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HEREFORDSHIRE (/ˈhɛrᵻfərdʃər/ ; abbreviated HEREFS. or HFDS.) is a historic English county in the West Midlands . It is a ceremonial county and a unitary non-metropolitan county and district, also named in legislation as the COUNTY OF HEREFORDSHIRE and governed by Herefordshire Council . It borders the English ceremonial counties of Shropshire
Shropshire
to the north, Worcestershire
Worcestershire
to the east, Gloucestershire to the south-east, and the Welsh preserved counties of Gwent to the south-west and Powys
Powys
to the west. The Welsh unitary county covering the part of Gwent next to Herefordshire
Herefordshire
is Monmouthshire
Monmouthshire
.

Hereford
Hereford
is a cathedral city and is the county town ; with a population of approximately 55,800 inhabitants it is also the largest settlement. The county is one of the most rural and sparsely populated in England, with a population density of 82/km² (212/sq mi). The land use is predominantly agricultural and the county is well known for its fruit and cider production, and the Hereford
Hereford
cattle breed.

CONTENTS

* 1 Constitution * 2 Physical geography * 3 History

* 4 Demographics

* 4.1 Population growth * 4.2 Ethnicity * 4.3 Travellers

* 5 Cities, towns and villages * 6 Economy * 7 Employment

* 8 Politics

* 8.1 Westminster Parliamentary * 8.2 Council

* 9 Education

* 10 Agriculture

* 10.1 Beef * 10.2 Fruit
Fruit
* 10.3 Dairy * 10.4 Potatoes

* 11 Emblems

* 11.1 Coat of arms
Coat of arms
* 11.2 County flower

* 12 Sport * 13 Places of interest

* 14 Transport

* 14.1 Road * 14.2 Railways * 14.3 Air * 14.4 Waterways

* 15 Notable people * 16 See also * 17 References * 18 External links

CONSTITUTION

From 1974 to 1998, Herefordshire
Herefordshire
was part of the former non-metropolitan county of Hereford and Worcester .

Herefordshire
Herefordshire
was reconstituted both as a new district (effective 19 July 1996) and as a new county (coextensive with the area of the aforementioned district) (effective 1 April 1998) by Statutory Instrument as defined in _The Hereford and Worcester (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996_. This Order established Herefordshire
Herefordshire
as a unitary authority on 1 April 1998, combining county and district functions into a single council. Herefordshire
Herefordshire
is also commonly called a _unitary district_, but this is not official nomenclature. Herefordshire
Herefordshire
is officially known as a unitary authority for local government purposes. It is governed by Herefordshire Council which was created in 1998 with the new unitary district that absorbed the previous administrative areas of Leominster District Council, South Herefordshire District Council, Hereford
Hereford
City Council, parts of Hereford- Worcester
Worcester
County Council, and parts of Malvern Hills District Council .

The Lieutenancies Act 1997 made Herefordshire
Herefordshire
a ceremonial county , covering the exact area of the unitary district. For Eurostat
Eurostat
purposes it is a NUTS 3 region (code UKG11) and is one of three counties that comprise the "Herefordshire, Worcestershire
Worcestershire
and Warwickshire" NUTS 2 region .

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

The River Wye
River Wye
near Ross-on-Wye .

The River Wye
River Wye
, which at 135 miles (217 km) is the fifth-longest in the United Kingdom, enters the county after briefly being its border with Powys
Powys
. It flows through both Hereford
Hereford
and Ross-on-Wye before returning to Wales. Leominster is situated on the River Lugg , a tributary of the Wye.

There are two Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty in the county. The Wye Valley is located in the river's valleys south of Hereford, while the Malvern Hills are in the east of the county, along its border with Worcestershire
Worcestershire
.

HISTORY

Main article: History of Herefordshire

Herefordshire
Herefordshire
is one of the 39 historic counties of England
England
.

In 1974 it was merged with neighbouring Worcestershire
Worcestershire
to form the Hereford and Worcester administrative county . Within this, Herefordshire
Herefordshire
was covered by the local government districts of South Herefordshire
Herefordshire
, Hereford
Hereford
, and part of Malvern Hills and Leominster districts. However, the county was dissolved in 1998, resulting in the return of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Worcestershire
Worcestershire
as counties.

The current ceremonial county and unitary district have broadly the same borders as the pre-1974 historic county.

DEMOGRAPHICS

POPULATION GROWTH

See also: List of settlements in Herefordshire by population

Herefordshire's growth rate has in recent decades been higher than the national average, with the population increasing by 14.4% between 1991 and 2011 – the population of England
England
as a whole increased by only 10.0%. However this has been from a lower base, with only Northumberland
Northumberland
and Cumbria
Cumbria
having lower population densities than Herefordshire.

YEAR POPULATION % CHANGE

1991 160,400

2001 174,871 9.0%

2011 183,477 4.9%

ETHNICITY

The population is White 98.2%, Asian 0.8%, Mixed 0.7%, Black 0.2%, Other 0.1%.

TRAVELLERS

Gypsies and Travellers have historically been Herefordshire's largest minority ethnic group. They are made up of three main groups:

* Romanichal or Romany "Gypsies" * Irish Travellers * New Travellers or New Age Travellers

Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers fall within the definition of a minority ethnic group under the Race Relations Amendment Act (2000) . They have contributed to the development of the county, for example through seasonal working in orchards.

CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES

Hereford
Hereford
Cathedral. Owing to its cathedral, Hereford
Hereford
is a city ; the only one in Herefordshire. Main articles: List of places in Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and List of settlements in Herefordshire by population See also: Category:Towns in Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Category:Villages in Herefordshire
Herefordshire

The major settlements in the county include Hereford
Hereford
, which is the county town and Herefordshire's only city , as well as the towns of Leominster , Ledbury , Ross-on-Wye , Kington and Bromyard .

ECONOMY

This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
at current basic prices published by the _Office for National Statistics_ with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.

YEAR REGIONAL GROSS VALUE ADDED AGRICULTURE INDUSTRY SERVICES

1995 1,622 218 567 836

2000 1,885 155 643 1,087

2003 2,216 185 708 1,323

^ includes hunting and forestry

^ includes energy and construction

^ includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured

^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding

Many well-known cider producers are based in Herefordshire. These include Weston's cider of Much Marcle , and Bulmer\'s cider, from Hereford, which produces the UK market leader Strongbow .

EMPLOYMENT

Most employment in Herefordshire
Herefordshire
is in agriculture, manufacturing and services. According to Herefordshire
Herefordshire
Council's online document "worklessness", 10% of people are unemployed in Herefordshire including out-of-work, homeless, ill and disabled and their carers. Cargill Meats and H. P. Bulmers are two of the largest private sector employers, with the Council and NHS being the largest public sector employers.

POLITICS

WESTMINSTER PARLIAMENTARY

Main article: List of Parliamentary constituencies in Herefordshire and Worcestershire
Worcestershire

There are two parliamentary constituencies in Herefordshire. As of January 2017 , Bill Wiggin represents North Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Jesse Norman represents Hereford
Hereford
and South Herefordshire . Both politicians are members of the Conservative Party .

COUNCIL

Main article: Herefordshire Council

The Council operates a cabinet-style council and is Conservative controlled. The Chairman is Councillor Brian Wilcox, the Cabinet Leader for Herefordshire
Herefordshire
is Councillor Tony Johnson.

The Cabinet Leader is appointed yearly by the full council of 53 councillors. The Cabinet Leader then picks their deputy and up to 8 other councillors to form the executive cabinet. Each cabinet member makes the decisions about the portfolio that they are allocated. Elections to the council are held every 4 years. Elections are conducted under the FPTP system with all 53 wards returning 1 councillor . Elections have been held in 2000 , 2003, 2007, 2011, and 2015 with the next election due in 2019.

The Herefordshire
Herefordshire
Youth Council has been running for 4 years; it is chaired by Amy Saunders.

EDUCATION

See also: List of schools in Herefordshire

Herefordshire
Herefordshire
has a comprehensive education system that also includes several independent schools. Most state secondary schools are for ages 11–16. Colleges of further and higher education in the county include Hereford
Hereford
College of Arts , Hereford
Hereford
College of Education , Hereford
Hereford
Sixth Form College , Herefordshire and Ludlow College and the Royal National College for the Blind .

AGRICULTURE

The agricultural economy has changed massively in recent years within the county. The county is on the western edge of England
England
which has been historically pastoral as opposed to the east which was more arable .

BEEF

Hereford
Hereford
cattle , such as this bull, originated in the county and are now bred throughout the world.

Probably Hereford's most famous export is its Hereford
Hereford
beef cattle . Herefords are docile but extremely hardy creatures and these attributes have led to their proliferation across the world, particularly the USA, South America and Australia. The breed is so gentle that a Hereford
Hereford
bull has been used as the mascot for Hereford United Football Club for many years, led around the club's Edgar Street ground before major matches.

FRUIT

The county is famous for its apple and pear orchards, and its cider. There are many orchards around the county but not as many as there once were.

In the last few years, soft fruits such as strawberries have become a new and rapidly expanding area of the agricultural economy of the county. One of the main reasons for this was the introduction of the polytunnel or French tunnel. This allows the strawberries to be grown for a far longer season and with a higher quality (with no blemishes from the rain). The strawberries are mainly picked by Eastern European workers who come over for the season and often earn more money, more than they could working in their own country and with the bonus, for many of them, of learning or improving their English. The polytunnels have been a major issue in the county, as some people see them as a "blot on the landscape".

Although some polytunnel sites are illegal, Herefordshire Council has turned a blind eye in the belief that agriculture must be allowed to innovate; otherwise it will stagnate and the county will suffer.

DAIRY

Previously, most farms in the county had dairy cattle . Due to the cost of investing in new equipment, long hours, BSE , foot-and-mouth disease and mainly falling milk prices, the county's milk production has drastically reduced, with only a few farms still in dairy farming.

POTATOES

As mentioned above, the county is historically pastoral. The soils are mostly clay, meaning that large scale potato production was very difficult, as tractors were not powerful enough to pull the large machinery required to harvest the crop. Around the early 1990s new technology and more powerful machines overcame this problem. Potato production started to increase, fuelled by a few other key factors: The previously pastoral soils had not had potatoes grown in them; consequently they were not infected with eelworm (_Heterodera rostochiensis_ and _Heterodera pallida_), which in the east of England had to be sprayed against weekly (a large cost). Also, the clay soil produced an unblemished potato of the highest grade. The intensive nature of the crop meant that potatoes could be grown viably on a given field in only one of every five years. Because potato growers always needed more land than they owned, they rented extra. This demand for rental fields came at a time when the rest of the industry was struggling and in serious decline. The potato farmers' rents of £300–500 per acre (as opposed to normally £80 per acre) were very helpful to many farmers in a difficult period.

EMBLEMS

COAT OF ARMS

Herefordshire
Herefordshire
County Council was granted a coat of arms on 28 February 1946. The arms became obsolete in 1974 on the abolition of the council, but were transferred to the present Herefordshire
Herefordshire
Council by Order in Council in 1997.

The arms are blazoned as follows:

_ Gules on a fesse wavy between in chief a lion passant guardant argent and in base a Herefordshire
Herefordshire
bull's head caboshed proper, a bar wavy azure ; and for a Crest on a wreath of the colours a demi lion rampant gules holding in the sinister claw a fleece or; and for Supporters, on the dexter side a lion guardant or gorged with a wreath of hops fructed proper and on the sinister a talbot argent gorged with a collar or charged with three apples proper._

The red colouring ("gules") of the shield is taken from the arms of the City of Hereford. The red colour also represents the red earth of Herefordshire. The silver and blue wave across the centre of the shield represents the River Wye. The lions that form parts of the arms, crest and supporters are also taken from Hereford's arms. The agricultural produce of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
is represented by the bull's head, fleece, hops and apples. The talbot dog comes from the heraldry of the Talbot family, Marcher Lords of Shrewsbury and also from that of Viscount Hereford.

The Latin
Latin
motto is: _Pulchra terra Dei donum_ ("This fair land is the gift of God").

COUNTY FLOWER

As part of a competition organised by the charity Plantlife to raise awareness of conservation issues, the public were asked to vote for "county flowers " that they felt best represented their county. Mistletoe was announced as the winning choice for Herefordshire
Herefordshire
in 2004. The emblem has no official status, and has not been widely adopted. Herefordshire Council uses a logo consisting of a green apple.

SPORT

Edgar Street is the home ground of Hereford
Hereford
F.C. , the successors to Hereford
Hereford
United , the only club from the county to have ever played in The Football League .

Perhaps the most famous sporting team in Herefordshire
Herefordshire
is Hereford United football club, who were members of the Football League
Football League
and played at Edgar Street stadium in the city of Hereford. The club was founded in 1924 on the merger of two local teams – St Martin's and RAOC – and became members of the Birmingham
Birmingham
Combination League. The club then made its way upwards to the Southern Football League
Football League
, finally gaining election to the Football League
Football League
in 1972 – the same year that the club famously defeated First Division side Newcastle United in an FA Cup
FA Cup
tie. Two successive promotions saw the club reach the Second Division in 1978, but two successive relegations followed and saw the club side back into the Fourth Division . Despite being situated within England, the club has competed in the Welsh Cup
Welsh Cup
on a number of occasions, winning the trophy in 1990. The club suffered relegation from the Football League
Football League
in 1997 and fell into the Football Conference , not regaining its Football League
Football League
status until 2006. The club then played in Football League
Football League
Two – the fourth tier of English football – for six years before once again being relegated out of the Football League
Football League
at the end of the 2011–12 season. The club was wound up in 2014. A new phoenix club , Hereford
Hereford
F.C. was set up competing in the Midland Football League
Football League
Premier Division (9th tier) for its first season, 2015–16. The club lost to Morpeth Town at Wembley Stadium on 22 May 2016 in the final of the FA Vase .

Cricket is widely played within the county, and Herefordshire
Herefordshire
County Cricket Club compete in the Minor Counties Championship , having been elected in 1992 to take Durham's place, when that county joined the First-class structure. The leading club sides in Herefordshire
Herefordshire
are Brockhampton CC and Eastnor CC, who both compete in the Birmingham
Birmingham
and District Premier League , the ECB accredited Premier League for cricket clubs in the West Midlands, and one of the strongest cricket leagues in England. Below that in the cricketing pyramid system 7 other leading Herefordshire
Herefordshire
clubs compete in the Worcestershire
Worcestershire
County Cricket League , with the remaining 25 or so cricket clubs within the county competing in the Marches League, or just playing Sunday or mid-week 'friendly' matches.

PLACES OF INTEREST

KEY

Abbey/Priory/Cathedral

Accessible open space

Amusement/Theme Park

Castle

Country Park

English Heritage

Forestry Commission

Heritage railway

Historic House

Museum (free/not free)

National Trust

Theatre

Zoo

* Abbey Dore Court * Arthur\'s Stone * Berrington Hall * Brockhampton Estate * Courtyard Centre for the Arts – Hereford's main theatre and art performance centre * Croft Castle * Dore Abbey * Eastnor Castle * Edgar Street (Football Stadium Home to Hereford
Hereford
F.C. ) * Eye Manor * Goodrich Castle * Hampton Court * Hellens Manor * Hereford
Hereford
Cathedral * Kilpeck Church * Malvern Hills * Herefordshire Beacon * Priory Church * Sutton Walls Hill Fort * Wigmore Castle

TRANSPORT

ROAD

The M50 motorway near Ledbury and Ross-on-Wye .

The M50 , one of the first motorways to be built in the UK , runs through the south of the county and, with the A40 dual carriageway , forms part of the major route linking South Wales
Wales
with Gloucester, Oxford
Oxford
and London. The A49 runs north–south through the county and is a strategic route between North and South Wales
Wales
as well as catering for local traffic.

RAILWAYS

The Welsh Marches Railway Line also runs north–south with passenger trains operated by Arriva Trains Wales
Wales
offering links to Manchester
Manchester
as well as to North and South Wales. Hereford
Hereford
is the western end of the Cotswold Line which runs via Worcester
Worcester
with through services to Oxford and London Paddington (operated by First Great Western ) and to Birmingham
Birmingham
(operated by London Midland
London Midland
). The rural Heart of Wales Line linking Craven Arms
Craven Arms
in Shropshire
Shropshire
to Llanelli in southwest Wales passes through the extreme north west of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
with stations at Knighton and Bucknell near the meeting point of the boundaries of Herefordshire, Shropshire
Shropshire
and Powys
Powys
. The majority of passengers between North and South Wales
Wales
use the Marches line.

Former lines which are now closed were Ledbury to Gloucester
Gloucester
; Hereford
Hereford
to Ross-on-Wye and onward to Gloucester
Gloucester
and Monmouth
Monmouth
; Hereford
Hereford
to Hay-on-Wye ; Pontrilas
Pontrilas
to Hay-on-Wye; Hay-on-Wye to Brecon ; Leominster to New Radnor ; Eardisley to Presteigne ; and Leominster to Worcester
Worcester
via Bromyard . Part of the Titley Spur is opened annually by enthusiasts and a steam train is run along the track.

There has long been talk of a new station at Rotherwas, in the south of Hereford
Hereford
. Arriva Trains Wales
Wales
service passing the currently closed Pontrilas
Pontrilas
station on the Welsh Marches Line
Welsh Marches Line
.

AIR

There are no airports with scheduled air services in Herefordshire. Birmingham
Birmingham
, Cardiff both have railway stations and Bristol
Bristol
(which involves bus travel from Bristol Temple Meads
Bristol Temple Meads
as well as a change of train in Newport ) international airports are the nearest. The RailAir coach operated by First Great Western provides connections to London Heathrow via Reading station or passengers can change at Reading station and then go all the way by train via Hayes & Harlington to Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
. Shobdon Aerodrome near Leominster is a centre for general aviation and gliding . Hot air ballooning is also popular with Eastnor Castle being one of the favourite launch sites in the area.

WATERWAYS

Historically, the rivers Wye , Teme and Lugg were navigable but the wide seasonal variations in water levels mean that few craft larger than canoes and coracles are now used. There are canoe centres at The Boat House, Glasbury-on-Wye (in Powys
Powys
, Wales), the Hereford
Hereford
Youth Service and Kerne Bridge in Ross-on-Wye , as well as rowing clubs in Hereford
Hereford
and Ross-on-Wye.

The early 19th century saw the construction of two canals , The Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
Canal and The Leominster ">_ Classical composer Sir Edward Elgar lived in Hereford
Hereford
from 1904 to 1911. His association with the city is commemorated with this statue. Roman Catholic martyr St. John Kemble 's grave in the Herefordshire
Herefordshire
village of Welsh Newton .

* Dennis Potter , Writer * Elizabeth Barrett Browning , poet * Richard Hammond
Richard Hammond
, Top Gear _ and The Grand Tour presenter * Mary Duggan , Women's Cricketer * Noele Gordon , Actress * Shane Warne , Cricketer * Mike Oldfield
Mike Oldfield
, Musician * Mick Ralphs , Mott the Hoople and Bad Company guitarist * Richard Ashcroft , songwriter and lead singer of The Verve * Monty Don , BBC TV presenter * Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex , favourite of Queen Elizabeth I * Conroy Maddox , artist * Beryl Reid , actress * Jessica Raine , actress * Sir Edward Elgar , composer * Sir Roy Strong , art historian * David Garrick , renowned actor of the 18th century * Lady Godiva , wife of Leofric, Earl of Mercia * Harold Godwinson , Earl of Hereford
Hereford
and last Anglo-Saxon King of England * Ellie Goulding , musician * Nell Gwynne , mistress of King Charles II of England
England
* Terry Jenkins , professional darts player * St. John Kemble (martyr) Catholic priest * Francis Kilvert , 19th century diarist and Church of England clergyman * Mark Labbett , one of five Chasers on _The Chase _ as well as its Australian counterpart * Albert Lee , guitarist * John Masefield , Poet Laureate * Sidney Nolan , Australian artist * John Oldcastle , Lollard leader and basis for Shakespeare\'s character Falstaff * Blanche Parry , Lady in Waiting to Queen Elizabeth I
Queen Elizabeth I
* Peter Scudamore , jockey * James Honeyman-Scott , guitarist The Pretenders
The Pretenders
* Pete Farndon , bass guitarist The Pretenders
The Pretenders
* Martin Chambers , drummer The Pretenders
The Pretenders
* Tom Spring , bare-knuckle boxer , champion of England
England
in the 19th century * Thomas Traherne , 17th century poet * Fred West , serial killer * Alfred Watkins , pioneering archaeologist and photographer * Richard Johnson , jockey * Sir Walter Roper Lawrence , author * Allan Leonard Lewis Posthumously awarded the Victoria Cross , Died 21 September 1918, commemorated on Vis-En-Artois Memorial, France * Richard Hakluyt Elizabethan writer and geographer who recorded contemporary voyages of exploration and promoted the settlement of North America * Ronald Pennell , artist, engraver and sculptor

SEE ALSO

* List of Lord Lieutenants of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
* List of High Sheriffs of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
* Custos Rotulorum of Herefordshire – Keeper of the Rolls * Herefordshire (UK Parliament constituency) – Historical list of MPs for Herefordshire
Herefordshire
constituency * List of schools in Herefordshire

REFERENCES

* ^ " Herefordshire
Herefordshire
2017/2018". High Sheriffs Association. Retrieved 9 June 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Ethnicity – Facts and Figures – 2011 Census, table KS201". Herefordshire Council . 12 October 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2016. White: English, Welsh, Scottish, Northern Irish, British 93.70%; White: Other White 3.90%; Asian / Asian British 0.80%; Mixed / multiple ethnic group 0.70%; White: Irish 0.40%; White: Gypsy or Irish Traveller 0.20%; Black / African / Caribbean / Black British 0.20%; Other ethnic group 0.10% * ^ "\'\'The Hereford and Worcester (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996\'\'". Opsi.gov.uk. 16 July 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010. * ^ "A recent history of UK local government restructuring". Office for National Statistics . Archived from the original on 5 January 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016. 1998 – Several more urban UAs were created. The county of Hereford and Worcester was divided into the two-tier Worcestershire
Worcestershire
and the misleadingly named UA, County of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
* ^ Official Hereford
Hereford
Council website. Retrieved 21 May 2009. * ^ "NUTS (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics), by regional level, version 2013" (zip). Eurostat
Eurostat
. Retrieved 11 January 2015. * ^ "Top Ten Longest Rivers in the United Kingdom". Top-ten-10.com. Retrieved 15 June 2013. * ^ "NAAONB Website". Aonb.org.uk. Retrieved 15 June 2013. * ^ Statutory Instrument 1996 No. 1867 _The Hereford
Hereford
and Worcester (Structural, Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996_ (Coming into force 1 April 1998) * ^ Herefordshire
Herefordshire
Council, _Equality for Gypsies and Travellers_. Retrieved 21 November 2013 * ^ "Microsoft Word — Regional GVA Article.doc" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2007. Retrieved 25 September 2010. * ^ "What is the cabinet and who are the cabinet members?". Herefordshire
Herefordshire
Council. Retrieved 28 February 2016. cabinet consists of six members, including the leader of the council and the deputy leader, each responsible for a programme area * ^ "Herefordshire". _The Independent_. London. 15 January 2009. * ^ "CPC — Press". Polytunnelcontrol.org.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2010. * ^ "THE QUEEN ON THE APPLICATION OF WYE VALLEY ACTION ASSOCIATION LIMITED v HEREFORDSHIRE COUNCIL and EC DRUMMOND & SON". _ EWHC 3428 (Admin), Env LR 18, 2 All ER 863_. BAILII#BAILII . 18 December 2009. Retrieved 24 August 2010. the Council, in my judgment, have made an error of law in relation to their findings that this development was not a project within Schedule 2 and such an error of law, as I set out above, means that quashing of the decision must follow, because the Council have failed to undertake an environmental impact assessment of the process. They failed to go on to consider whether or not the project would have significant environmental effects and, therefore, whether or not it required an environmental statement. In those circumstances, there is no need or purpose for me to consider the subsidiary ground which was raised in relation to the reasons provided with the screening opinion since my conclusions in respect of the first element of the ground of challenge disposes of the case and the planning consent must be quashed. * ^ _A_ _B_ Geoffrey Briggs, _Civic and Corporate Heraldry_, London, 1971 * ^ "\'\'The Local Authorities (Armorial Bearings) (No. 2) Order 1997\'\', www.opsi.gov.uk, accessed October 31, 2007". Opsi.gov.uk. 1 April 1974. Archived from the original on 3 January 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2010. * ^ C Wilfrid Scott-Giles, _Civic Heraldry of England
England
and Wales_, 2nd edition, London, 1953 * ^ Kirby, Alex (5 May 2004). "\'\'UK counties choose floral emblems\'\', BBC News online, accessed October 31, 2007". BBC News. Retrieved 25 September 2010. * ^ " Herefordshire Council Homepage, accessed October 31, 2007". Herefordshire.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010. * ^ " Hereford
Hereford
United – Potted History 1924–1949". Hereford United F.C. 29 December 2009. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2016. Hereford
Hereford
United Football Club was formed by the amalgamation of two local sides, St Martins and RAOC in June 1924. * ^ " Hereford
Hereford
United – Potted History 1970–1990". Hereford United F.C. 29 December 2009. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2016. With the club in a state of decline, a second successive relegation followed and in 1978, United found themselves back where they had started, in the old Fourth Division. * ^ " Hereford
Hereford
United – Potted History 1990–2000". Hereford United F.C. 28 December 2009. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2016. Despite United's brave efforts, the match finished all square at 1–1, breaking Hereford
Hereford
hearts and condemning them to relegation from the Football League
Football League
after a twenty-five year reign. * ^ " Hereford
Hereford
United – Potted History 2000–2010". Hereford United F.C. 7 January 2010. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 25 March 2016. * ^ " Hereford
Hereford
FC: New club to play in Midland Football League". BBC Sport . 14 May 2015. * ^ "Peter Beadle: Hereford
Hereford
FC manager enjoys double pre-Wembley celebration". BBC Sport . 21 March 2016. Retrieved 25 March 2016. * ^ "Midlands to Wales
Wales
and Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
route-based strategy evidence report" (PDF). _Department for Transport_. Highways Agency . April 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2016. The A49 is also used as a strategic route between North and South Wales. * ^ _ Presteigne and Hay-on-Wye: Llanandras A'r Gelli Gandryll (Landranger Maps)_ (B2 ed.), Ordnance Survey , 2007, ISBN 978-0319229484 * ^ "National Transport Plan" (PDF). Welsh Assembly Government . 2009. Retrieved 25 March 2016. Rail caters for longer distance travel with the services using the Marches Line, which in part runs through England, taking the majority of passengers. * ^ "Welcome to". Railair.com. Retrieved 25 September 2010. * ^ " Hereford
Hereford
& Gloucester
Gloucester
Canal". Smr.herefordshire.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2010. * ^ " Leominster & Stourport Canal". Smr.herefordshire.gov.uk. Retrieved 25 September 2010.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Herefordshire
Herefordshire
travel guide from Wikivoyage *

.