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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smith
Tim Pigott-Smith
as Hotspur.[21] In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown, Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
as Henry IV, Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
as Prince Hal, Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur.[22] Orson Welles' Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single, condensed storyline, while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff, John Gielgud
John Gielgud
as King Henry, Keith Baxter as Hal, Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur. BBC Television's 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation. Ronald Pickup played the King, David Calder Falstaff, Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
Hotspur. Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V (1989) with Robbie Coltrane
Robbie Coltrane
portraying Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
and Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
playing the young Prince Hal. Gus Van Sant's 1991 film My Own Private Idaho
My Own Private Idaho
is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV. The one-man hip-hop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV.[23] The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV, Part 1 in interactive form, as well as a modern English translation. Notes[edit]

^ Saccio, pp. 47–50. ^ Weil and Weil, p 1. ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 1.3.137, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.3.30, 4.4.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.12, in Bevington (1997) ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.64, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.110ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.138ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 55.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.5.28ff., in Norton (2008). ^ a b Kastan 2002, p. 340. ^ Weil and Weil, p. 4. ^ Kastan 2002, pp. 54,79. ^ Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library
British Library
containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare. Folios 8-9a of that manuscript, which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare, have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph. For further information see the article dedicated to the play. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 135. ^ Sanders 31. ^ Duthie 141. ^ Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire, p. 191. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 107; Scoufos, p. 99. ^ "BFI Screenonline: An Age of Kings". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "BFI Screenonline: Henry IV Part 1 (1979)". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "Cultural Olympiad 2012: Shakespeare's History Plays", BBC Media Centre, 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-04. ^ Jones, Kenneth (27 August 2008). "Matt Sax's Hip-Hop Musical 'Clay' Plays KC Prior to NYC". Playbill On-Line. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 

References[edit]

Barker, Roberta. "Tragical-Comical-Historical Hotspur." Shakespeare Quarterly 54.3 (2003): 288–307. Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Updated Fourth Edition. University of Chicago, 1997. Duthie, George Ian. Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1954. Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V." In Political Shakespeare, edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, 18–47. 1985. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Saccio, Peter, Shakespeare's English Kings, 2nd edn, 2000. Sanders, Norman. "The True Prince and the False Thief." Shakespeare Survey 30 (1977). Weil, Herbert and Judith Weil, eds. The First Part of King Henry IV, 1997 (New Cambridge Shakespeare). Wright, Louis B, and Virginia A. LaMar, eds. The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part I. Shakespeare, William (2002). Kastan, David Scott, ed. King Henry IV, Part 1. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare. ISBN 9781904271352. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry IV, Part 1

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The First Part of King Henry the Fourth

The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance. Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord
Lord
Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare Library

Shakespeare Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare and other authors Lost

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord
Lord
Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord
Lord
Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord
Lord
Chief Justice Lord
Lord
Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord
Lord
Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord
Lord
Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1993) An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
/ The Iceman Cometh (1999) The Real Thing (2000) The Best Man (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (2004) Twelve Angry Men (2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
/ Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(2014) The Elephant Man (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play

1990s

An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1999)

2000s

The Real Thing (2000) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (a combination of Part 1 and Part 2) (2004) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009)

2010s

Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) A Raisin in the Sun
A Raisin in the Sun
(2014) Skylight (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3138478

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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smith
Tim Pigott-Smith
as Hotspur.[21] In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown, Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
as Henry IV, Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
as Prince Hal, Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur.[22] Orson Welles' Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single, condensed storyline, while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff, John Gielgud
John Gielgud
as King Henry, Keith Baxter as Hal, Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur. BBC Television's 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation. Ronald Pickup played the King, David Calder Falstaff, Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
Hotspur. Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V (1989) with Robbie Coltrane
Robbie Coltrane
portraying Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
and Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
playing the young Prince Hal. Gus Van Sant's 1991 film My Own Private Idaho
My Own Private Idaho
is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV. The one-man hip-hop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV.[23] The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV, Part 1 in interactive form, as well as a modern English translation. Notes[edit]

^ Saccio, pp. 47–50. ^ Weil and Weil, p 1. ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 1.3.137, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.3.30, 4.4.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.12, in Bevington (1997) ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.64, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.110ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.138ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 55.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.5.28ff., in Norton (2008). ^ a b Kastan 2002, p. 340. ^ Weil and Weil, p. 4. ^ Kastan 2002, pp. 54,79. ^ Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library
British Library
containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare. Folios 8-9a of that manuscript, which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare, have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph. For further information see the article dedicated to the play. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 135. ^ Sanders 31. ^ Duthie 141. ^ Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire, p. 191. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 107; Scoufos, p. 99. ^ "BFI Screenonline: An Age of Kings". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "BFI Screenonline: Henry IV Part 1 (1979)". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "Cultural Olympiad 2012: Shakespeare's History Plays", BBC Media Centre, 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-04. ^ Jones, Kenneth (27 August 2008). "Matt Sax's Hip-Hop Musical 'Clay' Plays KC Prior to NYC". Playbill On-Line. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 

References[edit]

Barker, Roberta. "Tragical-Comical-Historical Hotspur." Shakespeare Quarterly 54.3 (2003): 288–307. Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Updated Fourth Edition. University of Chicago, 1997. Duthie, George Ian. Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1954. Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V." In Political Shakespeare, edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, 18–47. 1985. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Saccio, Peter, Shakespeare's English Kings, 2nd edn, 2000. Sanders, Norman. "The True Prince and the False Thief." Shakespeare Survey 30 (1977). Weil, Herbert and Judith Weil, eds. The First Part of King Henry IV, 1997 (New Cambridge Shakespeare). Wright, Louis B, and Virginia A. LaMar, eds. The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part I. Shakespeare, William (2002). Kastan, David Scott, ed. King Henry IV, Part 1. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare. ISBN 9781904271352. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry IV, Part 1

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The First Part of King Henry the Fourth

The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance. Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord
Lord
Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare Library

Shakespeare Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare and other authors Lost

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord
Lord
Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord
Lord
Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord
Lord
Chief Justice Lord
Lord
Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord
Lord
Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord
Lord
Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1993) An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
/ The Iceman Cometh (1999) The Real Thing (2000) The Best Man (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (2004) Twelve Angry Men (2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
/ Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(2014) The Elephant Man (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play

1990s

An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1999)

2000s

The Real Thing (2000) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (a combination of Part 1 and Part 2) (2004) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009)

2010s

Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) A Raisin in the Sun
A Raisin in the Sun
(2014) Skylight (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3138478

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Henry IV Part 1
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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smith
Tim Pigott-Smith
as Hotspur.[21] In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown, Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
as Henry IV, Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
as Prince Hal, Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur.[22] Orson Welles' Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single, condensed storyline, while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff, John Gielgud
John Gielgud
as King Henry, Keith Baxter as Hal, Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur. BBC Television's 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation. Ronald Pickup played the King, David Calder Falstaff, Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
Hotspur. Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V (1989) with Robbie Coltrane
Robbie Coltrane
portraying Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
and Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
playing the young Prince Hal. Gus Van Sant's 1991 film My Own Private Idaho
My Own Private Idaho
is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV. The one-man hip-hop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV.[23] The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV, Part 1 in interactive form, as well as a modern English translation. Notes[edit]

^ Saccio, pp. 47–50. ^ Weil and Weil, p 1. ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 1.3.137, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.3.30, 4.4.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.12, in Bevington (1997) ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.64, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.110ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.138ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 55.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.5.28ff., in Norton (2008). ^ a b Kastan 2002, p. 340. ^ Weil and Weil, p. 4. ^ Kastan 2002, pp. 54,79. ^ Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library
British Library
containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare. Folios 8-9a of that manuscript, which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare, have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph. For further information see the article dedicated to the play. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 135. ^ Sanders 31. ^ Duthie 141. ^ Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire, p. 191. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 107; Scoufos, p. 99. ^ "BFI Screenonline: An Age of Kings". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "BFI Screenonline: Henry IV Part 1 (1979)". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "Cultural Olympiad 2012: Shakespeare's History Plays", BBC Media Centre, 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-04. ^ Jones, Kenneth (27 August 2008). "Matt Sax's Hip-Hop Musical 'Clay' Plays KC Prior to NYC". Playbill On-Line. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 

References[edit]

Barker, Roberta. "Tragical-Comical-Historical Hotspur." Shakespeare Quarterly 54.3 (2003): 288–307. Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Updated Fourth Edition. University of Chicago, 1997. Duthie, George Ian. Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1954. Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V." In Political Shakespeare, edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, 18–47. 1985. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Saccio, Peter, Shakespeare's English Kings, 2nd edn, 2000. Sanders, Norman. "The True Prince and the False Thief." Shakespeare Survey 30 (1977). Weil, Herbert and Judith Weil, eds. The First Part of King Henry IV, 1997 (New Cambridge Shakespeare). Wright, Louis B, and Virginia A. LaMar, eds. The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part I. Shakespeare, William (2002). Kastan, David Scott, ed. King Henry IV, Part 1. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare. ISBN 9781904271352. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry IV, Part 1

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The First Part of King Henry the Fourth

The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance. Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord
Lord
Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare Library

Shakespeare Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare and other authors Lost

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord
Lord
Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord
Lord
Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord
Lord
Chief Justice Lord
Lord
Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord
Lord
Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord
Lord
Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1993) An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
/ The Iceman Cometh (1999) The Real Thing (2000) The Best Man (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (2004) Twelve Angry Men (2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
/ Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(2014) The Elephant Man (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play

1990s

An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1999)

2000s

The Real Thing (2000) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (a combination of Part 1 and Part 2) (2004) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009)

2010s

Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) A Raisin in the Sun
A Raisin in the Sun
(2014) Skylight (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3138478

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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smith
Tim Pigott-Smith
as Hotspur.[21] In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown, Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
as Henry IV, Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
as Prince Hal, Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur.[22] Orson Welles' Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single, condensed storyline, while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff, John Gielgud
John Gielgud
as King Henry, Keith Baxter as Hal, Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur. BBC Television's 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation. Ronald Pickup played the King, David Calder Falstaff, Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
Hotspur. Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V (1989) with Robbie Coltrane
Robbie Coltrane
portraying Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
and Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
playing the young Prince Hal. Gus Van Sant's 1991 film My Own Private Idaho
My Own Private Idaho
is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV. The one-man hip-hop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV.[23] The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV, Part 1 in interactive form, as well as a modern English translation. Notes[edit]

^ Saccio, pp. 47–50. ^ Weil and Weil, p 1. ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 1.3.137, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.3.30, 4.4.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.12, in Bevington (1997) ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.64, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.110ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.138ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 55.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.5.28ff., in Norton (2008). ^ a b Kastan 2002, p. 340. ^ Weil and Weil, p. 4. ^ Kastan 2002, pp. 54,79. ^ Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library
British Library
containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare. Folios 8-9a of that manuscript, which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare, have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph. For further information see the article dedicated to the play. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 135. ^ Sanders 31. ^ Duthie 141. ^ Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire, p. 191. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 107; Scoufos, p. 99. ^ "BFI Screenonline: An Age of Kings". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "BFI Screenonline: Henry IV Part 1 (1979)". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "Cultural Olympiad 2012: Shakespeare's History Plays", BBC Media Centre, 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-04. ^ Jones, Kenneth (27 August 2008). "Matt Sax's Hip-Hop Musical 'Clay' Plays KC Prior to NYC". Playbill On-Line. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 

References[edit]

Barker, Roberta. "Tragical-Comical-Historical Hotspur." Shakespeare Quarterly 54.3 (2003): 288–307. Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Updated Fourth Edition. University of Chicago, 1997. Duthie, George Ian. Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1954. Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V." In Political Shakespeare, edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, 18–47. 1985. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Saccio, Peter, Shakespeare's English Kings, 2nd edn, 2000. Sanders, Norman. "The True Prince and the False Thief." Shakespeare Survey 30 (1977). Weil, Herbert and Judith Weil, eds. The First Part of King Henry IV, 1997 (New Cambridge Shakespeare). Wright, Louis B, and Virginia A. LaMar, eds. The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part I. Shakespeare, William (2002). Kastan, David Scott, ed. King Henry IV, Part 1. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare. ISBN 9781904271352. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry IV, Part 1

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The First Part of King Henry the Fourth

The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance. Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord
Lord
Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare Library

Shakespeare Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare and other authors Lost

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord
Lord
Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord
Lord
Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord
Lord
Chief Justice Lord
Lord
Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord
Lord
Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord
Lord
Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1993) An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
/ The Iceman Cometh (1999) The Real Thing (2000) The Best Man (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (2004) Twelve Angry Men (2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
/ Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(2014) The Elephant Man (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play

1990s

An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1999)

2000s

The Real Thing (2000) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (a combination of Part 1 and Part 2) (2004) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009)

2010s

Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) A Raisin in the Sun
A Raisin in the Sun
(2014) Skylight (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3138478

.
Henry IV Part 1


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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smith
Tim Pigott-Smith
as Hotspur.[21] In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown, Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
as Henry IV, Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
as Prince Hal, Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur.[22] Orson Welles' Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single, condensed storyline, while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff, John Gielgud
John Gielgud
as King Henry, Keith Baxter as Hal, Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur. BBC Television's 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation. Ronald Pickup played the King, David Calder Falstaff, Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
Hotspur. Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V (1989) with Robbie Coltrane
Robbie Coltrane
portraying Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
and Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
playing the young Prince Hal. Gus Van Sant's 1991 film My Own Private Idaho
My Own Private Idaho
is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV. The one-man hip-hop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV.[23] The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV, Part 1 in interactive form, as well as a modern English translation. Notes[edit]

^ Saccio, pp. 47–50. ^ Weil and Weil, p 1. ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 1.3.137, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.3.30, 4.4.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.12, in Bevington (1997) ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.64, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.110ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.138ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 55.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.5.28ff., in Norton (2008). ^ a b Kastan 2002, p. 340. ^ Weil and Weil, p. 4. ^ Kastan 2002, pp. 54,79. ^ Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library
British Library
containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare. Folios 8-9a of that manuscript, which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare, have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph. For further information see the article dedicated to the play. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 135. ^ Sanders 31. ^ Duthie 141. ^ Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire, p. 191. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 107; Scoufos, p. 99. ^ "BFI Screenonline: An Age of Kings". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "BFI Screenonline: Henry IV Part 1 (1979)". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "Cultural Olympiad 2012: Shakespeare's History Plays", BBC Media Centre, 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-04. ^ Jones, Kenneth (27 August 2008). "Matt Sax's Hip-Hop Musical 'Clay' Plays KC Prior to NYC". Playbill On-Line. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 

References[edit]

Barker, Roberta. "Tragical-Comical-Historical Hotspur." Shakespeare Quarterly 54.3 (2003): 288–307. Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Updated Fourth Edition. University of Chicago, 1997. Duthie, George Ian. Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1954. Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V." In Political Shakespeare, edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, 18–47. 1985. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Saccio, Peter, Shakespeare's English Kings, 2nd edn, 2000. Sanders, Norman. "The True Prince and the False Thief." Shakespeare Survey 30 (1977). Weil, Herbert and Judith Weil, eds. The First Part of King Henry IV, 1997 (New Cambridge Shakespeare). Wright, Louis B, and Virginia A. LaMar, eds. The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part I. Shakespeare, William (2002). Kastan, David Scott, ed. King Henry IV, Part 1. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare. ISBN 9781904271352. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry IV, Part 1

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The First Part of King Henry the Fourth

The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance. Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord
Lord
Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare Library

Shakespeare Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare and other authors Lost

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord
Lord
Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord
Lord
Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord
Lord
Chief Justice Lord
Lord
Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord
Lord
Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord
Lord
Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1993) An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
/ The Iceman Cometh (1999) The Real Thing (2000) The Best Man (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (2004) Twelve Angry Men (2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
/ Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(2014) The Elephant Man (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play

1990s

An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1999)

2000s

The Real Thing (2000) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (a combination of Part 1 and Part 2) (2004) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009)

2010s

Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) A Raisin in the Sun
A Raisin in the Sun
(2014) Skylight (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3138478

.
Henry IV Part 1


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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smith
Tim Pigott-Smith
as Hotspur.[21] In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown, Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
as Henry IV, Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
as Prince Hal, Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur.[22] Orson Welles' Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single, condensed storyline, while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff, John Gielgud
John Gielgud
as King Henry, Keith Baxter as Hal, Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur. BBC Television's 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation. Ronald Pickup played the King, David Calder Falstaff, Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
Hotspur. Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V (1989) with Robbie Coltrane
Robbie Coltrane
portraying Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
and Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
playing the young Prince Hal. Gus Van Sant's 1991 film My Own Private Idaho
My Own Private Idaho
is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV. The one-man hip-hop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV.[23] The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV, Part 1 in interactive form, as well as a modern English translation. Notes[edit]

^ Saccio, pp. 47–50. ^ Weil and Weil, p 1. ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 1.3.137, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.3.30, 4.4.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.12, in Bevington (1997) ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.64, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.110ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.138ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 55.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.5.28ff., in Norton (2008). ^ a b Kastan 2002, p. 340. ^ Weil and Weil, p. 4. ^ Kastan 2002, pp. 54,79. ^ Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library
British Library
containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare. Folios 8-9a of that manuscript, which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare, have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph. For further information see the article dedicated to the play. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 135. ^ Sanders 31. ^ Duthie 141. ^ Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire, p. 191. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 107; Scoufos, p. 99. ^ "BFI Screenonline: An Age of Kings". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "BFI Screenonline: Henry IV Part 1 (1979)". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "Cultural Olympiad 2012: Shakespeare's History Plays", BBC Media Centre, 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-04. ^ Jones, Kenneth (27 August 2008). "Matt Sax's Hip-Hop Musical 'Clay' Plays KC Prior to NYC". Playbill On-Line. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 

References[edit]

Barker, Roberta. "Tragical-Comical-Historical Hotspur." Shakespeare Quarterly 54.3 (2003): 288–307. Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Updated Fourth Edition. University of Chicago, 1997. Duthie, George Ian. Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1954. Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V." In Political Shakespeare, edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, 18–47. 1985. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Saccio, Peter, Shakespeare's English Kings, 2nd edn, 2000. Sanders, Norman. "The True Prince and the False Thief." Shakespeare Survey 30 (1977). Weil, Herbert and Judith Weil, eds. The First Part of King Henry IV, 1997 (New Cambridge Shakespeare). Wright, Louis B, and Virginia A. LaMar, eds. The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part I. Shakespeare, William (2002). Kastan, David Scott, ed. King Henry IV, Part 1. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare. ISBN 9781904271352. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry IV, Part 1

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The First Part of King Henry the Fourth

The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance. Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord
Lord
Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare Library

Shakespeare Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare and other authors Lost

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord
Lord
Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord
Lord
Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord
Lord
Chief Justice Lord
Lord
Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord
Lord
Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord
Lord
Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1993) An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
/ The Iceman Cometh (1999) The Real Thing (2000) The Best Man (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (2004) Twelve Angry Men (2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
/ Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(2014) The Elephant Man (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play

1990s

An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1999)

2000s

The Real Thing (2000) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (a combination of Part 1 and Part 2) (2004) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009)

2010s

Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) A Raisin in the Sun
A Raisin in the Sun
(2014) Skylight (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3138478

.
Henry IV Part 1


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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smith
Tim Pigott-Smith
as Hotspur.[21] In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown, Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
as Henry IV, Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
as Prince Hal, Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur.[22] Orson Welles' Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single, condensed storyline, while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff, John Gielgud
John Gielgud
as King Henry, Keith Baxter as Hal, Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur. BBC Television's 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation. Ronald Pickup played the King, David Calder Falstaff, Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
Hotspur. Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V (1989) with Robbie Coltrane
Robbie Coltrane
portraying Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
and Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
playing the young Prince Hal. Gus Van Sant's 1991 film My Own Private Idaho
My Own Private Idaho
is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV. The one-man hip-hop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV.[23] The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV, Part 1 in interactive form, as well as a modern English translation. Notes[edit]

^ Saccio, pp. 47–50. ^ Weil and Weil, p 1. ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 1.3.137, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.3.30, 4.4.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.12, in Bevington (1997) ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.64, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.110ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.138ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 55.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.5.28ff., in Norton (2008). ^ a b Kastan 2002, p. 340. ^ Weil and Weil, p. 4. ^ Kastan 2002, pp. 54,79. ^ Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library
British Library
containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare. Folios 8-9a of that manuscript, which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare, have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph. For further information see the article dedicated to the play. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 135. ^ Sanders 31. ^ Duthie 141. ^ Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire, p. 191. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 107; Scoufos, p. 99. ^ "BFI Screenonline: An Age of Kings". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "BFI Screenonline: Henry IV Part 1 (1979)". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "Cultural Olympiad 2012: Shakespeare's History Plays", BBC Media Centre, 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-04. ^ Jones, Kenneth (27 August 2008). "Matt Sax's Hip-Hop Musical 'Clay' Plays KC Prior to NYC". Playbill On-Line. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 

References[edit]

Barker, Roberta. "Tragical-Comical-Historical Hotspur." Shakespeare Quarterly 54.3 (2003): 288–307. Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Updated Fourth Edition. University of Chicago, 1997. Duthie, George Ian. Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1954. Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V." In Political Shakespeare, edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, 18–47. 1985. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Saccio, Peter, Shakespeare's English Kings, 2nd edn, 2000. Sanders, Norman. "The True Prince and the False Thief." Shakespeare Survey 30 (1977). Weil, Herbert and Judith Weil, eds. The First Part of King Henry IV, 1997 (New Cambridge Shakespeare). Wright, Louis B, and Virginia A. LaMar, eds. The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part I. Shakespeare, William (2002). Kastan, David Scott, ed. King Henry IV, Part 1. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare. ISBN 9781904271352. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry IV, Part 1

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The First Part of King Henry the Fourth

The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance. Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord
Lord
Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare Library

Shakespeare Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare and other authors Lost

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord
Lord
Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord
Lord
Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord
Lord
Chief Justice Lord
Lord
Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord
Lord
Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord
Lord
Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1993) An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
/ The Iceman Cometh (1999) The Real Thing (2000) The Best Man (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (2004) Twelve Angry Men (2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
/ Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(2014) The Elephant Man (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play

1990s

An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1999)

2000s

The Real Thing (2000) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (a combination of Part 1 and Part 2) (2004) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009)

2010s

Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) A Raisin in the Sun
A Raisin in the Sun
(2014) Skylight (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3138478

.
Henry IV Part 1


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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smith
Tim Pigott-Smith
as Hotspur.[21] In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown, Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
as Henry IV, Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
as Prince Hal, Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur.[22] Orson Welles' Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single, condensed storyline, while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff, John Gielgud
John Gielgud
as King Henry, Keith Baxter as Hal, Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur. BBC Television's 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation. Ronald Pickup played the King, David Calder Falstaff, Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
Hotspur. Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V (1989) with Robbie Coltrane
Robbie Coltrane
portraying Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
and Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
playing the young Prince Hal. Gus Van Sant's 1991 film My Own Private Idaho
My Own Private Idaho
is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV. The one-man hip-hop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV.[23] The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV, Part 1 in interactive form, as well as a modern English translation. Notes[edit]

^ Saccio, pp. 47–50. ^ Weil and Weil, p 1. ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 1.3.137, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.3.30, 4.4.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.12, in Bevington (1997) ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.64, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.110ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.138ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 55.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.5.28ff., in Norton (2008). ^ a b Kastan 2002, p. 340. ^ Weil and Weil, p. 4. ^ Kastan 2002, pp. 54,79. ^ Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library
British Library
containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare. Folios 8-9a of that manuscript, which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare, have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph. For further information see the article dedicated to the play. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 135. ^ Sanders 31. ^ Duthie 141. ^ Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire, p. 191. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 107; Scoufos, p. 99. ^ "BFI Screenonline: An Age of Kings". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "BFI Screenonline: Henry IV Part 1 (1979)". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "Cultural Olympiad 2012: Shakespeare's History Plays", BBC Media Centre, 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-04. ^ Jones, Kenneth (27 August 2008). "Matt Sax's Hip-Hop Musical 'Clay' Plays KC Prior to NYC". Playbill On-Line. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 

References[edit]

Barker, Roberta. "Tragical-Comical-Historical Hotspur." Shakespeare Quarterly 54.3 (2003): 288–307. Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Updated Fourth Edition. University of Chicago, 1997. Duthie, George Ian. Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1954. Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V." In Political Shakespeare, edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, 18–47. 1985. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Saccio, Peter, Shakespeare's English Kings, 2nd edn, 2000. Sanders, Norman. "The True Prince and the False Thief." Shakespeare Survey 30 (1977). Weil, Herbert and Judith Weil, eds. The First Part of King Henry IV, 1997 (New Cambridge Shakespeare). Wright, Louis B, and Virginia A. LaMar, eds. The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part I. Shakespeare, William (2002). Kastan, David Scott, ed. King Henry IV, Part 1. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare. ISBN 9781904271352. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry IV, Part 1

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The First Part of King Henry the Fourth

The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance. Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord
Lord
Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare Library

Shakespeare Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare and other authors Lost

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord
Lord
Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord
Lord
Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord
Lord
Chief Justice Lord
Lord
Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord
Lord
Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord
Lord
Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1993) An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
/ The Iceman Cometh (1999) The Real Thing (2000) The Best Man (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (2004) Twelve Angry Men (2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
/ Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(2014) The Elephant Man (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play

1990s

An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1999)

2000s

The Real Thing (2000) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (a combination of Part 1 and Part 2) (2004) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009)

2010s

Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) A Raisin in the Sun
A Raisin in the Sun
(2014) Skylight (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3138478

.
Henry IV Part 1


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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smith
Tim Pigott-Smith
as Hotspur.[21] In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown, Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
as Henry IV, Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
as Prince Hal, Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur.[22] Orson Welles' Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single, condensed storyline, while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff, John Gielgud
John Gielgud
as King Henry, Keith Baxter as Hal, Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur. BBC Television's 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation. Ronald Pickup played the King, David Calder Falstaff, Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
Hotspur. Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V (1989) with Robbie Coltrane
Robbie Coltrane
portraying Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
and Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
playing the young Prince Hal. Gus Van Sant's 1991 film My Own Private Idaho
My Own Private Idaho
is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV. The one-man hip-hop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV.[23] The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV, Part 1 in interactive form, as well as a modern English translation. Notes[edit]

^ Saccio, pp. 47–50. ^ Weil and Weil, p 1. ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 1.3.137, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.3.30, 4.4.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.12, in Bevington (1997) ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.64, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.110ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.138ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 55.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.5.28ff., in Norton (2008). ^ a b Kastan 2002, p. 340. ^ Weil and Weil, p. 4. ^ Kastan 2002, pp. 54,79. ^ Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library
British Library
containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare. Folios 8-9a of that manuscript, which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare, have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph. For further information see the article dedicated to the play. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 135. ^ Sanders 31. ^ Duthie 141. ^ Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire, p. 191. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 107; Scoufos, p. 99. ^ "BFI Screenonline: An Age of Kings". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "BFI Screenonline: Henry IV Part 1 (1979)". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "Cultural Olympiad 2012: Shakespeare's History Plays", BBC Media Centre, 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-04. ^ Jones, Kenneth (27 August 2008). "Matt Sax's Hip-Hop Musical 'Clay' Plays KC Prior to NYC". Playbill On-Line. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 

References[edit]

Barker, Roberta. "Tragical-Comical-Historical Hotspur." Shakespeare Quarterly 54.3 (2003): 288–307. Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Updated Fourth Edition. University of Chicago, 1997. Duthie, George Ian. Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1954. Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V." In Political Shakespeare, edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, 18–47. 1985. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Saccio, Peter, Shakespeare's English Kings, 2nd edn, 2000. Sanders, Norman. "The True Prince and the False Thief." Shakespeare Survey 30 (1977). Weil, Herbert and Judith Weil, eds. The First Part of King Henry IV, 1997 (New Cambridge Shakespeare). Wright, Louis B, and Virginia A. LaMar, eds. The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part I. Shakespeare, William (2002). Kastan, David Scott, ed. King Henry IV, Part 1. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare. ISBN 9781904271352. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry IV, Part 1

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The First Part of King Henry the Fourth

The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance. Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord
Lord
Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare Library

Shakespeare Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare and other authors Lost

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord
Lord
Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord
Lord
Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord
Lord
Chief Justice Lord
Lord
Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord
Lord
Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord
Lord
Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1993) An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
/ The Iceman Cometh (1999) The Real Thing (2000) The Best Man (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (2004) Twelve Angry Men (2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
/ Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(2014) The Elephant Man (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play

1990s

An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1999)

2000s

The Real Thing (2000) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (a combination of Part 1 and Part 2) (2004) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009)

2010s

Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) A Raisin in the Sun
A Raisin in the Sun
(2014) Skylight (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3138478

.
Henry IV Part 1


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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smith
Tim Pigott-Smith
as Hotspur.[21] In the 2012 series The Hollow Crown, Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
was directed by Richard Eyre and starred Jeremy Irons
Jeremy Irons
as Henry IV, Tom Hiddleston
Tom Hiddleston
as Prince Hal, Simon Russell Beale
Simon Russell Beale
as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Joe Armstrong as Hotspur.[22] Orson Welles' Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1965) compiles the two Henry IV plays into a single, condensed storyline, while adding a handful of scenes from Henry V and dialogue from Richard II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The film stars Welles himself as Falstaff, John Gielgud
John Gielgud
as King Henry, Keith Baxter as Hal, Margaret Rutherford
Margaret Rutherford
as Mistress Quickly and Norman Rodway as Hotspur. BBC Television's 1995 Henry IV also combines the two Parts into one adaptation. Ronald Pickup played the King, David Calder Falstaff, Jonathan Firth Hal and Rufus Sewell
Rufus Sewell
Hotspur. Adapted scenes in flashback from Henry IV are included in the 1989 film version of Henry V (1989) with Robbie Coltrane
Robbie Coltrane
portraying Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
and Kenneth Branagh
Kenneth Branagh
playing the young Prince Hal. Gus Van Sant's 1991 film My Own Private Idaho
My Own Private Idaho
is loosely based on Part 1 of Henry IV. The one-man hip-hop musical Clay is loosely based on Henry IV.[23] The 2016 app Cycle of Kings features the entire play Henry IV, Part 1 in interactive form, as well as a modern English translation. Notes[edit]

^ Saccio, pp. 47–50. ^ Weil and Weil, p 1. ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 1.3.137, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.3.30, 4.4.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.12, in Bevington (1997) ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 4.2.64, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.110ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.4.138ff., in Norton (2008). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 55.19, in Bevington (1997). ^ Henry IV, Part 1, 5.5.28ff., in Norton (2008). ^ a b Kastan 2002, p. 340. ^ Weil and Weil, p. 4. ^ Kastan 2002, pp. 54,79. ^ Leaving aside MS Harley 7368 of the British Library
British Library
containing the text of the play Sir Thomas More if this play does indeed contain a contribution by Shakespeare. Folios 8-9a of that manuscript, which contain the part supposed to be by Shakespeare, have even been suggested to be a Shakespeare autograph. For further information see the article dedicated to the play. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 135. ^ Sanders 31. ^ Duthie 141. ^ Scoufos, Shakespeare's Typological Satire, p. 191. ^ Halliday, Shakespeare Companion, p. 107; Scoufos, p. 99. ^ "BFI Screenonline: An Age of Kings". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "BFI Screenonline: Henry IV Part 1 (1979)". Retrieved 2012-07-04.  ^ "Cultural Olympiad 2012: Shakespeare's History Plays", BBC Media Centre, 24 November 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-04. ^ Jones, Kenneth (27 August 2008). "Matt Sax's Hip-Hop Musical 'Clay' Plays KC Prior to NYC". Playbill On-Line. Retrieved 10 September 2008. 

References[edit]

Barker, Roberta. "Tragical-Comical-Historical Hotspur." Shakespeare Quarterly 54.3 (2003): 288–307. Bevington, David, ed. The Complete Works of Shakespeare. Updated Fourth Edition. University of Chicago, 1997. Duthie, George Ian. Shakespeare. London: Routledge, 1954. Greenblatt, Stephen. "Invisible Bullets: Renaissance Authority and Its Subversion in Henry IV and Henry V." In Political Shakespeare, edited by Jonathan Dollimore and Alan Sinfield, 18–47. 1985. Halliday, F. E. A Shakespeare Companion 1564–1964. Baltimore, Penguin, 1964. Saccio, Peter, Shakespeare's English Kings, 2nd edn, 2000. Sanders, Norman. "The True Prince and the False Thief." Shakespeare Survey 30 (1977). Weil, Herbert and Judith Weil, eds. The First Part of King Henry IV, 1997 (New Cambridge Shakespeare). Wright, Louis B, and Virginia A. LaMar, eds. The Folger Library General Reader's Shakespeare: Henry IV, Part I. Shakespeare, William (2002). Kastan, David Scott, ed. King Henry IV, Part 1. Third Series. Arden Shakespeare. ISBN 9781904271352. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry IV, Part 1

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: The First Part of King Henry the Fourth

The First Part of Henry the Fourth A modern version of unspecified provenance. Henry the Fourth part 1 – 1 Henry IV at Project Gutenberg. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
public domain audiobook at LibriVox

v t e

William Shakespeare

Plays

Tragedies

Antony and Cleopatra Coriolanus Hamlet Julius Caesar King Lear Macbeth Othello Romeo and Juliet Timon of Athens Titus Andronicus Troilus and Cressida

Comedies

All's Well That Ends Well As You Like It The Comedy of Errors Cymbeline Love's Labour's Lost Measure for Measure The Merchant of Venice The Merry Wives of Windsor A Midsummer Night's Dream Much Ado About Nothing Pericles, Prince of Tyre* The Taming of the Shrew The Tempest Twelfth Night The Two Gentlemen of Verona The Two Noble Kinsmen* The Winter's Tale

Histories

King John Edward III* Richard II Henry IV

1 2

Henry V Henry VI

1* 2 3

Richard III Henry VIII*

See also

Problem plays Late romances Characters

A–K L–Z Ghost character

Chronology Performances Settings Quarto publications First Folio Second Folio

Poems

Shakespeare's sonnets

comparison to Petrarch

A Lover's Complaint The Phoenix and the Turtle The Rape of Lucrece Venus and Adonis

Apocrypha

Plays

Arden of Faversham The Birth of Merlin Cardenio* Double Falsehood Edmund Ironside Fair Em Locrine The London Prodigal Love's Labour's Won The Merry Devil of Edmonton Mucedorus The Puritan The Second Maiden's Tragedy Sejanus His Fall Sir John Oldcastle Sir Thomas More* The Spanish Tragedy Thomas Lord
Lord
Cromwell Thomas of Woodstock Vortigern and Rowena A Yorkshire Tragedy

Poems

The Passionate Pilgrim To the Queen

Life and works

Birthplace and childhood home Bibliography

Complete Works of William Shakespeare Translations

Early editions Editors English Renaissance theatre Globe Theatre Handwriting Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men/King's Men

The Theatre Curtain Theatre

New Place Portraits Religious views Sexuality Spelling of his name Stratford-upon-Avon Style

Legacy

Attribution studies Authorship question Influence Memorials Screen adaptations Shakespeare Birthplace Trust Folger Shakespeare Library

Shakespeare Quarterly

Shakespeare's Globe
Shakespeare's Globe
(replica) Bardolatry Titles of works taken from Shakespeare

Family

Anne Hathaway (wife) Susanna Hall
Susanna Hall
(daughter) Hamnet Shakespeare
Hamnet Shakespeare
(son) Judith Quiney
Judith Quiney
(daughter) Elizabeth Barnard
Elizabeth Barnard
(granddaughter) John Shakespeare
John Shakespeare
(father) Mary Arden (mother) Gilbert Shakespeare
Gilbert Shakespeare
(brother) Joan Shakespeare (sister) Edmund Shakespeare (brother) Richard Shakespeare (grandfather) John Hall (son-in-law) Thomas Quiney
Thomas Quiney
(son-in-law) Thomas Nash
Thomas Nash
(grandson-in-law)

* Shakespeare and other authors Lost

v t e

William Shakespeare's Henriad

Richard II Henry IV, Part 1 Henry IV, Part 2 Henry V

Characters and events

Richard II

Richard II Henry Bolingbroke Duke of York Earl of Northumberland Duke of Aumerle John of Gaunt Queen (unnamed composite of Anne of Bohemia
Anne of Bohemia
and Isabella of Valois) Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Duchess of York (unnamed composite of Infanta Isabella of Castile and Joan Holland) Duchess of Gloucester Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk Bishop of Carlisle Duke of Surrey Bushy Bagot Green Lord
Lord
Ross Earl of Salisbury Lord
Lord
Berkeley

1 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Henry 'Hotspur' Percy Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Mistress Quickly Bardolph Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester Earl of Douglas Sir Walter Blunt Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Lady Percy Earl of Westmorland Owen Glendower Edmund Mortimer Lady Mortimer Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Battle of Humbleton Hill Battle of Shrewsbury

2 Henry IV

Henry IV Prince Hal Sir John Falstaff Ned Poins Ancient Pistol Bardolph Mistress Quickly Doll Tearsheet Robert Shallow Earl of Westmorland Archbishop of York John, Duke of Bedford Earl of Warwick Lord
Lord
Chief Justice Lord
Lord
Bardolf Earl of Northumberland Lord
Lord
Mowbray Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Surrey Rumour

Henry V

Henry V King of France Louis the Dauphin Fluellen Ancient Pistol Mistress Quickly Bardolph Corporal Nym Katharine Constable of France Chorus Duke of Exeter John, Duke of Bedford Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester Thomas, Duke of Clarence Earl of Westmorland Duke of Orléans Duke of Burgundy Duke of York Earl of Salisbury Earl of Warwick Duke of Bourbon Archbishop of Canterbury Bishop of Ely Queen Isabel Earl of Cambridge Lord
Lord
Scroop Sir Thomas Grey Michael Williams Sir Thomas Erpingham Duke of Berry Battle of Agincourt

On screen

Richard II

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) The Life and Death of King Richard II (1960; TV) King Richard the Second (1978; TV) Richard the Second (2001) The Hollow Crown: Richard II (2012; TV)

1 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The First Part of King Henry the Fourth, with the life and death of Henry surnamed Hotspur (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(2012; TV)

2 Henry IV

An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Second Part of King Henry the Fourth containing his Death: and the Coronation of King Henry the Fift (1979; TV) The Hollow Crown: Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(2012)

Henry V

Henry V (1944) An Age of Kings
An Age of Kings
(1960; TV) Chimes at Midnight
Chimes at Midnight
(1966) The Life of Henry the Fift (1979; TV) Henry V (1989) The Hollow Crown: Henry V (2012)

Sources

Holinshed's Chronicles The Famous Victories of Henry V
The Famous Victories of Henry V
(c.1585) Thomas of Woodstock/Richard the Second, Part One (c.1593)

Related plays

The Merry Wives of Windsor
The Merry Wives of Windsor
(c.1597) Sir John Oldcastle
John Oldcastle
(1599) Falstaff's Wedding
Falstaff's Wedding
(1760)

Related music

Falstaff
Falstaff
(1913) At the Boar's Head
At the Boar's Head
(1925) Suite from Henry V (1963)

Historical context

Hundred Years' War Wars of the Roses Divine right of kings Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Oldcastle

v t e

Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Revival of a Play

Anna Christie
Anna Christie
(1993) An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
/ The Iceman Cometh (1999) The Real Thing (2000) The Best Man (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (2004) Twelve Angry Men (2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
/ Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) Twelfth Night
Twelfth Night
(2014) The Elephant Man (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

v t e

Tony Award for Best Revival of a Play

1990s

An Inspector Calls
An Inspector Calls
(1994) The Heiress (1995) A Delicate Balance (1996) A Doll's House
A Doll's House
(1997) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(1998) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(1999)

2000s

The Real Thing (2000) One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (2001) Private Lives
Private Lives
(2002) Long Day's Journey into Night
Long Day's Journey into Night
(2003) Henry IV (a combination of Part 1 and Part 2) (2004) Glengarry Glen Ross
Glengarry Glen Ross
(2005) Awake and Sing!
Awake and Sing!
(2006) Journey's End
Journey's End
(2007) Boeing-Boeing (2008) The Norman Conquests (2009)

2010s

Fences (2010) The Normal Heart
The Normal Heart
(2011) Death of a Salesman
Death of a Salesman
(2012) Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?
(2013) A Raisin in the Sun
A Raisin in the Sun
(2014) Skylight (2015) A View from the Bridge
A View from the Bridge
(2016) Jitney (2017)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3138478

.
l> Henry IV Part 1


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Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
is a history play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written no later than 1597. It is the second play in Shakespeare's tetralogy dealing with the successive reigns of Richard II, Henry IV (two plays, including Henry IV, Part 2), and Henry V. Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
depicts a span of history that begins with Hotspur's battle at Homildon in Northumberland against Douglas late in 1402 and ends with the defeat of the rebels at Shrewsbury in the middle of 1403.[1] From the start, it has been an extremely popular play both with the public and critics.[2]

Contents

1 Characters 2 Synopsis 3 Sources 4 Date and text

4.1 The Dering Manuscript

5 Criticism and analysis

5.1 Themes and interpretations 5.2 Oldcastle controversy

6 Adaptations 7 Notes 8 References 9 External links

Characters[edit]

Of the King's party

King Henry the Fourth – King of England. Henry, Prince of Wales
Wales
(nicknamed "Prince Hal" or "Harry") – eldest son of Henry IV John of Lancaster – represented in the play as the King's second son, although he was actually the third Ralph Neville, Earl of Westmorland Sir Walter Blount ("Blunt")

Eastcheap

Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
– a knight who befriends Prince Hal. Ned Poins Bardolph Peto Mistress Quickly
Mistress Quickly
– hostess of the Boar's Head Tavern Francis – tapster Vintner – tavern keeper Gadshill Two Carriers Ostler

Rebels

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester – Northumberland's brother Harry Percy (nicknamed "Hotspur") – Northumberland's son Edmund Mortimer – Hotspur's brother-in-law and Glendower's son-in-law Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
– leader of the Welsh rebels Archibald, Earl of Douglas – leader of the Scottish rebels Sir Richard Vernon Richard le Scrope
Richard le Scrope
("Scroop"), Archbishop of York Sir Michael – a friend to the Archbishop of York Lady Percy ("Kate", though her real name was Elizabeth) - Hotspur's wife and Mortimer's sister Lady Mortimer (Catrin) - Glendower's daughter and Mortimer's wife

Other Characters

Chamberlain Sheriff Travellers Lords, Officers, Drawers, Messengers, and Attendants

Synopsis[edit]

John Farmanesh-Bocca as Prince Hal
Prince Hal
in the Carmel Shakespeare Festival production of Henry IV, Part 1.

Henry Bolingbroke—now King Henry IV—is having an unquiet reign. His personal disquiet at the usurpation of his predecessor Richard II would be solved by a crusade to the Holy Land, but broils on his borders with Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
prevent that. Moreover, he is increasingly at odds with the Percy family, who helped him to his throne, and Edmund Mortimer, the Earl of March, Richard II's chosen heir. Adding to King Henry's troubles is the behaviour of his son and heir, the Prince of Wales. Hal (the future Henry V) has forsaken the Royal Court to waste his time in taverns with low companions. This makes him an object of scorn to the nobles and calls into question his royal worthiness. Hal's chief friend and foil in living the low life is Sir John Falstaff. Fat, old, drunk, and corrupt as he is, he has a charisma and a zest for life that captivates the Prince. The play features three groups of characters that interact slightly at first, and then come together in the Battle of Shrewsbury, where the success of the rebellion will be decided. First there is King Henry himself and his immediate council. He is the engine of the play, but usually in the background. Next there is the group of rebels, energetically embodied in Henry Percy ("Hotspur") and including his father, the Earl of Northumberland and led by his uncle Thomas Percy, Earl of Worcester. The Scottish Earl of Douglas, Edmund Mortimer and the Welshman Owen Glendower
Owen Glendower
also join. Finally, at the centre of the play are the young Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and his companions Falstaff, Poins, Bardolph, and Peto. Streetwise and pound-foolish, these rogues manage to paint over this grim history in the colours of comedy. As the play opens, the king is angry with Hotspur for refusing him most of the prisoners taken in a recent action against the Scots at Holmedon. Hotspur, for his part, would have the king ransom Edmund Mortimer (his wife's brother) from Owen Glendower, the Welshman who holds him. Henry refuses, berates Mortimer's loyalty, and treats the Percys with threats and rudeness. Stung and alarmed by Henry's dangerous and peremptory way with them, they proceed to make common cause with the Welsh and Scots, intending to depose "this ingrate and cankered Bolingbroke."[3] By Act II, rebellion is brewing.

Hal confronting Falstaff
Falstaff
with his lies in Henry IV, Part 1, engraving after Robert Smirke

Meanwhile, Henry's son Hal is joking, drinking, and thieving with Falstaff
Falstaff
and his associates. He likes Falstaff
Falstaff
but makes no pretense at being like him. He enjoys insulting his dissolute friend and makes sport of him by joining in Poins’ plot to disguise themselves and rob and terrify Falstaff
Falstaff
and three friends of loot they have stolen in a highway robbery, purely for the fun of watching Falstaff
Falstaff
lie about it later, after which Hal returns the stolen money. Rather early in the play, in fact, Hal informs us that his riotous time will soon come to a close, and he will re-assume his rightful high place in affairs by showing himself worthy to his father and others through some (unspecified) noble exploits. Hal believes that this sudden change of manner will amount to a greater reward and acknowledgment of prince-ship, and in turn earn him respect from the members of the court. The revolt of Mortimer and the Percys very quickly gives him his chance to do just that. The high and the low come together when the Prince makes up with his father and is given a high command. He vows to fight and kill the rebel Hotspur, and orders Falstaff
Falstaff
(who is, after all, a knight) to take charge of a group of foot soldiers and proceed to the battle site at Shrewsbury.

An 1829 watercolor by Johann Heinrich Ramberg
Johann Heinrich Ramberg
of Act II, Scene iv: Falstaff
Falstaff
enacts the part of the king.

The battle is crucial because if the rebels even achieve a standoff their cause gains greatly, as they have other powers awaiting under Northumberland, Glendower, Mortimer, and the Archbishop of York. Henry needs a decisive victory here. He outnumbers the rebels,[4] but Hotspur, with the wild hope of despair, leads his troops into battle. The day wears on, the issue still in doubt, the king harried by the wild Scot Douglas, when Prince Hal
Prince Hal
and Hotspur, the two Harrys that cannot share one land, meet. Finally they will fight – for glory, for their lives, and for the kingdom. No longer a tavern brawler but a warrior, the future king prevails, ultimately killing Hotspur in single combat. On the way to this climax, we are treated to Falstaff, who has "misused the King's press damnably",[5] not only by taking money from able-bodied men who wished to evade service but by keeping the wages of the poor souls he brought instead who were killed in battle ("food for powder, food for powder").[6] Left on his own during Hal's battle with Hotspur, Falstaff
Falstaff
dishonourably counterfeits death to avoid attack by Douglas. After Hal leaves Hotspur's body on the field, Falstaff
Falstaff
revives in a mock miracle. Seeing he is alone, he stabs Hotspur's corpse in the thigh and claims credit for the kill.[7] Though Hal knows better, he allows Falstaff
Falstaff
his disreputable tricks. Soon after being given grace by Hal, Falstaff
Falstaff
states that he wants to amend his life and begin "to live cleanly as a nobleman should do".[8]

The second edition of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles
Holinshed's Chronicles
of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, printed in 1587.

The play ends at Shrewsbury, after the battle. The death of Hotspur has taken the heart out of the rebels,[9] and the king's forces prevail. Henry is pleased with the outcome, not least because it gives him a chance to execute Thomas Percy, the Earl of Worcester, one of his chief enemies (though previously one of his greatest friends). Meanwhile, Hal shows off his kingly mercy in praise of valour; having taken the valiant Douglas prisoner, Hal orders his enemy released without ransom.[10] But the war goes on; now the king's forces must deal with the Archbishop of York, who has joined with Northumberland, and with the forces of Mortimer and Glendower. This unsettled ending sets the stage for Henry IV, Part 2. Sources[edit] Shakespeare's primary source for Henry IV, Part 1, as for most of his chronicle histories, was the second edition (1587) of Raphael Holinshed's Chronicles, which in turn drew on Edward Hall's The Union of the Two Illustrious Families of Lancaster and York.[11] Scholars have also assumed that Shakespeare was familiar with Samuel Daniel's poem on the civil wars.[11] Another source for this (and the following Henry plays) is the anonymous The Famous Victories of Henry V. Date and text[edit] 1 Henry IV was almost certainly in performance by 1597, given the wealth of allusions and references to the Falstaff
Falstaff
character.[12] The earliest recorded performance occurred on the afternoon of 6 March 1600, when the play was acted at court before the Flemish Ambassador.[13] Other court performances followed in 1612 and 1625. The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 25 Feb. 1598 and first printed in quarto later that year by stationer Andrew Wise. The play was Shakespeare's most popular printed text: new editions appeared in 1599, 1604, 1608, 1613, 1622, 1632, 1639, and 1692. The Dering Manuscript[edit] Main article: The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript

The Dering Manuscript, the earliest extant manuscript text of any Shakespearean play,[14] provides a single-play version of both Part 1 and Part 2 of Henry IV. The consensus of Shakespeare scholars is that the Dering MS. represents a redaction prepared around 1623, perhaps for family or amateur theatrics, by Edward Dering (1598–1644), of Surrenden Manor, Pluckley, Kent, where the manuscript was discovered. A few dissenters have argued that the Dering MS. may indicate that Shakespeare's Henry IV was originally a single play, which the poet later expanded into two parts to capitalise on the popularity of the Sir John Falstaff
Falstaff
character. The Dering MS. is part of the collection of the Folger Shakespeare Library
Folger Shakespeare Library
in Washington, D.C.[15] Criticism and analysis[edit]

"Rise from the ground like feathered Mercury/ And vaulted with such ease into his seat/ As if an angel dropp'd down from the clouds/ To turn and wind a fiery Pegasus/ And witch the world with noble horsemanship." Act IV, Scene i, Hal's transformation, William Blake 1809

Themes and interpretations[edit] At its first publication in 1597 or 1598 the play was titled The History of Henrie the Fourth and its title page advertised only the presence of Henry Percy and the comic Sir John Falstaff; Prince Hal was not mentioned. Indeed, throughout most of the play's performance history, Hal was staged as a secondary figure, and the stars of the stage, beginning with James Quin and David Garrick
David Garrick
often preferred to play Hotspur. It was only in the twentieth century that readers and performers began to see the central interest as the coming-of-age story of Hal, who is now seen as the starring role. In the "coming-of-age" interpretation, Hal's acquaintance with Falstaff
Falstaff
and the tavern lowlife humanises him and provides him with a more complete view of life.[citation needed] At the outset, Prince Hal seems to pale in comparison with the fiery Henry Percy, the young noble lord of the North (whom Shakespeare portrays considerably younger than he was in history in order to provide a foil for Hal). Many readers interpret the history as a tale of Prince Hal
Prince Hal
growing up, evolving into King Henry V,[16] perhaps the most heroic of all of Shakespeare's characters, in what is a tale of the prodigal son adapted to the politics of medieval England.[17] The low proportion of scenes featuring the title character, the king, has also been noted, with some authors suggesting that the play contrasts the authority of Henry IV, and his struggle to stay in control of the situation, with the chaotic forces of the rebels and Falstaff. Oldcastle controversy[edit]

The title page from the first quarto edition of the play, printed in 1599.

Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
caused controversy on its first performances in 1597, because the comic character now known as "Falstaff" was originally named "Oldcastle" and was based on John Oldcastle, a famous proto-Protestant martyr with powerful living descendants in England. Although the character is called Falstaff
Falstaff
in all surviving texts of the play, there is abundant external and internal evidence that he was originally called Oldcastle. The change of names is mentioned in seventeenth-century works by Richard James ("Epistle to Sir Harry Bourchier", c. 1625) and Thomas Fuller
Thomas Fuller
(Worthies of England, 1662). It is also indicated in details in the early texts of Shakespeare's plays. In the quarto text of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
(1600), one of Falstaff's speech prefixes in Act I, Scene ii is mistakenly left uncorrected, "Old." instead of "Falst." In III, ii, 25-6 of the same play, Falstaff
Falstaff
is said to have been a "page to Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk"—which was true of the historical Oldcastle. In Henry IV, Part 1, I,ii,42, Prince Hal
Prince Hal
calls Falstaff
Falstaff
"my old lad of the castle." Iambic pentameter verse lines in both parts are irregular when using the name "Falstaff", but correct with "Oldcastle". Finally, there is the blatant disclaimer at the close of Henry IV, Part 2
Henry IV, Part 2
that discriminates between the two figures: "for Oldcastle died [a] martyr, and this is not the man" (Epilogue, 29–32).

In Act III sc. 1, Hotspur, promised all of England north of the Trent, proposes diverting the river southwards to give him a still greater share. The plan highlights his destructive and argumentative nature.

There is even a hint that Falstaff
Falstaff
was originally Oldcastle in The Merry Wives of Windsor too. When the First Folio
First Folio
and quarto texts of that play are compared, it appears that the joke in V,v,85–90 is that Oldcastle/ Falstaff
Falstaff
incriminates himself by calling out the first letter of his name, "O, O, O!," when his fingertips are singed with candles—which of course works for "Oldcastle" but not "Falstaff." There is also the "castle" reference in IV,v,6 of the same play.[18] The name change and the Epilogue disclaimer were required, it is generally thought, because of political pressure: the historical Oldcastle was not only a Protestant martyr, but a nobleman with powerful living descendants in Elizabethan England. These were the Lords Cobham: William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
William Brooke, 10th Baron Cobham
(died 6 March 1597), was Warden of the Cinque Ports (1558–97), Knight
Knight
of the Order of the Garter (1584), and member of the Privy Council (1586–97); his son Henry Brooke, 11th Baron Cobham, was granted the paternal post of Warden of the Cinque Ports upon his father's death, and made a Knight of the Order of the Garter
Order of the Garter
in 1599. Even more so, Frances Brooke, the 10th Baron's wife and 11th Baron's mother, was a close personal favourite of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth I. The elder Lord
Lord
Cobham even had a strong negative impact upon the lives of Shakespeare and his contemporaries in the theatre. The company of actors formed by Shakespeare, Richard Burbage, Will Kempe and the others in 1594 enjoyed the patronage of Henry Carey, first Lord Hunsdon, then serving as Lord
Lord
Chamberlain; they were, famously, the Lord
Lord
Chamberlain's Men. When Carey died on 22 July 1596, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain was given to William Brooke, Lord
Lord
Cobham, who definitely was not a friend to the players, and who withdrew what official protection they had enjoyed. The players were left to the mercies of the local officials of the City of London, who had long wanted to drive the companies of actors out of the City. Thomas Nashe, in a contemporary letter, complained that the actors were "piteously persecuted by the Lord
Lord
Mayor and the aldermen" during this period. Fortunately, for the players and for English literature, this interval did not last; when Cobham died less than a year later, the post of Lord
Lord
Chamberlain went to Henry Carey's son George, 2nd baron Hunsdon, and the actors regained their previous patronage.[19] The name was changed to "Falstaff", based on Sir John Fastolf, an historical person with a reputation for cowardice at the Battle of Patay, and whom Shakespeare had previously represented in Henry VI, Part 1. Fastolf had died without descendants, making him safe for a playwright's use. Shortly afterward, a team of playwrights wrote a two-part play entitled Sir John Oldcastle, which presents a heroic dramatisation of Oldcastle's life and was published in 1600. In 1986, the Oxford Shakespeare
Oxford Shakespeare
edition of Shakespeare's works rendered the character's name as Oldcastle, rather than Falstaff, in Henry IV, Part 1
Henry IV, Part 1
(although not, confusingly, in Part 2), as a consequence of the editors' aim to present the plays as they would have appeared during their original performances. No other published editions have followed suit. Adaptations[edit]

A photograph of John Jack as Falstaff
Falstaff
in a late 19th century performance of the play.

There have been three BBC television films of Henry IV, Part 1. In the 1960 mini-series An Age of Kings, Tom Fleming starred as Henry IV, with Robert Hardy
Robert Hardy
as Prince Hal, Frank Pettingell as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Sean Connery as Hotspur.[20] The 1979 BBC Television Shakespeare
BBC Television Shakespeare
version starred Jon Finch as Henry IV, David Gwillim as Prince Hal, Anthony Quayle as Falstaff
Falstaff
and Tim Pigott-Smi