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Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
(March 6, 1724 [O.S. February 24, 1723] – December 8, 1792) was an American merchant, slave trader, and rice planter from South Carolina
South Carolina
who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. A delegate to the Second Continental Congress, Laurens succeeded John Hancock
John Hancock
as President of the Congress. He was a signatory to the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
and President of the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
when the Articles were passed on November 15, 1777. Laurens had earned great wealth as a partner in the largest slave-trading house in North America, Austin and Laurens. In the 1750s alone, this Charleston firm oversaw the sale of more than 8,000 enslaved Africans.[1] Laurens was for a time Vice-President of South Carolina
South Carolina
and a diplomat to the Netherlands
Netherlands
during the Revolutionary War. He was captured at sea and imprisoned for some time by the British in the Tower of London. His son John Laurens
John Laurens
was a colonel in the Continental Army.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Marriage and family 3 Political career 4 Later events 5 Death and cremation 6 Legacy and honors 7 References 8 Further reading

8.1 Primary sources

9 External links

Early life and education Henry Laurens’s forebears were Huguenots
Huguenots
who fled France after the Edict of Nantes
Edict of Nantes
was revoked in 1685. Henry’s grandfather Andre Laurens left earlier, in 1682, and eventually made his way to America, settling first in New York City and then Charleston, South Carolina. Andre’s son John married Hester (or Esther) Grasset, also a Huguenot refugee. Henry was their third child and eldest son. John Laurens became a saddler, and his business eventually grew to be the largest of its kind in the colonies.[2] In 1744 John Laurens
John Laurens
sent Henry to London to augment the young man's business training.[2] This took place in the company of Richard Oswald.[3] John Laurens
John Laurens
died in 1747, bequeathing twenty-three-year-old Henry a considerable estate.[2] Marriage and family He married Eleanor Ball, also of a South Carolina
South Carolina
rice planter family, on June 25, 1750. They had thirteen children, many of whom died in infancy or childhood. Eleanor died in 1770, one month after giving birth to their last child. Laurens took their three sons to England for their education, encouraging their oldest, John Laurens, to study law. The young Laurens returned to the United States
United States
in 1776, at the time of the American Revolutionary War. Political career

1784 engraving of Laurens as President of the Continental Congress

Laurens served in the militia, as did most able-bodied men in his time. He rose to the rank of Lt. Colonel in the campaigns against the Cherokee
Cherokee
Indians in 1757–1761, during the French and Indian War (also known as the Seven Years' War). 1757 also marked the first year he was elected to the colonial assembly. Laurens was elected again every year but one until the Revolution replaced the assembly with a state Convention as an interim government. The year he missed was 1773, when he visited England to arrange for his sons' educations. He was named to the colony's Council in 1764 and 1768, but declined both times. In 1772 he joined the American Philosophical Society
American Philosophical Society
of Philadelphia, and carried on extensive correspondence with other members. As the American Revolution
American Revolution
neared, Laurens was at first inclined to support reconciliation with the British Crown. But as conditions deteriorated, he came to fully support the American position. When Carolina began to create a revolutionary government, Laurens was elected to the Provincial Congress, which first met on January 9, 1775. He was president of the Committee of Safety, and presiding officer of that congress from June until March 1776. When South Carolina installed a fully independent government, he served as the Vice President of South Carolina
South Carolina
from March 1776 to June 27, 1777. Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
was first named a delegate to the Continental Congress on January 10, 1777. He served in the Congress from until 1780. He was the President of the Continental Congress
President of the Continental Congress
from November 1, 1777 to December 9, 1778. In the fall of 1779, the Congress named Laurens their minister to the Netherlands. In early 1780 he took up that post and successfully negotiated Dutch support for the war. But on his return voyage to Amsterdam that fall, the British frigate Vestal intercepted his ship, the continental packet Mercury,[4] off the banks of Newfoundland. Although his dispatches were tossed in the water, they were retrieved by the British, who discovered the draft of a possible U.S.-Dutch treaty prepared in Aix-la-Chapelle
Aix-la-Chapelle
in 1778 by William Lee and the Amsterdam banker Jean de Neufville.[5] This prompted Britain to declare war on the Dutch Republic, it becoming known as the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War. The British charged Laurens with treason, transported him to England, and imprisoned him in the Tower of London
Tower of London
(he is the only American to have been held prisoner in the Tower). His imprisonment was protested by the Americans. In the field, most captives were regarded as prisoners of war, and while conditions were frequently appalling, prisoner exchanges and mail privileges were accepted practice. During his imprisonment, Laurens was assisted by Richard Oswald, his former business partner and the principal owner of Bunce Island. Oswald argued on Laurens' behalf to the British government. Finally, on December 31, 1781 he was released in exchange for General Lord Cornwallis and completed his voyage to Amsterdam. He helped raise funds for the American effort. In a late skirmish during the war, Laurens' oldest son John was killed in 1782. He had supported enlisting and freeing slaves for the war effort and suggested to his father that he begin with the 40 he stood to inherit.[6] He urged his father to free their slaves. Yet, although conflicted, Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
never manumitted his 260 slaves.[6][7] In 1783 Laurens was sent to Paris
Paris
as one of the Peace Commissioners for the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Paris. While he was not a signatory of the primary treaty, he was instrumental in reaching the secondary accords that resolved issues related to the Netherlands
Netherlands
and Spain. Richard Oswald, a former partner of Laurens in the slave trade, was the principal negotiator for the British during the Paris
Paris
peace talks. Laurens generally retired from public life in 1784. He was sought for a return to the Continental Congress, the Constitutional Convention in 1787 and the state assembly, but he declined all of these positions. He did serve in the state convention of 1788, where he voted to ratify the United States
United States
Constitution.

Portrait of Laurens, Boston Magazine, 1784; engraving by John Norman

Later events The British occupying forces from Charleston had burned the main home at Mepkin during the war. When Laurens and his family returned in 1784, they lived in an outbuilding while the great house was rebuilt. He lived on the estate the rest of his life, working to recover the estimated £40,000 that the revolution had cost him (equivalent to about $3,500,000 in 2000 values). Death and cremation Laurens died on December 8, 1792, at his estate, Mepkin. In his will he stated he wished to be cremated, and his ashes be interred at his estate.[8] It is reported[by whom?] that his was the first formal cremation in United States. Afterward, the estate passed through several hands. Large portions of the estate still exist and are used today as a Trappist
Trappist
abbey. Legacy and honors

The city of Laurens, South Carolina, and its county are named for him. General Lachlan McIntosh, who worked for Laurens as a clerk and became close friends with him, named Fort Laurens, in Ohio, after him. Laurens County, Georgia
Laurens County, Georgia
is named for his son John, who died in 1782 in the war. The town, and village, of Laurens, New York are named for him.[9]

References

^ Report of the Brown University Steering Committee on Slavery and Justice ^ a b c http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Henry_Laurens.aspx accessed=2013-12-28 ^ Gillespie, Joanna Bowen (2001). The Life and Times of Martha Laurens Ramsay, 1759–1811. Univ of South Carolina
South Carolina
Press. p. 20. ISBN 9781570033735. Retrieved 20 July 2017.  ^ Tuchman, Barbara. First Salute: A View of the American Revolution. Random House LLC.  ^ https://founders.archives.gov/documents/Washington/05-03-02-0031 ^ a b Gregory D. Massey, "Slavery and Liberty in the American Revolution: John Laurens's Black Regiment Proposal", Early America, Winter-Spring 2003, accessed May 2012 ^ Paul Finkelman, "Thomas Jefferson and Antislavery: The Myth Goes On", The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 102, No. 2 (April 1994) p. 211, accessed 14 March 2011 ^ Laurens cenotaph at Mepkin ^ "Comprehensive Plan for the Town of Laurens" (PDF). Cooperstown, New York: Otsego County Planning Department. October 1998. p. 4. Retrieved 18 November 2012. The town of Laurens ... was formed in 1811 ... and named after Henry Laurens, a hero of the Revolutionary War 

Further reading

Wallace, David Duncan (1915). The Life of Henry Laurens: With a Sketch of the Life of Lieutenant Colonel John Laurens.  Kelly, Joseph P. "Henry Laurens: The Southern Man of Conscience in History." South Carolina
South Carolina
Historical Magazine (2006): 82-123. in JSTOR Kirschke, James J., and Victor J. Sensenig. "Steps toward nationhood: Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
(1724–92) and the American Revolution
American Revolution
in the South" Historical Research 78.200 (2005): 180-192. McDonough, Daniel J. Christopher Gadsden and Henry Laurens: The Parallel Lives of Two American Patriots (Susquehanna University Press, 2001)

Primary sources

Laurens, Henry (1972). Papers of Henry Laurens. editors: Philip May Hamer, George C Rogers, David R. Chesnutt. Columbia, S.C.: Univ. of South Carolina
South Carolina
Press. ISBN 1-57003-465-6. OCLC 63771927. ; 16 Volumes so far McDonough, Daniel J. Christopher Gadsden and Henry Laurens: The Parallel Lives of Two American Patriots (Susquehanna University Press, 2001)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Henry Laurens.

United States
United States
Congress. " Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
(id: L000121)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress.  Mepkin Abbey
Mepkin Abbey
web site The Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
Papers, including 486 letters covering a wide variety of subjects, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Forgotten Founders Biography site Henry Laurens
Henry Laurens
at Find a Grave
Find a Grave
– cenotaph

Political offices

Preceded by John Hancock President of the Continental Congress November 1, 1777 – December 9, 1778 Succeeded by John Jay

v t e

Signers of the Articles of Confederation

A. Adams S. Adams T. Adams Banister Bartlett Carroll Clingan Collins Dana Dickinson Drayton Duane Duer Ellery Gerry Hancock Hanson Harnett Harvie Heyward Holten Hosmer Huntington Hutson Langworthy Laurens F. Lee R. Lee Lewis Lovell Marchant Mathews McKean G. Morris R. Morris Penn Reed Roberdeau Scudder Sherman Smith Telfair Van Dyke Walton Wentworth Williams Witherspoon Wolcott

v t e

Presidents of the Continental Congress

First Continental Congress

Peyton Randolph Henry Middleton

Second Continental Congress

Peyton Randolph John Hancock Henry Laurens John Jay Samuel Huntington

Confederation Congress

Samuel Huntington Thomas McKean John Hanson Elias Boudinot Thomas Mifflin Richard Henry Lee John Hancock* (David Ramsay Nathaniel Gorham) Nathaniel Gorham Arthur St. Clair Cyrus Griffin

*Hancock did not attend during his 2nd term; Ramsay and Gorham served as chairmen in his absence

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 66680296 LCCN: n79065949 ISNI: 0000 0000 2551 7154 GND: 104273313 BNF: cb14413494m (data) US Congress: L000121 BNE: XX5368259 SN

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