HERBERT ALLEN GILES (8 December 1845 – 13 February 1935) was a
British diplomat and sinologist who was the professor of Chinese at
Cambridge University for 35 years. Giles was educated at Charterhouse
School before becoming a British diplomat in China. He modified a
Mandarin Chinese romanisation system established by Thomas Wade ,
resulting in the widely known
Wade–Giles Chinese romanisation
system. Among his many works were translations of the Analects of
Confucius , the Lao Tzu (Tao Te Ching) , the Chuang Tzu , and, in
1892, the widely published
A Chinese-English Dictionary
A Chinese-English Dictionary .
* 1 Biography
* 2 Legacy
* 3 Diplomatic postings
* 4 Awards
* 5 Written works
* 6 Translations
* 7 References
* 8 Sources
* 9 External links
Herbert A. Giles was the fourth son of John Allen Giles
Anglican clergyman. After studying at Charterhouse ,
Herbert became a British diplomat to Qing China , serving from 1867 to
1892. He also spent several years (1885–1888) at Fort Santo Domingo
Tamsui , northern Taiwan . He was the father of Bertram, Valentine,
Lancelot, Edith, Mable, and
Lionel Giles . In 1897 Herbert Giles
became only the second professor of
Chinese language appointed at the
Cambridge , succeeding Thomas Wade . At the time of his
appointment, there were no other sinologists at Cambridge. Giles was
therefore free to spend most of his time among the ancient Chinese
texts earlier donated by Wade, publishing what he chose to translate
from his eclectic reading in Chinese literature.
His later works include a history of the Chinese Pictorial Art in
1905 and his 1914
Hibbert Lectures on
Confucianism which was
published in 1915 by
Williams and Norgate (de). He dedicated the
third edition of
Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio (1916) to his
seven grandchildren, but at the end of his life was on speaking terms
with only one of his surviving children. An ardent agnostic, he was
also an enthusiastic freemason . He never became a
Fellow at one of
the constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge, despite being
a university professor for 35 years. He finally retired in 1932, and
died in his ninetieth year.
Giles received the
Prix Julien award from the
French Academy in 1897
for his Chinese Biographical Dictionary. Generally considered
unreliable among modern academics,
Endymion Wilkinson described it
full of inaccuracies and the selection leaves much to be desired.
Between one third and a half of the dates are wrong because Giles
supposed that if somebody is recorded as having died in 1200 aged 63
he or she must have been born in 1137 (in most cases 1138 would have
been a better guess).
He also ran afoul of the Chinese scholar
Gu Hongming , who declared
Dr. Giles' Chinese biographical dictionary, it must be admitted, is a
work of immense labour. But here again Dr. Giles shows an utter lack
of the most ordinary judgment. In such a work, one would expect to
find notices only of really notable men.
Nor did Gu appreciate Giles' great Chinese-English Dictionary
describing it as
... in no sense a dictionary at all. It is merely a collection of
Chinese phrases and sentences, translated by Dr. Giles without any
attempt at selection, arrangement, order or method," and "decidedly of
less value than even the old dictionary of Dr. Williams."
Vice Consul at Pagoda Island, Mawei (1880–1883)
Vice Consul at Shanghai (1883–1885)
* British Consul at
* British Consul at
List of awards and honours:
Order of Chia-Ho
* Gold medal of the
Royal Asiatic Society
* Prix St. Julien by the
French Academy (twice)
* Honorary degrees from the
University of Aberdeen
University of Aberdeen (1897) and
* Giles, Herbert Allen (1872). Chinese Without a Teacher. A.H. de
* — (1873). A Dictionary of Colloquial Idioms in the Mandarin
Dialect. A.H. De Carvalho.
* — (1874). Synoptical Studies in the Chinese Character. Kelly &
* — (1876). Chinese Sketches. Trübner & Company. Archived from
the original on March 28, 2006.
* — (1877). Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms. Trübner & Co.
* — (1877). Handbook of the Swatow Dialect: With a Vocabulary. .
* — (1877). From Swatow to Canton: (overland). Trübner.
* — (1878). A glossary of reference, on subjects connected with
the Far east.
* — (1879). On Some Translations and Mistranslations in Dr.
Williams\' Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language. A.A. Marçal.
* — (1892). A Chinese-English Dictionary. B. Quaritch. Volume 1
* — (1892). A Chinese Biographical Dictionary. B. Quaritch.
* — (1898). Chinese Poetry in English Verse.
* Wade, Thomas Francis;
Cambridge University Library (1898). A
catalog of the Wade collection of Chinese and Manchu books in the
library of the University of Cambridge. Compiled by Herbert Allen
Giles. University Press. Retrieved 24 April 2014.
* — (1901).
History of Chinese Literature .
* Great Religions of the World (1901)
* — (1901). Chinese Without a Teacher: Being a Collection of Easy
and Useful Sentences in the Mandarin Dialect, with a Vocabulary. Kelly
& Walsh, limited.
* — (1902). China and the Chinese. Columbia University Press, The
Macmillan company agents.
* Thomas Lowndes Bullock; Herbert Allen Giles (1902). Progressive
Exercises in the Chinese Written Language. Kelly & Walsh, limited.
* Launcelot Cranmer-Byng; Herbert Allen Giles (1902). The
never-ending wrong: and other renderings of the Chinese from the prose
translations of Herbert A. Giles. Grant Richards.
* Giles, Herbert Allen (1905). An Introduction to the History of
Chinese Pictorial Art. Keloy & Walsh, ld.
* The Religions of Ancient China (1906)
* — (1911). Chinese Fairy Tales.
* — (1911). The Civilization of China.
* — (1912). China and the Manchus. The University Press.
* "China" in History of the Nations (1913)
Confucianism and Its Rivals (1915)
* How to Begin Chinese: The Hundred Best Characters (1919)
* The Second Hundred Best Characters (1922)
* Revision of Bullock's Progressive Exercises (1922)
* Chuang Tzǔ: Mystic, Moralist, and Social Reformer (1926,
* The Chinese and Their Food (Zhonghua Fanshi) (1947, Shanghai)
* "The Memoirs of H.A. Giles,"
East Asian History
East Asian History 13 (1997):
1–90. Dated 1925.
* Sungling P'u (1880). Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. T. De
la Rue & Company.
* Lao Tzu (1886). The Remains of Lao Tzu.
* ^ "Herbert Allen GILES (1845–1935)" on the
* ^ "Giles, Herbert Allen (GLS932HA)". A
Cambridge Alumni Database.
University of Cambridge.
* ^ Aylmer, Charles,
East Asian History
East Asian History 13–14, 1997, pp. 1–7;
Sterckx, Roel, In the Fields of Shennong: An inaugural lecture
delivered before the University of
Cambridge on 30 September 2008 to
mark the establishment of the Joseph Needham Professorship of Chinese
History, Science and Civilization. Cambridge: Needham Research
* ^ "An Introduction to the History of Chinese Pictorial Art by
Herbert A. Giles". The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs. 7 (29):
405. August 1905.
JSTOR 856445 .
* ^ Chavannes, Ed. (1905). "An Introduction to the History of
Chinese Pictorial Art by H. A. Giles". T'oung Pao. Second Series. 6
JSTOR 4525813 .
* ^ Giles, Herbert A. (January 1916). "
Confucianism and Its
The Journal of Race Development . 6 (3): 350.
. doi :10.2307/29738158 .
* ^ Schlegel, G. (1897). "古今姓氏族譜, A Chinese
Biographical Dictionary by Herbert A. Giles". T'oung Pao. 8 (4):
JSTOR 4525305 .
* ^ Kennedy, George A. (July–September 1950). "Dates in Giles'
Biographical Dictionary". Journal of the American Oriental Society. 70
JSTOR 596269 . doi :10.2307/596269 .
Endymion Wilkinson (2000). Chinese History: A Manual. Harvard
University Asia Center . p. 157. ISBN 978-0-674-00249-4 .
* ^ "A Great Sinologue," in The Spirit of the Chinese People
* ^ Ryan, Janette. "Giles, Herbert Allen (1845–1935)". Oxford
Dictionary of National Biography (2004 ed.).