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HERA (/ˈhɛrə/ , /ˈhɪərə/ ; Greek : Ἥρᾱ Hērā, equivalently Ἥρη Hērē, in Ionic and Homer
Homer
) is the goddess of women and marriage in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
and religion . She is the daughter of the Titans Cronus and Rhea . Hera
Hera
is married to her brother Zeus
Zeus
and is titled as the Queen of Heaven. One of her characteristics is her jealous and vengeful nature against Zeus's other lovers and offspring and against the mortals who cross her.

Hera
Hera
is commonly seen with the animals she considers sacred including the cow , lion and the peacock . Portrayed as majestic and solemn, often enthroned, and crowned with the polos (a high cylindrical crown worn by several of the Great Goddesses ), Hera
Hera
may hold a pomegranate in her hand, emblem of fertile blood and death and a substitute for the narcotic capsule of the opium poppy. Scholar of Greek mythology Walter Burkert writes in Greek Religion, "Nevertheless, there are memories of an earlier aniconic representation, as a pillar in Argos and as a plank in Samos."

Her counterpart in the religion of ancient Rome was Juno .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 Cult

* 2.1 Importance * 2.2 Matriarchy * 2.3 Origin and birth * 2.4 Youth

* 3 Emblems

* 3.1 Epithets

* 4 Marriage to Zeus
Zeus

* 4.1 Children

* 5 Important stories involving Hera
Hera

* 5.1 Heracles
Heracles
* 5.2 Leto
Leto
and the Twins: Apollo
Apollo
and Artemis
Artemis
* 5.3 Io and Argus * 5.4 The Judgment of Paris * 5.5 The Iliad
Iliad

* 6 Smaller stories involving Hera
Hera
* 7 Genealogy * 8 Art and Events * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 External links

ETYMOLOGY

The name of Hera
Hera
may have several of mutually exclusive etymologies; one possibility is to connect it with Greek ὥρα hōra, season, and to interpret it as ripe for marriage and according to Plato ἐρατή eratē, "beloved" as Zeus
Zeus
is said to have married her for love. According to Plutarch
Plutarch
, Hera
Hera
was an allegorical name and an anagram of aēr (ἀήρ, "air"). So begins the section on Hera
Hera
in Walter Burkert 's Greek Religion. In a note, he records other scholars' arguments "for the meaning Mistress as a feminine to Heros, Master." John Chadwick , a decipherer of Linear B
Linear B
, remarks "her name may be connected with hērōs, ἥρως, 'hero', but that is no help, since it too is etymologically obscure." A. J. van Windekens, offers "young cow, heifer", which is consonant with Hera's common epithet βοῶπις (boōpis, "cow-eyed"). R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin. Her name is attested in Mycenaean Greek
Mycenaean Greek
written in the Linear B
Linear B
syllabic script as 𐀁𐀨, e-ra, appearing on tablets found in Pylos
Pylos
and Thebes .

CULT

Hera
Hera
may have been the first deity to whom the Greeks dedicated an enclosed roofed temple sanctuary, at Samos about 800 BCE. It was replaced later by the Heraion , one of the largest of all Greek temples (Greek altars were in front of the temples, under the open sky). There were many temples built on this site so evidence is somewhat confusing and archaeological dates are uncertain.

The temple created by the Rhoecus sculptors and architects was destroyed between 570-560 BCE. This was replaced by the Polycratean temple 540-530 BCE. In one of these temples we see a forest of 155 columns. There is also no evidence of tiles on this temple suggesting either the temple was never finished or that the temple was open to the sky.

Earlier sanctuaries, whose dedication to Hera
Hera
is less certain, were of the Mycenaean type called "house sanctuaries". Samos excavations have revealed votive offerings, many of them late 8th and 7th centuries BCE, which show that Hera
Hera
at Samos was not merely a local Greek goddess of the Aegean : the museum there contains figures of gods and suppliants and other votive offerings from Armenia
Armenia
, Babylon , Iran
Iran
, Assyria
Assyria
, Egypt
Egypt
, testimony to the reputation which this sanctuary of Hera
Hera
enjoyed and to the large influx of pilgrims. Compared to this mighty goddess, who also possessed the earliest temple at Olympia and two of the great fifth and sixth century temples of Paestum
Paestum
, the termagant of Homer
Homer
and the myths is an "almost...comic figure" according to Burkert. The Temple of Hera at Agrigento
Agrigento
, Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
.

Though greatest and earliest free-standing temple to Hera
Hera
was the Heraion of Samos, in the Greek mainland Hera
Hera
was especially worshipped as "Argive Hera" ( Hera
Hera
Argeia) at her sanctuary that stood between the former Mycenaean city-states of Argos
Argos
and Mycenae, where the festivals in her honor called Heraia were celebrated. "The three cities I love best," the ox-eyed Queen of Heaven declares ( Iliad
Iliad
, book iv) "are Argos, Sparta and Mycenae of the broad streets." There were also temples to Hera
Hera
in Olympia , Corinth , Tiryns
Tiryns
, Perachora and the sacred island of Delos
Delos
. In Magna Graecia
Magna Graecia
, two Doric temples to Hera
Hera
were constructed at Paestum
Paestum
, about 550 BCE and about 450 BCE. One of them, long called the Temple of Poseidon was identified in the 1950s as a second temple there of Hera.

In Euboea the festival of the Great Daedala , sacred to Hera, was celebrated on a sixty-year cycle.

Hera's importance in the early archaic period is attested by the large building projects undertaken in her honor. The temples of Hera in the two main centers of her cult , the Heraion of Samos and the Heraion of Argos
Argos
in the Argolid , were the very earliest monumental Greek temples constructed, in the 8th century BCE.

IMPORTANCE

According to Walter Burkert , both Hera
Hera
and Demeter have many characteristic attributes of Pre-Greek Great Goddesses.

According to the Homeric Hymn III to Delian Apollo
Apollo
, Hera
Hera
detained Eileithyia to already prevent Leto
Leto
from going into labor with Artemis and Apollo
Apollo
, since the father was Zeus
Zeus
. The other goddesses present at the birthing on Delos
Delos
sent Iris to bring her. As she stepped upon the island, the divine birth began. In the myth of the birth of Heracles
Heracles
, it is Hera
Hera
herself who sits at the door instead, delaying the birth of Heracles
Heracles
until her protégé, Eurystheus , had been born first.

The Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo
Apollo
makes the monster Typhaon the offspring of archaic Hera
Hera
in her Minoan form, produced out of herself, like a monstrous version of Hephaestus , and whelped in a cave in Cilicia . She gave the creature to Python to raise. Roman copy of a Greek 5th century Hera
Hera
of the " Barberini Hera " type, from the Museo Chiaramonti

In the Temple of Hera
Hera
at Olympia, Hera's seated cult figure was older than the warrior figure of Zeus
Zeus
that accompanied it. Homer
Homer
expressed her relationship with Zeus
Zeus
delicately in the Iliad
Iliad
, in which she declares to Zeus, "I am Cronus ' eldest daughter, and am honourable not on this ground only, but also because I am your wife, and you are king of the gods." Though Zeus
Zeus
is often called Zeus
Zeus
Heraios 'Zeus, (consort) of Hera', Homer's treatment of Hera
Hera
is less than respectful, and in late anecdotal versions of the myths (see below) she appeared to spend most of her time plotting revenge on the nymphs seduced by her consort, for Hera
Hera
upheld all the old right rules of Hellene society and sorority.

MATRIARCHY

There has been considerable scholarship, reaching back to Johann Jakob Bachofen in the mid-nineteenth century, about the possibility that Hera, whose early importance in Greek religion is firmly established, was originally the goddess of a matriarchal people, presumably inhabiting Greece before the Hellenes . In this view, her activity as goddess of marriage established the patriarchal bond of her own subordination: her resistance to the conquests of Zeus
Zeus
is rendered as Hera's "jealousy", the main theme of literary anecdotes that undercut her ancient cult .

However, it remains a controversial claim that primitive matriarchy existed in Greece or elsewhere.

ORIGIN AND BIRTH

Hera
Hera
is the daughter of the youngest Titan Cronus and his wife, and sister, Rhea . Cronus was fated to be overthrown by one of his children; to prevent this, he swallowed all of his newborn children whole until Rhea tricked him into swallowing a stone instead of her youngest child, Zeus. Zeus
Zeus
grew up in secret and when he grew up he tricked his father into regurgitating his siblings, including Hera. Zeus
Zeus
then led the revolt against the Titans, banished them, and divided the dominion over the world with his brothers Poseidon and Hades
Hades
.

YOUTH

Hera
Hera
was most known as the matron goddess, Hera
Hera
Teleia; but she presided over weddings as well. In myth and cult, fragmentary references and archaic practices remain of the sacred marriage of Hera and Zeus, and at Plataea
Plataea
, there was a sculpture of Hera
Hera
seated as a bride by Callimachus
Callimachus
, as well as the matronly standing Hera.

Hera
Hera
was also worshipped as a virgin : there was a tradition in Stymphalia
Stymphalia
in Arcadia that there had been a triple shrine to Hera
Hera
the Girl (Παις ), the Adult Woman (Τελεια ), and the Separated (Χήρη 'Widowed' or 'Divorced'). In the region around Argos
Argos
, the temple of Hera
Hera
in Hermione near Argos
Argos
was to Hera
Hera
the Virgin. At the spring of Kanathos , close to Nauplia , Hera
Hera
renewed her virginity annually, in rites that were not to be spoken of (arrheton). The Female figure, showing her "Moon" over the lake is also appropriate, as Hebe , Hera, and Hecate
Hecate
; new moon, full moon, and old moon in that order and otherwise personified as the Virgin
Virgin
of spring, The Mother of Summer, and the destroying Crone of Autumn.

EMBLEMS

In Hellenistic
Hellenistic
imagery, Hera's chariot was pulled by peacocks, birds not known to Greeks before the conquests of Alexander . Alexander's tutor, Aristotle
Aristotle
, refers to it as "the Persian bird." The peacock motif was revived in the Renaissance
Renaissance
iconography that unified Hera
Hera
and Juno, and which European painters focused on. A bird that had been associated with Hera
Hera
on an archaic level, where most of the Aegean goddesses were associated with "their" bird, was the cuckoo , which appears in mythic fragments concerning the first wooing of a virginal Hera
Hera
by Zeus.

Her archaic association was primarily with cattle, as a Cow Goddess, who was especially venerated in "cattle-rich" Euboea . On Cyprus
Cyprus
, very early archaeological sites contain bull skulls that have been adapted for use as masks (see Bull (mythology) ). Her familiar Homeric epithet Boôpis, is always translated "cow-eyed". In this respect, Hera
Hera
bears some resemblance to the Ancient Egyptian deity Hathor
Hathor
, a maternal goddess associated with cattle.

EPITHETS

Hera
Hera
bore several epithets in the mythological tradition, including:

* Αἰγοφάγος (Aigophágos) 'Goat-Eater' (among the Lacedaemonians ) * Ἀκραῖα (Akráia ) '(She) of the Heights' * Ἀμμωνία (Ammonia ) * Ἀργεία (Argéia) '(She) of Argos
Argos
' * Βασίλεια (Basíleia) 'Queen' * Βουναία (Bounáia) '(She) of the Mound' (in Corinth ) * Βοῶπις (Boṓpis) 'Cow-Eyed' or 'Cow-Faced' * Λευκώλενος (Leukṓlenos) 'White-Armed' * Παῖς (Pais) 'Child' (in her role as virgin) * Παρθένος (Parthénos) 'Virgin' * Τελεία (Teléia) (as goddess of marriage) * Χήρη (Chḗrē) 'Widowed'

MARRIAGE TO ZEUS

Hera
Hera
is known for her jealousy; even Zeus, who is known to fear nothing, feared her tantrums. Zeus
Zeus
fell in love with Hera
Hera
but she refused his first marriage proposal. Zeus
Zeus
then preyed on her empathy for animals and other beings, created a thunderstorm and transformed himself into a little cuckoo. As a cuckoo, Zeus
Zeus
pretended to be in distress outside her window. Hera, feeling pity towards the bird brought it inside and held it to her breast to warm it. Zeus
Zeus
then transformed back into himself and took advantage of her. Hera, ashamed of being exploited, agreed to marriage with Zeus. All of nature burst into bloom for their wedding and many gifts were exchanged.

Zeus
Zeus
loved Hera, but he also loved Greece and often snuck down to Earth in disguise to marry and bear children with the mortals. He wanted many children to inherit his greatness and become great heroes and rulers of Greece. Hera's jealousy towards all of Zeus' lovers and children caused her to continuously torment them and Zeus
Zeus
was powerless to stop his wife. Hera
Hera
was always aware of Zeus' trickery and kept very close watch over him and his excursions to Earth.

Hera
Hera
"presided over the right arrangements of the marriage and is the archetype of the union in the marriage bed." However, she is not notable as a mother.

CHILDREN

NAME FATHER FUNCTIONS EXPLANATION

Angelos Zeus An underworld goddess Her story only survives in scholia on Theocritus
Theocritus
' Idyll 2. She was raised by nymphs . One day she stole Hera's anointments and gave them away to Europe . To escape her mother's wrath, she tried to hide herself. Hera
Hera
eventually ceased from prosecuting her, and Zeus
Zeus
ordered the Cabeiroi to cleanse Angelos. They performed the purification rite in the waters of the Acherusia Lake in the U nderworld . Consequently, she received the world of the dead as her realm of influence, and was assigned an epithet katachthonia ("she of the underworld").

Ares
Ares
Zeus God of war According to Hesiod 's Theogony , he was a son of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera.

Eileithyia Zeus Goddess of childbirth In Theogony and other sources, she is described as a daughter of Hera
Hera
by Zeus. Although, the meticulously accurate mythographer Pindar in Seventh Nemean Ode mentions Hera
Hera
as Eileithyia's mother but makes no mention of Zeus.

Enyo Zeus A war goddess She was responsible with the destruction of cities and an attendant of Ares, though Homer
Homer
equates Enyo with Eris.

Eris Zeus Goddess of discord She appears in Homer
Homer
's Iliad
Iliad
Book IV; equated with Enyo as sister of Ares
Ares
and so presumably daughter of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera.

Hebe Zeus/– Goddess of youth She was a daughter of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera. In an alternative version, Hera
Hera
alone produced Hebe after being impregnated by a head of lettuce.

Hephaestus Zeus/– God of fire and the forge Attested by the Greek poet Hesiod, Hera
Hera
was jealous of Zeus' giving birth to Athena
Athena
with Metis , so she gave birth to Hephaestus without union with Zeus, although in some stories, he is the son of her and Zeus. Hera
Hera
was then disgusted with Hephaestus' ugliness and threw him from Mount Olympus . Hephaestus gained revenge against Hera
Hera
for rejecting him by making her a magical throne which, when she sat on, did not allow her to leave. The other gods begged Hephaestus to return to Olympus to let her go, but he repeatedly refused. Dionysus got him drunk and took him back to Olympus on the back of a mule. Hephaestus released Hera
Hera
after being given Aphrodite as his wife.

Typhon
Typhon
– Serpent-monster Typhon
Typhon
is presented both as the son of Hera
Hera
(in Homer’s Pythian Hymn to Apollo) and as the son of Gaia (in Hesiod’s Theogony). According to the Homeric Hymn to Apollo
Apollo
(6th century BC), Typhon
Typhon
who was the parthenogenous child of Hera, whom she bore alone as a revenge at Zeus
Zeus
who had given birth to Athena. Hera
Hera
prayed to Gaia to give her a son as strong as Zeus, then slapped the ground and became pregnant. Hera
Hera
gave the infant Typhon
Typhon
to the serpent Python to raise, and Typhon grew up to become a great bane to mortals. The b scholia to Iliad 2.783, however, has Typhon
Typhon
born in Cilicia as the offspring of Cronus. Gaia, angry at the destruction of the Giants, slanders Zeus
Zeus
to Hera. So Hera
Hera
goes to Cronus and he gives Hera
Hera
two eggs smeared with his own semen, telling her to bury them, and that from them would be born one who would overthrow Zeus. Hera, angry at Zeus, buries the eggs in Cilicia "under Arimon", but when Typhon
Typhon
is born, Hera, now reconciled with Zeus, informs him.

IMPORTANT STORIES INVOLVING HERA

HERACLES

Heracles
Heracles
strangling the snakes sent by Hera, Attic red-figured stamnos , ca. 480–470 BCE. From Vulci
Vulci
, Etruria
Etruria
.

Hera
Hera
is the stepmother and enemy of Heracles
Heracles
. The name Heracles means "Glory of Hera". When Alcmene
Alcmene
was pregnant with Zeus' child Heracles, Hera
Hera
tried to prevent the birth from occurring by having Eileithyia tie Alcmene's legs in knots. Her attempt was foiled when Galanthis frightened Eileithyia while she was tying Alcmene's legs and Heracles
Heracles
was born. Hera
Hera
thus punishes Galanthis by turning her into a weasel .

Hera's wrath against Zeus' son continues and while Heracles
Heracles
is still an infant, Hera
Hera
sends two serpents to kill him as he lay in his cot. Heracles
Heracles
throttles the snakes with his bare hands and was found by his nurse playing with their limp bodies as if they were a child's toy.

When Heracles
Heracles
reached adulthood, Hera
Hera
drove him mad , which lead him to murder his family and this later led to him undertaking his famous labours.

Later she stirred up the Amazons against him when he was on one of his quests. The Origin of the Milky Way by Jacopo Tintoretto
Jacopo Tintoretto
.

One account of the origin of the Milky Way is that Zeus
Zeus
had tricked Hera
Hera
into nursing the infant Heracles: discovering who he was, she pulled him from her breast, and a spurt of her milk formed the smear across the sky that can be seen to this day. Unlike any Greeks, the Etruscans instead pictured a full-grown bearded Heracles
Heracles
at Hera's breast: this may refer to his adoption by her when he became an Immortal. He had previously wounded her severely in the breast.

Hera
Hera
assigned Heracles
Heracles
to labor for King Eurystheus at Mycenae. She attempted to make almost each of Heracles' twelve labors more difficult.

When he fought the Lernaean Hydra
Lernaean Hydra
, she sent a crab to bite at his feet in the hopes of distracting him. When Heracles
Heracles
took the cattle of Geryon
Geryon
, he shot Hera
Hera
in the right breast with a triple-barbed arrow: the wound was incurable and left her in constant pain, as Dione tells Aphrodite in the Iliad
Iliad
, Book V. Afterwards, Hera
Hera
sent a gadfly to bite the cattle, irritate them and scatter them. Hera
Hera
then sent a flood which raised the water level of a river so much that Heracles could not ford the river with the cattle. He piled stones into the river to make the water shallower. When he finally reached the court of Eurystheus, the cattle were sacrificed to Hera.

Eurystheus also wanted to sacrifice the Cretan Bull to Hera. She refused the sacrifice because it reflected glory on Heracles. The bull was released and wandered to Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull .

Some myths state that in the end, Heracles
Heracles
befriended Hera
Hera
by saving her from Porphyrion , a giant who tried to rape her during the Gigantomachy , and that she even gave her daughter Hebe as his bride. Whatever myth-making served to account for an archaic representation of Heracles
Heracles
as "Hera's man" it was thought suitable for the builders of the Heraion at Paestum
Paestum
to depict the exploits of Heracles
Heracles
in bas-reliefs . Hera
Hera
(according to inscription); tondo of an Attic white-ground kylix from Vulci
Vulci
, ca. 470 BC

LETO AND THE TWINS: APOLLO AND ARTEMIS

When Hera
Hera
discovered that Leto
Leto
was pregnant and that Zeus
Zeus
was the father, she convinced the nature spirits to prevent Leto
Leto
from giving birth on terra-firma, the mainland, or any island at sea. Poseidon gave pity to Leto
Leto
and guided her to the floating island of Delos
Delos
, which was neither mainland nor a real island where Leto
Leto
was able to give birth to her children. As a gesture of gratitude, Delos
Delos
was secured with four pillars. The island later became sacred to Apollo. Alternatively, Hera
Hera
kidnapped Eileithyia , the goddess of childbirth, to prevent Leto
Leto
from going into labor. The other gods bribed Hera
Hera
with a beautiful necklace nobody could resist and she finally gave in.

Either way, Artemis
Artemis
was born first and then assisted with the birth of Apollo. Some versions say Artemis
Artemis
helped her mother give birth to Apollo
Apollo
for nine days. Another variation states that Artemis
Artemis
was born one day before Apollo, on the island of Ortygia and that she helped Leto
Leto
cross the sea to Delos
Delos
the next day to give birth to Apollo.

IO AND ARGUS

Io with Zeus
Zeus
by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino
Giovanni Ambrogio Figino
.

Hera
Hera
saw a lone thundercloud and raced down in an attempt to catch Zeus
Zeus
with a mistress. Zeus
Zeus
saw her coming and transformed his new bride Io into a little snow-white cow. However, Hera
Hera
was not fooled and demanded that Zeus
Zeus
give her the heifer as a present. Zeus
Zeus
could not refuse his queen without drawing suspicion so he had to give her the beautiful heifer.

Once Io was given to Hera, she tied her to a tree and sent her servant Argus to keep Io separated from Zeus. Argus was a loyal servant to Hera
Hera
and he has immense strength and one hundred eyes all over his body. It was not possible to go past Argus since he never closed more than half his eyes at any time. Zeus
Zeus
was afraid of Hera's wrath could not personally intervene, so to save Io, he commanded Hermes
Hermes
to kill Argus, which he does by lulling all one hundred eyes into eternal sleep. In Ovid
Ovid
's interpolation, when Hera
Hera
learned of Argus' death, she took his eyes and placed them in the plumage of the peacock , her favorite animal, accounting for the eye pattern in its tail and making it the vainest of all animals. Hera, furious about Io being free and the death of Argus, sent a gadfly (Greek oistros, compare oestrus ) to sting Io as she wandered the earth. Eventually Io made it to Egypt
Egypt
, the Egyptians worshiped the snow-white heifer and named her the Egyptian goddess Isis
Isis
. Hera
Hera
permitted Zeus
Zeus
to change Io back into her human form, under the condition that he never look at her again. Io, the goddess-queen of Egypt, then bore Zeus' son as the next King.

THE JUDGMENT OF PARIS

Main article: Judgement of Paris This is one of the many works depicting the event. Hera
Hera
is the goddess in the center, wearing the crown. Das Urteil des Paris by Anton Raphael Mengs
Anton Raphael Mengs
, ca. 1757

A prophecy stated that a son of the sea-nymph Thetis
Thetis
, with whom Zeus fell in love after gazing upon her in the oceans off the Greek coast, would become greater than his father. Possibly for this reasons, Thetis
Thetis
was betrothed to an elderly human king, Peleus son of Aeacus , either upon Zeus' orders, or because she wished to please Hera, who had raised her. All the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus and Thetis
Thetis
(the eventual parents of Achilles ) and brought many gifts. Only Eris, goddess of discord, was not invited and was stopped at the door by Hermes, on Zeus' order. She was annoyed at this, so she threw from the door a gift of her own: a golden apple inscribed with the word καλλίστῃ (kallistēi, "To the fairest"). Aphrodite , Hera, and Athena
Athena
all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple.

The goddesses quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one, for fear of earning the enmity of the other two. They chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris , a Trojan prince. After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida where Troy
Troy
was situated, they appeared before Paris to have him choose. The goddesses undressed before him, either at his request or for the sake of winning. Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful, so they resorted to bribes. Hera
Hera
offered Paris political power and control of all of Asia , while Athena
Athena
offered wisdom, fame, and glory in battle, and Aphrodite offered the most beautiful mortal woman in the world as a wife, and he accordingly chose her. This woman was Helen , who was, unfortunately for Paris, already married to King Menelaus of Sparta . The other two goddesses were enraged by this and through Helen's abduction by Paris they brought about the Trojan War .

THE ILIAD

Hera
Hera
plays a substantial role in The Iliad
Iliad
, appearing in a number of books throughout the epic poem. In accordance with ancient Greek mythology, Hera's hatred towards the Trojans , which was started by Paris' decision that Aphrodite was the most beautiful goddess, is seen as through her support of the Greeks during the war. Throughout the epic Hera
Hera
makes many attempts to thwart the Trojan army. In books 1 and 2, Hera
Hera
declares that the Trojans must be destroyed. Hera persuades Athena
Athena
to aid the Achaeans in battle and she agrees to assist with interfering on their behalf.

In book 5, Hera
Hera
and Athena
Athena
plot to harm Ares
Ares
, who had been seen by Diomedes in assisting the Trojans. Diomedes called for his soldiers to fall back slowly. Hera, Ares' mother, saw Ares' interference and asked Zeus
Zeus
, Ares' father, for permission to drive Ares
Ares
away from the battlefield. Hera
Hera
encouraged Diomedes to attack Ares
Ares
and he threw his spear at the god. Athena
Athena
drove the spear into Ares' body, and he bellowed in pain and fled to Mt. Olympus , forcing the Trojans to fall back. Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida by James Barry , 1773 (City Art Galleries, Sheffield.)

In book 8, Hera
Hera
tries to persuade Poseidon to disobey Zeus
Zeus
and help the Achaean army. He refuses, saying he doesn’t want to go against Zeus. Determined to intervene in the war, Hera
Hera
and Athena
Athena
head to the battlefield. However, seeing the two flee, Zeus
Zeus
sent Iris to intercept them and make them return to Mt. Olympus or face grave consequences. After prolonged fighting, Hera
Hera
sees Poseidon aiding the Greeks and giving them motivation to keep fighting.

In book 14 Hera
Hera
devises a plan to deceive Zeus. Zeus
Zeus
set a decree that the gods were not allowed to interfere in the mortal war. Hera
Hera
is on the side of the Achaeans, so she plans a Deception of Zeus
Zeus
where she seduces him, with help from Aphrodite, and tricks him into a deep sleep, with the help of Hypnos , so that the Gods could interfere without the fear of Zeus.

In book 21, Hera
Hera
continues her interference with the battle as she tells Hephaestus to prevent the river from harming Achilles . Hephaestus sets the battlefield ablaze, causing the river to plead with Hera, promising her he will not help the Trojans if Hephaestus stops his attack. Hephaestus stops his assault and Hera
Hera
returns to the battlefield where the gods begin to fight amongst themselves.

SMALLER STORIES INVOLVING HERA

ECHO

* According to the urbane retelling of myth in Ovid
Ovid
's Metamorphoses , for a long time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from Zeus
Zeus
' affairs by leading her away and flattering her. When Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to only repeat the words of others (hence our modern word "echo ").

SEMELE AND DIONYSUS

* When Hera
Hera
learned that Semele , daughter of Cadmus King of Thebes , was pregnant by Zeus, she disguised herself as Semele's nurse and persuaded the princess to insist that Zeus
Zeus
show himself to her in his true form. When he was compelled to do so, having sworn by Styx
Styx
his thunder and lightning destroyed Semele. Zeus
Zeus
took Semele's unborn child, Dionysus and completed its gestation sewn into his own thigh. * In another version, Dionysus was originally the son of Zeus
Zeus
by either Demeter or Persephone
Persephone
. Hera
Hera
sent her Titans to rip the baby apart, from which he was called Zagreus ("Torn in Pieces"). Zeus rescued the heart; or, the heart was saved, variously, by Athena
Athena
, Rhea , or Demeter . Zeus
Zeus
used the heart to recreate Dionysus and implant him in the womb of Semele—hence Dionysus became known as "the twice-born". Certain versions imply that Zeus
Zeus
gave Semele the heart to eat to impregnate her. Hera
Hera
tricked Semele into asking Zeus to reveal his true form, which killed her. Dionysus later managed to rescue his mother from the underworld and have her live on Mount Olympus. * See also Dionysus\' birth for other variations.

LAMIA

* Lamia was a queen of Libya
Libya
, whom Zeus
Zeus
loved. Hera
Hera
turned her into a monster and murdered their children. Or, alternatively, she killed Lamia's children and the grief turned her into a monster. Lamia was cursed with the inability to close her eyes so that she would always obsess over the image of her dead children. Zeus
Zeus
gave her the gift to be able to take her eyes out to rest, and then put them back in. Lamia was envious of other mothers and ate their children.

GERANA

* Gerana was a queen of the Pygmies who boasted she was more beautiful than Hera. The wrathful goddess turned her into a crane and proclaimed that her bird descendants should wage eternal war on the Pygmy folk.

Hera
Hera
and Prometheus
Prometheus
, tondo of a 5th-century BCE cup from Vulci , Etruria
Etruria

CYDIPPE

* Cydippe , a priestess of Hera, was on her way to a festival in the goddess' honor. The oxen which were to pull her cart were overdue and her sons, Biton and Cleobis , pulled the cart the entire way (45 stadia , 8 kilometers). Cydippe was impressed with their devotion to her and Hera
Hera
so asked Hera
Hera
to give her children the best gift a god could give a person. Hera
Hera
ordained that the brothers would die in their sleep. * This honor bestowed upon the children was later used by Solon , as a proof while trying to convince Croesus
Croesus
that it is impossible to judge a person's happiness until they have died a fruitful death after a joyous life.

TIRESIAS

* Tiresias
Tiresias
was a priest of Zeus, and as a young man he encountered two snakes mating and hit them with a stick. He was then transformed into a woman. As a woman, Tiresias
Tiresias
became a priestess of Hera, married and had children, including Manto . After seven years as a woman, Tiresias
Tiresias
again found mating snakes; depending on the myth, either she made sure to leave the snakes alone this time, or, according to Hyginus , trampled on them and became a man once more. * As a result of his experiences, Zeus
Zeus
and Hera
Hera
asked him to settle the question of which sex, male or female, experienced more pleasure during intercourse . Zeus
Zeus
claimed it was women; Hera
Hera
claimed it was men. When Tiresias
Tiresias
sided with Zeus, Hera
Hera
struck him blind. * Since Zeus
Zeus
could not undo what she had done, he gave him the gift of prophecy. An alternative and less commonly told story has it that Tiresias
Tiresias
was blinded by Athena
Athena
after he stumbled onto her bathing naked. His mother, Chariclo , begged her to undo her curse, but Athena could not; she gave him prophecy instead.

CHELONE

* At the marriage of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera, a nymph named Chelone was disrespectful or refused to attend. Zeus
Zeus
thus, turned her into a tortoise .

THE GOLDEN FLEECE

* Hera
Hera
hated Pelias because he had killed Sidero , his step-grandmother, in one of the goddess's temples. She later convinced Jason and Medea
Medea
to kill Pelias. The Golden Fleece was the item that Jason needed to get his mother freed.

THE METAMORPHOSES

* In Thrace
Thrace
, Hera
Hera
and Zeus
Zeus
turned King Haemus and Queen Rhodope into mountains, the Balkan ( Haemus Mons ) and Rhodope Mountains respectively, for their hubris in comparing themselves to the gods.

IXION

* When Zeus
Zeus
had pity on Ixion
Ixion
and brought him to Olympus and introduced him to the gods, instead of being grateful, Ixion
Ixion
grew lustful for Hera. Zeus
Zeus
found out about his intentions and made a cloud in the shape of Hera, who was later named Nephele , and tricked Ixion into coupling with it and from their union came Centaurus . So Ixion was expelled from Olympus and Zeus
Zeus
ordered Hermes
Hermes
to bind Ixion
Ixion
to a winged fiery wheel that was always spinning. Therefore, Ixion
Ixion
was bound to a burning solar wheel for all eternity, at first spinning across the heavens, but in later myth transferred to Tartarus .

GENEALOGY

HERA\'S FAMILY TREE

Uranus

Gaia

Uranus' genitals

Cronus

Rhea

Zeus
Zeus

HERA

Poseidon

Hades
Hades

Demeter

Hestia
Hestia

a

b

Ares
Ares

Hephaestus

Metis

Athena
Athena

Leto
Leto

Apollo
Apollo

Artemis
Artemis

Maia

Hermes
Hermes

Semele

Dionysus

Dione

a

b

Aphrodite

ART AND EVENTS

* Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal * Hellenismos portal

* Barberini Hera - a Roman sculpture of Hera/Juno * Hera Borghese - sculpture related to Hera * Hera Farnese - sculpture of Hera's head * Heraea Games - games dedicated to Hera—the first sanctioned (and recorded) women's athletic competition to be held in the stadium at Olympia .

NOTES

* ^ Ruck, Carl A.P., and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth, 1994. * ^ Walter Burkert , Greek Religion, (Harvard University Press) 1985, p. 131 * ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People , Haydock, 1995, p. 215. * ^ ἐρατός at LSJ * ^ Plato
Plato
, Cratylus , 404c * ^ On Isis
Isis
and Osiris, 32 * ^ Burkert , p. 131. * ^ Chadwick, The Mycenaean World (Cambridge University Press) 1976:87. * ^ Windekens, in Glotta 36 (1958), pp. 309-11. * ^ R. S. P. Beekes , Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 524. * ^ "The Linear B
Linear B
word e-ra". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of Ancient languages. Raymoure, K.A. "e-ra". Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean. * ^ Martin Persson Nilsson, The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and Its Survival in Greek Religion (Lund) 1950 pt. I.ii "House Sanctuaries", pp 77-116; H. W. Catling, "A Late Bronze Age House- or Sanctuary-Model from the Menelaion, Sparta," BSA 84 (1989) 171-175. * ^ Burkert , p. 132, including quote; Burkert: Orientalizing Revolution. * ^ Her name appears, with Zeus
Zeus
and Hermes, in a Linear B inscription (Tn 316) at Mycenean Pylos
Pylos
(John Chadwick, The Mycenaean World 1976:89). * ^ P.C. Sestieri, Paestum, the City, the Prehistoric Acropolis in Contrada Gaudo, and the Heraion at the Mouth of the Sele (Rome 1960), p. 11 etc. "It is odd that there was no temple dedicated to Poseidon in a city named for him ( Paestum
Paestum
was originally called Poseidonia). Perhaps there was one at Sele, the settlement that preceded Paestum," Sarantis Symeonoglou suggested (Symeonoglou, "The Doric Temples of Paestum" Journal of Aesthetic Education, 19.1, Special
Special
Issue: Paestum and Classical Culture: Past and Present p. 50. * ^ "The goddesses of Greek polytheism, so different and complementary"; Greek mythology
Greek mythology
scholar Walter Burkert has observed, in Homo Necans (1972) 1983:79f, "are nonetheless, consistently similar at an earlier stage, with one or the other simply becoming dominant in a sanctuary or city. Each is the Great Goddess presiding over a male society; each is depicted in her attire as Mistress of the Beasts , and Mistress of the Sacrifice, even Hera
Hera
and Demeter." * ^ Iliad, ii. 781-783) * ^ The Iliad
Iliad
by Homer
Homer
- Project Gutenberg * ^ Bachofen, Mutterrecht 1861, as Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World. Bachofen was seminal in the writings of Jane Ellen Harrison
Jane Ellen Harrison
and other students of Greek myth. * ^ Slater 1968. * ^ Steven Goldberg, The Inevitability of Patriarchy , (William Morrow Joan Bamberger,'The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule in Primitive Society', in M Rosaldo and L Lamphere, Women, Culture, and Society, (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1974), pp. 263-280; Donald E. Brown , Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press), 1991; Steven Goldberg, Why Men Rule , (Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1993); Cynthia Eller, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory : Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001); Jonathan Marks, 'Essay 8: Primate Behavior', in The Un-Textbook of Biological Anthropology, (Unpublished, 2007), p. 11; Encyclopædia Britannica describes this view as "consensus", listing matriarchy as a hypothetical social system. 'Matriarchy' Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007. * ^ " Cronus Greek god". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-12-04. * ^ Farnell, I 191, * ^ Pausanias, 9.2.7- 9.3.3; Pausanias explains this by telling the myth of the Daedala . * ^ Farnell, I 194, citing Pausanias 8.22.2' Pindar refers to the "praises of Hera
Hera
Parthenia " Olympian ode 6.88 * ^ S. Casson: " Hera
Hera
of Kanathos and the Ludovisi Throne" The Journal of Hellenic Studies 40.2 (1920), pp. 137-142, citing Stephanus of Byzantium sub Ernaion. * ^ Pausanias , 2.38.2-3. * ^ Robert Graves (1955), The Greek Myths . * ^ Barbara G. Walker (1983), The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, p.392 ISBN 0-06-250925-X * ^ Seznec, Jean, The Survival of the Pagan Gods : Mythological Tradition in Renaissance
Renaissance
Humanism and Art, 1953 * ^ Pausanias , iii. 15. § 7 * ^ James Joseph Clauss, Sarah Iles Johnston. Medea: Essays on Medea
Medea
in myth, literature, philosophy, and art, 1997. p.46 * ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon * ^ Heinrich Schliemann. Ilios: The city and country of the Trojans, 1881. * ^ A B Homeric Hymns * ^ A B C D E D'Aulaire, Ingri; D'Aulaire, Edgar Parin (1992). D'Aulaires' Book of Greek Myths. Delacorte Books for Young Readers. ISBN 0440406943 . * ^ See, Sally (2014-12-25). The Greek Myths. S&T. * ^ Scholia on Theocritus, Idyll 2. 12 referring to Sophron * ^ A B Theogony 921–922. * ^ Hesiod , Theogony 921–922; Homer
Homer
, Odyssey
Odyssey
11. 604–605; Pindar , Isthmian 4.59–60; Apollodorus , 1.3.1, and later authors. * ^ A B Detienne, Marcel (2002-11-25). The Writing of Orpheus: Greek Myth in Cultural Context. JHU Press. ISBN 9780801869549 . * ^ Theogony 924–929. * ^ In Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
viii. 312 Hephaestus addresses "Father Zeus"; cf. Homer, Iliad
Iliad
i. 578 (some scholars, such as Gantz, Early Greek Myth, p. 74, note that Hephaestus' reference to Zeus
Zeus
as 'father' here may be a general title), xiv. 338, xviii. 396, xxi. 332. See also Cicero
Cicero
, De Natura Deorum 3.22. * ^ A B Deris, Sara (2013-06-06). "Examining the Hephaestus Myth through a Disability Studies Perspective". Prandium: The Journal of Historical Studies at U of T Mississauga. 2 (1). * ^ The return of Hephaestus on muleback to Olympus accompanied by Dionysus was a theme of the Attic vase-painters, whose wares were favored by Etruscans. The return of Hephaestus was painted on the Etruscan tomb at the "Grotta Campana" near Veii (identified by Peterson; the "well-known subject" was doubted in this instance by A. M. Harmon, "The Paintings of the Grotta Campana", American Journal of Archaeology 16.1 (January - March 1912):1-10); for further examples, see Hephaestus#Return to Olympus . * ^ Decker, Jessica Elbert (2016-11-16). "Hail Hera, Mother of Monsters! Monstrosity as Emblem of Sexual Sovereignty". Women's Studies. 45 (8): 743–757. ISSN 0049-7878 . doi :10.1080/00497878.2016.1232021 . * ^ Homeric Hymn to Apollo
Apollo
306–348. Stesichorus
Stesichorus
, Fragment 239 (Campbell, pp. 166–167) also has Hera
Hera
produce Typhon
Typhon
alone to "spite Zeus". * ^ Gantz, p. 49, remarks on the strangeness of such a description for one who would challenge the gods. * ^ Kirk, Raven, and Schofield. pp. 59–60 no. 52; Ogden 2013b, pp. 36–38; Gantz, pp. 50–51, Ogden 2013a, p. 76 n. 46. * ^ A B C Evslin, Bernard (2012-10-30). Gods, Demigods and Demons: An Encyclopedia of Greek Mythology. Open Road Media. ISBN 9781453264386 . * ^ "The Origin of the Milky Way in the National Gallery on JSTOR" (PDF). www.jstor.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09. * ^ Kerenyi, p 131 * ^ A B " Pindar on the Birth of Apollo
Apollo
on JSTOR" (PDF). www.jstor.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09. * ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses I.624ff and II.531. The peacock (Greek taos), not native to Greece or Western Asia, was unknown to Hellenes until the time of Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
. * ^ Scholiast on Homer’s Iliad
Iliad
; Hyginus, Fabulae 54; Ovid, Metamorphoses 11.217. * ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.168. * ^ Pindar , Nemean 5 ep2; Pindar, Isthmian 8 str3–str5. * ^ Hesiod, Catalogue of Women fr. 57; Cypria fr. 4. * ^ Photius, Myrobiblion 190. * ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 92. * ^ Apollodorus Epitome E.3.2 * ^ A B C Homer. The Iliad. * ^ Metamorphoses, iii.341-401. * ^ Hamilton, Edith (1969). "Mythology". * ^ Seyffert Dictionary * ^ Ovid
Ovid
, Metamorphoses 6.89 - 91 * ^ Herodotus' History, Book I * ^ Hygini, Fabulae , LXXV * ^ Ovid
Ovid
, Metamorphoses 6.87 * ^ Kerenyi 1951, p.160 * ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod 's Theogony , unless otherwise noted. * ^ According to Homer
Homer
, Iliad
Iliad
1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera
Hera
and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74. * ^ According to Hesiod , Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced by Hera
Hera
alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74. * ^ According to Hesiod , Theogony 886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena
Athena
was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus
Zeus
impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus
Zeus
himself gave birth to Athena
Athena
"from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84. * ^ According to Hesiod , Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100. * ^ According to Homer
Homer
, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
(Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey
Odyssey
8.308, 320) and Dione ( Iliad
Iliad
5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.

REFERENCES

* Burkert, Walter , Greek Religion 1985. * Burkert, Walter, The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age, 1998 * Farnell, Lewis Richard, The cults of the Greek states I: Zeus, Hera
Hera
Athena
Athena
Oxford, 1896. * Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2). * Graves, Robert , The Greek Myths 1955. Use with caution. * Hesiod , Theogony , in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. * Homer
Homer
, The Iliad
Iliad
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. * Homer
Homer
; The Odyssey
Odyssey
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. * Kerenyi, Carl , The Gods of the Greeks 1951 (paperback 1980) * Kerenyi, Karl, 1959. The Heroes of the Greeks Especially Heracles. * Kirk, G. S., J. E. Raven, M. Schofield, The Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selcetion of Texts, Cambridge University Press, Dec 29, 1983. ISBN 9780521274555 . * Ogden, Daniel (2013a), Drakon: Dragon Myth and Serpent Cult in the Greek and Roman Worlds, Oxford University Press, 2013. ISBN 9780199557325 . * Ogden, Daniel (2013b), Dragons, Serpents, and Slayers in the Classical and early Christian Worlds: A sourcebook, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-992509-4 . * Ruck, Carl A.P., and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth 1994 * Seyffert, Oskar. Dictionary of Classical Antiquities 1894. (On-line text) * Seznec, Jean , The Survival of the Pagan Gods : Mythological Tradition in Renaissance
Renaissance
Humanism and Art, 1953 * Slater, Philip E. The Glory of Hera
Hera
: Greek Mythology
Mythology
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