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HERBERT ALLEN GILES (8 December 1845 – 13 February 1935) was a British diplomat and sinologist who was the professor of Chinese at Cambridge
Cambridge
University for 35 years. Giles was educated at Charterhouse School before becoming a British diplomat in China. He modified a Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
romanisation system established by Thomas Wade , resulting in the widely known Wade–GilesChinese romanisation system. Among his many works were translations of the _Analects of Confucius _, the _Lao Tzu (Tao Te Ching) _, the _Chuang Tzu _, and, in 1892, the widely published _ A Chinese-English Dictionary_.

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography * 2 Legacy * 3 Diplomatic postings * 4 Awards * 5 Written works * 6 Translations * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links

BIOGRAPHY

Herbert A. Giles was the fourth son of John Allen Giles (1808–1884), an Anglican
Anglican
clergyman. After studying at Charterhouse , Herbert became a British diplomat to Qing China , serving from 1867 to 1892. He also spent several years (1885–1888) at Fort Santo Domingo in Tamsui
Tamsui
, northern Taiwan . He was the father of Bertram, Valentine, Lancelot, Edith, Mable, and Lionel Giles. In 1897 Herbert Giles became only the second professor of Chinese language
Chinese language
appointed at the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
, succeeding Thomas Wade . At the time of his appointment, there were no other sinologists at Cambridge. Giles was therefore free to spend most of his time among the ancient Chinese texts earlier donated by Wade, publishing what he chose to translate from his eclectic reading in Chinese literature.

His later works include a history of the Chinese Pictorial Art in 1905 and his 1914 Hibbert Lectureson Confucianism
Confucianism
which was published in 1915 by Williams and Norgate(de). He dedicated the third edition of _ Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio_ (1916) to his seven grandchildren, but at the end of his life was on speaking terms with only one of his surviving children. An ardent agnostic, he was also an enthusiastic freemason . He never became a Fellow
Fellow
at one of the constituent colleges of the University of Cambridge, despite being a university professor for 35 years. He finally retired in 1932, and died in his ninetieth year.

LEGACY

Giles received the Prix Julienaward from the French Academyin 1897 for his _Chinese Biographical Dictionary_. Generally considered unreliable among modern academics, Endymion Wilkinsondescribed it as:

full of inaccuracies and the selection leaves much to be desired. Between one third and a half of the dates are wrong because Giles supposed that if somebody is recorded as having died in 1200 aged 63 he or she must have been born in 1137 (in most cases 1138 would have been a better guess).

He also ran afoul of the Chinese scholar Gu Hongming, who declared

Dr. Giles' Chinese biographical dictionary, it must be admitted, is a work of immense labour. But here again Dr. Giles shows an utter lack of the most ordinary judgment. In such a work, one would expect to find notices only of really notable men.

Nor did Gu appreciate Giles' great _Chinese-English Dictionary_ describing it as

... in no sense a dictionary at all. It is merely a collection of Chinese phrases and sentences, translated by Dr. Giles without any attempt at selection, arrangement, order or method," and "decidedly of less value than even the old dictionary of Dr. Williams."

DIPLOMATIC POSTINGS

* British Vice Consulat Pagoda Island, Mawei (1880–1883) * British Vice Consulat Shanghai (1883–1885) * British Consul at Tamsui
Tamsui
(1885–1891) * British Consul at Ningpo(1891–1893)

AWARDS

List of awards and honours:

* Order of Chia-Ho * Gold medal of the Royal Asiatic Society * Prix St. Julien by the French Academy(twice) * Honorary degrees from the University of Aberdeen(1897) and University of Oxford
Oxford
(1924)

WRITTEN WORKS

* Giles, Herbert Allen (1872). _Chinese Without a Teacher_. A.H. de Carvalho. * — (1873). _A Dictionary of Colloquial Idioms in the Mandarin Dialect_. A.H. De Carvalho. * — (1874). _Synoptical Studies in the Chinese Character_. Kelly & Company. * — (1876). _Chinese Sketches_. Trübner & Company. Archived from the original on March 28, 2006. * — (1877). _Record of the Buddhistic Kingdoms_. Trübner & Co. * — (1877). _Handbook of the Swatow Dialect: With a Vocabulary. _.

* — (1877). _From Swatow to Canton: (overland)_. Trübner. * — (1878). _A glossary of reference, on subjects connected with the Far east_. * — (1879). _On Some Translations and Mistranslations in Dr. Williams\' Syllabic Dictionary of the Chinese Language_. A.A. Marçal.

* — (1892). _A Chinese-English Dictionary_. B. Quaritch. Volume 1 * — (1892). _A Chinese Biographical Dictionary_. B. Quaritch. Volumes 1-2 * — (1898). _Chinese Poetry in English Verse_. * Wade, Thomas Francis; Cambridge
Cambridge
University Library (1898). _A catalog of the Wade collection of Chinese and Manchu books in the library of the University of Cambridge_. Compiled by Herbert Allen Giles. University Press. Retrieved 24 April 2014. * — (1901). _ History of Chinese Literature_. * _Great Religions of the World_ (1901) * — (1901). _Chinese Without a Teacher: Being a Collection of Easy and Useful Sentences in the Mandarin Dialect, with a Vocabulary_. Kelly & Walsh, limited. * — (1902). _China and the Chinese_. Columbia University Press, The Macmillan company agents. * Thomas Lowndes Bullock; Herbert Allen Giles (1902). _Progressive Exercises in the Chinese Written Language_. Kelly & Walsh, limited. * Launcelot Cranmer-Byng; Herbert Allen Giles (1902). _The never-ending wrong: and other renderings of the Chinese from the prose translations of Herbert A. Giles_. Grant Richards. * Giles, Herbert Allen (1905). _An Introduction to the History of Chinese Pictorial Art_. Keloy & Walsh, ld. * _The Religions of Ancient China_ (1906) * — (1911). _Chinese Fairy Tales_. * — (1911). _ The Civilization of China_. * — (1912). _China and the Manchus_. The University Press. * "China" in _History of the Nations_ (1913) * _ Confucianism
Confucianism
and Its Rivals_ (1915) * _How to Begin Chinese: The Hundred Best Characters_ (1919) * _The Second Hundred Best Characters_ (1922) * _Revision of Bullock's Progressive Exercises_ (1922) * _Chuang Tzǔ: Mystic, Moralist, and Social Reformer_ (1926, Shanghai) * _The Chinese and Their Food_ (_Zhonghua Fanshi_) (1947, Shanghai) (posthumous) * "The Memoirs of H.A. Giles," _East Asian History_ 13 (1997): 1–90. Dated 1925.

TRANSLATIONS

* Sungling P'u (1880). _Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio_. T. De la Rue & Company. * Lao Tzu (1886). _The Remains of Lao Tzu_.

REFERENCES

* ^ "Herbert Allen GILES (1845–1935)" on the Cambridge
Cambridge
University Library website * ^ "Giles, Herbert Allen (GLS932HA)". _A Cambridge
Cambridge
Alumni Database_. University of Cambridge. * ^ Aylmer, Charles, East Asian History13–14, 1997, pp. 1–7; Sterckx, Roel, _In the Fields of Shennong: An inaugural lecture delivered before the University of Cambridge
Cambridge
on 30 September 2008 to mark the establishment of the Joseph Needham Professorship of Chinese History, Science and Civilization_. Cambridge: Needham Research Institute, 2008. * ^ "_An Introduction to the History of Chinese Pictorial Art_ by Herbert A. Giles". _The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs_. 7 (29): 405. August 1905. JSTOR
JSTOR
856445 . * ^ Chavannes, Ed. (1905). "_An Introduction to the History of Chinese Pictorial Art_ by H. A. Giles". _T'oung Pao_. Second Series. 6 (2): 251. JSTOR
JSTOR
4525813 . * ^ Giles, Herbert A. (January 1916). " Confucianism
Confucianism
and Its Rivals". _ The Journal of Race Development_. 6 (3): 350. JSTOR 29738158 . doi :10.2307/29738158 . * ^ Schlegel, G. (1897). "古今姓氏族譜, _A Chinese Biographical Dictionary_ by Herbert A. Giles". _T'oung Pao_. 8 (4): 438–441. JSTOR
JSTOR
4525305 . * ^ Kennedy, George A. (July–September 1950). "Dates in Giles' Biographical Dictionary". _Journal of the American Oriental Society_. 70 (3): 188–189. JSTOR
JSTOR
596269 . doi :10.2307/596269 . * ^ Endymion Wilkinson(2000). _Chinese History: A Manual_. Harvard University Asia Center . p. 157. ISBN 978-0-674-00249-4 . * ^ "A Great Sinologue," in _The Spirit of the Chinese People_ Wikisource * ^ Ryan, Janette. "Giles, Herbert Allen (1845–1935)". _Oxford Dictionary of National Biography_ (2004 ed.). Oxford
Oxford
University Press. doi :10.1093/ref:odnb/33401 . Accessed 29 August 2016.

SOURCES

* Cooley, James C., Jr. _T.F. Wade in China: Pioneer in Global Diplomacy 1842–1882._ Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1981. * Minford, John and Tong Man. "Whose Strange Stories? P\'u Sung-ling (1640–1715), Herbert Giles
Herbert Giles
(1845–1935), and the _Liao-chai chih-i_" (Archive)._ East Asian History_ 17/18 (1999), pp. 1–48. Accessed 1 February 2014. * Giles, Herbert, Edited and with an Introduction by Charles Aylmer, "The Memoirs of H.A. Giles, The," East Asian History.13 (1997): 1–90. * _ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica _ (11th ed.). Cambridge
Cambridge
University Press.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* United Kingdom portal * Biography portal * China portal