HERMAN DIEDRICH SPöRING JR. (1733–1771) was a Finnish explorer ,
draughtsman , botanist and a naturalist .
* 1 Early life * 2 Voyage to the Pacific * 3 Achievements and commemorations * 4 References
He was born in 1733 in the Finnish town of
Åbo , at that time the
major Finnish city and administrative center under the Kingdom of
Sometime around 1755, at the age of 22 he went to
In 1768 Spöring was enlisted as a clerk, assistant naturalist and
personal secretary in the entourage of
The other noted naturalist on the voyage was Daniel Solander, Spöring's former employer who had recommended Spöring for the post when he himself signed up. Solander was a former student and protégé of the noted Swedish botanist and founder of modern taxonomy , Carl Linnaeus .
Spöring was also a skilled instrument maker, and in addition to his cataloging duties was assigned the maintenance and upkeep of the ship's scientific equipment during the voyage.
VOYAGE TO THE PACIFIC
The expedition left England in 1768, aboard
HM Bark Endeavour under
the command of R.N. Lt.
James Cook , bound for the Society Islands
Leaving the Society Islands, the expedition sailed southwards,
The expedition continued westwards, and in 1770 the Endeavour
encountered the southeastern coastline of the Australian continent,
and became the first European vessel to have navigated the eastern
side of the continent. The expedition made first landfall at a site
Once repairs were made the expedition continued northwards to the East Indies port of Batavia (Jakarta). Until this point in the voyage, no crewmember or passenger had been lost to disease; however, the unhealthy conditions of the port and their new provisions would soon result in quite a few deaths, including that of Spöring himself. In 1771 on the return leg, Spöring died of dysentery complications related to food poisoning . He was buried at sea on January 24, 1771.
ACHIEVEMENTS AND COMMEMORATIONS
He has a commemorative statue dedicated to him in
In 1990, a rock taken from Pourewa (Spöring) Island was transported to Spöring's birthplace of Åbo, Finland, to be placed in a monument set up to commemorate his achievements and ties with New Zealand, as the first Finn to have landed there.
Amongst his achievements are the discovery and illustration of a number of hitherto-unknown Australian species. His colleagues and successors who studied his materials have recognised the accuracy and form of his drawings and annotations. His efforts, along with those of others on the voyage provided critical new materials for study, which allowed further advances in the historical development of the theory of evolution to be made.
* ^ Spöring Island and monument * ^ "Turku and the Spöring Memorial"
Links: ------ /wiki/Finland