus
Herodotus
borrowed much material from Hecataeus, as stated by Porphyry in a quote recorded by Eusebius . In particular, it is possible that he copied descriptions of the crocodile , hippopotamus , and phoenix from Hecataeus's _Circumnavigation of the Known World_ (_Periegesis_ / _Periodos ges_), even misrepresenting the source as "Heliopolitans" (_Histories_ 2.73).

But Hecataeus did not record events that had occurred in living memory, unlike Herodotus, nor did he include the oral traditions of Greek history within the larger framework of oriental history. There is no proof that Herodotus
Herodotus
derived the ambitious scope of his own work, with its grand theme of civilizations in conflict, from any predecessor, despite much scholarly speculation about this in modern times. Herodotus
Herodotus
claims to be better informed than his predecessors by relying on empirical observation to correct their excessive schematism. For example, he argues for continental asymmetry as opposed to the older theory of a perfectly circular earth with Europe and Asia/ Africa
Africa
equal in size (_Histories_ 4.36 and 4.42). However, he retains idealizing tendencies, as in his symmetrical notions of the Danube
Danube
and Nile
Nile
.

His debt to previous authors of prose "histories" might be questionable, but there is no doubt that Herodotus
Herodotus
owed much to the example and inspiration of poets and story-tellers. For example, Athenian tragic poets provided him with a world-view of a balance between conflicting forces, upset by the hubris of kings, and they provided his narrative with a model of episodic structure. His familiarity with Athenian tragedy is demonstrated in a number of passages echoing Aeschylus
Aeschylus
's _ Persae _, including the epigrammatic observation that the defeat of the Persian navy at Salamis caused the defeat of the land army (_Histories_ 8.68 ~ _Persae_ 728). The debt may have been repaid by Sophocles because there appear to be echoes of _The Histories_ in his plays, especially a passage in _ Antigone
Antigone
_ that resembles Herodotus's account of the death of Intaphernes (_Histories_ 3.119 ~ _Antigone_ 904-920). However, this point is one of the most contentious issues in modern scholarship.

Homer
Homer
was another inspirational source. Just as Homer
Homer
drew extensively on a tradition of oral poetry, sung by wandering minstrels, so Herodotus
Herodotus
appears to have drawn on an Ionian tradition of story-telling, collecting and interpreting the oral histories he chanced upon in his travels. These oral histories often contained folk-tale motifs and demonstrated a moral, yet they also contained substantial facts relating to geography, anthropology, and history, all compiled by Herodotus
Herodotus
in an entertaining style and format.

CONTEMPORARY AND MODERN CRITICS

It is on account of the many strange stories and the folk-tales he reported that his critics in early modern times branded him "The Father of Lies". Even his own contemporaries found reason to scoff at his achievement. In fact, one modern scholar has wondered if Herodotus
Herodotus
left his home in Greek Anatolia
Anatolia
, migrating westwards to Athens and beyond, because his own countrymen had ridiculed his work, a circumstance possibly hinted at in an epitaph said to have been dedicated to Herodotus
Herodotus
at one of his three supposed resting places, Thuria :

Herodotus
Herodotus
the son of Sphynx

lies; in Ionic history without peer; a Dorian born, who fled from slander's brand and made in Thuria his new native land.

Yet it was in Athens where his most formidable contemporary critics could be found. In 425 BC, which is about the time that Herodotus
Herodotus
is thought by many scholars to have died, the Athenian comic dramatist Aristophanes
Aristophanes
created _ The Acharnians _, in which he blames the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
on the abduction of some prostitutes – a mocking reference to Herodotus, who reported the Persians' account of their wars with Greece , beginning with the rapes of the mythical heroines Io , Europa , Medea
Medea
, and Helen .

Similarly, the Athenian historian Thucydides dismissed Herodotus
Herodotus
as a "logos-writer" (story-teller). Thucydides, who had been trained in rhetoric, became the model for subsequent prose-writers as an author who seeks to appear firmly in control of his material, whereas with his frequent digressions Herodotus
Herodotus
appeared to minimize (or possibly disguise) his authorial control. Moreover, Thucydides developed a historical topic more in keeping with the Greek world-view: focused on the context of the _polis _ or city-state. The interplay of civilizations was more relevant to Greeks
Greeks
living in Anatolia, such as Herodotus
Herodotus
himself, for whom life within a foreign civilization was a recent memory.

Before the Persian crisis, history had been represented among the Greeks
Greeks
only by local or family traditions. The "Wars of Liberation" had given to Herodotus
Herodotus
the first genuinely historical inspiration felt by a Greek. These wars showed him that there was a corporate life, higher than that of the city, of which the story might be told; and they offered to him as a subject the drama of the collision between East and West. With him, the spirit of history was born into Greece; and his work, called after the nine Muses, was indeed the first utterance of Clio
Clio
. —  Richard Claverhouse Jebb

LIFE

Relief of Herodotus
Herodotus
by Jean-Guillaume Moitte (1806), Louvre
Louvre
, Paris

Modern scholars generally turn to Herodotus's own writing for reliable information about his life, supplemented with ancient yet much later sources, such as the Byzantine _ Suda
Suda
_, an 11th century encyclopaedia which possibly took its information from traditional accounts.

The data are so few – they rest upon such late and slight authority; they are so improbable or so contradictory, that to compile them into a biography is like building a house of cards, which the first breath of criticism will blow to the ground. Still, certain points may be approximately fixed ... —  George Rawlinson

CHILDHOOD

Modern accounts of his life typically go something like this: Herodotus
Herodotus
was born at Halicarnassus around 484 BC. There is no reason to disbelieve the _Suda_'s information about his family: that it was influential and that he was the son of Lyxes and Dryo, and the brother of Theodorus, and that he was also related to Panyassis – an epic poet of the time. The town was within the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
at that time, making Herodotus
Herodotus
a Persian subject, and it may be that the young Herodotus
Herodotus
heard local eye-witness accounts of events within the empire and of Persian preparations for the invasion of Greece, including the movements of the local fleet under the command of Artemisia . Inscriptions recently discovered at Halicarnassus indicate that her grandson Lygdamis negotiated with a local assembly to settle disputes over seized property, which is consistent with a tyrant under pressure. His name is not mentioned later in the tribute list of the Athenian Delian League
Delian League
, indicating that there might well have been a successful uprising against him some time before 454 BC. The epic poet Panyassis – a relative of Herodotus
Herodotus
– is reported to have taken part in a failed uprising. Herodotus
Herodotus
expresses affection for the island of Samos (III, 39–60), and this is an indication that he might have lived there in his youth. So it is possible that his family was involved in an uprising against Lygdamis, leading to a period of exile on Samos and followed by some personal hand in the tyrant’s eventual fall. The statue of Herodotus
Herodotus
in his hometown of Halicarnassus , modern Bodrum , Turkey.

Herodotus
Herodotus
wrote his _Histories_ in the Ionian dialect, yet he was born in Halicarnassus, which was a Dorian settlement. According to the _Suda_, Herodotus
Herodotus
learned the Ionian dialect as a boy living on the island of Samos , to which he had fled with his family from the oppressions of Lygdamis , tyrant of Halicarnassus and grandson of Artemisia I of Caria . The _Suda_ also informs us that Herodotus
Herodotus
later returned home to lead the revolt that eventually overthrew the tyrant. Due to recent discoveries of inscriptions at Halicarnassus dated to about Herodotus's time, we now know that the Ionic dialect was used in Halicarnassus in some official documents, so there is no need to assume (like the _Suda_) that he must have learned the dialect elsewhere. Further, the _Suda_ is the only source which we have for the role played by Herodotus
Herodotus
as the heroic liberator of his birthplace. That itself is a good reason to doubt such a romantic account.

EARLY TRAVELS

As Herodotus
Herodotus
himself reveals, Halicarnassus , though a Dorian city , had ended its close relations with its Dorian neighbours after an unseemly quarrel (I, 144), and it had helped pioneer Greek trade with Egypt (II, 178). It was, therefore, an outward-looking, international-minded port within the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
, and the historian’s family could well have had contacts in other countries under Persian rule, facilitating his travels and his researches.

Herodotus's eye-witness accounts indicate that he traveled in Egypt in association with Athenians, probably some time after 454 BC or possibly earlier, after an Athenian fleet had assisted the uprising against Persian rule in 460–454 BC. He probably traveled to Tyre next and then down the Euphrates
Euphrates
to Babylon
Babylon
. For some reason, possibly associated with local politics, he subsequently found himself unpopular in Halicarnassus, and some time around 447 BC, migrated to Periclean Athens – a city whose people and democratic institutions he openly admires (V, 78). Athens was also the place where he came to know the local topography (VI, 137; VIII, 52–5), as well as leading citizens such as the Alcmaeonids , a clan whose history features frequently in his writing.

According to Eusebius and Plutarch , Herodotus
Herodotus
was granted a financial reward by the Athenian assembly in recognition of his work. It is possible that he unsuccessfully applied for Athenian citizenship, a rare honour after 451 BC, requiring two separate votes by a well-attended assembly.

LATER LIFE

In 443 BC or shortly afterwards, he migrated to Thurium as part of an Athenian-sponsored colony. Aristotle
Aristotle
refers to a version of _The Histories_ written by “ Herodotus
Herodotus
of Thurium”, and indeed some passages in the _Histories_ have been interpreted as proof that he wrote about southern Italy from personal experience there (IV, 15,99; VI, 127). Intimate knowledge of some events in the first years of the Peloponnesian War
Peloponnesian War
(VI, 91; VII, 133, 233; IX, 73) indicate that he might have returned to Athens, in which case it is possible that he died there during an outbreak of the plague. Possibly he died in Macedonia instead, after obtaining the patronage of the court there; or else he died back in Thurium. There is nothing in the _Histories_ that can be dated to later than 430 BC with any certainty, and it is generally assumed that he died not long afterwards, possibly before his sixtieth year.

AUTHOR AND ORATOR

Herodotus
Herodotus
would have made his researches known to the larger world through oral recitations to a public crowd. John Marincola writes in his introduction to the Penguin edition of _The Histories_ that there are certain identifiable pieces in the early books of Herodotus’ work which could be labeled as “performance pieces”. These portions of the research seem independent and “almost detachable”, so that they might have been set aside by the author for the purposes of an oral performance. The intellectual matrix of the 5th century, Marincola suggests, comprised many oral performances in which philosophers would dramatically recite such detachable pieces of their work. The idea was to criticize previous arguments on a topic and emphatically and enthusiastically insert their own in order to win over the audience.

It was conventional in Herodotus’s day for authors to ‘publish’ their works by reciting them at popular festivals. According to Lucian , Herodotus
Herodotus
took his finished work straight from Anatolia
Anatolia
to the Olympic Games and read the entire _Histories_ to the assembled spectators in one sitting, receiving rapturous applause at the end of it. According to a very different account by an ancient grammarian, Herodotus
Herodotus
refused to begin reading his work at the festival of Olympia until some clouds offered him a bit of shade – by which time the assembly had dispersed. (Hence the proverbial expression ‘_Herodotus and his shade_’ to describe someone who misses an opportunity through delay.) Herodotus’s recitation at Olympia was a favourite theme among ancient writers, and there is another interesting variation on the story to be found in the _Suda_: that of Photius and Tzetzes , in which a young Thucydides happened to be in the assembly with his father, and burst into tears during the recital. Herodotus
Herodotus
observed prophetically to the boy’s father, “Your son’s soul yearns for knowledge.”

Eventually, Thucydides and Herodotus
Herodotus
became close enough for both to be interred in Thucydides’ tomb in Athens. Such at least was the opinion of Marcellinus in his _Life of Thucydides_. According to the _ Suda
Suda
_, he was buried in Macedonian Pella and in the agora in Thurium .

RELIABILITY

_ Dedication
Dedication
in the Histories_, translated into Latin by Lorenzo Valla , Venice 1494

_The Histories_ were occasionally criticized in antiquity, but modern historians and philosophers generally take a positive view. Despite the controversy, Herodotus
Herodotus
still serves as the primary, and often only, source for events in the Greek world, Persian Empire, and the region generally in the two centuries leading up until his own day. Herodotus, like many ancient historians, preferred an element of show to purely analytic history, aiming to give pleasure with "exciting events, great dramas, bizarre exotica." As such, certain passages have been the subject of controversy and even some doubt, both in antiquity and today.

The accuracy of the works of Herodotus
Herodotus
has been controversial since his own era. Cicero
Cicero
Aristotle
Aristotle
, Josephus
Josephus
, Duris of Samos , Harpocration and Plutarch all commented on this controversy. Generally, however, he was regarded as reliable in antiquity, and is especially so today. Many scholars, ancient and modern, routinely cite Herodotus
Herodotus
(e.g., Aubin, A. H. L. Heeren , Davidson, Cheikh Anta Diop , Poe, Welsby, Celenko, Volney, Pierre Montet , Bernal, Jackson, DuBois, Strabo
Strabo
). Many of these scholars (Welsby, Heeren, Aubin, Diop, etc.) explicitly mention the reliability of Herodotus's work and demonstrate corroboration of Herodotus's writings by modern scholars. A. H. L. Heeren quoted Herodotus
Herodotus
throughout his work and provided corroboration by scholars regarding several passages (source of the Nile, location of Meroe, etc.). To further his work on the Egyptians and Assyrians, Aubin uses Herodotus's accounts in various passages and defends Herodotus's position. Aubin said that Herodotus
Herodotus
was "the author of the first important narrative history of the world". Diop provides several examples (the inundations of the Nile) which, he argues, support his view that Herodotus
Herodotus
was "quite scrupulous, objective, scientific for his time." Diop argues that Herodotus "always distinguishes carefully between what he has seen and what he has been told." Diop also notes that Strabo
Strabo
corroborated Herodotus's ideas about the Black Egyptians, Ethiopians, and Colchians. Reconstruction of the Oikoumene (inhabited world), ancient map based on Herodotus, c. 450 BC

EGYPT

The reliability of Herodotus
Herodotus
is sometimes criticized when writing about Egypt. Alan B. Lloyd argues that, as a historical document, the writings of Herodotus
Herodotus
are seriously defective, and that he was working from "inadequate sources". Nielsen writes: "Though we cannot entirely rule out the possibility of Herodotus
Herodotus
having been in Egypt, it must be said that his narrative bears little witness to it." German historian Detlev Fehling questions whether Herodotus
Herodotus
ever traveled up the Nile
Nile
River, and considers doubtful almost everything that he says about Egypt and Ethiopia. Fehling states that "there is not the slightest bit of history behind the whole story" about the claim of Herodotus
Herodotus
that Pharaoh Sesostris
Sesostris
campaigned in Europe, and that he left a colony in Colchia.

SCIENCE

Gold dust and nuggets

Herodotus
Herodotus
provides much information about the nature of the world and the status of science during his lifetime, often engaging in private speculation. For example, he reports that the annual flooding of the Nile
Nile
was said to be the result of melting snows far to the south, and he comments that he cannot understand how there can be snow in Africa, the hottest part of the known world, offering an elaborate explanation based on the way that desert winds affect the passage of the Sun over this part of the world (2:18ff). He also passes on reports from Phoenician sailors that, while circumnavigating Africa
Africa
, they "saw the sun on the right side while sailing westwards". Owing to this brief mention, which is included almost as an afterthought, it has been argued that Africa
Africa
was indeed circumnavigated by ancient seafarers, for this is precisely where the sun ought to have been. His accounts of India are among the oldest records of Indian civilization by an outsider.

Discoveries made since the end of the 19th century have generally added to Herodotus's credibility. He described Gelonus , located in Scythia
Scythia
, as a city thousands of times larger than Troy
Troy
; this was widely disbelieved until it was rediscovered in 1975. The archaeological study of the now-submerged ancient Egyptian city of Heracleion and the recovery of the so-called "Naucratis stela" give credibility to Herodotus's previously unsupported claim that Heracleion was founded during the Egyptian New Kingdom
New Kingdom
. _ Croesus Receiving Tribute from a Lydian Peasant_, by Claude Vignon
Claude Vignon

After journeys to India and Pakistan, French ethnologist Michel Peissel claimed to have discovered an animal species that may illuminate one of the most bizarre passages in Herodotus's Histories. In Book 3, passages 102 to 105, Herodotus
Herodotus
reports that a species of fox-sized, furry "ants " lives in one of the far eastern, Indian provinces of the Persian Empire
Persian Empire
. This region, he reports, is a sandy desert, and the sand there contains a wealth of fine gold dust. These giant ants, according to Herodotus, would often unearth the gold dust when digging their mounds and tunnels, and the people living in this province would then collect the precious dust. Peissel reports that, in an isolated region of northern Pakistan on the Deosai Plateau in Gilgit–Baltistan province, there is a species of marmot – the Himalayan marmot , a type of burrowing squirrel – that may have been what Herodotus
Herodotus
called giant ants. The ground of the Deosai Plateau is rich in gold dust, much like the province that Herodotus
Herodotus
describes. According to Peissel, he interviewed the Minaro tribal people who live in the Deosai Plateau, and they have confirmed that they have, for generations, been collecting the gold dust that the marmots bring to the surface when they are digging their underground burrows. Later authors such as Pliny the Elder mentioned this story in the gold mining section of his _ Naturalis Historia _. The Himalayan marmot

Peissel offers the theory that Herodotus
Herodotus
may have confused the old Persian word for "marmot" with the word for "mountain ant". Research suggests that Herodotus
Herodotus
probably did not know any Persian (or any other language except his native Greek) and was forced to rely on many local translators when travelling in the vast multilingual Persian Empire. Herodotus
Herodotus
did not claim to have personally seen the creatures which he described. Herodotus
Herodotus
did, though, follow up in passage 105 of Book 3 with the claim that the "ants" are said to chase and devour full-grown camels.

ACCUSATIONS OF BIAS

Some "calumnious fictions" were written about Herodotus
Herodotus
in a work titled _ On the Malice of Herodotus _ by Plutarch , a Chaeronean by birth, (or it might have been a Pseudo- Plutarch , in this case "a great collector of slanders"), including the allegation that the historian was prejudiced against Thebes because the authorities there had denied him permission to set up a school. Similarly, in a _Corinthian Oration_, Dio Chrysostom (or yet another pseudonymous author) accused the historian of prejudice against Corinth , sourcing it in personal bitterness over financial disappointments – an account also given by Marcellinus in his _Life of Thucydides_. In fact, Herodotus
Herodotus
was in the habit of seeking out information from empowered sources within communities, such as aristocrats and priests, and this also occurred at an international level, with Periclean Athens becoming his principal source of information about events in Greece. As a result, his reports about Greek events are often coloured by Athenian bias against rival states – Thebes and Corinth in particular.

_The Histories_ were sometimes criticized in antiquity, but modern historians and philosophers take a more positive view of Herodotus's methodology, especially those searching for a paradigm of objective historical writing. A few modern scholars have argued that Herodotus exaggerated the extent of his travels and invented his sources, yet his reputation continues largely intact. Herodotus
Herodotus
is variously considered "father of comparative anthropology", "the father of ethnography", and "more modern than any other ancient historian in his approach to the ideal of total history".

HERODOTUS\'S USE OF SOURCES AND SENSE OF AUTHORITY

It is clear from the beginning of Book 1 of the _Histories_ that Herodotus
Herodotus
utilizes (or at least claims to utilize) various sources in his narrative. K.H. Waters relates that "Herodotos did not work from a purely Hellenic standpoint; indeed, he was accused by the patriotic but somewhat imperceptive Plutarch of being _philobarbaros_, a pro-barbarian or pro-foreigner."

Herodotus
Herodotus
will at times relate various accounts of the same story. For example, in Book 1 he mentions both the Phoenician and the Persian accounts of Io. However, Herodotus
Herodotus
will at time arbitrate between varying accounts: "I am not going to say that these events happened one way or the other. Rather, I will point out the man _who I know for a fact_ began the wrong-doing against the Greeks." Again, later, Herodotus
Herodotus
claims himself as an authority: "I know this is how it happened because I heard it from the Delphians myself."

Throughout his work, Herodotus
Herodotus
attempts to explain the actions of people. Speaking about the king, Solon the Athenian, Herodotus
Herodotus
states " sailed away on the pretext of seeing the world, _but it was really so that he could not be compelled to repeal any of the laws he had laid down_." Again, in the story about Croesus and his son's death, when speaking of Adrastus (the man who accidentally killed Croesus' son), Herodotus
Herodotus
states: "Adrastus ... _believing himself to be the most ill-fated man he had ever known_, cut his own throat over the grave."

While Herodotus
Herodotus
had not met these people whom he is discussing, he claims to understand their thoughts and intentions.

MODE OF EXPLANATION

Herodotus
Herodotus
writes with the purpose of _explaining_; that is, he discusses the reason for or cause of for an event. He lays this out in the proem: "This is the publication of the research of Herodotus
Herodotus
of Halicarnassus, so that the actions of people shall not fade with time, so that the great and admirable achievements of both Greeks
Greeks
and barbarians shall not go unrenowned, and, among other things, _to set forth the reasons why they waged war on each other_."

This mode of explanation traces itself all the way back to Homer, who opened the _Iliad_ by asking: _Which of the immortals set these two at each other's throats?_ _Apollo,_ _Zeus’ son and Leto’s, offended_ _by the warlord. Agamemnon had dishonored_ _Chryses, Apollo's priest, so the god_ _struck the Greek camp with plague,_ _and the soldiers were dying of it._

Both Homer
Homer
and Herodotus
Herodotus
begin with a question of causality. In Homer's case, "_who set these two at each other's throats?_" In Herodotus' case, "_Why did the Greeks
Greeks
and barbarians go to war with each other?_"

Herodotus' means of explanation does not necessarily posit a simple cause; rather, his explanations cover a host of potential causes and emotions. It is notable, however, that "the obligations of gratitude and revenge are the fundamental human motives for Herodotus, just as ... they are the primary stimulus to the generation of narrative itself."

Some readers of Herodotus
Herodotus
believe that his habit of tying events back to personal motives signifies an inability to see broader and more abstract reasons for action. Gould argues to the contrary that this is likely because Herodotus
Herodotus
attempts to provide the rational reasons, as understood by his contemporaries, rather than providing more abstract reasons.

TYPES OF CAUSALITY

Herodotus
Herodotus
attributes cause to both divine and human agents. These are not perceived as mutually exclusive, but rather mutually interconnected. This is true of Greek thinking in general, at least from Homer
Homer
onward. Gould notes that invoking the supernatural in order to explain an event does not answer the question "why did this happen?" but rather "why did this happen to me?" By way of example, faulty craftsmanship is the human cause for a house collapsing. However, divine will is the reason that the house collapses at the particular moment when I am inside. It was the will of the gods that the house collapsed while a particular individual was within it, whereas it was the cause of man that the house had a weak structure and was prone to falling.

Some authors, including Geoffrey de Ste Croix and Mabel Lang, have argued that Fate, or the belief that "this is how it had to be," is Herodotus' ultimate understanding of causality. Herodotus' explanation that an event "was going to happen" maps well on to Aristotelean and Homeric means of expression. The idea of "it was going to happen" reveals a "tragic discovery" associated with fifth-century drama. This tragic discovery can be seen in Homer's, _ Iliad
Iliad
_ as well.

John Gould argues that Herodotus
Herodotus
should be understood as falling in a long line of story-tellers, rather than thinking of his means of explanation as a "philosophy of history" or "simple causality". Thus, according to Gould, Herodotus' means of explanation is a mode of story-telling and narration that has been passed down from generations prior:

Herodotus' sense of what was 'going to happen' is not the language of one who holds a theory of historical necessity, who sees the whole of human experience as constrained by inevitability and without room for human choice or human responsibility, diminished and belittled by forces too large for comprehension or resistance; it is rather the traditional language of a teller of tales whose tale is structured by his awareness of the shape it must have and who presents human experience on the model of the narrative patterns that are built into his stories; the narrative impulse itself, the impulse towards 'closure' and the sense of an ending, is retrojected to become 'explanation'.

HERODOTUS AND MYTH

Although Herodotus
Herodotus
considered his "inquiries" a serious pursuit of knowledge, he was not above relating entertaining tales derived from the collective body of myth, but he did so judiciously with regard for his historical method , by corroborating the stories through enquiry and testing their probability. While the gods never make personal appearances in his account of human events, Herodotus
Herodotus
states emphatically that "many things prove to me that the gods take part in the affairs of man" (IX, 100).

In Book One, passages 23 and 24, Herodotus
Herodotus
relates the story of Arion , the renowned harp player, "second to no man living at that time," who was saved by a dolphin. Herodotus
Herodotus
prefaces the story by noting that "a very wonderful thing is said to have happened," and alleges its veracity by adding that the "Corinthians and the Lesbians agree in their account of the matter." Having become very rich while at the court of Periander, Arion
Arion
conceived a desire to sail to Italy and Sicily. He hired a vessel crewed by Corinthians, whom he felt he could trust, but the sailors plotted to throw him overboard and seize his wealth. Arion
Arion
discovered the plot and begged for his life, but the crew gave him two options: that either he kill himself on the spot or jump ship and fend for himself in the sea. Arion
Arion
flung himself into the water, and a dolphin carried him to shore.

Herodotus
Herodotus
clearly writes as both historian and teller of tales. Indeed, Herodotus
Herodotus
takes a fluid position between the artistic story-weaving of Homer
Homer
and the rational data-accounting of later historians. John Herrington has developed a helpful metaphor for describing Herodotus' dynamic position in the history of Western art and thought – Herodotus
Herodotus
as centaur:

The human forepart of the animal ... is the urbane and responsible classical historian; the body indissolubly united to it is something out of the faraway mountains, out of an older, freer and wilder realm where our conventions have no force.

Herodotus
Herodotus
is neither a mere gatherer of data nor a simple teller of tales – he is both. While Herodotus
Herodotus
is certainly concerned with giving accurate accounts of events, this does not preclude for him the insertion of powerful mythological elements into his narrative, elements which will aid him in expressing the truth of matters under his study. Thus to understand what Herodotus
Herodotus
is doing in the _Histories_, we must not impose strict demarcations between the man as mythologist and the man as historian, or between the work as myth and the work as history. As James Romm has written, Herodotus
Herodotus
worked under a common ancient Greek cultural assumption that the way events are remembered and retold (e.g. in myths or legends) produces a valid kind of understanding, even when this retelling is not entirely factual. For Herodotus, then, it takes both myth and history to produce truthful understanding.

SEE ALSO

* Histories (Herodotus) * Historiography (the history of history and historians) * Thucydides , ancient Greek historian who is also often said to be "the father of history" * Strabo
Strabo
* _ Geographica _ * Pliny the Elder * _ Naturalis Historia _ * The Padaei * Pseudo-Herodotus * Battle of Thermopylae: Herodotus
Herodotus
and other Sources * The Herodotus Machine

CRITICAL EDITIONS

* C. Hude (ed.) _Herodoti Historiae. Tomvs prior: Libros I-IV continens._ (Oxford 1908) * C. Hude (ed.) _Herodoti Historiae. Tomvs alter: Libri V-IX continens._ (Oxford 1908) * H. B. Rosén (ed.) _Herodoti Historiae. Vol. I: Libros I-IV continens._ (Leipzig 1987) * H. B. Rosén (ed.) _Herodoti Historiae. Vol. II: Libros V-IX continens indicibus criticis adiectis_ (Stuttgart 1997) * N. G. Wilson (ed.) _Herodoti Historiae. Tomvs prior: Libros I-IV continens._ (Oxford 2015) * N. G. Wilson (ed.) _Herodoti Historiae. Tomvs alter: Libri V-IX continens._ (Oxford 2015)

TRANSLATIONS

Several English translations of _The Histories of Herodotus_ are readily available in multiple editions. The most readily available are those translated by:

* George Rawlinson , translation 1858–1860. Public domain; many editions available, although Everyman Library and Wordsworth Classics editions are the most common ones still in print.

* A. D. Godley 1920; revised 1926. Reprinted 1931, 1946, 1960, 1966, 1975, 1981, 1990, 1996, 1999, 2004. Available in four volumes from Loeb Classical Library , Harvard University Press . ISBN 0-674-99130-3 Printed with Greek on the left and English on the right:

* A. D. Godley _ Herodotus
Herodotus
: The Persian Wars : Volume I : Books 1–2_ (Cambridge, MA 1920) * A. D. Godley _ Herodotus
Herodotus
: The Persian Wars : Volume II : Books 3–4_ (Cambridge, MA 1921) * A. D. Godley _ Herodotus
Herodotus
: The Persian Wars : Volume III : Books 5–7_ (Cambridge, MA 1922) * A. D. Godley _ Herodotus
Herodotus
: The Persian Wars : Volume IV : Books 8–9_ (Cambridge, MA 1925)

* Aubrey de Sélincourt , originally 1954; revised by John Marincola in 1996. Several editions from Penguin Books available. * David Grene , Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985. * Robin Waterfield , with an Introduction and Notes by Carolyn Dewald, Oxford World Classics, 1997. ISBN 978-0-19-953566-8 * Strassler, Robert B., (ed.), and Purvis, Andrea L. (trans.), _The Landmark Herodotus,_ Pantheon, 2007. ISBN 978-0-375-42109-9 with adequate ancillary information. * _The Histories of Herodotus
Herodotus
Interlinear English Translation_ by Heinrich Stein (ed.) and George Macaulay (trans.), Lighthouse Digital Publishing, 2013. * Herodotus. _Herodotus: The Histories: The Complete Translation, Backgrounds, Commentaries_. Translated by Walter Blanco. Edited by Jennifer Tolbert Roberts. New York: W. W. Norton -webkit-column-width: 24em; column-width: 24em; list-style-type: lower-alpha;">

* ^ “In the scheme and plan of his work, in the arrangement and order of its parts, in the tone and character of the thoughts, in ten thousand little expressions and words, the Homeric student appears.”

* ^ See Lucian
Lucian
of Samosata, who went as far as to deny him a place among the famous on the Island of the Blessed in _Verae Historiae_. * ^ Some regard his works as being at least partly unreliable. Fehling writes of "a problem recognized by everybody", namely that Herodotus
Herodotus
frequently cannot be taken at face value. * ^ Boedeker comments on Herodotus' use of literary devices. * ^ For Detlev Fehling, the sources are simply not credible that Herodotus
Herodotus
claims for many stories that he reports. Persian and Egyptian informants tell stories to Herodotus
Herodotus
that dovetail neatly into Greek myths and literature, yet show no signs of knowing their own traditions. For Fehling, the only credible explanation is that Herodotus
Herodotus
invented these sources, and that the stories themselves were concocted by Herodotus
Herodotus
himself. * ^ Kenton L. Sparks writes, "In antiquity, Herodotus
Herodotus
had acquired the reputation of being unreliable, biased, parsimonious in his praise of heroes, and mendacious". * ^ Cicero
Cicero
(_On the Laws_ I.5) said that the works of Herodotus were full of legends or "fables". * ^ Duris of Samos called Herodotus
Herodotus
a myth-monger. * ^ Harpocration wrote a book on "the lies of Herodotus". * ^ such as on the Nile
Nile
Valley * ^ Welsby said that "archaeology graphically confirms Herodotus' observations." * ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
claimed to have visited Babylon
Babylon
. The absence of any mention of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Babylon
in his work has attracted further attacks on his credibility. In response, Dalley has proposed that the Hanging Gardens may have been in Ninevah rather than in Babylon. * ^ Fehling concludes that the works of Herodotus
Herodotus
are intended as fiction. Boedeker concurs that much of the content of the works of Herodotus
Herodotus
are literary devices. * ^ For example, they were criticized for inaccuracy by Lucian
Lucian
of Samosata, who attacked Herodotus
Herodotus
as a liar in _Verae Historiae_ and went as far as to deny him a place among the famous on the Island of the Blessed

REFERENCES

* ^ T. James Luce, _The Greek Historians_, 2002, p. 26. * ^ _ New Oxford American Dictionary _, "Herodotos", Oxford University Press * ^ Burn (1972) , p. 23, citing Dionysius _On Thucydides_ * ^ Burn (1972) , p. 27 * ^ _A_ _B_ Murray (1986) , p. 188 * ^ Herodotus, _Histories _ 2.143, 6.137 * ^ _Preparation of the Gospel_, X, 3 * ^ Immerwahr (1985) , pp. 430, 440 * ^ Immerwahr (1985) , p. 431 * ^ Burn (1972) , pp. 22–23 * ^ Immerwahr (1985) , p. 430 * ^ Immerwahr (1985) , pp. 427, 432 * ^ Richard Jebb (ed), _Antigone_, Cambridge University Press, 1976, pp 181-182, n.904-920 * ^ Rawlinson (1859) , p. 6 * ^ Murray (1986) , pp. 190–191 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Burn (1972) , p. 10 * ^ David Pipes. "Herodotus: Father of History, Father of Lies". Retrieved 16 November 2009. Check date values in: access-date= (help ) * ^ Rawlinson (1859) * ^ Burn (1972) , p. 13 * ^ Lawrence A. Tritle. (2004). _The Peloponnesian War_. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp 147-148 * ^ John Hart. (1982). _ Herodotus
Herodotus
and Greek History_. Taylor and Francis. p 174 * ^ _A_ _B_ Murray (1986) , p. 191 * ^ Waterfield, Robin (trans.) and Dewald, Carolyn (ed.). (1998). _The Histories by Herodotus_. University of Oxford Press. “Introduction”, p xviii * ^ Richard C. Jebb, _The Genius of Sophocles_, section 7 * ^ Burn (1972) , p. 7 * ^ Rawlinson (1859) , p. 1 * ^ Rawlinson (1859) , Introduction * ^ Burn (1972) , Introduction * ^ Dandamaev, M. A. (1989). _A Political History of the Achaemenid Empire_. BRILL. p. 153. ISBN 978-9004091726 . The ‘Father of History’, Herodotus, was born at Halicarnassus, and before his emigration to mainland Greece was a subject of the Persian empire. * ^ Kia, Mehrdad (2016). _The Persian Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia_. ABC-CLIO. p. 161. ISBN 978-1610693912 . At the time of Herodotus’ birth southwestern Asia Minor, including Halicarnassus, was under Persian Achaemenid rule. * ^ Burn (1972) , p. 11 * ^ Rawlinson (1859) , p. 11 * ^ Eusebius _Chron. Can. Pars._ II p 339, 01.83.4, cited by Rawlinson (1859) , Introduction * ^ Plutarch _De Malign. Herod._ II p 862 A, cited by Rawlinson (1859) , Introduction * ^ _The Histories_. Introduction and Notes by John Marincola; Trans. by Aubrey de Selincourt. Penguin Books. 2003. pp. xii. * ^ Rawlinson (1859) , p. 14 * ^ Montfaucon’s _Bibliothec. Coisl. Cod._ clxxvii p 609, cited by Rawlinson (1859) , p. 14 * ^ Photius _Bibliothec. Cod._ lx p 59, cited by Rawlinson (1859) , p. 15 * ^ Tzetzes _Chil._ 1.19, cited by Rawlinson (1859) , p. 15 * ^ Marcellinus, _in Vita. Thucyd._ p ix, cited by Rawlinson (1859) , p. 25 * ^ Rawlinson (1859) , p. 25 * ^ _A_ _B_ Murray (1986) , p. 189 * ^ Mikalson (2003) , pp. 198–200 * ^ Fehling (1994) , p. 2 * ^ _A_ _B_ Jones (1996) * ^ _A_ _B_ Boedeker (2000) , pp. 101–102 * ^ Saltzman (2010) * ^ Archambault (2002) , p. 171 * ^ Farley (2010) , p. 21 * ^ _A_ _B_ Lloyd (1993) , p. 4 * ^ _A_ _B_ Nielsen (1997) , pp. 42–43 * ^ _A_ _B_ Baragwanath & de Bakker (2010) , p. 19 * ^ _A_ _B_ Fehling (1994) , p. 13 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Marincola (2001) , p. 34 * ^ _A_ _B_ Dalley (2003) * ^ _A_ _B_ Dalley (2013) * ^ Fehling (1989) , pp. 4, 53–54 * ^ Roberts (2011) , p. 2 * ^ Marincola (2001) , p. 59 * ^ Cameron (2004) , p. 156 * ^ Sparks (1998) , p. 58 * ^ Asheri, Lloyd & Corcella (2007) * ^ Welsby (1996) , p. 40 * ^ Heeren (1838) , pp. 13, 379, 422–424 * ^ Aubin (2002) , pp. 94–96, 100–102, 118–121, 141–144, 328, 336 * ^ Diop (1981) , p. 1 * ^ Diop (1974) , p. 2 * ^ Fehling (1994) , pp. 4–6 * ^ The Indian Empire _ The Imperial Gazetteer of India _, 1909, v. 2, p. 272. * ^ "Was the Ramayana actually set in and around today\'s Afghanistan?". * ^ _A_ _B_ Peissel (1984) * ^ Marlise Simons (25 November 1996). "Himalayas offer clue to legend of gold-digging \'ants\'". The New York Times . Retrieved 23 February 2016. * ^ Rawlinson (1859) , pp. 13–14 * ^ " Dio Chrysostom \'\'Orat. xxxvii, p11". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 13 September 2012. * ^ Marcellinus, _Life of Thucydides_ * ^ Burn (1972) , pp. 8, 9, 32–34 * ^ Fehling (1989) * ^ Waters (1985) , p. 3 * ^ Blanco (2013) , pp. 5–6, §1.1, 1.5 * ^ Blanco (2013) , p. 6, §1.5 * ^ Blanco (2013) , p. 9, §1.20 * ^ Blanco (2013) , p. 12, §1.29 * ^ Blanco (2013) , p. 17, §1.45, ¶2 * ^ Blanco (2013) , p. 5 * ^ Gould (1989) , p. 64 * ^ Homer, _Iliad_, trans. Stanley Lombardo (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company_,_ 1997): 1, Bk. 1, lines 9-16. * ^ Gould (1989) , p. 65 * ^ Gould (1989) , p. 67 * ^ Gould (1989) , pp. 67–70 * ^ Gould (1989) , p. 71 * ^ Gould (1989) , pp. 72–73 * ^ Gould (1989) , pp. 75–76 * ^ Gould (1989) , pp. 76–78 * ^ Gould (1989) , pp. 77–78 * ^ Wardman (1960) * ^ _Histories_ 1.23–24. * ^ Romm (1998) , p. 8 * ^ Romm (1998) , p. 6

SOURCES

* Archambault, Paul (2002). " Herodotus
Herodotus
(c. 480–c. 420)". In Alba della Fazia Amoia & Bettina Liebowitz Knapp. _Multicultural Writers from Antiquity to 1945: a Bio-bibliographical Sourcebook_. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 168–172. ISBN 9780313306877 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * Asheri, David; Lloyd, Alan; Corcella, Aldo (2007). _A Commentary on Herodotus, Books 1-4_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814956-9 . * Aubin, Henry (2002). _The Rescue of Jerusalem_. New York, NY: Soho Press. ISBN 1-56947-275-0 . * Baragwanath, Emily; de Bakker, Mathieu (2010). _Herodotus_. Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-980286-9 . * Blanco, Walter (2013). _The Histories_. Herodotus. New York, NY: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-93397-0 . * Boedeker, Deborah (2000). "Herodotus' genre(s)". In Mary Depew & Dirk Obbink. _Matrices of Genre: Authors, Canons, and Society_. Harvard University Press. pp. 97–114. ISBN 9780674034204 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * Burn, A. R. (1972). _Herodotus: The Histories_. Penguin Classics .

* Cameron, Alan (2004). _Greek Mythography in the Roman World_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-803821-4 . * Dalley, S. (2003). "Why did Herodotus
Herodotus
not mention the Hanging Gardens of Babylon?". In P. Derow & R. Parker. _ Herodotus
Herodotus
and his World_. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 171–189. ISBN 0-19-925374-9 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * Dalley, S. (2013). _The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon: an Elusive World Wonder Traced_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966226-5 . * Diop, Cheikh Anta (1974). _The African Origin of Civilization_. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books. ISBN 1-55652-072-7 . * Diop, Cheikh Anta (1981). _Civilization or Barbarism_. Chicago, IL: Lawrence Hill Books. ISBN 1-55652-048-4 . * Farley, David G. (2010). _Modernist Travel Writing: Intellectuals Abroad_. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-7228-7 . * Fehling, Detlev (1989) . _Herodotos and His 'Sources': Citation, Invention, and Narrative Art_. Arca Classical and Medieval Texts, Papers and Monographs. 21. Translated from the German by J. G. Howie. Leeds: Francis Cairns. ISBN 978-0-90520-570-0 . * Fehling, Detlev (1994). "The art of Herodotus
Herodotus
and the margins of the world". In Z. R. W. M. von Martels. _Travel Fact and Travel Fiction: Studies on Fiction, Literary Tradition, Scholarly Discovery, and Observation in Travel Writing_. Brill's studies in intellectual history. 55. Leiden: Brill. pp. 1–15. ISBN 9789004101128 . * Gould, John (1989). _Herodotus_. Historians on historians. London: George Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 978-0-297-79339-7 . * Heeren, A. H. L. (1838). _Historical Researches into the Politics, Intercourse, and Trade of the Carthaginians, Ethiopians, and Egyptians_. Oxford: D. A. Talboys. ASIN B003B3P1Y8 . * Immerwahr, Henry R. (1985). "Herodotus". In P. E. Easterling & B. M. W. Knox. _Greek Literature_. The Cambridge History of Classical Greek Literature. 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-21042-9 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * Jones, C. P. (1996). "ἔθνος and γένος in Herodotus". _ The Classical Quarterly _. new series. 46 (2): 315–320. doi :10.1093/cq/46.2.315 . * Lloyd, Alan B. (1993). _Herodotus, Book II_. Études préliminaires aux religions orientales dans l'Empire romain. 43. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-07737-9 . * Marincola, John (2001). _Greek Historians_. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-922501-9 . * Mikalson, Jon D. (2003). _ Herodotus
Herodotus
and Religion in the Persian Wars_. Chapel Hill, NC: Univ of North Carolina Press. ISBN 9780807827987 . * Murray, Oswyn (1986). "Greek historians". In John Boardman, Jasper Griffin & Oswyn Murray. _The Oxford History of the Classical World_. Oxford University Press. pp. 186–203. ISBN 978-0-19-872112-3 . CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link ) * Nielsen, Flemming A. J. (1997). _The Tragedy in History: Herodotus and the Deuteronomistic History_. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-85075-688-0 . * Peissel, Michel (1984). _The Ants' Gold: The Discovery of the Greek El Dorado in the Himalayas_. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-272514-9 . * Rawlinson, George (1859). _The History of Herodotus_. 1. New York: D. Appleton and Company. * Roberts, Jennifer T. (2011). _Herodotus: a Very Short Introduction_. OXford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-957599-2 . * Romm, James (1998). _Herodotus_. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07229-5 . * Saltzman, Joe (2010). " Herodotus
Herodotus
as an ancient journalist: reimagining antiquity\'s historians as journalists". _The IJPC Journal _. 2: 153–185. * Sparks, Kenton L. (1998). _Ethnicity and Identity in Ancient Israel: Prolegomena to the Study of Ethnic Sentiments and their Expression in the Hebrew Bible_. Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns. ISBN 978-1-57506-033-0 . * Wardman, A. E. (1960). "Myth in Greek historiography". _Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte _. 9 (4): 403–413. JSTOR 4434671 . * Waters, K. H. (1985). _Herodotos the Historian: His Problems, Methods and Originality_. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-80611-928-1 . * Welsby, Derek (1996). _The Kingdom of Kush_. London: British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-0986-X .

FURTHER READING

* Bakker, Egbert J. ; de Jong, Irene J.F.; van Wees, Hans, eds. (2002). _Brill's companion to Herodotus_. Leiden: E.J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-12060-2 . * Baragwanath, Emily (2010). _Motivation and Narrative in Herodotus_. Oxford Classical Monographs. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-964550-3 . * De Selincourt, Aubrey (1962). _The World of Herodotus_. London: Secker and Warburg. * Dewald, Carolyn; Marincola, John, eds. (2006). _The Cambridge companion to Herodotus_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-83001-X . * Evans, J.A.S. (2006). _The beginnings of history: Herodotus
Herodotus
and the Persian Wars_. Campbellville, Ont.: Edgar Kent. ISBN 0-88866-652-7 . * Evans, J.A.S. (1982). _Herodotus_. Boston: Twayne. ISBN 0-8057-6488-7 . * Evans, J.A.S. (1991). _Herodotus, explorer of the past: three essays_. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-06871-2 . * Flory, Stewart (1987). _The archaic smile of Herodotus_. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1827-4 . * Fornara, Charles W. (1971). _Herodotus: An Interpretative Essay_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. * Giessen, Hans W. Giessen (2010). _Mythos Marathon. Von Herodot über Bréal bis zur Gegenwart_. Landau: Verlag Empirische Pädagogik (= Landauer Schriften zur Kommunikations- und Kulturwissenschaft. Band 17). ISBN 978-3-941320-46-8 . * Gould, John (1989). _Herodotus_. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-02855-5 . * Harrington, John W. (1973). _To see a world_. Saint Louis: G.V. Mosby Co. ISBN 0-8016-2058-9 . * Hartog, François (2000). "The Invention of History: The Pre-History of a Concept from Homer
Homer
to Herodotus". _History and Theory_. 39 (3): 384–395. doi :10.1111/0018-2656.00137 . * Hartog, François (1988). _The mirror of Herodotus: the representation of the other in the writing of history_. Janet Lloyd, trans. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05487-3 . * How, Walter W.; Wells, Joseph, eds. (1912). _A Commentary on Herodotus_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. * Hunter, Virginia (1982). _Past and process in Herodotus
Herodotus
and Thucydides_. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-03556-3 . * Immerwahr, H. (1966). _Form and Thought in Herodotus_. Cleveland: Case Western Reserve University Press. * Kapuściński, Ryszard (2007). _Travels with Herodotus_. Klara Glowczewska, trans. New York: Knopf. ISBN 978-1-4000-4338-5 . * Lateiner, Donald (1989). _The historical method of Herodotus_. Toronto: Toronto University Press. ISBN 0-8020-5793-4 . * Pitcher, Luke (2009). _Writing Ancient History: An Introduction to Classical Historiography_. New York: I.B. Taurus & Co Ltd. * Marozzi, Justin (2008). _The way of Herodotus: travels with the man who invented history_. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-306-81621-5 . * Momigliano, Arnaldo (1990). _The classical foundations of modern historiography_. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06890-4 . * Myres, John L. (1971). _ Herodotus
Herodotus
: father of history_. Chicago: Henry Regnrey. ISBN 0-19-924021-3 . * Pritchett, W. Kendrick (1993). _The liar school of Herodotus_. Amsterdam: Gieben. ISBN 90-5063-088-X . * Selden, Daniel (1999). "Cambyses' Madness, or the Reason of History". _Materiali e discussioni per l'analisi dei testi classici_. 42: 33–63. * Thomas, Rosalind (2000). _ Herodotus
Herodotus
in context: ethnography, science and the art of persuasion_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-66259-1 . * Waters, K.H. (1985). _ Herodotus
Herodotus
the Historian: His Problems, Methods and Originality_. Beckenham: Croom Helm Ltd.

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