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Hereford
Hereford
(/ˈhɛrɪfərd/ ( listen)) is a cathedral city, civil parish and county town of Herefordshire, England. It lies on the River Wye, approximately 16 miles (26 km) east of the border with Wales, 24 miles (39 km) southwest of Worcester, and 23 miles (37 km) northwest of Gloucester. With a population of 58,896,[1] it is the largest settlement in the county. The name "Hereford" is said to come from the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
"here", an army or formation of soldiers, and the "ford", a place for crossing a river. If this is the origin it suggests that Hereford
Hereford
was a place where a body of armed men forded or crossed the Wye. The Welsh name for Hereford
Hereford
is Henffordd, meaning "old road", and probably refers to the Roman road and Roman settlement at nearby Stretton Sugwas. Much of the county of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
was Welsh-speaking, as reflected in the Welsh names of many places in the county (see History of Herefordshire). An early town charter from 1189 granted by Richard I of England describes it as " Hereford
Hereford
in Wales".[2] Hereford
Hereford
has been recognised as a city since time immemorial, with the status being reconfirmed as recently as October 2000.[3][4] It is now known chiefly as a trading centre for a wider agricultural and rural area. Products from Hereford
Hereford
include: cider, beer, leather goods, nickel alloys, poultry, chemicals, and cattle, including the famous Hereford
Hereford
breed.

Contents

1 History 2 Governance 3 Geography

3.1 Climate

4 Transport

4.1 Roads 4.2 Rail

5 Military associations 6 Economy 7 Regeneration

7.1 Current and future projects

8 Sport

8.1 Public leisure 8.2 Clubs and societies

9 Education

9.1 University 9.2 Colleges 9.3 Schools

10 Health and social care 11 Society and culture

11.1 Agriculture 11.2 Music 11.3 Art 11.4 Literature 11.5 Media 11.6 Entertainment 11.7 Famous people 11.8 Tourism and attractions

11.8.1 Festivals

12 Twin towns 13 See also 14 References 15 External links

History[edit]

Hereford
Hereford
Cathedral, from Church Street

Hereford
Hereford
became the seat of Putta, Bishop of Hereford, some time between AD 676 and 688, after which the settlement continued to grow due to its proximity to the border between Mercia
Mercia
and Wales, becoming the Saxon capital of West Mercia
Mercia
by the beginning of the 8th century.[5] Hostilities between the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
and the Welsh came to a head with the Battle of Hereford
Battle of Hereford
in 760, in which the Britons freed themselves from the influence of the English.[6] Hereford
Hereford
was again targeted by the Welsh during their conflict with the Anglo-Saxon
Anglo-Saxon
King Edward the Confessor in AD 1056 when, supported by Viking
Viking
allies, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, King of Gwynedd and Powys, marched on the town and put it to the torch before returning home in triumph.[7] Hereford
Hereford
had the only mint west of the Severn
Severn
in the reign of Athelstan
Athelstan
(924–39), and it was to Hereford, then a border town, that Athelstan
Athelstan
summoned the leading Welsh princes.[8] The present Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
dates from the early 12th century, as does the first bridge across the Wye.[9] Former Bishops of Hereford include Saint Thomas de Cantilupe and Lord High Treasurer of England Thomas Charlton. The city gave its name to two suburbs of Paris, France: Maisons-Alfort (population 54,600) and Alfortville
Alfortville
(population 36,232), due to a manor built there by Peter of Aigueblanche, Bishop of Hereford, in the middle of the 13th century. Hereford, a base for successive holders of the title Earl of Hereford, was once the site of a castle, Hereford
Hereford
Castle, which rivalled that of Windsor in size and scale. This was a base for repelling Welsh attacks and a secure stronghold for English kings such as King Henry IV when on campaign in the Welsh Marches
Welsh Marches
against Owain Glyndŵr. The castle was dismantled in the 18th century and landscaped into Castle
Castle
Green. After the Battle of Mortimer's Cross
Battle of Mortimer's Cross
in 1461, during the Wars of the Roses, the defeated Lancastrian leader Owen Tudor
Owen Tudor
(grandfather of the future Henry VII of England) was taken to Hereford
Hereford
by Sir Roger Vaughan and executed in High Town. A plaque now marks the spot of the execution. Vaughan was later himself executed, under a flag of truce, by Owen's son Jasper.

The Old House, High Town. This timber-framed Jacobean building, built in 1621, is now a museum.

During the civil war the city changed hands several times. On 30 September 1642 Parliamentarians led by Sir Robert Harley and Henry Grey, 1st Earl of Stamford occupied the city without opposition. In December they withdrew to Gloucester
Gloucester
because of the presence in the area of a Royalist army under Lord Herbert. The city was again occupied briefly from 23 April to 18 May 1643 by Parliamentarians commanded by Sir William Waller
William Waller
but it was in 1645 that the city saw most action. On 31 July 1645 a Scottish army of 14,000 under Alexander Leslie, 1st Earl of Leven besieged the city but met stiff resistance from its garrison and inhabitants. They withdrew on 1 September when they received news that a force led by King Charles was approaching. The city was finally taken for Parliament on 18 December 1645 by Colonel Birch and Colonel Morgan. King Charles showed his gratitude to the city of Hereford
Hereford
on 16 September 1645 by augmenting the city's coat of arms with the three lions of Richard I of England, ten Scottish Saltires signifying the ten defeated Scottish regiments, a very rare lion crest on top of the coat of arms signifying "defender of the faith" and the even rarer gold-barred peer's helm, found only on the arms of one other municipal authority: those of the City of London.[10] Nell Gwynne, actress and mistress of King Charles II, is said to have been born in Hereford
Hereford
in 1650 (although other towns and cities, notably Oxford, also claim her as their own); Gwynn Street is named after her. Another famous actor born in Hereford
Hereford
is David Garrick (1717–1779). The Bishop's Palace next to the Cathedral was built in 1204 and continually used to the present day.[11][12] Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
School is also one of the oldest schools in England. The Harold Street Barracks were completed in 1856.[13] During World War I, in 1916, a fire at the Garrick Theatre killed eight young girls who had been performing at a charity concert.[14] Governance[edit]

Hereford
Hereford
Town Hall (opened 1904)

The main local government body covering Hereford
Hereford
is Herefordshire Council. Hereford
Hereford
has a "City Council" but this is actually a parish council with city status, and has only limited powers. Historically Hereford
Hereford
has been the county town of Herefordshire. In 1974 Herefordshire
Herefordshire
was merged with Worcestershire
Worcestershire
to become part of the county of Hereford
Hereford
and Worcester, and Hereford
Hereford
became a district of the new county. Hereford
Hereford
had formed a historic borough and was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835.[15] On 1 April 1998 the County of Hereford
Hereford
and Worcester
Worcester
was abolished, and Herefordshire and Worcestershire
Worcestershire
were re-established as separate counties, although with slightly altered borders.[citation needed] However the new Herefordshire
Herefordshire
was a unitary authority without any districts, and so Hereford
Hereford
lost its district status (although, confusingly, the authority's full legal name is the County of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
District Council). Charter Trustees were appointed to preserve mayoral traditions until a civil parish council could be set up, which happened in 2000. Hereford
Hereford
is one of only eight civil parishes in England
England
which have city status. Hereford
Hereford
was the name of a parliamentary constituency centring on the city, from 1295 to 2010, when it was renamed as Hereford
Hereford
and South Herefordshire. The current member of the House of Commons for Hereford and South Herefordshire
Herefordshire
is Jesse Norman
Jesse Norman
of the Conservative Party. Geography[edit] Climate[edit] As with all of the UK, Hereford
Hereford
experiences a maritime climate, with limited seasonal temperature ranges, and generally moderate rainfall throughout the year. The nearest Met Office
Met Office
weather station for which 30-year averages are available is Credenhill
Credenhill
weather station, about 4 miles (6 km) north east of the city centre. Before 2001, the weather station at Preston Wynne (7 miles, 11 km to the north-east) provided the data.[16] Since 2001, extremes at Hereford
Hereford
Credenhill
Credenhill
have ranged from 33.6 °C (92.5 °F)[17] during July 2006, to as low as −15.8 °C (3.6 °F) during December 2010.[18] [19] Transport[edit]

[

v t e

] Railways in Hereford

Legend

Welsh Marches
Welsh Marches
line (S&HR)

Cotswold Line
Cotswold Line
(OW&WR)

Hereford, Hay & Brecon Rly

Hereford
Hereford
Barrs Court

Hereford
Hereford
Barton

River Wye

Rotherwas Junction

Welsh Marches
Welsh Marches
line (NA&HR)

Hereford, Ross & Gloucester
Gloucester
Rly

Roads[edit] There have been plans for many years for a north–south bypass[20] and currently the plan is for a nine-mile (14 km) dual carriageway; however, HM Government as yet has refused to grant permission or supply funds. However, as of April 2017, [Herefordshire Council] are doing work on a new Hereford
Hereford
Link Road. Until then the A49 Trunk Road, A465, and A438 continue to run through the city centre. Hereford
Hereford
has been named as the UK's second slowest city with vehicles averaging speeds of 14.09mph. Rail[edit] Hereford
Hereford
is served by a 4-platform railway station on the Welsh Marches Line which opened in 1854. Services regularly connect to Worcester, Birmingham, London, Manchester, Cardiff
Cardiff
and other settlements in Wales. The station is currently operated by Arriva Trains Wales. A second station, Hereford
Hereford
Barton, was closed and later redeveloped. A new station is proposed for construction in the government-designated Enterprise zone in Rotherwas, south of the River Wye. Military associations[edit] In 1999, the British Army Special Air Service
Special Air Service
(SAS) moved from their base at Stirling Lines
Stirling Lines
in Hereford
Hereford
since 1960 to a former Royal Air Force base RAF Credenhill
Credenhill
in Credenhill
Credenhill
that had been redeveloped and was designated as Stirling Lines
Stirling Lines
in 2000. The clock tower on which the names of deceased SAS soldiers are inscribed was re-located.[21] In the 1998 spy action film Ronin, Sam asks Spence "What's the colour of the boathouse at Hereford?" after he said he had been in the SAS.[22] Economy[edit]

High Town, Hereford
Hereford
– Pedestrianised shopping area

The main public service employers in Hereford
Hereford
include:

Herefordshire
Herefordshire
Council NHS Herefordshire

In 2005 Hereford
Hereford
was granted Fairtrade City
Fairtrade City
status.[23] Major employers in the city include:

Bulmers, now owned by Heineken
Heineken
Cider
Cider
and alcoholic beverages producer. Brands include Woodpecker Cider, Strongbow and Bulmers Cider[24] Special
Special
Metals Wiggin Ltd – Manufacturers of nickel alloys[25] Cargill
Cargill
Meats Europe (formerly Sun Valley) – Manufacturers and suppliers of food products for retailers and foodservice operators[26] Painter Brothers – Manufacturers of galvanized steel towers including The Skylon[27]

Other major companies based in Herefordshire
Herefordshire
include:

Spinning Dog Brewery – Brewers of traditional beers in Hereford
Hereford
City Wye Valley Brewery
Wye Valley Brewery
– Producers of such beers as Butty Bach and Hereford
Hereford
Pale Ale (HPA) and other real ales. Weston's Cider
Cider
– Award-winning cider and perry producer based just outside Hereford

Herefordshire
Herefordshire
is a global centre for cider production as it supports many acres of orchards, so many breweries and associated organisations exist here, along with other heavy and light industries.[28] Within the city, many are based at the Rotherwas Industrial Estate. Regeneration[edit] Many of the schools in Hereford
Hereford
have been rebuilt and improved.[29] The Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Ludlow College has also been rebuilt to a 21st-century standard.[30] A new NMITE (New Model in Technology and Engineering) university is also planned, which will teach STEM subjects and is stated to open in 2016. There has also been a number of improvements at Hereford
Hereford
Sixth Form College, where a new business block extension was completed in 2013 and a new reception area was completed in 2015. Hereford
Hereford
benefitted from the PFI reconstruction schemes for NHS hospitals, with the former County Hospital site having £60 million spent on a brand new, one-site hospital to replace the former 3 hospitals: the General, the Eye Hospital, and the County Hospital. The new Hereford County Hospital
Hereford County Hospital
was the single largest investment in Herefordshire
Herefordshire
at that point. In 2015, further funds for more improvements at the hospital were granted. Current and future projects[edit] A major regeneration project is taking place in Hereford
Hereford
city centre, formerly known as the Edgar Street
Edgar Street
Grid. This covers an area of around 100 acres (0.40 km2) just north of the old city walls. Work started on 8 October 2012,[31] and should take around 15 years to complete the whole project. The regeneration includes the rebuilding of the canal basin at the end of the currently disused Herefordshire and Gloucestershire Canal. The £80 million phase 1 includes a supermarket, department store, multiplex cinema, shops, restaurants, and other facilities and opened in late Spring 2014.[32] The Butter Market is also due for refurbishment and proposals are being examined. A proposed bypass has been drawn up to circulate the city, which suffers from rush hour traffic, with potential routes either to the east or west of the city. Both routes would connect with the Rotherwas Access Road which was recently completed, connecting the Rotherwas Industrial Estate
Industrial Estate
to the A49. Rotherwas itself has recently been awarded an Enterprise Zone status by the government which is expected to boost the economy and bring in thousands of new jobs.[33] A second railway station for Hereford
Hereford
has been discussed, which would be situated in Rotherwas as part of the Enterprise Zone. Hereford
Hereford
is due to receive half of the 20,600 new homes expected to be built in the county by 2026 as part of the Regional Spatial Strategy.[34] Sport[edit]

Hereford
Hereford
United's Edgar Street
Edgar Street
ground.

Hereford
Hereford
is the home of the football club, Hereford
Hereford
FC and they play at Edgar Street
Edgar Street
in the Southern Football League
Southern Football League
Premier Division. They are a phoenix club that was set up in the wake of the demise of Hereford United
Hereford United
Football Club in 2014. United were best known for beating Newcastle 2-1 in an FA Cup
FA Cup
replay in January 1972, when they were still a non-league side and Newcastle were in the top division of English football. Other notable city clubs include Westfields and Pegasus Juniors. Hereford Rugby Club announced plans in 2012 for a major £6 million move to a new home.[35] Hereford
Hereford
Hockey Club is based at the Hereford
Hereford
City Sports Club, with teams entered into leagues in the West Hockey Association.[36] The city is also home to Hereford
Hereford
Racecourse, a traditional National Hunt course to the north of the city centre which hosted around twenty meetings a year. The company who leased the site decided in 2012 that the site was not viable. What many thought to be the last meeting was held on 16 December 2012, however the course reopened for racing in October 2016.[37] Many golf courses surround the city at Wormsley ( Herefordshire
Herefordshire
GC), Burghill
Burghill
and Brockington. The racecourse surrounds a golf course in Holmer. Public leisure[edit] Hereford's public leisure facilities are managed by a not-for-profit trust called HALO Leisure, which runs the Hereford
Hereford
Leisure Centre (that includes huge sports halls, gymnasium, squash courts, and an outdoor athletics facility), and the Hereford
Hereford
Leisure Pool (which includes a gymnasium, full size swimming pool, leisure pool, diving pool, and learners pool). Clubs and societies[edit] The Hereford
Hereford
Rowing Club (along with the Kayak Club) uses the River Wye; it is a popular club with a junior group. The stretch of river is also used for other water sports. Hereford
Hereford
has a nine pin skittle league, formed on 24 October 1902, and today consists of five divisions.[38] Hereford
Hereford
has other clubs and societies including the Railway Club, Welsh Club, Military Club, Richmond Place Club and the Whitecross Squash & Lawn Tennis
Tennis
Club. Hereford
Hereford
has several music clubs/societies such as Herefordshire
Herefordshire
Youth Orchestra, a group for those up to the age of 21 which anyone in and around the Herefordshire
Herefordshire
area can audition for. The orchestra is conducted by both Sir Richard Mynors and Hazel Davis. Education[edit] University[edit] Plans are now in progress to create a new university in Hereford.[39] Colleges[edit] Hereford
Hereford
is home to five colleges, including:

Hereford College of Arts – a publicly funded art school located on Folly Lane, with a Higher Education
Higher Education
centre on College Road in the former main buildings of the Royal National College for the Blind. The University of Wales
Wales
Trinity St Davids
St Davids
co-operate to provide degree qualifications. Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Ludlow College (HLC) formerly known as Hereford College of Technology - The Folly Lane facility includes a university centre for the University of Worcester.

The National School of Blacksmithing is the oldest established Blacksmithing
Blacksmithing
college in the UK, also the largest facility for training smiths in Europe.[citation needed] This is also part of HLC.[40]

Hereford
Hereford
Sixth Form College The Royal National College for the Blind
Royal National College for the Blind
– One of the top colleges in Europe for blind and visually impaired students, and one of only two in Britain.[citation needed] The college occupies the former Hereford
Hereford
College of Education campus. The college often plays host to major blind sporting competitions like the Blind World Cup 2010 and Euro 2015 Blind Football Championships, and currently hosts the England
England
Blind Football squad training camps. Holme Lacy College – An agricultural college that was part of the Pershore Group of Colleges (now Warwickshire College), but currently belongs to Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and Ludlow College (HLC).[41][42]

Schools[edit] Hereford's many secondary schools include:

The Steiner Academy Hereford
Steiner Academy Hereford
– The first Rudolf Steiner
Rudolf Steiner
school in England
England
to become an Academy.[43][44] Aylestone Business and Enterprise College- A co-educational comprehensive school for pupils aged between 11 and 16, created in 1976 by merging two former grammar schools, the Hereford
Hereford
High School for Boys and the Hereford
Hereford
High School for Girls. Specialises in Business and Enterprise.[45] The Bishop of Hereford's Bluecoat School
Bishop of Hereford's Bluecoat School
– A co-educational voluntary aided comprehensive school for pupils aged between 11 and 16, formed in 1973 from two former church secondary schools, the Bluecoat foundation, dating back to 1710 and the Bishop’s School, a secondary modern school founded in 1958. It is now a Technology College with a second specialism in Languages. The Hereford Academy – A high school for pupils aged between 11 and 19. It was known as Haywood High School in the late seventies until 2006, when it was renamed as Wyebridge Sports College. As of 1 September 2009 it was renamed The ' Hereford
Hereford
Academy'.[46] It has been, like Whitecross High School, re-classified as a 'Sports College'. The Academy's new building opened in September 2011, and the demolition of the old school site, making way for new playing fields to be laid out, was completed in Spring 2012.[47] Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
School – A co-educational independent school and sixth form, and a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference. The earliest existing records date from 1384 though it is likely that a school was associated with the cathedral from its foundation in the late 7th century. HCS, together with HCJS (see below) educates the choristers for Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
Choir. St Marys RC High School – A Roman Catholic Comprehensive School for boys and girls aged 11–16. The school primarily serves the Catholic Communities of Herefordshire
Herefordshire
and is situated in a very attractive rural location close to the River Lugg, a few miles to the east of the City of Hereford
Hereford
in the village of Lugwardine.[48] Whitecross Hereford High School – A specialist Sports College, which moved to a brand new PFI building in June 2006. The college for pupils aged between 11 and 16 aims to use the new facility to provide the best high school education for its pupils in the topic of Sports & Fitness.[49]

Primary schools in the city include Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
Junior School, a co-educational independent school. Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
Junior School is, with Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
School, part of the ancient Hereford Cathedral Foundation dating back to 676. The Junior School was founded as an independent school in 1898. The City's other primary schools are: Lord Scudamore Academy, St James C of E, St Francis Xavier R.C, Trinity, Holmer C of E, Marlbrook, Riverside, St Martin's, Broadlands, Riverside, Hampton Dene and St Paul's C of E. Health and social care[edit] In early 2008, Herefordshire
Herefordshire
Council and NHS Herefordshire
Herefordshire
became the first local authority and Primary Care Trust
Primary Care Trust
to form a new kind of partnership.[50] The major hospital in Hereford
Hereford
is the Hereford
Hereford
County Hospital. Ambulance
Ambulance
services are provided by the West Midlands Ambulance
Ambulance
Service NHS Trust. The Midlands Air Ambulance
Ambulance
charity provides air ambulance services across Herefordshire. A private national firm operates a hospital in Hereford, and the city is well populated with council-funded, private and charity based nursing, residential and other elderly care homes and facilities. Society and culture[edit] Agriculture[edit] Farming
Farming
has played a major part in the history of the county of Herefordshire, and for many years the City of Hereford
Hereford
was the epicentre, playing host to the Cattle
Cattle
Market; a major market site.[51] With the 2001 foot-and-mouth outbreak the market suffered with trade reduced. Established by Act of Parliament, the market had to be provided, and so a Bill was introduced in 2003[52] to move the site to the outskirts of the city. The inner city site would then be available for redevelopment, a process that has now finished. The new Hereford
Hereford
Cattle
Cattle
Market opened its doors in August 2011 on the site just outside the city[53] and has already proved so successful that trading and business is up on the previous site's record.[54] Music[edit]

Classical composer Sir Edward Elgar
Edward Elgar
lived in Hereford
Hereford
from 1904 to 1911. His association with the city is commemorated with this statue on the Cathedral Close.

The annual Three Choirs Festival, originating in the 18th century and one of the oldest music festivals in the British Isles, is held in Hereford
Hereford
every third year, the other venues being Gloucester
Gloucester
and Worcester. Composer Sir Edward Elgar
Edward Elgar
lived at Plas Gwyn, Eign Hill, in Hereford between 1904 and 1911, writing some of his most famous works during that time. He is commemorated with a statue on the Cathedral Close. One of his Enigma Variations
Enigma Variations
was inspired by a bulldog named Dan falling into the River Wye
River Wye
at Hereford, and the dog is similarly honoured with a wooden statue beside the river. Not long after moving into the city he was (despite not being a city council member) offered but declined the office of mayor of the city. He also visited the city as a conductor at the Three Choirs Festival, the last occasion in 1933 prior to his death.[55] Hereford
Hereford
is home to the Hereford
Hereford
Police Male Voice Choir who competed on the BBC TV show "Last Choir Standing",[56] and the Railway Choir. A charity music school is also based in Hereford.[57] The hymn tune ‘Hereford’ was written by Samuel Sebastian Wesley (1810-1876). He was an organist at Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
(1832-1835). This tune is often sung to the words ‘O Thou who camest from above’. [58] Art[edit] H.Art, or Herefordshire
Herefordshire
Art Week, is an annual county-wide exhibition held in September, displaying the work of local artists.[59] Many places usually closed to the public are opened during this week, such as the Bishop's Palace at the Cathedral. Polish-born sculptor Walenty Pytel
Walenty Pytel
has had studios in Hereford
Hereford
since 1963 after training at Hereford
Hereford
College of Art. There is a statue of a Bronze Hereford
Hereford
bull designed by Brian Alabaster ARBS in front of The Old House[60] Literature[edit] The troops of the fictional commando squad Rainbow were based at RAF Hereford, as detailed in the novel Rainbow Six. The action of the fictional novels Shades of Grey and The last Dragonslayer by Jasper Fforde
Jasper Fforde
take place in Hereford.[61] Phil Rickman's Merrily Watkins series of supernatural and mystery novels is set in and around Hereford.[62] Comedy writer Aaron Gillies began writing using Twitter
Twitter
while working as a sound technician at The Courtyard.[63] Media[edit] The local radio stations are Free Radio (formerly known as Wyvern FM) which broadcasts on 97.6-96.7-102.8 FM, Sunshine Radio on 106.2 FM, BBC Hereford
Hereford
and Worcester
Worcester
which broadcasts on 94.7FM, Like Radio Like Music, Like Radio. Digital Radio Station available on DAB, Online and On The Go. The station covers Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Gloucester, Cheltenham and Birmingham. Hereford
Hereford
is briefly mentioned, though mispronounced, in Ronin as a ploy by Sam (Robert De Niro) to expose Spence (Sean Bean) as a liar. The City is mentioned in the video game Rainbow Six Vegas 2
Rainbow Six Vegas 2
and in the television show Peep Show. The Hereford Times is the weekly newspaper. The ' Hereford
Hereford
Journal' ceased publication on 11 June 2014. The Hereford
Hereford
admag is a free title, delivered to households across the city and surrounding rural areas.[64] Local TV content is currently provided by BBC Midlands Today
BBC Midlands Today
and ITV Central News. Entertainment[edit] The city's main theatre and cultural venue is the Courtyard Centre for the Arts which was opened in 1998, replacing the New Hereford
Hereford
Theatre. There is also a multi screen Odeon cinema in the Old Market precinct. MFA Bowl (formerly known as TGS), home to a Ten Pin Bowling
Ten Pin Bowling
alley and Mini Golf
Mini Golf
course is located near the railway station. There is also a dedicated Skatepark on Holmer Road. Famous people[edit]

Hereford
Hereford
claims to be the birthplace of Nell Gwyn, 17th-century actress and mistress of King Charles II of England.

John Kemble, Catholic priest and martyr, was born near Hereford. Nell Gwyn, David Garrick
David Garrick
and Sarah Siddons, actors and actresses, are all historical figures popularly associated with Hereford. Major-General Stringer Lawrence, first commander-in-chief of British troops in India, under whose command Robert Clive served, was born in Hereford. Broadcaster Gilbert Harding was born there when his father was master of the local workhouse, as was contemporary actress Beryl Reid. The original lineup of The Pretenders, with the exception of lead singer Chrissie Hynde, were from Hereford, as were the rock band Mott the Hoople. Frank Oz, puppeteer for The Muppets
The Muppets
and Yoda
Yoda
of Star Wars
Star Wars
was born in Hereford
Hereford
and lived there for the first five years of his life.[65] Footballer Connor Wickham
Connor Wickham
was born in the city.[66] Ellie Goulding, pop singer and songwriter was born in Hereford. Hereford
Hereford
is the current home of television personality, Wincey Willis. The highwayman William Spiggot
William Spiggot
declared before his execution to the Ordinary's Accounts[67] of Newgate Prison
Newgate Prison
in London
London
that he was the son of an innkeeper from Hereford.[68] Tourism and attractions[edit]

Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
is home to the Hereford
Hereford
Mappa Mundi, a map of the known world from the late 13th century.

The Old House, Hereford
The Old House, Hereford
is an historic black and white house in the centre of High Town in Hereford
Hereford
City. It is now a museum about life in the Jacobean era
Jacobean era
of the 1600s when it was built. The Hereford
Hereford
Museum and Art Gallery, housed in a Victorian Gothic building and opened in 1874, presents artefacts, fine art, and decorative art associated with the local area. The Hereford
Hereford
Cider
Cider
Museum is in the City, with a shop, and an interactive guide to producing the drink. It is a registered Charity Trust founded in the early 1970s by people who wanted to record the past, and also the disappearing traditional art of cider making that had been practiced for generations on the farms in the "Cider Counties". Situated in an old cider factory, it opened in 1980 and 1981.[which?] In the spring/summer a Cider
Cider
festival is held, started in the mid-1980s, by the Friends of the Museum with the advice of Long Ashton Research station near Bristol. It has a display of named cider apples, and the apples are pressed in the old way. The Museum holds in its Pomological Archive, a number of records pertaining to apples and cider. The Violette Szabo
Violette Szabo
Museum is located outside of Hereford
Hereford
city in a village called Wormelow. Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
dates from 1079 and contains the Mappa Mundi, a medieval map of the world dating from the 13th century which was restored in the late 20th century. It also contains the world-famous Chained Library.[69] Holme Lacy House, now a hotel for a national chain, was built by John Scudamore in the 1500s. It has played host to famous historical figures in its time.[70] Festivals[edit] Several festivals are hosted in Hereford
Hereford
including the Beer
Beer
on the Wye festival, the Hereford
Hereford
Food Festival, and the Three Choirs Festival Twin towns[edit]

Dillenburg, Germany Vierzon, France
France
(since 1994)[71]

See also[edit]

List of Hereford
Hereford
MPs Hereford United
Hereford United
F.C. Herefordshire Railways in Hereford

References[edit]

^ a b Higgins, Alice. "Visit Herefordshire
Herefordshire
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Hereford
Web Pages. Retrieved 7 September 2011.  ^ Beckett, J V (2005). City status in the British Isles, 1830–2002, Historical urban studies. Aldershot: Ashgate. ^ " Hereford
Hereford
City Council Charter". Herefordcitycouncil.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 12 February 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ Sims-Williams " Putta (d. c.688)" Oxford
Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography ^ Annales Cambriae ^ [1] ^ J and M Tonkin, The Book of Hereford, 1975 ^ J. Hillaby, Bishop Richard de Capella and the foundation of Herefordshire's market towns, in Woolhope Naturalists Field Club,Essays in honour of Jim and Muriel Tonkin, 2011 ^ "Coat of arms of Hereford
Hereford
(England)". Ngw.nl. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ http://ads.ahds.ac.uk/catalogue/adsdata/arch-769-1/ahds/dissemination/pdf/vol04/4_069_080.pdf ^ "A History of Hereford". Localhistories.org. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Plans to demolish former barracks in Harold Street, Hereford
Hereford
to build Hereford Cathedral
Hereford Cathedral
School boarding school refused". Redditch Advertiser. 16 December 2016. Retrieved 24 September 2017.  ^ Chester, Jerry (24 February 2014). "World War One: Hereford
Hereford
theatre fire killed eight at fundraiser". BBC Online. Retrieved 27 February 2014.  ^ Vision of Britain – Hereford
Hereford
MB ^ Office, Met. " Hereford
Hereford
climate". www.metoffice.gov.uk.  ^ "July 2006 Maximum". Retrieved 2 March 2011.  ^ "December 2010 minimum". Retrieved 2 March 2011.  ^ http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/United-Kingdom/Hereford/climate-profile.aspx? ^ " Hereford
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Times". Hereford
Hereford
Times. 27 February 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ Staff (19 May 1980). "World: Britain's SAS.: Who Dares Wins". Time. Retrieved 9 January 2011.  ^ "Ronin (1998) Quotes". IMBd. Retrieved 23 June 2017.  ^ "Fairtrade status given in county". BBC News. 6 March 2005. Retrieved 10 December 2007.  ^ "Bulmers – Getting things ready for 2012 (winter)". Bulmer.com. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ " Special
Special
Metals Wiggin Ltd". www.specialmetals.com. Archived from the original on 21 April 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2008.  ^ " Cargill
Cargill
Meats Europe". www.cargill.com. Archived from the original on 1 August 2008. Retrieved 16 August 2008.  ^ "Painter Brothers". www.painterbrothers.com. Retrieved 16 August 2008.  ^ "Update: UBL Ledbury
Ledbury
- Cider
Cider
production to shift to Hereford". Hereford
Hereford
Times.  ^ "Bbc News". BBC News. 7 August 2009. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ " Herefordshire
Herefordshire
College of Technology". Hct.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Work Starts on Hereford's Old Cattle
Cattle
Market". Herefordtimes.com. 2 August 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Stanhope PLC". Stanhope PLC. 5 January 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Rotherwas named Enterprise Zone". Bbc.co.uk. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "West Midlands Regional Spatial Strategy". Wmra.gov.uk. 31 March 2010. Archived from the original on 28 December 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ Woodman, Ian (1 September 2011). "Planning permission for new club". Pitchero.com. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ " Hereford
Hereford
Hockey Club". Pitchero.com. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 13 October 2014.  ^ "Hereford: Horse racing returns after four-year absence following closure". BBC Sport. Retrieved 6 October 2016.  ^ " Hereford
Hereford
Skittles Club". Herefordskittles.org. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "New Model in Technology & Engineering - A new model for engineering education". nmite.org.uk.  ^ "HCT Rural Crafts Centre". Hct.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Holme Lacy College". Pershore.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Holme Lacy Campus". Hct.ac.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Steiner Academy Hereford". Steineracademyhereford.eu. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ Anthroposophy ^ "Aylestone School". Aylestone.hereford.sch.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ " The Hereford Academy Official Website". Theherefordacademy.org.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "The Hereford
Hereford
Academy's New Building". Theherefordacademy.org.uk. Archived from the original on 6 March 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ St. Marys RC High School Archived 2 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Whitecross High School & Sports College". Whitecross.hereford.sch.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Who are we?". Herefordshire.nhs.uk. 11 January 2010. Archived from the original on 15 March 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ " Cattle
Cattle
Market history". Bbc.co.uk. 13 June 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ " Hereford
Hereford
Markets Act 2003". Legislation.gov.uk. 30 October 2003. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "New Cattle
Cattle
Market". Bbc.co.uk. 16 June 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ " Hereford
Hereford
livestock market move a 'success'". BBC News. 22 November 2011.  ^ Hereford
Hereford
800, A Celebration. Revelstone Publishing Ltd. 1989. pp. 44–45, 47. ISBN 1-871817-20-X. Articles, Edward Elgar's Hereford
Hereford
by Jacob O'Callaghan, and The Three Choirs Festival by Graham J. Roberts. ^ "BBC Last Choir Standing". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Music School Regenerating Hereford
Hereford
City and County". Herefordfutures.co.uk. Archived from the original on 3 December 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "HEREFORD (Wesley)". Hymnary.org. Retrieved 31 December 2017.  ^ "H.Art Week". H-art.herefordshire.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ " Hereford
Hereford
High Town life-sized bull statue installed". 13 July 2012 – via www.bbc.co.uk.  ^ Fforde, Jasper. "Shades of Grey - sleuth". www.jasperfforde.com.  ^ Knight, Adam (2014-11-20). "Major ITV drama to be set and filmed in Herefordshire". Hereford
Hereford
Times. Retrieved 2016-02-11.  ^ May, Philippa (2015-12-04). "Tweets lead to publication". Hereford Times. Retrieved 2016-02-11.  ^ " Hereford
Hereford
admag report.JPG". Google Docs.  ^ "Frank Oz". IMDb.  ^ Morgan, Ian (14 May 2010). "Bright future ahead for Ipswich Town's Connor Wickham". Hereford
Hereford
Times. Retrieved 16 May 2010.  ^ Emsley, Clive; Hitchcock, Tim; Shoemaker, Robert. "The Proceedings - Ordinary of Newgate's Accounts". Old Bailey Proceedings Online. 7.0. Retrieved 28 October 2015.  ^ "Ordinary of Newgate's Account, February 1721 (OA17210208)". Old Bailey Proceedings Online. 7.2. Retrieved 28 October 2015.  ^ "Mappa Mundi". Herefordcathedral.org. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Warner Holidays". Warnerleisurehotels.co.uk. Retrieved 28 January 2012.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 20 July 2013. 

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