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Hephaestus
Hephaestus
(/hɪˈfiːstəs, həˈfɛstəs, hɪˈfɛstəs/; eight spellings; Greek: Ἥφαιστος Hēphaistos) is the Greek god
Greek god
of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metallurgy, fire, and volcanoes.[1] Hephaestus' Roman equivalent is Vulcan. In Greek mythology, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was the son of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera, the king and queen of the gods. In another version, he was Hera's parthenogenous child, rejected by his mother because of his deformity and thrown off Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
and down to earth.[2] As a smithing god, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
made all the weapons of the gods in Olympus. He served as the blacksmith of the gods, and was worshipped in the manufacturing and industrial centers of Greece, particularly Athens. The cult of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was based in Lemnos.[1] Hephaestus' symbols are a smith's hammer, anvil, and a pair of tongs.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Epithets 3 Mythology

3.1 Craft
Craft
of Hephaestus 3.2 Parentage 3.3 Fall from Olympus 3.4 Return to Olympus 3.5 Consorts and children 3.6 Hephaestus
Hephaestus
and Aphrodite 3.7 Hephaestus
Hephaestus
and Athena 3.8 Volcano
Volcano
god 3.9 Other mythology

4 Symbolism 5 Comparative mythology 6 Minor planet 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Bibliography

10 External links

Etymology[edit] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is probably associated with the Linear B
Linear B
(Mycenean Greek) inscription 𐀀𐀞𐀂𐀴𐀍, A-pa-i-ti-jo, found at Knossos; the inscription indirectly attests his worship at that time because it is believed that it reads the theophoric name Haphaistios or Haphaistion.[3][4][5] The name of the god in Greek (Hēphaistos) has a root which can be observed in names of places of Pre-Greek origin, like Phaistos[6][7] (Pa-i-to in Linear B).[8] Epithets[edit] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is given many epithets. The meaning of each epithet is:[9]

Amphigúeis "the lame one" (Ἀμφιγύεις) Kullopodíōn "the halting" (Κυλλοποδίων) Khalkeús "coppersmith" (Χαλκεύς) Klutotékhnēs "renowned artificer" (Κλυτοτέχνης) Polúmētis "shrewd, crafty" or "of many devices" (Πολύμητις) Aitnaîos "Aetnaean" (Αἰτναῖος), owing to his workshop being supposedly located below Mount Aetna.[10]

Mythology[edit] Craft
Craft
of Hephaestus[edit]

Vulcan Presenting the Arms of Achilles
Achilles
to Thetis
Thetis
by Peter Paul Rubens.

Thetis
Thetis
Receiving the Weapons of Achilles
Achilles
from Hephaestus
Hephaestus
by Anthony van Dyck (1630-1632)

Hephaestus
Hephaestus
had his own palace on Olympus, containing his workshop with anvil and twenty bellows that worked at his bidding.[11] Hephaestus crafted much of the magnificent equipment of the gods, and almost any finely wrought metalwork imbued with powers that appears in Greek myth is said to have been forged by Hephaestus. He designed Hermes' winged helmet and sandals, the Aegis
Aegis
breastplate, Aphrodite's famed girdle, Agamemnon's staff of office,[12] Achilles' armor, Heracles' bronze clappers, Helios's chariot, the shoulder of Pelops, and Eros's bow and arrows. In later accounts, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
worked with the help of the chthonic Cyclopes—among them his assistants in the forge, Brontes, Steropes and Pyracmon.[13][14] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
built automatons of metal to work for him. This included tripods that walked to and from Mount Olympus. He gave to the blinded Orion his apprentice Cedalion as a guide. In some versions of the myth,[15] Prometheus
Prometheus
stole the fire that he gave to man from Hephaestus's forge. Hephaestus
Hephaestus
also created the gift that the gods gave to man, the woman Pandora
Pandora
and her pithos. Being a skilled blacksmith, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
created all the thrones in the Palace of Olympus.[13] The Greek myths and the Homeric
Homeric
poems sanctified in stories that Hephaestus
Hephaestus
had a special power to produce motion.[16] He made the golden and silver lions and dogs at the entrance of the palace of Alkinoos
Alkinoos
in such a way that they could bite the invaders.[17] The Greeks maintained in their civilization an animistic idea that statues are in some sense alive. This kind of art and the animistic belief goes back to the Minoan period, when Daedalus, the builder of the labyrinth, made images which moved of their own accord.[18] A statue of the god was somehow the god himself, and the image on a man's tomb indicated somehow his presence.[19] Parentage[edit]

According to Hesiod
Hesiod
(Theogony, 927-928) Hera
Hera
gave birth to Hephaestus on her own as revenge for Zeus
Zeus
giving birth to Athena
Athena
without her ( Zeus
Zeus
laid with Metis).

According to Homer
Homer
(Iliad, I 571-577]) Hera
Hera
is mentioned as the mother of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
but there is not sufficient evidence to say that Zeus was his father (although he refers to him in such way).

According to Homer
Homer
(Odyssey, VIII 306) there is not sufficient evidence to say that Zeus
Zeus
was the father of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
(although he refers to him in such way). Hera
Hera
is not mentioned as the mother.

According to Pseudo-Apollodorus (Bibliotheca, 1.3.6) Hera
Hera
gave birth to Hephaestus
Hephaestus
alone. Pseudo-Apollodorus also relates that, according to Homer, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is one of the children of Zeus
Zeus
and Hera (consciously contradicting Hesiod
Hesiod
and Homer).

Several later texts follow Hesiod's account, including Hyginus and the preface to Fabulae.

In the account of Attic vase painters, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was present at the birth of Athena
Athena
and wields the axe with which he split Zeus' head to free her. In the latter account, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is there represented as older than Athena, so the mythology of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is inconsistent in this respect. Fall from Olympus[edit] In one branch of Greek mythology, Hera
Hera
ejected Hephaestus
Hephaestus
from the heavens because he was "shrivelled of foot". He fell into the ocean and was raised by Thetis
Thetis
(mother of Achilles) and the Oceanid Eurynome.[20] In another account, Hephaestus, attempting to rescue his mother from Zeus' advances, was flung down from the heavens by Zeus. He fell for an entire day and landed on the island of Lemnos, where he was cared for and taught to be a master craftsman by the Sintians
Sintians
– an ancient tribe native to that island.[21] Later writers describe his lameness as the consequence of his second fall, while Homer
Homer
makes him lame and weak from his birth. Return to Olympus[edit] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was the only Olympian to have returned to Olympus after being exiled. In an archaic story,[a][22][23] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
gained revenge against Hera for rejecting him by making her a magical golden throne, which, when she sat on it, did not allow her to stand up.[b] The other gods begged Hephaestus
Hephaestus
to return to Olympus to let her go, but he refused, saying "I have no mother".[23]

The western face of the Doric temple of Hephaestus, Agora
Agora
of Athens.

At last, Dionysus
Dionysus
fetched him, intoxicated him with wine, and took the subdued smith back to Olympus on the back of a mule accompanied by revelers – a scene that sometimes appears on painted pottery of Attica and of Corinth.[24][25][26] In the painted scenes, the padded dancers and phallic figures of the Dionysan throng leading the mule show that the procession was a part of the dithyrambic celebrations that were the forerunners of the satyr plays of fifth century Athens.[27][28] The theme of the return of Hephaestus, popular among the Attic vase-painters whose wares were favored among the Etruscans, may have introduced this theme to Etruria.[c][29][30] In the vase-painters' portrayal of the procession, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was mounted on a mule or a horse, with Dionysus
Dionysus
holding the bridle and carrying Hephaestus' tools (including a double-headed axe). The traveller Pausanias reported seeing a painting in the temple of Dionysus
Dionysus
in Athens, which had been built in the 5th century but may have been decorated at any time before the 2nd century CE. When Pausanias saw it, he said:

There are paintings here – Dionysus
Dionysus
bringing Hephaestus
Hephaestus
up to heaven. One of the Greek legends is that Hephaestus, when he was born, was thrown down by Hera. In revenge he sent as a gift a golden chair with invisible fetters. When Hera
Hera
sat down she was held fast, and Hephaestus
Hephaestus
refused to listen to any other of the gods except Dionysus – in him he reposed the fullest trust – and after making him drunk Dionysus
Dionysus
brought him to heaven. — Pausanias, 1.20.3

Consorts and children[edit] According to most versions, Hephaestus's consort is Aphrodite, who is unfaithful to Hephaestus
Hephaestus
with a number of gods and mortals, including Ares. However, in Book XVIII of Homer's Iliad, the consort of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is a lesser Aphrodite, Charis
Charis
("the grace") or Aglaia ("the glorious") – the youngest of the Graces, as Hesiod
Hesiod
calls her.[31]

Athena
Athena
Scorning the Advances of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
by Paris Bordone
Paris Bordone
(between c. 1555 and c. 1560)

In Athens, there is a Temple of Hephaestus, the Hephaesteum (miscalled the "Theseum") near the agora. An Athenian founding myth tells that the city's patron goddess, Athena, refused a union with Hephaestus. Pseudo-Apollodorus[32] records an archaic legend, which claims that Hephaestus
Hephaestus
once attempted to rape Athena, but she pushed him away, causing him to ejaculate on her thigh.[33][34] Athena
Athena
wiped the semen off using a tuft of wool, which she tossed into the dust, impregnating Gaia and causing her to give birth to Erichthonius,[33][34] whom Athena
Athena
adopted as her own child.[33] The Roman mythographer Hyginus[32] records a similar story in which Hephaestus
Hephaestus
demanded Zeus to let him marry Athena
Athena
since he was the one who had smashed open Zeus's skull, allowing Athena
Athena
to be born.[33] Zeus
Zeus
agreed to this and Hephaestus
Hephaestus
and Athena
Athena
were married,[33] but, when Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was about to consummate the union, Athena
Athena
vanished from the bridal bed, causing him to ejaculate on the floor, thus impregnating Gaia with Erichthonius.[33][35] On the island of Lemnos, Hephaestus' consort was the sea nymph Cabeiro, by whom he was the father of two metalworking gods named the Cabeiri. In Sicily, his consort was the nymph Aetna, and his sons were two gods of Sicilian geysers called Palici. With Thalia, Hephaestus was sometimes considered the father of the Palici. Hephaestus
Hephaestus
fathered several children with mortals and immortals alike. One of those children was the robber Periphetes. This is the full list of his consorts and children according to the various accounts:

Aphrodite Aglaea

Eucleia Euthenia Eupheme Philophrosyne

Aetna

The Palici

Cabeiro

The Cabeiri

Gaia

Erichthonius

Anticleia

Periphetes

by unknown mothers

Ardalus Cercyon (possibly) Olenus Palaemonius, Argonauts Philottus Pylius Spinter

In addition, the Romans claim their equivalent god, Vulcan, to have produced the following children:

Cacus Caeculus

Hephaestus
Hephaestus
and Aphrodite[edit]

Mars and Venus Surprised by Vulcan by Alexandre Charles Guillemot (1827)

Though married to Hephaestus, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
had an affair with Ares, the god of war. Eventually, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
discovered Aphrodite’s affair through Helios, the all-seeing Sun, and planned a trap during one of their trysts. While Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Ares
Ares
lay together in bed, Hephaestus ensnared them in an unbreakable chain-link net so small as to be invisible and dragged them to Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
to shame them in front of the other gods for retribution. The gods laughed at the sight of these naked lovers, and Poseidon persuaded Hephaestus
Hephaestus
to free them in return for a guarantee that Ares would pay the adulterer's fine. Hephaestus
Hephaestus
states in The Odyssey
Odyssey
that he would return Aphrodite
Aphrodite
to her father and demand back his bride price. The Thebans told that the union of Ares
Ares
and Aphrodite
Aphrodite
produced Harmonia. However, of the union of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
with Aphrodite, there was no issue unless Virgil
Virgil
was serious when he said that Eros
Eros
was their child.[36] Later authors explain this statement by saying that Eros
Eros
was sired by Ares
Ares
but passed off to Hephaestus
Hephaestus
as his own son. Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was somehow connected with the archaic, pre-Greek Phrygian and Thracian mystery cult of the Kabeiroi, who were also called the Hephaistoi, "the Hephaestus-men", in Lemnos. One of the three Lemnian tribes also called themselves Hephaestion and claimed direct descent from the god. Hephaestus
Hephaestus
and Athena[edit] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is to the male gods as Athena
Athena
is to the females, for he gives skill to mortal artists and was believed to have taught men the arts alongside Athena.[37] He was nevertheless believed to be far inferior to the sublime character of Athena. At Athens
Athens
they had temples and festivals in common.[d] Both were believed to have great healing powers, and Lemnian earth (terra Lemnia) from the spot on which Hephaestus
Hephaestus
had fallen was believed to cure madness, the bites of snakes, and haemorrhage, and priests of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
knew how to cure wounds inflicted by snakes.[38] He was represented in the temple of Athena
Athena
Chalcioecus ( Athena
Athena
of the Bronze House[39]) at Sparta, in the act of delivering his mother;[40] on the chest of Cypselus, giving Achilles's armour to Thetis;[41] and at Athens
Athens
there was the famous statue of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
by Alcamenes, in which his lameness was only subtly portrayed.[42] The Greeks frequently placed small dwarf-like statues of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
near their hearths, and these figures are the oldest of all his representations.[43] During the best period of Grecian art he was represented as a vigorous man with a beard, and is characterized by his hammer or some other crafting tool, his oval cap, and the chiton. Athena
Athena
is sometimes thought to be "the ‘soul-mate’ of [Hephaestus]. Yet a kind of cloudy mysteriousness shrouds their relationship; no single tradition was ever clearly established on this subject, and so what confronts us is a blurred image based on rumors and conflicting reports." Nonetheless, he "seeks impetuously and passionately to make love to Athena: at the moment of climax she pushes him aside, and his semen falls to the earth where it impregnates Gaia."[44] Volcano
Volcano
god[edit] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was associated by Greek colonists in southern Italy
Italy
with the volcano gods Adranus
Adranus
(of Mount Etna) and Vulcanus of the Lipari islands. The first-century sage Apollonius of Tyana
Apollonius of Tyana
is said to have observed, "there are many other mountains all over the earth that are on fire, and yet we should never be done with it if we assigned to them giants and gods like Hephaestus".[45] Other mythology[edit] In the Trojan war, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
sided with the Greeks, but was also worshiped by the Trojans and saved one of their men from being killed by Diomedes.[46] Hephaestus’ favourite place in the mortal world was the island of Lemnos, where he liked to dwell among the Sintians,[47][48][49] but he also frequented other volcanic islands such as Lipara, Hiera, Imbros
Imbros
and Sicily, which were called his abodes or workshops.[50][51][52][53][54][55] The epithets and surnames by which Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is known by the poets generally allude to his skill in the plastic arts or to his figure or lameness. The Greeks frequently placed small dwarf-like statues of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
near their hearths, and these figures are the oldest of all his representations.[56][57][58] Symbolism[edit] Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was sometimes portrayed as a vigorous man with a beard and was characterized by his hammer or some other crafting tool, his oval cap, and the chiton. Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is described in mythological sources as "lame" (cholōs), and "halting" (ēpedanos).[59] He was depicted with crippled feet and as misshapen, either from birth or as a result of his fall from Olympus. In vase paintings, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
is usually shown lame and bent over his anvil, hard at work on a metal creation, and sometimes with his feet back-to-front: Hephaistos amphigyēeis. He walked with the aid of a stick. The Argonaut Palaimonius, "son of Hephaestus" (i.e. a bronze-smith) was also lame.[60] Other "sons of Hephaestus" were the Cabeiri
Cabeiri
on the island of Samothrace, who were identified with the crab (karkinos) by the lexicographer Hesychius. The adjective karkinopous ("crab-footed") signified "lame", according to Detienne and Vernant.[61] The Cabeiri were also lame. In some myths, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
built himself a "wheeled chair" or chariot with which to move around, thus helping him overcome his lameness while demonstrating his skill to the other gods.[62] In the Iliad 18.371, it is stated that Hephaestus
Hephaestus
built twenty bronze wheeled tripods in order assist him in moving around.[63] Hephaestus’s ugly appearance and lameness is taken by some to represent arsenicosis, an effect of high levels of arsenic exposure that would result in lameness and skin cancers. In place of less easily available tin, arsenic was added to copper in the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
to harden it; like the hatters, crazed by their exposure to mercury, who inspired Lewis Carroll's famous character of the Mad Hatter, most smiths of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
would have suffered from chronic poisoning as a result of their livelihood. Consequently, the mythic image of the lame smith is widespread. As Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was an iron-age smith, not a bronze-age smith, the connection is one from ancient folk memory.[64] Comparative mythology[edit] Parallels in other mythological systems for Hephaestus's symbolism include:

The Ugarit
Ugarit
craftsman-god Kothar-wa-Khasis, who is identified from afar by his distinctive walk – possibly suggesting that he limps.[65] As Herodotus
Herodotus
was given to understand, the Egyptian craftsman-god Ptah was a dwarf, naked, and deformed.[66] In Norse mythology, Weyland the Smith was a lame bronzeworker.

Minor planet[edit] The minor planet 2212 Hephaistos discovered in 1978 by Soviet astronomer Lyudmila Chernykh was named in Hephaestus' honour.[67] See also[edit]

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal Hellenismos portal

Hephaestus
Hephaestus
in popular culture

Notes[edit]

^ Features within the narrative suggest to Kerenyi and others that it is archaic; the most complete literary account, however, is a late one, in the Roman rhetorician Libanios, according to Hedreen (2004). ^ A section "The Binding of Hera" is devoted to this archaic theme in Kerenyi (1951, pp 156–158), who refers to this "ancient story", which is one of the "tales of guileful deeds performed by cunning gods, mostly at a time when they had not joined the family on Olympus". ^ The return of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was painted on the Etruscan tomb at the "Grotta Campana" near Veii
Veii
was identified by Petersen (1902); the "well-known subject" was doubted in this instance by Harmon (1912). ^ See Dict of Ant. s. v. Hêphaisteia, Chalkeia.

References[edit]

^ a b Walter Burkert, Greek Religion 1985: III.2.ii; see coverage of Lemnos-based traditions and legends at Mythic Lemnos ^ Graves, Robert (1955). The Greek Myths:1. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books. p. 51.  ^ Chadwick, John (1976). The Mycenaean World. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 99. ISBN 0-521-29037-6.  At Google Books. ^ Anthology of Classical Myth: Primary Sources in translation. Hackett Publishing. 2004. p. 443. ISBN 0-87220-721-8.  At Google Books ^ "a-pa-i-ti-jo". Deaditerranean: Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B.  ^ Probably Phaistos, like Athēnā. Chadwick (1976), p. 87. ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 527. ^ "pa-i-to". Deaditerranean: Minoan Linear A & Mycenaean Linear B.  ^ Autenrieth, Georg (1891). "Hephaestus". A Homeric
Homeric
Dictionary for Schools and Colleges. United States of America: Harper and Brothers.  ^ Aelian, Hist. An. xi. 3, referenced under Aetnaeus in William Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology ^ Il. xviii. 370, &c. ^ The provenance of the staff of office is recounted in Iliad
Iliad
II ^ a b Graves, Robert (1960). "The Palace of Olympus". Greek Gods and Heroes. United States of America: Dell Laurel-Leaf. p. 150.  ^ Virg. Aen. viii. 416, &c. ^ West (1979). "The Prometheus
Prometheus
Trilogy. The Journal of Hellenic Studies" (99): 130–148.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Iliad, XVIII 372ff ^ Iliad, VIII: Nigel Spivey (1997): The Greek art. Phaidon Press Limited, p.9 ^ Diodorus Siculus, LV 76 ^ C.M.Bowra (1957).The Greek experience. The World Publishing company. p.159 ^ Homeric
Homeric
Hymn to Apollo
Apollo
316–321; Homer, Iliad
Iliad
395–405. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
1.590–594; Valerius Flaccus, ii, 8.5; Apollodorus, i, 3 § 5. Apollodorus confounds the two occasions on which Hephaestus was thrown from Olympus. ^ Guy Hedreen (2004) The Return of Hephaistos, Dionysiac Processional Ritual and the Creation of a Visual Narrative. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 124 (2004:38–64) p. 38 and note. ^ a b Kerényi 1951, p. 156–158. ^ Axel Seeberg (1965) Hephaistos Rides Again. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, 85, pp. 102–109, describes and illustrates four pieces of Corinthian painted pottery with the theme ^ A black red-figure calpis in the collection of Marsden J. Perry was painted with the return of Hephaestus
Hephaestus
(Eldridge, 1917, pp 38–54). ^ L. G. Eldridge (1917) An Unpublished Calpis. American Journal of Archaeology, 21.1, pp 38–54 (January–March 1917). ^ The significance of the subject for the pre-history of Greek drama is argued by Webster (1958, pp 43 [[wikt:ff.]]) and more recently by Hedreen (2004, pp 38–64). ^ T.B.L. Webster (1958) Some thoughts on the pre-history of Greek drama. Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies, 5, pp 43 [[wikt:ff.]] ^ Petersen (1902) Über die älteste etruskische Wandmälerei, pp 149 [[wikt:ff.]]. Rome. ^ A. M. Harmon (1912) The Paintings of the Grotta Campana. American Journal of Archaeology, 16.1, 1–10 (January–March 1912); ^ Hesiod, Theogony, 945 ^ a b Kerényi 1951, p. 281. ^ a b c d e f Kerényi 1951, p. 123. ^ a b Burkert, Walter (1985), Greek Religion, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, p. 143, ISBN 0-674-36281-0  ^ Hyginus made an imaginative etymology for Erichthonius, of strife (Eris) between Athena
Athena
and Hephaestus
Hephaestus
and the Earth-child (chthonios). ^ Aeneid
Aeneid
i.664 ^ Od. vi. 233, xxiii. 160. Hymn. in Vaulc. 2. &c. ^ Philostr. Heroic. v. 2; Eustath. ad Hom. p. 330; Dict. Cret. ii. 14. ^ The Museum of Goddess Athena, Sanctuary of Athena
Athena
Chalkiokos at Sparta ^ Paus. iii. 17. § 3 ^ v. 19. § 2 ^ Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 30; Val. Max. viii. 11. § 3 ^ Herod. iii. 37; Aristoph. Av. 436; Callim. Hymnn. in Dian. 60 ^ Hillman, James (1980). Facing the Gods. Spring Pubns. ISBN 978-0882143125.  ^ Life of Apollonius of Tyana, book v.16. ^ Homer, Iliad, v, 9 [[wikt:ff.]] ^ Od. viii. 283 [[wikt:ff.]] ^ Homer, Iliad, i, 593. ^ Ovid, Fasti, viii, 82. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, iii. 41. ^ Callimachus, Hymn. in Dian. 47 ^ Serv. ad Aen, viii, 416. ^ Strabo, p. 275. ^ Pliny, Naturalis Historia, iii, 9. ^ Valerius Flaccus, ii, 96. ^ Heroditus, iii, 37 ^ Aristophanes, Av., 436. ^ Callimachus, Hymn. in Dian., 60. ^ Odyssey
Odyssey
8.308; Iliad
Iliad
18.397, etc. ^ Apollonius of Rhodes, Argonautica
Argonautica
i.204. ^ Detienne, Marcel; Vernant, Jean-Pierre (1978). Cunning Intelligence in Greek Culture and Society. Janet Lloyd, translator. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press. pp. 269–272. ISBN 0-391-00740-8.  Cited by Silver, Morris (1992). Taking Ancient Mythology
Mythology
Economically. New York: Brill. p. 35 note 5. ISBN 90-04-09706-6.  ^ Dolmage, Jay (2006). "'Breathe Upon Us an Even Flame': Hephaestus, History, and the Body of Rhetoric". Rhetoric Review. 25 (2): 119–140 [p. 120]. doi:10.1207/s15327981rr2502_1.  ^ Murray, A.T. "The Iliad
Iliad
18.371". Perseus. Tufts University. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  ^ Saggs, H. W. F. (1989). Civilization Before Greece and Rome. New Haven: Yale University Press. pp. 200–201. ISBN 0-300-04440-2.  ^ Baruch Margalit, Aqhat Epic 1989:289. ^ Herodotus, iii.36. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 180. ISBN 3-540-00238-3. 

Bibliography[edit]

Kerényi, Karl (1951), The Gods of the Greeks, London, England: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0-500-27048-1 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hephaestus.

Theoi Project, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
in classical literature and art Greek Mythology
Mythology
Link, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
summary of the myths of Hephaestus

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and mythology

Classical religious forms

Ancient Greek religion Gnosticism Paleo-Balkan mythology Proto-Indo-European religion Hellenistic religion Alchemy Orphism Pythagoreanism Mycenaean deities

Mystery religions and sacred mysteries

Dionysian Mysteries Eleusinian Mysteries Imbrian Mysteries Mithraism Samotracian Mysteries

Main beliefs

Apotheosis Euhemerism Greek Heroic Age Monism Mythology Nympholepsy Paganism Paradoxography Polytheism Theism

Texts/ Epic poems/ Ode

Aretalogy Argonautica Bibliotheca Cyranides Derveni papyrus Ehoiai Greek Magical Papyri Homeric
Homeric
Hymns Iliad Odyssey Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis Telegony The golden verses of Pythagoras Theogony Works and Days Epic Cycle Theban Cycle

Rites and practices

Amphictyonic League Amphidromia Animal sacrifice Apotheosis Baptes Curse tablet Daduchos Delphinion Funeral and burial practices Hymns Hero cult Heroon Hierophany Hierophant Hierophylakes Hieros gamos Hypsistarians Iatromantis Interpretatio graeca Libations Mystagogue Nekyia Necromancy Necromanteion Nymphaeum Panegyris Pharmakos Prayers Orgia Sacrifices Temenos Temples Votive offerings

Sacred places

Athenian sacred ships Cave of Zeus Cretea Delphi Delos Dodona Eleusis Hiera Orgas Olympia Olympus Psychro Cave Sacred Way

Mythical beings

Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures

Deities

Primordial deities

Aether Aion Ananke Chaos Chronos Erebus Eros Gaia Hemera Nyx Phanes Pontus Thalassa Tartarus Uranus

Titans

First generation

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Mnemosyne Oceanus Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Second generation

Asteria Astraeus Atlas Eos Epimetheus Helios Leto Menoetius Metis Pallas Perses Prometheus Selene

Third generation

Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Aquatic deities

Amphitrite Alpheus Ceto Glaucus The Naiads The Nereids Nereus The Oceanids Phorcys Poseidon The Potamoi Potamides Proteus Scamander Thaumas Thetis Triton

Love deities

Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Himeros Hymen/Hymenaeus Pothos

Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho

War deities

Adrestia Alala Alke Amphillogiai Androktasiai Ares Athena Bia Deimos Enyalius Enyo Eris Gynaecothoenas Homados Hysminai Ioke Keres Kratos Kydoimos Ma Makhai Nike Palioxis Pallas Perses Phobos Phonoi Polemos Proioxis

Chthonic
Chthonic
deities

Psychopomps

Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos

Achlys Angelos Hades
Hades
/ Pluto Hecate Hypnos Keres Lampad Macaria Melinoe Persephone

Health deities

Aceso Aegle Artemis Apollo Asclepius Chiron Eileithyia Epione Hebe Hygieia Iaso Paean Panacea Telesphorus

Sleep deities

Empusa Epiales Hypnos Morpheus Pasithea Phantasos Phobetor Oneiroi

Messenger deities

Angelia Arke Hermes Iris

Trickster deities

Apate Dolos Hermes Momus

Magic deities

Circe Hecate Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus Triple deity

Other major deities

Azone The Erinyes Harmonia The Muses Nemesis Pan Unknown God Zelus

Heroes/Heroines

Abderus Achilles Actaeon Aeneas Argonauts Ajax the Great Ajax the Lesser Akademos Amphiaraus Amphitryon Antilochus Atalanta Autolycus Bellerophon Bouzyges Cadmus Chrysippus Cyamites Daedalus Diomedes Dioscuri
Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) Echetlus Eleusis Erechtheus Eunostus Ganymede Hector Heracles Icarus Iolaus Jason Meleager Odysseus Oedipus Orpheus Pandion Peleus Pelops Penthesilea Perseus Theseus Triptolemus

Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines

Oracles/Seers

Aesacus Aleuas Amphiaraus Amphilochus Ampyx Anius Asbolus Bakis Branchus Calchas Carnus Carya Cassandra Delphic Sibyl Elatus Ennomus Halitherses Helenus Iamus Idmon Manto Melampus Mopsus Munichus Phineus Polyeidos Polypheides Pythia Sibyl Telemus Theiodamas Theoclymenus Tiresias

Magic

Apotropaic magic Greek Magical Papyri Philia

Mythical realms

Aethiopia Atlantis Hyperborea Libya Nysa Panchaia Scythia Themiscyra

Underworld

Entrances to the underworld

Rivers

Acheron Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Lakes/ Swamps

Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna
Lerna
Lake

Caves

Cave at Cape Matapan Cave Charonium Cave at Lake Avernus Cave at Heraclea Pontica

Ploutonion

Pluto's Gate

Places

Elysium Erebus Fields of Asphodel Fields of Punishment Isles of the Blessed Tartarus

Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Guards

Cerberus

Ferryman

Charon Charon's obol

Symbols-Objects

Bident Cap of invisibility

Animals-Daemons/Spirits

Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

Amazonomachy Attic War Centauromachy Gigantomachy Cranes-Pygmies war Theomachy Titanomachy Trojan War

Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon

Symbols

Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ

Games

Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia

Festivals/Feasts

Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria

Vessels

Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in popular culture

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 808615 GN

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