HENRY ROBINSON LUCE (April 3, 1898 – February 28, 1967) was an
American magazine magnate who was called "the most influential private
citizen in the America of his day". He launched and closely
supervised a stable of magazines that transformed journalism and the
reading habits of upscale Americans. Time summarized and interpreted
the week's news; Life was a picture magazine of politics, culture, and
society that dominated American visual perceptions in the era before
television; Fortune explored in depth the economy and the world
Sports Illustrated explored the motivations and
strategies of sports teams and key players. Counting his radio
projects and newsreels , Luce created the first multimedia
corporation. He envisaged that the United States would achieve world
hegemony, and, in 1941, he declared the 20th century would be the
American Century ".
* 1 Life and career
* 2 Magazines
* 3 Family
* 4 References
* 5 Further reading
* 6 External links
LIFE AND CAREER
Luce was born in Tengchow (now Penglai) ,
China , on April
3, 1898, the son of Elizabeth Root Luce and Henry Winters Luce , who
Presbyterian missionary. He received his education in various
Chinese and English boarding schools, including the
Chefoo School .
At 15, he was sent to the US to attend the
Hotchkiss School in
Connecticut , where he edited the Hotchkiss Literary Monthly. It was
there he first met
Briton Hadden , who would become a lifelong
partner. At the time, Hadden served as editor-in-chief of the school
newspaper, and Luce worked as an assistant managing editor. Both went
on to Yale College , where Hadden served as chairman and Luce as
managing editor of
The Yale Daily News . Luce was also a member of
Alpha Delta Phi
Alpha Delta Phi and
Skull and Bones
Skull and Bones . After being voted "most
brilliant" of his class and graduating in 1920, he parted ways with
Hadden to embark for a year on historical studies at Oxford University
, followed by a stint as a cub reporter for the
Chicago Daily News
Chicago Daily News .
In December 1921, Luce rejoined Hadden to work at The Baltimore News
. Recalling his relationship with Hadden, Luce later said, "Somehow,
despite the greatest differences in temperaments and even in
interests, we had to work together. We were an organization. At the
center of our lives — our job, our function — at that point
everything we had belonged to each other."
Nightly discussions of the concept of a news magazine led Luce and
Hadden, both age 23, to quit their jobs in 1922. Later that same year,
they partnered with
Robert Livingston Johnson and another Yale
classmate to form
Time Inc. Having raised $86,000 of a $100,000 goal,
they published the first issue of Time on March 3, 1923. Luce served
as business manager while Hadden was editor-in-chief. Luce and Hadden
annually alternated year-to-year the titles of president and
secretary-treasurer while Johnson served as vice president and
advertising director. In 1925, Luce decided to move headquarters to
Cleveland , while Hadden was on a trip to Europe.
cheaper, and Luce’s first wife, Lila, wanted out of New York. When
Hadden returned, he was horrified and moved Time back to New York.
Upon Hadden's sudden death in 1929, Luce assumed Hadden's position.
Luce launched the business magazine Fortune in February 1930 and
acquired Life in order to relaunch it as a weekly magazine of
photojournalism in November 1936; he went on to launch House he put
George Marshall in charge of enforcement. The main target was
Luce, who had long opposed Roosevelt. Historian
Alan Brinkley argued
the move was "badly mistaken" and said had Luce been allowed to
travel, he would have been an enthusiastic cheerleader for American
forces around the globe. However, stranded in New York City, Luce's
frustration and anger expressed itself in blatant partisanship.
Luce, supported by Editor-in-Chief
T. S. Matthews , appointed
Whittaker Chambers as acting Foreign News editor in 1944, despite the
feuds that Chambers had with reporters in the field.
Luce, who remained editor-in-chief of all his publications until
1964, maintained a position as an influential member of the Republican
Party . An instrumental figure behind the so-called "
China Lobby ",
he played a large role in steering American foreign policy and popular
sentiment in favor of
Chiang Kai-shek and his wife,
Soong Mei-ling , in their war against the Japanese. (The Chiangs
appeared in the cover of Time eleven times between 1927 and 1955. )
It has been reported that Luce, during the 1960s, tried
reported that he had talked to God under its influence.
Once ambitious to become Secretary of State in a Republican
administration, Luce penned a famous article in Life magazine in 1941,
American Century ", which defined the role of American
foreign policy for the remainder of the 20th century (and perhaps
An ardent anti-Soviet, he once demanded John Kennedy invade Cuba,
later to remark to his editors that if he did not, his corporation
would act like Hearst during the
Spanish–American War . The
publisher would advance his concepts of US dominance of the "American
Century" through his periodicals with the ideals shared and guided by
members of his social circle,
John Foster Dulles , Secretary of State
and his brother, director of the CIA,
Allen Dulles . To highlight the
cozy extent of their alliance, rumors swirled that the publisher
shared the wartime mistress of the spymaster with Clare Booth Luce.
Luce Memorial Chapel ,
Tunghai University ,
Luce had two children, Peter Paul and
Henry Luce III, with his first
wife, Lila Hotz. In 1935 he married his second wife, Clare Boothe Luce
, who had an 11-year-old daughter,
Ann Clare Brokaw , whom he raised
as his own. He died in
Phoenix, Arizona in 1967. According to the
Henry Luce Foundation, at age 68 he died suddenly of cardiac arrest
while visiting his home on
Fishers Island , New York . At his death,
he was said to be worth $100 million in
Time Inc. stock. Most of his
fortune went to the
Henry Luce Foundation. During his life, Luce
supported many philanthropies such as Save the Children Federation,
Metropolitan Museum of Art
Metropolitan Museum of Art and United Service to China, Inc. He is
interred at Mepkin Plantation in South Carolina.
He was honored by the
United States Postal Service with a 32¢ Great
Americans series (1980–2000) postage stamp. Mr. Luce was inducted
into the Junior Achievement U.S. Business Hall of Fame in 1977.
I. M. Pei , the
Luce Memorial Chapel , on the campus of
Tunghai University ,
Taiwan , was constructed in memoriam of Henry
* ^ Robert Edwin Herzstein (2005). Henry R. Luce, Time, and the
American Crusade in Asia. Cambridge U.P. p. 1.
* ^ Editorial (1941-02-17) The American Century, Life Magazine
* ^ A B C
Baughman, James L. (April 28, 2004). "Henry R. Luce and
the Rise of the American News Media". American Masters (PBS).
Retrieved 19 June 2014.
* ^ Warburton, Albert (Winter 1962). "Robert L. Johnson Hall
Dedicated at Temple University" (PDF). The Emerald of Sigma Pi. Vol.
48 no. 4. p. 111.
* ^ Alan Brinkley, The Publisher:
Henry Luce and his American
Century (2010) pp 302-3
* ^ Brinkley, The Publisher:
Henry Luce and his American Century
(2010) pp 322-93
* ^ A B "Henry R. Luce: End of a Pilgrimage". - TIME . - March 10,
* ^ "Time magazine historical search". Time magazine. Retrieved 19
* ^ Maisto, Stephen A., Galizio, Mark, & Connors, Gerald J. (2008).
Drug Use and Abuse: Fifth Edition. Belmont: Thomson Higher Education.
* ^ Talbot, David. "The Devils' Chessboard: Allen Dulles, The CIA
and the Rise of America's Secret Government." (2015) Harper-Collins,
pub., New York, New York pp. 236-238, 444.
* ^ Edwin Diamond (October 23, 1972). "Why the Power Vacuum at Time
New York Magazine .
* ^ "Henry R. Luce". US Stamp Gallery. April 3, 1998.
Baughman, James L. "Henry R. Luce and the Business of Journalism."
Business vol. 2: The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History,
1941-1960 (1973), official corporate history
* Herzstein, Robert E. Henry R. Luce, Time, and the American Crusade
in Asia (2006) excerpt and text search
* Herzstein, Robert E. Henry R. Luce: A Political Portrait of the
Man Who Created the
American Century (1994).
* Morris, Sylvia Jukes . Rage for Fame: The Ascent of Clare Boothe
* Wilner, Isaiah. The Man Time Forgot: A Tale of Genius, Betrayal,
and the Creation of Time Magazine, HarperCollins, New York, 2006