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Hera
Hera
(/ˈhɛrə, ˈhɪərə/; Greek: Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion
Ancient Greek religion
and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus. She is the daughter of the Titans Cronus
Cronus
and Rhea. Hera
Hera
rules over Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
as queen of the gods. A matronly figure, Hera
Hera
served as both the patroness and protectress of married women, presiding over weddings and blessing marital unions. One of Hera's defining characteristics is her jealous and vengeful nature against Zeus' numerous lovers and illegitimate offspring, as well as the mortals who cross her. Hera
Hera
is commonly seen with the animals she considers sacred including the cow, lion and the peacock. Portrayed as majestic and solemn, often enthroned, and crowned with the polos (a high cylindrical crown worn by several of the Great Goddesses), Hera
Hera
may hold a pomegranate in her hand, emblem of fertile blood and death and a substitute for the narcotic capsule of the opium poppy.[1] Scholar of Greek mythology Walter Burkert writes in Greek Religion, "Nevertheless, there are memories of an earlier aniconic representation, as a pillar in Argos and as a plank in Samos."[2] Her Roman counterpart is Juno.[3]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Cult

2.1 Importance 2.2 Matriarchy 2.3 Origin and birth 2.4 Youth

3 Emblems

3.1 Epithets

4 Marriage to Zeus

4.1 Children

5 Important stories involving Hera

5.1 Heracles 5.2 Leto
Leto
and the Twins: Apollo
Apollo
and Artemis 5.3 Io and Argus 5.4 Judgment of Paris 5.5 The Iliad

6 Smaller stories involving Hera 7 Genealogy 8 Art and events 9 Notes 10 References 11 External links

Etymology[edit] The name of Hera
Hera
may have several of mutually exclusive etymologies; one possibility is to connect it with Greek ὥρα hōra, season, and to interpret it as ripe for marriage and according to Plato ἐρατή eratē, "beloved"[4] as Zeus
Zeus
is said to have married her for love.[5] According to Plutarch, Hera
Hera
was an allegorical name and an anagram of aēr (ἀήρ, "air").[6] So begins the section on Hera in Walter Burkert's Greek Religion.[7] In a note, he records other scholars' arguments "for the meaning Mistress as a feminine to Heros, Master." John Chadwick, a decipherer of Linear B, remarks "her name may be connected with hērōs, ἥρως, 'hero', but that is no help, since it too is etymologically obscure."[8] A. J. van Windekens,[9] offers "young cow, heifer", which is consonant with Hera's common epithet βοῶπις (boōpis, "cow-eyed"). R. S. P. Beekes has suggested a Pre-Greek origin.[10] Her name is attested in Mycenaean Greek written in the Linear B
Linear B
syllabic script as 𐀁𐀨, e-ra, appearing on tablets found in Pylos
Pylos
and Thebes.[11] Cult[edit] Hera
Hera
may have been the first deity to whom the Greeks dedicated an enclosed roofed temple sanctuary, at Samos about 800 BCE. It was replaced later by the Heraion, one of the largest of all Greek temples (Greek altars were in front of the temples, under the open sky). There were many temples built on this site so evidence is somewhat confusing and archaeological dates are uncertain. The temple created by the Rhoecus sculptors and architects was destroyed between 570–560 BCE. This was replaced by the Polycratean temple 540–530 BCE. In one of these temples we see a forest of 155 columns. There is also no evidence of tiles on this temple suggesting either the temple was never finished or that the temple was open to the sky. Earlier sanctuaries, whose dedication to Hera
Hera
is less certain, were of the Mycenaean type called "house sanctuaries".[12] Samos excavations have revealed votive offerings, many of them late 8th and 7th centuries BCE, which show that Hera
Hera
at Samos was not merely a local Greek goddess of the Aegean: the museum there contains figures of gods and suppliants and other votive offerings from Armenia, Babylon, Iran, Assyria, Egypt, testimony to the reputation which this sanctuary of Hera
Hera
enjoyed and to the large influx of pilgrims. Compared to this mighty goddess, who also possessed the earliest temple at Olympia and two of the great fifth and sixth century temples of Paestum, the termagant of Homer
Homer
and the myths is an "almost...comic figure" according to Burkert.[13]

The Temple of Hera
Hera
at Agrigento, Magna Graecia.

Though greatest and earliest free-standing temple to Hera
Hera
was the Heraion of Samos, in the Greek mainland Hera
Hera
was especially worshipped as "Argive Hera" ( Hera
Hera
Argeia) at her sanctuary that stood between the former Mycenaean city-states of Argos
Argos
and Mycenae,[14][15] where the festivals in her honor called Heraia were celebrated. "The three cities I love best," the ox-eyed Queen of Heaven declares (Iliad, book iv) "are Argos, Sparta and Mycenae of the broad streets." There were also temples to Hera
Hera
in Olympia, Corinth, Tiryns, Perachora
Perachora
and the sacred island of Delos. In Magna Graecia, two Doric temples to Hera were constructed at Paestum, about 550 BCE and about 450 BCE. One of them, long called the Temple of Poseidon
Poseidon
was identified in the 1950s as a second temple there of Hera.[16] In Euboea
Euboea
the festival of the Great Daedala, sacred to Hera, was celebrated on a sixty-year cycle. Hera's importance in the early archaic period is attested by the large building projects undertaken in her honor. The temples of Hera
Hera
in the two main centers of her cult, the Heraion of Samos
Heraion of Samos
and the Heraion of Argos
Argos
in the Argolid, were the very earliest monumental Greek temples constructed, in the 8th century BCE.[17] Importance[edit] According to Walter Burkert, both Hera
Hera
and Demeter
Demeter
have many characteristic attributes of Pre-Greek Great Goddesses.[18] According to the Homeric Hymn III to Delian Apollo, Hera
Hera
detained Eileithyia
Eileithyia
to prevent Leto
Leto
from going into labor with Artemis
Artemis
and Apollo, since the father was Zeus. The other goddesses present at the birthing on Delos
Delos
sent Iris to bring her. As she stepped upon the island, the divine birth began. In the myth of the birth of Heracles, it is Hera
Hera
herself who sits at the door, delaying the birth of Heracles
Heracles
until her protégé, Eurystheus, had been born first.[19] The Homeric Hymn to Pythian Apollo
Apollo
makes the monster Typhaon the offspring of archaic Hera
Hera
in her Minoan form, produced out of herself, like a monstrous version of Hephaestus, and whelped in a cave in Cilicia.[20] She gave the creature to Python to raise.

Roman copy of a Greek 5th century Hera
Hera
of the "Barberini Hera" type, from the Museo Chiaramonti

In the Temple of Hera
Hera
at Olympia, Hera's seated cult figure was older than the warrior figure of Zeus
Zeus
that accompanied it. Homer
Homer
expressed her relationship with Zeus
Zeus
delicately in the Iliad, in which she declares to Zeus, "I am Cronus' eldest daughter, and am honourable not on this ground only, but also because I am your wife, and you are king of the gods."[21] Though Zeus
Zeus
is often called Zeus
Zeus
Heraios 'Zeus, (consort) of Hera', Homer's treatment of Hera
Hera
is less than respectful, and in late anecdotal versions of the myths (see below) she appeared to spend most of her time plotting revenge on the nymphs seduced by her consort, for Hera
Hera
upheld all the old right rules of Hellene society and sorority.[citation needed] Matriarchy[edit] There has been considerable scholarship, reaching back to Johann Jakob Bachofen in the mid-nineteenth century,[22] about the possibility that Hera, whose early importance in Greek religion is firmly established, was originally the goddess of a matriarchal people, presumably inhabiting Greece before the Hellenes. In this view, her activity as goddess of marriage established the patriarchal bond of her own subordination: her resistance to the conquests of Zeus
Zeus
is rendered as Hera's "jealousy", the main theme of literary anecdotes that undercut her ancient cult.[23] However, it remains a controversial claim that primitive matriarchy existed in Greece or elsewhere.[24] Origin and birth[edit] Hera
Hera
is the daughter of the youngest Titan Cronus
Cronus
and his wife, and sister, Rhea. Cronus
Cronus
was fated to be overthrown by one of his children; to prevent this, he swallowed all of his newborn children whole until Rhea tricked him into swallowing a stone instead of her youngest child, Zeus. Zeus
Zeus
grew up in secret and when he grew up he tricked his father into regurgitating his siblings, including Hera. Zeus
Zeus
then led the revolt against the Titans, banished them, and divided the dominion over the world with his brothers Poseidon
Poseidon
and Hades.[25] Youth[edit] Hera
Hera
was most known as the matron goddess, Hera
Hera
Teleia; but she presided over weddings as well. In myth and cult, fragmentary references and archaic practices remain of the sacred marriage of Hera and Zeus,[26] and at Plataea, there was a sculpture of Hera
Hera
seated as a bride by Callimachus, as well as the matronly standing Hera.[27] Hera
Hera
was also worshipped as a virgin: there was a tradition in Stymphalia
Stymphalia
in Arcadia
Arcadia
that there had been a triple shrine to Hera
Hera
the Girl (Παις [Pais]), the Adult Woman (Τελεια [Teleia]), and the Separated (Χήρη [Chḗrē] 'Widowed' or 'Divorced').[28] In the region around Argos, the temple of Hera
Hera
in Hermione near Argos
Argos
was to Hera
Hera
the Virgin.[29] At the spring of Kanathos, close to Nauplia, Hera
Hera
renewed her virginity annually, in rites that were not to be spoken of (arrheton).[30] The Female figure, showing her "Moon" over the lake is also appropriate, as Hebe, Hera, and Hecate; new moon, full moon, and old moon in that order and otherwise personified as the Virgin
Virgin
of spring, The Mother of Summer, and the destroying Crone of Autumn.[31][32] Emblems[edit] In Hellenistic
Hellenistic
imagery, Hera's chariot was pulled by peacocks, birds not known to Greeks before the conquests of Alexander. Alexander's tutor, Aristotle, refers to it as "the Persian bird." The peacock motif was revived in the Renaissance
Renaissance
iconography that unified Hera
Hera
and Juno, and which European painters focused on.[33] A bird that had been associated with Hera
Hera
on an archaic level, where most of the Aegean goddesses were associated with "their" bird, was the cuckoo, which appears in mythic fragments concerning the first wooing of a virginal Hera
Hera
by Zeus. Her archaic association was primarily with cattle, as a Cow Goddess, who was especially venerated in "cattle-rich" Euboea. On Cyprus, very early archaeological sites contain bull skulls that have been adapted for use as masks (see Bull (mythology)). Her familiar Homeric epithet Boôpis, is always translated "cow-eyed". In this respect, Hera
Hera
bears some resemblance to the Ancient Egyptian deity Hathor, a maternal goddess associated with cattle. Epithets[edit] Hera
Hera
bore several epithets in the mythological tradition, including:

Ἀλέξανδρος (Alexandros) 'Protector of Men' (Alexandros) (among the Sicyonians) Αἰγοφάγος (Aigophágos) 'Goat-Eater' (among the Lacedaemonians[34]) Ἀκραῖα (Akráia) '(She) of the Heights'[35] Ἀμμωνία (Ammonia) Ἀργεία (Argéia) '(She) of Argos' Βασίλεια (Basíleia) 'Queen' Βουναία (Bounáia) '(She) of the Mound' (in Corinth[36][37]) Βοῶπις (Boṓpis) 'Cow-Eyed'[38] or 'Cow-Faced' Λευκώλενος (Leukṓlenos) 'White-Armed'[38] Παῖς (Pais) 'Child' (in her role as virgin) Παρθένος (Parthénos) 'Virgin' Τελεία (Teléia) (as goddess of marriage) Χήρη (Chḗrē) 'Widowed'

Marriage to Zeus[edit] Hera
Hera
is known for her jealousy; even Zeus, who is known to fear nothing, feared her tantrums. Zeus
Zeus
fell in love with Hera
Hera
but she refused his first marriage proposal. Zeus
Zeus
then preyed on her empathy for animals and other beings, created a thunderstorm and transformed himself into a little cuckoo. As a cuckoo, Zeus
Zeus
pretended to be in distress outside her window. Hera, feeling pity towards the bird brought it inside and held it to her breast to warm it. Zeus
Zeus
then transformed back into himself and took advantage of her. Hera, ashamed of being exploited, agreed to marriage with Zeus. All of nature burst into bloom for their wedding and many gifts were exchanged.[39] Zeus
Zeus
loved Hera, but he also loved Greece and often snuck down to Earth in disguise to marry and bear children with the mortals. He wanted many children to inherit his greatness and become great heroes and rulers of Greece. Hera's jealousy towards all of Zeus' lovers and children caused her to continuously torment them and Zeus
Zeus
was powerless to stop his wife. Hera
Hera
was always aware of Zeus' trickery and kept very close watch over him and his excursions to Earth.[39] Hera
Hera
"presided over the right arrangements of the marriage and is the archetype of the union in the marriage bed."[40] Children[edit]

Name Father Functions Explanation

Angelos Zeus An underworld goddess Her story only survives in scholia on Theocritus' Idyll 2. She was raised by nymphs. One day she stole Hera's anointments and gave them away to Europe. To escape her mother's wrath, she tried to hide herself. Hera
Hera
eventually ceased from prosecuting her, and Zeus
Zeus
ordered the Cabeiroi
Cabeiroi
to cleanse Angelos. They performed the purification rite in the waters of the Acherusia Lake in the Underworld. Consequently, she received the world of the dead as her realm of influence, and was assigned an epithet katachthonia ("she of the underworld").[41]

Ares Zeus God of war According to Hesiod's Theogony, he was a son of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera.[42]

Eileithyia Zeus Goddess
Goddess
of childbirth In Theogony
Theogony
and other sources, she is described as a daughter of Hera by Zeus.[42] Although, the meticulously accurate mythographer Pindar in Seventh Nemean Ode mentions Hera
Hera
as Eileithyia's mother but makes no mention of Zeus.

Enyo Zeus A war goddess She was responsible with the destruction of cities and an attendant of Ares, though Homer
Homer
equates Enyo
Enyo
with Eris.

Eris Zeus Goddess
Goddess
of discord She appears in Homer's Iliad
Iliad
Book IV; equated with Enyo
Enyo
as sister of Ares
Ares
and so presumably daughter of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera.

Hebe Zeus/– Goddess
Goddess
of youth She was a daughter of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera.[43] In an alternative version, Hera
Hera
alone produced Hebe after being impregnated by a head of lettuce.[44]

Hephaestus Zeus/– God of fire and the forge Attested by the Greek poet Hesiod, Hera
Hera
was jealous of Zeus' giving birth to Athena
Athena
with Metis, so she gave birth to Hephaestus
Hephaestus
without union with Zeus,[45] although in some stories, he is the son of her and Zeus.[39][46] Hera
Hera
was then disgusted with Hephaestus' ugliness and threw him from Mount Olympus.[47] In a version of the myth,[48][49] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
gained revenge against Hera
Hera
for rejecting him by making her a magical throne which, when she sat on, did not allow her to leave.[47] The other gods begged Hephaestus
Hephaestus
to return to Olympus to let her go, but he repeatedly refused.[49] Dionysus
Dionysus
got him drunk and took him back to Olympus on the back of a mule.[50] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
released Hera
Hera
after being given Aphrodite
Aphrodite
as his wife.[51]

Typhon – Serpent-monster Typhon
Typhon
is presented both as the son of Hera
Hera
(in Homer’s Pythian Hymn to Apollo) and as the son of Gaia (in Hesiod’s Theogony).[52] According to the Homeric Hymn to Apollo
Apollo
(6th century BC), Typhon
Typhon
who was the parthenogenous child of Hera, whom she bore alone as a revenge at Zeus
Zeus
who had given birth to Athena. Hera
Hera
prayed to Gaia to give her a son as strong as Zeus, then slapped the ground and became pregnant.[53] Hera
Hera
gave the infant Typhon
Typhon
to the serpent Python to raise, and Typhon
Typhon
grew up to become a great bane to mortals.[54] The b scholia to Iliad
Iliad
2.783, however, has Typhon
Typhon
born in Cilicia
Cilicia
as the offspring of Cronus. Gaia, angry at the destruction of the Giants, slanders Zeus
Zeus
to Hera. So Hera
Hera
goes to Cronus
Cronus
and he gives Hera
Hera
two eggs smeared with his own semen, telling her to bury them, and that from them would be born one who would overthrow Zeus. Hera, angry at Zeus, buries the eggs in Cilicia
Cilicia
"under Arimon", but when Typhon
Typhon
is born, Hera, now reconciled with Zeus, informs him.[55]

Important stories involving Hera[edit] Heracles[edit]

Heracles
Heracles
strangling the snakes sent by Hera, Attic red-figured stamnos, ca. 480–470 BCE. From Vulci, Etruria.

Hera
Hera
is the stepmother and enemy of Heracles. The name Heracles
Heracles
means "Glory of Hera". There are three alternative stories about the birth of Heracles
Heracles
and Hera's role in preventing it. In Homer's Iliad, when Alcmene
Alcmene
was about to give birth to Heracles, Zeus
Zeus
announced to all the gods that on that day a child by Zeus
Zeus
himself, would be born and rule all those around him. Hera, after requesting Zeus
Zeus
to swear an oath to that effect, descended from Olympus to Argos
Argos
and made the wife of Sthenelus (son of Perseus) give birth to Eurystheus
Eurystheus
after only seven months, while at the same time preventing Alcmene
Alcmene
from delivering Heracles. This resulted in the fulfilment of Zeus's oath in that it was Eurystheus
Eurystheus
rather than Heracles.[19] In an alternative version mentioned in Ovid's Metamorphoses, when Alcmene
Alcmene
was pregnant with Zeus' child, Hera
Hera
tried to prevent the birth from occurring by having Eileithyia
Eileithyia
(the Greek equivalent of Lucina) tie Alcmene's legs in knots. Her attempt was foiled when Galanthis
Galanthis
frightened Eileithyia while she was tying Alcmene's legs and Heracles
Heracles
was born. Hera
Hera
thus punishes Galanthis
Galanthis
by turning her into a weasel.[56][57] In Pausanias' recounting, Hera
Hera
sent witches (as they were called by the Thebans) to hinder Alcmene's delivery of Heracles. The witches were successful in preventing the birth until Historis, daughter of Tiresias, thought of a trick to deceive the witches. Like Galanthis, Historis announced that Alcmene
Alcmene
had delivered her child; having been deceived, the witches went away, allowing Alcmene
Alcmene
to give birth.[58] Hera's wrath against Zeus' son continues and while Heracles
Heracles
is still an infant, Hera
Hera
sends two serpents to kill him as he lay in his cot. Heracles
Heracles
throttles the snakes with his bare hands and was found by his nurse playing with their limp bodies as if they were a child's toy.[56]

The Origin of the Milky Way
Milky Way
by Jacopo Tintoretto.

One account of the origin of the Milky Way
Milky Way
is that Zeus
Zeus
had tricked Hera
Hera
into nursing the infant Heracles: discovering who he was, she pulled him from her breast, and a spurt of her milk formed the smear across the sky that can be seen to this day.[59] Unlike any Greeks, the Etruscans instead pictured a full-grown bearded Heracles
Heracles
at Hera's breast: this may refer to his adoption by her when he became an Immortal. He had previously wounded her severely in the breast. When Heracles
Heracles
reached adulthood, Hera
Hera
drove him mad, which led him to murder his family and this later led to him undertaking his famous labours. Hera
Hera
assigned Heracles
Heracles
to labour for King Eurystheus
Eurystheus
at Mycenae. She attempted to make almost each of Heracles' twelve labours more difficult. When he fought the Lernaean Hydra, she sent a crab to bite at his feet in the hopes of distracting him. Later Hera
Hera
stirred up the Amazons
Amazons
against him when he was on one of his quests. When Heracles
Heracles
took the cattle of Geryon, he shot Hera
Hera
in the right breast with a triple-barbed arrow: the wound was incurable and left her in constant pain, as Dione tells Aphrodite
Aphrodite
in the Iliad, Book V. Afterwards, Hera
Hera
sent a gadfly to bite the cattle, irritate them and scatter them. Hera
Hera
then sent a flood which raised the water level of a river so much that Heracles
Heracles
could not ford the river with the cattle. He piled stones into the river to make the water shallower. When he finally reached the court of Eurystheus, the cattle were sacrificed to Hera. Eurystheus
Eurystheus
also wanted to sacrifice the Cretan Bull
Cretan Bull
to Hera. She refused the sacrifice because it reflected glory on Heracles. The bull was released and wandered to Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull. Some myths state that in the end, Heracles
Heracles
befriended Hera
Hera
by saving her from Porphyrion, a giant who tried to rape her during the Gigantomachy, and that she even gave her daughter Hebe as his bride. Whatever myth-making served to account for an archaic representation of Heracles
Heracles
as "Hera's man" it was thought suitable for the builders of the Heraion at Paestum
Paestum
to depict the exploits of Heracles
Heracles
in bas-reliefs.[60]

Hera
Hera
(according to inscription); tondo of an Attic white-ground kylix from Vulci, ca. 470 BC

Leto
Leto
and the Twins: Apollo
Apollo
and Artemis[edit] When Hera
Hera
discovered that Leto
Leto
was pregnant and that Zeus
Zeus
was the father, she convinced the nature spirits to prevent Leto
Leto
from giving birth on terra-firma, the mainland, any island at sea, or any place under the sun.[61] Poseidon
Poseidon
gave pity to Leto
Leto
and guided her to the floating island of Delos, which was neither mainland nor a real island where Leto
Leto
was able to give birth to her children.[62] Afterwards, Zeus
Zeus
secured Delos
Delos
to the bottom of the ocean.[63] The island later became sacred to Apollo. Alternatively, Hera
Hera
kidnapped Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth, to prevent Leto
Leto
from going into labor. The other gods bribed Hera
Hera
with a beautiful necklace nobody could resist and she finally gave in.[64] Either way, Artemis
Artemis
was born first and then assisted with the birth of Apollo.[65] Some versions say Artemis
Artemis
helped her mother give birth to Apollo
Apollo
for nine days.[64] Another variation states that Artemis
Artemis
was born one day before Apollo, on the island of Ortygia
Ortygia
and that she helped Leto
Leto
cross the sea to Delos
Delos
the next day to give birth to Apollo. Later Tityos
Tityos
attempted to rape Leto
Leto
at the behest of Hera. He was slain by Artemis
Artemis
and Apollo. Io and Argus[edit]

Io with Zeus
Zeus
by Giovanni Ambrogio Figino.

Hera
Hera
saw a lone thundercloud and raced down in an attempt to catch Zeus
Zeus
with a mistress. Zeus
Zeus
saw her coming and transformed his new bride Io into a little snow-white cow. However, Hera
Hera
was not fooled and demanded that Zeus
Zeus
give her the heifer as a present. Zeus
Zeus
could not refuse his queen without drawing suspicion so he had to give her the beautiful heifer.[39] Once Io was given to Hera, she tied her to a tree and sent her servant Argus to keep Io separated from Zeus. Argus was a loyal servant to Hera
Hera
and he has immense strength and one hundred eyes all over his body. It was not possible to go past Argus since he never closed more than half his eyes at any time. Zeus
Zeus
was afraid of Hera's wrath could not personally intervene, so to save Io, he commanded Hermes
Hermes
to kill Argus, which he does by lulling all one hundred eyes into eternal sleep. In Ovid's interpolation, when Hera
Hera
learned of Argus' death, she took his eyes and placed them in the plumage of the peacock, her favorite animal, accounting for the eye pattern in its tail and making it the vainest of all animals.[66] Hera, furious about Io being free and the death of Argus, sent a gadfly (Greek oistros, compare oestrus) to sting Io as she wandered the earth. Eventually Io made it to Egypt, the Egyptians worshiped the snow-white heifer and named her the Egyptian goddess Isis. Hera
Hera
permitted Zeus
Zeus
to change Io back into her human form, under the condition that he never look at her again. Io, the goddess-queen of Egypt, then bore Zeus' son as the next King.[39] Judgment of Paris[edit] Main article: Judgement of Paris

This is one of the many works depicting the event. Hera
Hera
is the goddess in the center, wearing the crown. Das Urteil des Paris by Anton Raphael Mengs, ca. 1757

A prophecy stated that a son of the sea-nymph Thetis, with whom Zeus fell in love after gazing upon her in the oceans off the Greek coast, would become greater than his father.[67] Possibly for this reasons,[68] Thetis
Thetis
was betrothed to an elderly human king, Peleus
Peleus
son of Aeacus, either upon Zeus' orders,[69] or because she wished to please Hera, who had raised her.[70] All the gods and goddesses as well as various mortals were invited to the marriage of Peleus
Peleus
and Thetis
Thetis
(the eventual parents of Achilles) and brought many gifts.[71] Only Eris, goddess of discord, was not invited and was stopped at the door by Hermes, on Zeus' order. She was annoyed at this, so she threw from the door a gift of her own:[72] a golden apple inscribed with the word καλλίστῃ (kallistēi, "To the fairest").[73] Aphrodite, Hera, and Athena
Athena
all claimed to be the fairest, and thus the rightful owner of the apple. The goddesses quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one, for fear of earning the enmity of the other two. They chose to place the matter before Zeus, who, not wanting to favor one of the goddesses, put the choice into the hands of Paris, a Trojan prince. After bathing in the spring of Mount Ida where Troy
Troy
was situated, they appeared before Paris to have him choose. The goddesses undressed before him, either at his request or for the sake of winning. Still, Paris could not decide, as all three were ideally beautiful, so they resorted to bribes. Hera
Hera
offered Paris political power and control of all of Asia, while Athena
Athena
offered wisdom, fame, and glory in battle, and Aphrodite
Aphrodite
offered the most beautiful mortal woman in the world as a wife, and he accordingly chose her. This woman was Helen, who was, unfortunately for Paris, already married to King Menelaus
Menelaus
of Sparta. The other two goddesses were enraged by this and through Helen's abduction by Paris they brought about the Trojan War. The Iliad[edit] Hera
Hera
plays a substantial role in The Iliad, appearing in a number of books throughout the epic poem. In accordance with ancient Greek mythology, Hera's hatred towards the Trojans, which was started by Paris' decision that Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was the most beautiful goddess, is seen as through her support of the Greeks during the war. Throughout the epic Hera
Hera
makes many attempts to thwart the Trojan army. In books 1 and 2, Hera
Hera
declares that the Trojans must be destroyed. Hera persuades Athena
Athena
to aid the Achaeans in battle and she agrees to assist with interfering on their behalf.[74] In book 5, Hera
Hera
and Athena
Athena
plot to harm Ares, who had been seen by Diomedes
Diomedes
in assisting the Trojans. Diomedes
Diomedes
called for his soldiers to fall back slowly. Hera, Ares' mother, saw Ares' interference and asked Zeus, Ares' father, for permission to drive Ares
Ares
away from the battlefield. Hera
Hera
encouraged Diomedes
Diomedes
to attack Ares
Ares
and he threw his spear at the god. Athena
Athena
drove the spear into Ares' body, and he bellowed in pain and fled to Mt. Olympus, forcing the Trojans to fall back.[74]

Jupiter and Juno on Mount Ida
Mount Ida
by James Barry, 1773 (City Art Galleries, Sheffield.)

In book 8, Hera
Hera
tries to persuade Poseidon
Poseidon
to disobey Zeus
Zeus
and help the Achaean army. He refuses, saying he doesn’t want to go against Zeus. Determined to intervene in the war, Hera
Hera
and Athena
Athena
head to the battlefield. However, seeing the two flee, Zeus
Zeus
sent Iris to intercept them and make them return to Mt. Olympus
Mt. Olympus
or face grave consequences. After prolonged fighting, Hera
Hera
sees Poseidon
Poseidon
aiding the Greeks and giving them motivation to keep fighting. In book 14 Hera
Hera
devises a plan to deceive Zeus. Zeus
Zeus
set a decree that the gods were not allowed to interfere in the mortal war. Hera
Hera
is on the side of the Achaeans, so she plans a Deception of Zeus
Zeus
where she seduces him, with help from Aphrodite, and tricks him into a deep sleep, with the help of Hypnos, so that the Gods could interfere without the fear of Zeus.[75] In book 21, Hera
Hera
continues her interference with the battle as she tells Hephaestus
Hephaestus
to prevent the river from harming Achilles. Hephaestus
Hephaestus
sets the battlefield ablaze, causing the river to plead with Hera, promising her he will not help the Trojans if Hephaestus stops his attack. Hephaestus
Hephaestus
stops his assault and Hera
Hera
returns to the battlefield where the gods begin to fight amongst themselves.[74] Smaller stories involving Hera[edit] Echo

According to the urbane retelling of myth in Ovid's Metamorphoses,[76] for a long time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from Zeus' affairs by leading her away and flattering her. When Hera discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to only repeat the words of others (hence our modern word "echo").

Semele
Semele
and Dionysus

When Hera
Hera
learned that Semele, daughter of Cadmus
Cadmus
King of Thebes, was pregnant by Zeus, she disguised herself as Semele's nurse and persuaded the princess to insist that Zeus
Zeus
show himself to her in his true form. When he was compelled to do so, having sworn by Styx
Styx
[77] his thunder and lightning destroyed Semele. Zeus
Zeus
took Semele's unborn child, Dionysus
Dionysus
and completed its gestation sewn into his own thigh. In another version, Dionysus
Dionysus
was originally the son of Zeus
Zeus
by either Demeter
Demeter
or Persephone. Hera
Hera
sent her Titans to rip the baby apart, from which he was called Zagreus ("Torn in Pieces"). Zeus
Zeus
rescued the heart; or, the heart was saved, variously, by Athena, Rhea, or Demeter.[78] Zeus
Zeus
used the heart to recreate Dionysus
Dionysus
and implant him in the womb of Semele—hence Dionysus
Dionysus
became known as "the twice-born". Certain versions imply that Zeus
Zeus
gave Semele
Semele
the heart to eat to impregnate her. Hera
Hera
tricked Semele
Semele
into asking Zeus
Zeus
to reveal his true form, which killed her. Dionysus
Dionysus
later managed to rescue his mother from the underworld and have her live on Mount Olympus. See also Dionysus' birth for other variations.

Lamia

Lamia was a queen of Libya, whom Zeus
Zeus
loved. Hera
Hera
turned her into a monster and murdered their children. Or, alternatively, she killed Lamia's children and the grief turned her into a monster. Lamia was cursed with the inability to close her eyes so that she would always obsess over the image of her dead children. Zeus
Zeus
gave her the gift to be able to take her eyes out to rest, and then put them back in. Lamia was envious of other mothers and ate their children.[56]

Gerana

Gerana was a queen of the Pygmies
Pygmies
who boasted she was more beautiful than Hera. The wrathful goddess turned her into a crane and proclaimed that her bird descendants should wage eternal war on the Pygmy folk.[79]

Hera
Hera
and Prometheus, tondo of a 5th-century BCE cup from Vulci, Etruria

Cydippe

Cydippe, a priestess of Hera, was on her way to a festival in the goddess' honor. The oxen which were to pull her cart were overdue and her sons, Biton and Cleobis, pulled the cart the entire way (45 stadia, 8 kilometers). Cydippe was impressed with their devotion to her and Hera
Hera
so asked Hera
Hera
to give her children the best gift a god could give a person. Hera
Hera
ordained that the brothers would die in their sleep. This honor bestowed upon the children was later used by Solon, as a proof while trying to convince Croesus
Croesus
that it is impossible to judge a person's happiness until they have died a fruitful death after a joyous life.[80]

Tiresias

Tiresias
Tiresias
was a priest of Zeus, and as a young man he encountered two snakes mating and hit them with a stick. He was then transformed into a woman. As a woman, Tiresias
Tiresias
became a priestess of Hera, married and had children, including Manto. After seven years as a woman, Tiresias again found mating snakes; depending on the myth, either she made sure to leave the snakes alone this time, or, according to Hyginus, trampled on them and became a man once more.[81] As a result of his experiences, Zeus
Zeus
and Hera
Hera
asked him to settle the question of which sex, male or female, experienced more pleasure during intercourse. Zeus
Zeus
claimed it was women; Hera
Hera
claimed it was men. When Tiresias
Tiresias
sided with Zeus, Hera
Hera
struck him blind.[44] Since Zeus
Zeus
could not undo what she had done, he gave him the gift of prophecy. An alternative and less commonly told story has it that Tiresias
Tiresias
was blinded by Athena
Athena
after he stumbled onto her bathing naked. His mother, Chariclo, begged her to undo her curse, but Athena could not; she gave him prophecy instead.

Chelone

At the marriage of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera, a nymph named Chelone was disrespectful or refused to attend. Zeus
Zeus
thus, turned her into a tortoise.

The Golden Fleece

Hera
Hera
hated Pelias
Pelias
because he had killed Sidero, his step-grandmother, in one of the goddess's temples. She later convinced Jason
Jason
and Medea to kill Pelias. The Golden Fleece
Golden Fleece
was the item that Jason
Jason
needed to get his mother freed.

The Metamorphoses

In Thrace, Hera
Hera
and Zeus
Zeus
turned King Haemus and Queen Rhodope
Queen Rhodope
into mountains,[82] the Balkan ( Haemus Mons) and Rhodope Mountains respectively, for their hubris in comparing themselves to the gods.

Ixion

When Zeus
Zeus
had pity on Ixion
Ixion
and brought him to Olympus and introduced him to the gods, instead of being grateful, Ixion
Ixion
grew lustful for Hera. Zeus
Zeus
found out about his intentions and made a cloud in the shape of Hera, who was later named Nephele, and tricked Ixion
Ixion
into coupling with it and from their union came Centaurus. So Ixion
Ixion
was expelled from Olympus and Zeus
Zeus
ordered Hermes
Hermes
to bind Ixion
Ixion
to a winged fiery wheel that was always spinning. Therefore, Ixion
Ixion
was bound to a burning solar wheel for all eternity, at first spinning across the heavens, but in later myth transferred to Tartarus.[83]

Genealogy[edit]

Hera's family tree [84]

Uranus

Gaia

Uranus' genitals

Cronus

Rhea

Zeus

HERA

Poseidon

Hades

Demeter

Hestia

    a [85]

     b [86]

Ares

Hephaestus

Metis

Athena
Athena
[87]

Leto

Apollo

Artemis

Maia

Hermes

Semele

Dionysus

Dione

    a [88]

     b [89]

Aphrodite

Art and events[edit]

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal Hellenismos portal

Barberini Hera
Barberini Hera
- a Roman sculpture of Hera/Juno Hera Borghese - sculpture related to Hera Hera Farnese
Hera Farnese
- sculpture of Hera's head Heraea Games
Heraea Games
- games dedicated to Hera—the first sanctioned (and recorded) women's athletic competition to be held in the stadium at Olympia.

Notes[edit]

^ Ruck, Carl A.P., and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth, 1994. ^ Walter Burkert, Greek Religion, (Harvard University Press) 1985, p. 131 ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215. ^ ἐρατός at LSJ ^ Plato, Cratylus, 404c ^ On Isis
Isis
and Osiris, 32 ^ Burkert, p. 131. ^ Chadwick, The Mycenaean World (Cambridge University Press) 1976:87. ^ Windekens, in Glotta 36 (1958), pp. 309-11. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 524. ^ "The Linear B
Linear B
word e-ra". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of Ancient languages.  Raymoure, K.A. "e-ra". Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B. Deaditerranean.  ^ Martin Persson Nilsson, The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and Its Survival in Greek Religion (Lund) 1950 pt. I.ii "House Sanctuaries", pp 77-116; H. W. Catling, "A Late Bronze Age House- or Sanctuary-Model from the Menelaion, Sparta," BSA 84 (1989) 171-175. ^ Burkert, p. 132, including quote; Burkert: Orientalizing Revolution. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 3.13.6 ^ Her name appears, with Zeus
Zeus
and Hermes, in a Linear B
Linear B
inscription (Tn 316) at Mycenean Pylos
Pylos
(John Chadwick, The Mycenaean World [Cambridge University Press] 1976:89). ^ P.C. Sestieri, Paestum, the City, the Prehistoric Acropolis in Contrada Gaudo, and the Heraion at the Mouth of the Sele (Rome 1960), p. 11 etc. "It is odd that there was no temple dedicated to Poseidon in a city named for him ( Paestum
Paestum
was originally called Poseidonia). Perhaps there was one at Sele, the settlement that preceded Paestum," Sarantis Symeonoglou suggested (Symeonoglou, "The Doric Temples of Paestum" Journal of Aesthetic Education, 19.1, Special
Special
Issue: Paestum and Classical Culture: Past and Present [Spring 1985:49-66] p. 50. ^ O'Brien, Joan V. (1993). The Transformation of Hera: A Study of Ritual, Hero, and the Goddess
Goddess
in the Iliad. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780847678082.  ^ "The goddesses of Greek polytheism, so different and complementary"; Greek mythology
Greek mythology
scholar Walter Burkert has observed, in Homo Necans (1972) 1983:79f, "are nonetheless, consistently similar at an earlier stage, with one or the other simply becoming dominant in a sanctuary or city. Each is the Great Goddess
Goddess
presiding over a male society; each is depicted in her attire as Mistress of the Beasts, and Mistress of the Sacrifice, even Hera
Hera
and Demeter." ^ a b Homer, Iliad
Iliad
19.95ff. ^ Iliad, ii. 781-783) ^ The Iliad
Iliad
by Homer
Homer
- Project Gutenberg ^ Bachofen, Mutterrecht 1861, as Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World. Bachofen was seminal in the writings of Jane Ellen Harrison
Jane Ellen Harrison
and other students of Greek myth. ^ Slater 1968. ^ Steven Goldberg, The Inevitability of Patriarchy, (William Morrow & Company, 1973); Joan Bamberger,'The Myth of Matriarchy: Why Men Rule in Primitive Society', in M Rosaldo and L Lamphere, Women, Culture, and Society, (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1974), pp. 263-280; Donald E. Brown, Human Universals (Philadelphia: Temple University Press), 1991; Steven Goldberg, Why Men Rule, (Chicago, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company, 1993); Cynthia Eller, The Myth of Matriarchal Prehistory: Why an Invented Past Won't Give Women a Future, (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001); Jonathan Marks, 'Essay 8: Primate Behavior', in The Un-Textbook of Biological Anthropology, (Unpublished, 2007), p. 11; Encyclopædia Britannica describes this view as "consensus", listing matriarchy as a hypothetical social system. 'Matriarchy' Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007. ^ " Cronus
Cronus
Greek god". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2016-12-04.  ^ Farnell, I 191, ^ Pausanias, 9.2.7- 9.3.3 Archived 2015-11-06 at the Wayback Machine.; Pausanias explains this by telling the myth of the Daedala. ^ Farnell, I 194, citing Pausanias 8.22.2 Archived 2015-11-06 at the Wayback Machine.' Pindar
Pindar
refers to the "praises of Hera
Hera
Parthenia [the Maidenly]" Olympian ode 6.88 Archived 2015-11-06 at the Wayback Machine. ^ S. Casson: " Hera
Hera
of Kanathos and the Ludovisi Throne" The Journal of Hellenic Studies 40.2 (1920), pp. 137-142, citing Stephanus of Byzantium sub Ernaion. ^ Pausanias, 2.38.2-3 Archived 2015-11-06 at the Wayback Machine.. ^ Robert Graves
Robert Graves
(1955), The Greek Myths. ^ Barbara G. Walker (1983), The Women's Encyclopedia of Myths and Secrets, p.392 ISBN 0-06-250925-X ^ Seznec, Jean, The Survival of the Pagan Gods : Mythological Tradition in Renaissance
Renaissance
Humanism and Art, 1953 ^ Pausanias, iii. 15. § 7 ^ James Joseph Clauss, Sarah Iles Johnston. Medea: Essays on Medea
Medea
in myth, literature, philosophy, and art, 1997. p.46 ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott. A Greek-English Lexicon ^ Heinrich Schliemann. Ilios: The city and country of the Trojans, 1881. ^ a b Homeric Hymns ^ a b c d e D'Aulaire, Ingri; D'Aulaire, Edgar Parin (1992). D'Aulaires' Book of Greek Myths. Delacorte Books for Young Readers. ISBN 0440406943.  ^ See, Sally (2014-12-25). The Greek Myths. S&T.  ^ Scholia on Theocritus, Idyll 2. 12 referring to Sophron ^ a b Theogony
Theogony
921–922. ^ Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
921–922; Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
11. 604–605; Pindar, Isthmian 4.59–60; Apollodorus, 1.3.1, and later authors. ^ a b Detienne, Marcel (2002-11-25). The Writing of Orpheus: Greek Myth in Cultural Context. JHU Press. ISBN 9780801869549.  ^ Theogony
Theogony
924–929. ^ In Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
viii. 312 Hephaestus
Hephaestus
addresses "Father Zeus"; cf. Homer, Iliad
Iliad
i. 578 (some scholars, such as Gantz, Early Greek Myth, p. 74, note that Hephaestus' reference to Zeus
Zeus
as 'father' here may be a general title), xiv. 338, xviii. 396, xxi. 332. See also Cicero, De Natura Deorum 3.22. ^ a b Deris, Sara (2013-06-06). "Examining the Hephaestus
Hephaestus
Myth through a Disability Studies Perspective". Prandium: The Journal of Historical Studies at U of T Mississauga. 2 (1).  ^ Guy Hedreen (2004) The Return of Hephaistos, Dionysiac Processional Ritual and the Creation of a Visual Narrative. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 124 (2004:38–64) p. 38 and note. ^ a b Karl Kerenyi
Karl Kerenyi
(1951) The Gods of the Greeks, pp 156–158. ^ The return of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
on muleback to Olympus accompanied by Dionysus
Dionysus
was a theme of the Attic vase-painters, whose wares were favored by Etruscans. The return of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was painted on the Etruscan tomb at the "Grotta Campana" near Veii (identified by Peterson; the "well-known subject" was doubted in this instance by A. M. Harmon, "The Paintings of the Grotta Campana", American Journal of Archaeology 16.1 (January - March 1912):1-10); for further examples, see Hephaestus#Return to Olympus. ^ Slater 1968, pp. 199–200. ^ Decker, Jessica Elbert (2016-11-16). "Hail Hera, Mother of Monsters! Monstrosity as Emblem of Sexual Sovereignty". Women's Studies. 45 (8): 743–757. doi:10.1080/00497878.2016.1232021. ISSN 0049-7878.  ^ Homeric Hymn to Apollo
Apollo
306–348. Stesichorus, Fragment 239 (Campbell, pp. 166–167) also has Hera
Hera
produce Typhon
Typhon
alone to "spite Zeus". ^ Gantz, p. 49, remarks on the strangeness of such a description for one who would challenge the gods. ^ Kirk, Raven, and Schofield. pp. 59–60 no. 52; Ogden 2013b, pp. 36–38; Gantz, pp. 50–51, Ogden 2013a, p. 76 n. 46. ^ a b c Evslin, Bernard (2012-10-30). Gods, Demigods and Demons: An Encyclopedia of Greek Mythology. Open Road Media. ISBN 9781453264386.  ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
9.273ff. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece 9.11.3 ^ "The Origin of the Milky Way
Milky Way
in the National Gallery on JSTOR" (PDF). www.jstor.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09.  ^ Kerenyi, p 131 ^ Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae 140). ^ Hammond. Oxford Classical Dictionary. 597-598. ^ Freese 1911, p. 184. ^ a b " Pindar
Pindar
on the Birth of Apollo
Apollo
on JSTOR" (PDF). www.jstor.org. Retrieved 2016-12-09.  ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke 1.4.1; Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses, 35, giving as his sources Menecrates of Xanthos (4th century BCE) and Nicander of Colophon; Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
vi.317-81 provides another late literary source. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
I.624ff and II.531. The peacock (Greek taos), not native to Greece or Western Asia, was unknown to Hellenes
Hellenes
until the time of Alexander the Great. ^ Scholiast on Homer’s Iliad; Hyginus, Fabulae 54; Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
11.217. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.168. ^ Pindar, Nemean 5 ep2; Pindar, Isthmian 8 str3–str5. ^ Hesiod, Catalogue of Women
Catalogue of Women
fr. 57; Cypria fr. 4. ^ Photius, Myrobiblion 190. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 92. ^ Apollodorus Epitome E.3.2 ^ a b c Homer. The Iliad.  ^ Homer. Iliad, Book 14, Lines 153-353. ^ Metamorphoses, iii.341-401. ^ Hamilton, Edith (1969). "Mythology". ^ Seyffert Dictionary ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
6.89 - 91 ^ Herodotus' History, Book I ^ Hygini, Fabulae, LXXV ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses
Metamorphoses
6.87 ^ Kerenyi 1951, p.160 ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted. ^ According to Homer, Iliad
Iliad
1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.312, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was apparently the son of Hera
Hera
and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
927–929, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was produced by Hera
Hera
alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena
Athena
was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus
Zeus
impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus
Zeus
himself gave birth to Athena
Athena
"from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
183–200, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
( Iliad
Iliad
3.374, 20.105; Odyssey
Odyssey
8.308, 320) and Dione ( Iliad
Iliad
5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.

References[edit]

Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion 1985. Burkert, Walter, The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age, 1998 Farnell, Lewis Richard, The cults of the Greek states I: Zeus, Hera Athena
Athena
Oxford, 1896.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Freese, John Henry (1911). "Apollo". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 184–186.  Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2). Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths
The Greek Myths
1955. Use with caution. Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Homer, The Iliad
Iliad
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Homer; The Odyssey
Odyssey
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Kerenyi, Carl, The Gods of the Greeks 1951 (paperback 1980) Kerenyi, Karl, 1959. The Heroes of the Greeks Especially Heracles. Kirk, G. S., J. E. Raven, M. Schofield, The Presocratic Philosophers: A Critical History with a Selcetion of Texts, Cambridge University Press, Dec 29, 1983. ISBN 9780521274555. Ogden, Daniel (2013a), Drakon: Dragon Myth and Serpent Cult in the Greek and Roman Worlds, Oxford University Press, 2013. ISBN 9780199557325. Ogden, Daniel (2013b), Dragons, Serpents, and Slayers in the Classical and early Christian Worlds: A sourcebook, Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-992509-4. Ruck, Carl A.P., and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth 1994 Seyffert, Oskar. Dictionary of Classical Antiquities 1894. (On-line text) Seznec, Jean, The Survival of the Pagan Gods : Mythological Tradition in Renaissance
Renaissance
Humanism and Art, 1953 Slater, Philip E. The Glory of Hera : Greek Mythology
Mythology
and the Greek Family (Boston: Beacon Press) 1968 (Princeton University 1992 ISBN 0-691-00222-3 ) Concentrating on family structure in 5th-century Athens; some of the crude usage of myth and drama for psychological interpreting of "neuroses" is dated. Smith, William; Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, London (1873). "Gali'nthias"

External links[edit]

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Adrestia Alala Alke Amphillogiai Androktasiai Ares Athena Bia Deimos Enyalius Enyo Eris Gynaecothoenas Homados Hysminai Ioke Keres Kratos Kydoimos Ma Makhai Nike Palioxis Pallas Perses Phobos Phonoi Polemos Proioxis

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Trismegistus Triple deity

Other major deities

Azone The Erinyes Harmonia The Muses Nemesis Pan Unknown God Zelus

Heroes/Heroines

Abderus Achilles Actaeon Aeneas Argonauts Ajax the Great Ajax the Lesser Akademos Amphiaraus Amphitryon Antilochus Atalanta Autolycus Bellerophon Bouzyges Cadmus Chrysippus Cyamites Daedalus Diomedes Dioscuri
Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) Echetlus Eleusis Erechtheus Eunostus Ganymede Hector Heracles Icarus Iolaus Jason Meleager Odysseus Oedipus Orpheus Pandion Peleus Pelops Penthesilea Perseus Theseus Triptolemus

Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines

Oracles/Seers

Aesacus Aleuas Amphiaraus Amphilochus Ampyx Anius Asbolus Bakis Branchus Calchas Carnus Carya Cassandra Delphic Sibyl Elatus Ennomus Halitherses Helenus Iamus Idmon Manto Melampus Mopsus Munichus Phineus Polyeidos Polypheides Pythia Sibyl Telemus Theiodamas Theoclymenus Tiresias

Magic

Apotropaic magic Greek Magical Papyri Philia

Mythical realms

Aethiopia Atlantis Hyperborea Libya Nysa Panchaia Scythia Themiscyra

Underworld

Entrances to the underworld

Rivers

Acheron Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Lakes/ Swamps

Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna
Lerna
Lake

Caves

Cave at Cape Matapan Cave Charonium Cave at Lake Avernus Cave at Heraclea Pontica

Ploutonion

Pluto's Gate

Places

Elysium Erebus Fields of Asphodel Fields of Punishment Isles of the Blessed Tartarus

Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Guards

Cerberus

Ferryman

Charon Charon's obol

Symbols-Objects

Bident Cap of invisibility

Animals-Daemons/Spirits

Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

Amazonomachy Attic War Centauromachy Gigantomachy Cranes- Pygmies
Pygmies
war Theomachy Titanomachy Trojan War

Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon

Symbols

Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ

Games

Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia

Festivals/Feasts

Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria

Vessels

Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in popular culture

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Ancient Greek deities by affiliation

Primordial deities

Achlys Aether Aion/Chronos Ananke Chaos Erebus Eros/Phanes Gaia Hemera Nyx The Ourea Pontus/Thalassa Tartarus Uranus Fates

Atropos Clotho Lachesis

Titan deities

Titanes (male)

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Oceanus Ophion

Titanides (female)

Dione Eurybia Mnemosyne Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Hyperionides

Eos Helios Selene

Koionides

Asteria Leto

Krionides

Astraeus Pallas Perses

Iapetionides

Atlas Epimetheus Menoetius Prometheus

Mousai (Muses)

Aoide Arche Melete Mneme

Olympian deities

Dodekatheon

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Theoi Olympioi

Asclepius Deimos Ganymede Eileithyia Enyo Eris Iris Harmonia Hebe Heracles Paean Pan Phobos

Mousai (Muses)

Daughters of Zeus

Calliope Clio Euterpe Erato Melpomene Polyhymnia Terpsichore Thalia Urania

Daughters of Apollo

Apollonis Borysthenis Cephisso

Muses
Muses
of the Lyre

Hypate Mese Nete

Muses
Muses
at Sicyon

Polymatheia

Charites
Charites
(Graces)

Aglaea Antheia Euphrosyne Hegemone Pasithea Thalia

Horae
Horae
(Hours)

Dike Eirene Eunomia

Styktides

Bia Kratos Nike Zelos

Aquatic deities

Theoi Halioi

Amphitrite Benthesikyme Brizo Calypso Ceto Glaucus The Ichthyocentaurs Kymopoleia Leucothea Melicertes Nereus Nerites The Nesoi Oceanus Phorcys Pontus/Thalassa Poseidon Proteus Rhodos Tethys Thaumas Thetis Triton

Oceanids

Acaste Admete Adrasteia Amalthea Asia Callirrhoe Ceto Clytie Dione Dodone Doris Electra Eurynome Idyia Melia Metis Nemesis Perse Pleione Plouto Styx Telesto Zeuxo

Nereides

Amphitrite Arethusa Dynamene Galatea Galene Psamathe Thetis

Potamoi

Achelous Almo Alpheus Anapos Asopus Asterion Axius Caanthus Cebren Cephissus Clitumnus Enipeus Kladeos Meander Nilus Numicus Phyllis Peneus Rivers of the Underworld

Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Sangarius Scamander Simoeis Strymon

Naiads

Aegina Achiroe Aganippe The Anigrides Argyra Bistonis Bolbe Caliadne Cassotis Castalia Cleocharia Creusa Daphne Drosera Harpina The Ionides Ismenis Larunda Lilaea Liriope Melite Metope Minthe Moria Nana Nicaea Orseis Pallas Pirene Salmacis Stilbe The Thriae

Corycia Kleodora Melaina

Tiasa

Chthonic deities

Theoi Chthonioi

Angelos Demeter Gaia Hades Hecate The Lampads Macaria Melinoë Persephone Zagreus

Erinyes
Erinyes
(Furies)

Alecto Megaera Tisiphone

Earthborn

Cyclopes Gigantes Hecatonchires Kouretes Meliae Telchines Typhon

Apotheothenai

Trophonius Triptolemus Orpheus Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Personifications

Children of Nyx

Achlys Apate Dolos Eleos Elpis Epiphron Eris Geras Hesperides Hybris Hypnos Ker The Keres The Moirai

Aisa Clotho Lachesis

Momus Moros Oizys The Oneiroi

Epiales Morpheus Phantasos Phobetor

Nemesis Philotes Sophrosyne Thanatos

Children of Eris

Algos Amphillogiai Ate The Androktasiai Dysnomia Horkos Hysminai Lethe Limos Machai Phonoi Ponos Neikea Pseudea Logoi

Children of other gods

Aergia Aidos Alala Aletheia Angelia Arete Bia Caerus The Younger Charites

Eucleia Eupheme Euthenia Philophrosyne

Corus Deimos The Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Hymen

Eupraxia Hedone Homonoia Iacchus Kratos The Litae Homonoia Nike Peitho Phobos Tyche Zelos

Others

Adephagia Alala Alke Amechania Anaideia Alastor Apheleia Aporia The Arae Dikaiosyne Dyssebeia Ekecheiria Eulabeia Eusebeia Gelos Heimarmene Homados Horme Ioke Kakia Kalokagathia Koalemos Kydoimos Lyssa The Maniae Methe Nomos Palioxis Peitharchia Penia Penthus Pepromene Pheme Philotes Phrike Phthonus Pistis Poine Polemos Poros Praxidike Proioxis Prophasis Roma Soter Soteria Techne Thrasos

Other deities

Sky deities

The Anemoi The Astra Planeti

Stilbon Eosphorus Hesperus Pyroeis Phaethon Phaenon

Aura Chione The Hesperides The Hyades Nephele The Pleiades

Alcyone Sterope Celaeno Electra Maia Merope Taygete

Agricultural deities

Aphaea Ariadne Carmanor Demeter Despoina Eunostus Philomelus Plutus

Health deities

Asclepius Aceso Epione Iaso Hygieia Panacea Telesphorus

Rustic deities

Aetna The Alseids The Auloniads Amphictyonis The Anthousai Aristaeus Attis Britomartis The Cabeiri Comus The Dryades

Erato Eurydice The Hamadryades

Chrysopeleia

The Epimeliades Hecaterus Leuce Ma The Maenades The Meliae The Napaeae The Nymphai Hyperboreioi The Oreads

Adrasteia Echo Helike Iynx Nomia Oenone Pitys

The Pegasides Priapus Rhapso Silenus Telete

Others

Acratopotes Adrasteia Agdistis Alexiares and Anicetus Aphroditus Astraea Circe Eiresione Enyalius Harpocrates Ichnaea Palaestra

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Greek deities series

Primordial deities Titan deities Aquatic deities Chthonic
Chthonic
deities Mycenaean deities

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 27863

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