HENRY FORD (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was an American industrialist , the founder of the Ford Motor Company , and the sponsor of the development of the assembly line technique of mass production .
Although Ford did not invent the automobile or the assembly line, he
developed and manufactured the first automobile that many middle class
Americans could afford. In doing so, Ford converted the automobile
from an expensive curiosity into a practical conveyance that would
profoundly impact the landscape of the 20th Century. His introduction
Ford was also widely known for his pacifism during the first years of
World War I
* 1 Early life * 2 Marriage and family
* 3 Career
* 3.1 Ford Motor Company
* 3.1.3 Labor philosophy
* 22.214.171.124 The five-dollar wage * 126.96.36.199 The five-day workweek * 188.8.131.52 Labor unions
* 3.2 Ford Airplane Company
* 3.2.1 Willow Run
* 3.3 Peace and war
World War I
* 4 _The Dearborn Independent_ and antisemitism * 5 International business * 6 Racing * 7 Later career and death
* 8 Personal interests
* 8.1 Interest in materials science and engineering
* 8.2 Florida and Georgia residences and community
* 8.3 Preserving
* 9 In popular culture * 10 Honors and recognition * 11 See also * 12 Notes
* 13 References
* 13.1 Memoirs by Ford Motor Company principals * 13.2 Biographies * 13.3 Specialized studies
* 14 Further reading * 15 External links
His father gave him a pocket watch in his early teens. At 15, Ford dismantled and reassembled the timepieces of friends and neighbors dozens of times, gaining the reputation of a watch repairman. At twenty, Ford walked four miles to their Episcopal church every Sunday.
Ford was devastated when his mother died in 1876. His father expected him to eventually take over the family farm, but he despised farm work. He later wrote, "I never had any particular love for the farm—it was the mother on the farm I loved."
In 1879, Ford left home to work as an apprentice machinist in
Detroit, first with James F. Flower & Bros., and later with the
Detroit Dry Dock Co. In 1882, he returned to Dearborn to work on the
family farm, where he became adept at operating the Westinghouse
portable steam engine . He was later hired by Westinghouse to service
their steam engines. During this period Ford also studied bookkeeping
at Goldsmith, Bryant ">
Ford married Clara Jane Bryant (1866–1950) on April 11, 1888 and supported himself by farming and running a sawmill. They had one child: Edsel Ford (1893–1943).
In 1891, Ford became an engineer with the Edison Illuminating Company
. After his promotion to Chief Engineer in 1893, he had enough time
and money to devote attention to his personal experiments on gasoline
engines. These experiments culminated in 1896 with the completion of a
self-propelled vehicle which he named the
Also in 1896, Ford attended a meeting of Edison executives, where he was introduced to Thomas Edison . Edison approved of Ford's automobile experimentation. Encouraged by Edison, Ford designed and built a second vehicle, completing it in 1898. Backed by the capital of Detroit lumber baron William H. Murphy, Ford resigned from the Edison Company and founded the Detroit Automobile Company on August 5, 1899. However, the automobiles produced were of a lower quality and higher price than Ford wanted. Ultimately, the company was not successful and was dissolved in January 1901.
With the help of C. Harold Wills , Ford designed, built, and successfully raced a 26-horsepower automobile in October 1901. With this success, Murphy and other stockholders in the Detroit Automobile Company formed the Henry Ford Company on November 30, 1901, with Ford as chief engineer. In 1902, Murphy brought in Henry M. Leland as a consultant; Ford, in response, left the company bearing his name. With Ford gone, Murphy renamed the company the Cadillac Automobile Company .
Teaming up with former racing cyclist Tom Cooper , Ford also produced
the 80+ horsepower racer "999" which
In response, Malcomson brought in another group of investors and convinced the Dodge Brothers to accept a portion of the new company. Ford the four cylinders were cast in a solid block; the suspension used two semi-elliptic springs. The car was very simple to drive, and easy and cheap to repair. It was so cheap at $825 in 1908 ($21,990 today) (the price fell every year) that by the 1920s, a majority of American drivers had learned to drive on the Model T.
Ford created a huge publicity machine in Detroit to ensure every newspaper carried stories and ads about the new product. Ford's network of local dealers made the car ubiquitous in almost every city in North America. As independent dealers, the franchises grew rich and publicized not just the Ford but the concept of automobiling; local motor clubs sprang up to help new drivers and to encourage exploring the countryside. Ford was always eager to sell to farmers, who looked on the vehicle as a commercial device to help their business. Sales skyrocketed—several years posted 100% gains on the previous year. Always on the hunt for more efficiency and lower costs, in 1913 Ford introduced the moving assembly belts into his plants, which enabled an enormous increase in production. Although Ford is often credited with the idea, contemporary sources indicate that the concept and its development came from employees Clarence Avery , Peter E. Martin , Charles E. Sorensen , and C. Harold Wills . (See Ford Piquette Avenue Plant ) Ford assembly line, 1913
Sales passed 250,000 in 1914. By 1916, as the price dropped to $360 for the basic touring car, sales reached 472,000. (Using the consumer price index, this price was equivalent to $7,828.08 in 2015 dollars.) A 1926 Ford T Roadster on display in India
By 1918, half of all cars in America were Model T's. All new cars were black; as Ford wrote in his autobiography, "Any customer can have a car painted any color that he wants so long as it is black". Until the development of the assembly line, which mandated black because of its quicker drying time, Model Ts were available in other colors, including red. The design was fervently promoted and defended by Ford, and production continued as late as 1927; the final total production was 15,007,034. This record stood for the next 45 years. This record was achieved in 19 years from the introduction of the first Model T (1908).
By the mid-1920s, sales of the
Model A And Ford\'s Later Career
By 1926, flagging sales of the
The result was the successful Ford Model A , introduced in December 1927 and produced through 1931, with a total output of more than 4 million. Subsequently, the Ford company adopted an annual model change system similar to that recently pioneered by its competitor General Motors (and still in use by automakers today). Not until the 1930s did Ford overcome his objection to finance companies, and the Ford-owned Universal Credit Corporation became a major car-financing operation.
Ford did not believe in accountants; he amassed one of the world's largest fortunes without ever having his company audited under his administration.
The Five-dollar Wage
_ Time _ magazine, January 14, 1935
Ford was a pioneer of "welfare capitalism ", designed to improve the lot of his workers and especially to reduce the heavy turnover that had many departments hiring 300 men per year to fill 100 slots. Efficiency meant hiring and keeping the best workers.
Ford astonished the world in 1914 by offering a $5 per day wage ($120
today), which more than doubled the rate of most of his workers. A
Detroit was already a high-wage city, but competitors were forced to raise wages or lose their best workers. Ford's policy proved, however, that paying people more would enable Ford workers to afford the cars they were producing and be good for the local economy. He viewed the increased wages as profit-sharing linked with rewarding those who were most productive and of good character. It may have been Couzens who convinced Ford to adopt the $5-day wage.
Real profit-sharing was offered to employees who had worked at the company for six months or more, and, importantly, conducted their lives in a manner of which Ford's "Social Department" approved. They frowned on heavy drinking, gambling, and (what today are called) deadbeat dads . The Social Department used 50 investigators, plus support staff, to maintain employee standards; a large percentage of workers were able to qualify for this "profit-sharing."
Ford's incursion into his employees' private lives was highly controversial, and he soon backed off from the most intrusive aspects. By the time he wrote his 1922 memoir, he spoke of the Social Department and of the private conditions for profit-sharing in the past tense, and admitted that "paternalism has no place in industry. Welfare work that consists in prying into employees' private concerns is out of date. Men need counsel and men need help, often special help; and all this ought to be rendered for decency's sake. But the broad workable plan of investment and participation will do more to solidify industry and strengthen organization than will any social work on the outside. Without changing the principle we have changed the method of payment."
The Five-day Workweek
In addition to raising the wages of his workers, Ford also introduced a new, reduced workweek in 1926. The decision was made in 1922, when Ford and Crowther described it as six 8-hour days, giving a 48-hour week, but in 1926 it was announced as five 8-hour days, giving a 40-hour week. (Apparently the program started with Saturday being a workday and sometime later it was changed to a day off.) On May 1, 1926, the Ford Motor Company's factory workers switched to a five-day 40-hour workweek, with the company's office workers making the transition the following August.
Ford had made the decision to boost productivity, as workers were expected to put more effort into their work in exchange for more leisure time, and because he believed decent leisure time was good for business, since workers would actually have more time to purchase and consume more goods. However, altruistic concerns also played a role, with Ford explaining "It is high time to rid ourselves of the notion that leisure for workmen is either ‘lost time’ or a class privilege."
Ford was adamantly against labor unions . He explained his views on unions in Chapter 18 of _My Life and Work_. He thought they were too heavily influenced by some leaders who, despite their ostensible good motives, would end up doing more harm than good for workers. Most wanted to restrict productivity as a means to foster employment, but Ford saw this as self-defeating because, in his view, productivity was necessary for any economic prosperity to exist.
He believed that productivity gains that obviated certain jobs would nevertheless stimulate the larger economy and thus grow new jobs elsewhere, whether within the same corporation or in others. Ford also believed that union leaders had a perverse incentive to foment perpetual socio-economic crisis as a way to maintain their own power. Meanwhile, he believed that smart managers had an incentive to do right by their workers, because doing so would maximize their own profits. Ford did acknowledge, however, that many managers were basically too bad at managing to understand this fact. But Ford believed that eventually, if good managers such as he could fend off the attacks of misguided people from both left and right (i.e., both socialists and bad-manager reactionaries), the good managers would create a socio-economic system wherein neither bad management nor bad unions could find enough support to continue existing.
To forestall union activity, Ford promoted Harry Bennett , a former Navy boxer, to head the Service Department. Bennett employed various intimidation tactics to squash union organizing. The most famous incident, on May 26, 1937, involved Bennett's security men beating with clubs UAW representatives, including Walter Reuther . While Bennett's men were beating the UAW representatives, the supervising police chief on the scene was Carl Brooks, an alumnus of Bennett’s Service Department, and "did not give orders to intervene." The incident became known as The Battle of the Overpass .
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, Edsel—who was president of the company—thought Ford had to come to some sort of collective bargaining agreement with the unions because the violence, work disruptions, and bitter stalemates could not go on forever. But Ford, who still had the final veto in the company on a _de facto_ basis even if not an official one, refused to cooperate. For several years, he kept Bennett in charge of talking to the unions that were trying to organize the Ford Motor Company. Sorensen's memoir makes clear that Ford's purpose in putting Bennett in charge was to make sure no agreements were ever reached.
Ford Motor Company was the last Detroit automaker to recognize
United Auto Workers union (UAW). A sit-down strike by the UAW
union in April 1941 closed the
River Rouge Plant . Sorensen recounted
that a distraught
FORD AIRPLANE COMPANY
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Ford, like other automobile companies, entered the aviation business
World War I
Ford's most successful aircraft was the Ford 4AT Trimotor , often
called the "Tin Goose" because of its corrugated metal construction.
It used a new alloy called
Alclad that combined the corrosion
resistance of aluminum with the strength of duralumin . The plane was
Main article: Willow Run
PEACE AND WAR
Ford opposed war, which he viewed as a terrible waste. Ford became
highly critical of those who he felt financed war, and he tried to
stop them. In 1915, the pacifist
Rosika Schwimmer gained favor with
Ford, who agreed to fund a
Peace Ship to Europe, where
World War I
Ford plants in the United Kingdom produced tractors to increase the British food supply, as well as trucks and aircraft engines. When the U.S. entered the war in 1917 the company became a major supplier of weapons, especially the Liberty engine for airplanes, and anti-submarine boats.
In 1918, with the war on and the
League of Nations
The Coming Of World War II And Ford\'s Mental Collapse
Ford had opposed America's entry into World War II and continued to
believe that international business could generate the prosperity that
would head off wars. Ford "insisted that war was the product of greedy
financiers who sought profit in human destruction"; in 1939 he went so
far as to claim that the torpedoing of U.S. merchant ships by German
submarines was the result of conspiratorial activities undertaken by
financier war-makers. The financiers to whom he was referring was
Ford's code for Jews; he had also accused Jews of fomenting the First
World War. In the run-up to World War II and when the war erupted in
1939, he reported that he did not want to trade with belligerents.
Like many other businessmen of the
Beginning in 1940, with the requisitioning of between 100 and 200
French POWs to work as slave laborers, _Ford-Werke _ contravened
Article 31 of the 1929 Geneva Convention . At that time, which was
before the U.S. entered the war and still had full diplomatic
When Rolls-Royce sought a U.S. manufacturer as an alternative source for the Merlin engine (as fitted to Spitfire and Hurricane fighters), Ford first agreed to do so and then reneged . He "lined up behind the war effort" when the U.S. entered in late 1941. His support of the American war effort, however, was problematic.
Once the U.S. entered the war, Ford directed the Ford Motor Company to construct a vast new purpose-built factory at Willow Run near Detroit, Michigan. Ford broke ground on Willow Run in the spring of 1942, and the first B-24 came off the line in October 1942. At 3,500,000 sq ft (330,000 m2), it was the largest assembly line in the world at the time. At its peak in 1944, the Willow Run plant produced 650 B-24s per month, and by 1945 Ford was completing each B-24 in eighteen hours, with one rolling off the assembly line every 58 minutes. Ford produced 9,000 B-24s at Willow Run, half of the 18,000 total B-24s produced during the war.
Edsel Ford died prematurely in 1943,
_THE DEARBORN INDEPENDENT_ AND ANTISEMITISM
In the early 1920s, Ford sponsored a weekly newspaper that published strongly antisemitic views. At the same time, Ford had a reputation as one of the few major corporations actively hiring black workers, and was not accused of discrimination against Jewish workers or suppliers. He also hired women and handicapped men at a time when doing so was uncommon.
In 1918, Ford's closest aide and private secretary, Ernest G. Liebold , purchased an obscure weekly newspaper for Ford, _The Dearborn Independent _. The _Independent_ ran for eight years, from 1920 until 1927, with Liebold as editor. Every Ford franchise nationwide had to carry the paper and distribute it to its customers.
During this period, Ford emerged as "a respected spokesman for right-wing extremism and religious prejudice," reaching around 700,000 readers through his newspaper. The 2010 documentary film _Jews and Baseball: An American Love Story _ (written by Pulitzer Prize winner Ira Berkow ) states that Ford wrote on May 22, 1920: "If fans wish to know the trouble with American baseball they have it in three words—too much Jew."
In Germany, Ford's antisemitic articles from _The Dearborn
Independent_ were issued in four volumes, cumulatively titled _The
International Jew, the World\'s Foremost Problem _ published by
Theodor Fritsch , founder of several antisemitic parties and a member
of the Reichstag . In a letter written in 1924, Heinrich Himmler
described Ford as "one of our most valuable, important, and witty
fighters." Ford is the only American mentioned favorably in _Mein
Kampf _, although he is only mentioned once:
Max Wallace has stated "History records that...Adolf Hitler
was an ardent Anti-Semite before he ever read Ford's _The
Grand Cross of the German Eagle , an award
bestowed on Ford by
On February 1, 1924, Ford received
Kurt Ludecke , a representative of
Hitler, at home. Ludecke was introduced to Ford by Siegfried Wagner
(son of the composer
While Ford's articles were denounced by the Anti-Defamation League (ADL), the articles explicitly condemned pogroms and violence against Jews, but blamed the Jews for provoking incidents of mass violence. None of this work was written by Ford, but he allowed his name to be used as author. According to trial testimony, he wrote almost nothing. Friends and business associates have said they warned Ford about the contents of the _Independent_ and that he probably never read the articles (he claimed he only read the headlines). However, court testimony in a libel suit, brought by one of the targets of the newspaper, alleged that Ford did know about the contents of the _Independent_ in advance of publication.
A libel lawsuit was brought by San Francisco lawyer and Jewish farm cooperative organizer Aaron Sapiro in response to the antisemitic remarks, and led Ford to close the _Independent_ in December 1927. News reports at the time quoted him as saying he was shocked by the content and unaware of its nature. During the trial, the editor of Ford's "Own Page," William Cameron, testified that Ford had nothing to do with the editorials even though they were under his byline. Cameron testified at the libel trial that he never discussed the content of the pages or sent them to Ford for his approval. Investigative journalist Max Wallace noted that "whatever credibility this absurd claim may have had was soon undermined when James M. Miller, a former _Dearborn Independent_ employee, swore under oath that Ford had told him he intended to expose Sapiro."
Michael Barkun observed:
That Cameron would have continued to publish such anti-Semitic material without Ford's explicit instructions seemed unthinkable to those who knew both men. Mrs. Stanley Ruddiman, a Ford family intimate, remarked that 'I don't think Mr. Cameron ever wrote anything for publication without Mr. Ford's approval.'
According to Spencer Blakeslee:
The ADL mobilized prominent Jews and non-Jews to publicly oppose
Ford's message. They formed a coalition of Jewish groups for the same
purpose and raised constant objections in the Detroit press. Before
leaving his presidency early in 1921,
Wallace also found that Ford's apology was likely, at least partly, motivated by a business that was slumping as result of his antisemitism repelling potential buyers of Ford cars. Up until the apology, a considerable number of dealers, who had been required to make sure that buyers of Ford cars received the _Independent_, bought up and destroyed copies of the newspaper rather than alienate customers.
Ford's 1927 apology was well received. "Four-Fifths of the hundreds of letters addressed to Ford in July 1927 were from Jews, and almost without exception they praised the industrialist." In January 1937, a Ford statement to the _Detroit Jewish Chronicle_ disavowed "any connection whatsoever with the publication in Germany of a book known as the _International Jew_."
According to Pool and Pool (1978), Ford's retraction and apology (which were written by others) were not even truly signed by him (rather, his signature was forged by Harry Bennett ), and Ford never privately recanted his antisemitic views, stating in 1940: "I hope to republish _The International Jew_ again some time."
In July 1938, before the outbreak of war, the German consul at
Cleveland gave Ford, on his 75th birthday, the award of the Grand
Cross of the German Eagle , the highest medal
On January 7, 1942, Ford wrote a letter to
Sigmund Livingston as the
Founder and National Chairman of the
Distribution of _The International Jew_ was halted in 1942 through
legal action by Ford, despite complications from a lack of copyright.
It is still banned in Germany. Extremist groups often recycle the
material; it still appears on antisemitic and neo-
The decisive anti-Semitic book I was reading and the book that influenced my comrades was ... that book by Henry Ford, "The International Jew ". I read it and became anti-Semitic. The book made a great influence on myself and my friends because we saw in Henry Ford the representative of success and also the representative of a progressive social policy.
Robert Lacey wrote in _Ford: The Men and the Machines_ that a close
Willow Run associate of Ford reported that when he was shown newsreel
footage of the
Ford's philosophy was one of economic independence for the United
River Rouge Plant became the world's largest industrial
complex, pursuing vertical integration to such an extent that it could
produce its own steel. Ford's goal was to produce a vehicle from
scratch without reliance on foreign trade. He believed in the global
expansion of his company. He believed that international trade and
cooperation led to international peace, and he used the assembly line
process and production of the
He opened Ford assembly plants in Britain and Canada in 1911, and
soon became the biggest automotive producer in those countries. In
1912, Ford cooperated with
Giovanni Agnelli of
In 1929, in the absence of diplomatic relations between the United
States and the
By 1932, Ford was manufacturing one third of all the world's automobiles. It set up numerous subsidiaries that sold or assembled the Ford cars and trucks:
Ford's image transfixed Europeans, especially the Germans, arousing the "fear of some, the infatuation of others, and the fascination among all". Germans who discussed "Fordism" often believed that it represented something quintessentially American. They saw the size, tempo, standardization, and philosophy of production demonstrated at the Ford Works as a national service—an "American thing" that represented the culture of the United States . Both supporters and critics insisted that Fordism epitomized American capitalist development, and that the auto industry was the key to understanding economic and social relations in the United States. As one German explained, "Automobiles have so completely changed the American's mode of life that today one can hardly imagine being without a car. It is difficult to remember what life was like before Mr. Ford began preaching his doctrine of salvation". For many Germans, Ford embodied the essence of successful Americanism.
In _My Life and Work_, Ford predicted that if greed, racism, and short-sightedness could be overcome, then economic and technological development throughout the world would progress to the point that international trade would no longer be based on (what today would be called) colonial or neocolonial models and would truly benefit all peoples. His ideas in this passage were vague, but they were idealistic.
Ford (standing) launched
Ford maintained an interest in auto racing from 1901 to 1913 and
began his involvement in the sport as both a builder and a driver,
later turning the wheel over to hired drivers. He entered
stripped-down Model Ts in races, finishing first (although later
disqualified) in an "ocean-to-ocean" (across the United States) race
in 1909, and setting a one-mile (1.6 km) oval speed record at Detroit
Fairgrounds in 1911 with driver Frank Kulick. In 1913, Ford attempted
to enter a reworked
In _My Life and Work_ Ford speaks (briefly) of racing in a rather dismissive tone, as something that is not at all a good measure of automobiles in general. He describes himself as someone who raced only because in the 1890s through 1910s, one had to race because prevailing ignorance held that racing was the way to prove the worth of an automobile. Ford did not agree. But he was determined that as long as this was the definition of success (flawed though the definition was), then his cars would be the best that there were at racing. Throughout the book, he continually returns to ideals such as transportation, production efficiency, affordability, reliability, fuel efficiency, economic prosperity, and the automation of drudgery in farming and industry, but rarely mentions, and rather belittles, the idea of merely going fast from point A to point B.
Nevertheless, Ford did make quite an impact on auto racing during his racing years, and he was inducted into the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America in 1996.
LATER CAREER AND DEATH
Most of the directors did not want to see him as President. But for the previous 20 years, though he had long been without any official executive title, he had always had _de facto_ control over the company; the board and the management had never seriously defied him, and this moment was not different. The directors elected him, and he served until the end of the war. During this period the company began to decline, losing more than $10 million a month ($138,400,000 today). The administration of President Franklin Roosevelt had been considering a government takeover of the company in order to ensure continued war production, but the idea never progressed. Ford grave, Ford Cemetery
His health failing, Ford ceded the company Presidency to his
Henry Ford II , in September 1945 and went into retirement.
He died on April 7, 1947, of a cerebral hemorrhage at
A compendium of short biographies of famous Freemasons , published by a Freemason lodge, lists Ford as a member. The Grand Lodge of New York confirms that Ford was a Freemason, and was raised in Palestine Lodge No. 357, Detroit, in 1894. When he received his 33rd in 1940, he said, "Masonry is the best balance wheel the United States has."
In 1923, Ford's pastor, and head of his sociology department, Episcopal minister Samuel S. Marquis, claimed that Ford believed, or "once believed," in reincarnation .
Ford published an anti-smoking book, circulated to youth in 1914, called _The Case Against the Little White Slaver_, which documented many dangers of cigarette smoking attested to by many researchers and luminaries. At the time smoking was ubiquitous and was not yet widely associated with health detriment, so Ford's opposition to cigarettes was unusual.
INTEREST IN MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Ford was interested in engineered woods ("Better wood can be made than is grown" ) (at this time plywood and particle board were little more than experimental ideas); corn as a fuel source , via both corn oil and ethanol; and the potential uses of cotton. Ford was instrumental in developing charcoal briquets , under the brand name "Kingsford ". His brother in law, E.G. Kingsford , used wood scraps from the Ford factory to make the briquets.
In 1927 Ford partnered with Thomas Edison and Harvey Samuel Firestone (each contributing $25,000) to create the Edison Botanic Research Corp. in Fort Myers, Florida, to look for a native source of rubber.
Ford was a prolific inventor and was awarded 161 U.S. patents.
FLORIDA AND GEORGIA RESIDENCES AND COMMUNITY
He also had a vacation home (known today as the "Ford Plantation") in
Richmond Hill , Georgia which is still in existence today as a private
community. Ford started buying land in this area and eventually owned
70,000 acres (110 square miles) there. In 1936, Ford broke ground for
Ford had an interest in "
IN POPULAR CULTURE
HONORS AND RECOGNITION
* In December 1999, Ford was among 18 included in Gallup\'s List of
Widely Admired People of the 20th Century , from a poll conducted of
the American people.
* In 1928, Ford was awarded the
* Metro Detroit portal * Biography portal * Cars portal
Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railroad
* Dodge v.
Ford Motor Company
Edison and Ford Winter Estates
* ^ "The Life of Henry Ford". Archived from the original on 5 October 2001. Retrieved 28 November 2013. * ^ www.hfmgv.org The Henry Ford Museum: _The Life of Henry Ford_ Archived October 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "The history of Ford in Ireland Family Crest and Name History".
* ^ Ford, _My Life and Work_, 22–24; Nevins and Hill, _Ford TMC_,
* ^ Evans, Harold "They Made America" Little, Brown and Company.
* ^ Ford, _My Life and Work_, 24; Edward A. Guest "
* ^ Lacey 1986, pp. 218–219; which in turn cites:
* Bentley Historical Library , Josephine Fellows Gomon papers, Box 10, draft manuscript, _The Poor Mr Ford_.
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Leader in Production Founded Vast Empire in Motors in
1903. He had Retired in 1945. Began Company With Capital of $28,000
Invested by His Friends and Neighbors.
MEMOIRS BY FORD MOTOR COMPANY PRINCIPALS
* Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1922), _My Life and Work_, Garden
City, New York, USA: Garden City Publishing Company, Inc. _Various
republications, including ISBN 9781406500189 . Original is public
domain in U.S. Also available at Google Books._
* Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1926). "Today and Tomorrow". Garden
City, New York City: Doubleday, Page & Company. _Co-edition , 1926,
London, William Heinemann. Various republications, including ISBN
* Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1930). "Moving Forward". Garden
City, New York City: Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc. _Co-edition,
1931, London, William Heinemann._
* Ford, Henry; Crowther, Samuel (1930). "Edison as I Know Him". New
* Bak, Richard (2003). _Henry and Edsel: The Creation of the Ford
Empire_. Wiley ISBN 0-471-23487-7
* Brinkley, Douglas G. _Wheels for the World: Henry Ford, His
Company, and a Century of Progress_ (2003)
* Halberstam, David. "Citizen Ford" _American Heritage_ 1986 37(6):
49–64. interpretive essay
* Jardim, Anne. _The First Henry Ford: A Study in Personality and
Business Leadership_ Massachusetts Inst. of Technology Press 1970.
* Lacey, Robert. _Ford: The Men and the Machine_ Little, Brown,
1986. popular biography
* Lewis, David I. (1976). _The Public Image of Henry Ford: An
American Folk Hero and His Company_. Wayne State University Press.
ISBN 0-8143-1553-4 .
* Nevins, Allan ; Frank Ernest Hill (1954). _Ford: The Times, The
Man, The Company_. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. ACLS e-book
* Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1957). _Ford: Expansion and
Challenge, 1915–1933_. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. ACLS
* Nevins, Allan; Frank Ernest Hill (1962). _Ford: Decline and
Rebirth, 1933–1962_. New York: Charles Scribners' Sons. ACLS e-book
* Nye, David E. _Henry Ford: "Ignorant Idealist."_ Kennikat, 1979.
* Watts, Steven. _The People's Tycoon:
* Baime, A.J. _The Arsenal of Democracy: FDR, Detroit, and an Epic
Quest to Arm an America at War_ (2014)
* Barrow, Heather B. _Henry Ford's Plan for the American Suburb:
Dearborn and Detroit._ DeKalb, IL: Northern Illinois University Press,
* Batchelor, Ray. _Henry Ford: Mass Production, Modernism and
Design_ Manchester U. Press, 1994.
* Bonin, Huber et al. _Ford, 1902–2003: The European History_ 2
vol Paris 2003. ISBN 2-914369-06-9 scholarly essays in English;
reviewed in Holden, Len. "Fording the Atlantic: Ford and
Europe" in _Business History_ Volume 47, #Jan 1, 2005 pp 122–127
* Brinkley, Douglas. "Prime Mover". _American Heritage_ 2003 54(3):
44–53. on Model T
* Bryan, Ford R. _Henry's Lieutenants_, 1993; ISBN 0-8143-2428-2
* Bryan, Ford R. _Beyond the Model T: The Other Ventures of Henry
Ford_ Wayne State Press 1990.
* Dempsey, Mary A. "Fordlandia," _Michigan History_ 1994 78(4):
24–33. Ford's rubber plantation in Brazil
* Denslow, William R. (2004) . _10,000 Famous Freemasons_. Part.
One, Volume 1, from A to J (Paperback republication ed.). Kessinger
Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-7578-5 . _Foreword by Harry S. Truman._
* Grandin, Greg. _Fordlandia: The Rise and Fall of Henry Ford's
Forgotten Jungle City_. London, Icon, 2010. ISBN 978-1-84831-147-3
* Hounshell, David A. (1984), _From the American System to Mass
Production, 1800-1932: The Development of Manufacturing Technology in
the United States_, Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University
Press, ISBN 978-0-8018-2975-8 , LCCN 83016269
* Jacobson, D. S. "The Political Economy of Industrial Location: the
Ford Motor Company at Cork 1912–26." _Irish Economic and Social
History_ 1977 4: 36–55. Ford and Irish politics
* Kraft, Barbara S. _The Peace Ship: Henry Ford's Pacifist Adventure
in the First World War_ Macmillan, 1978
* Levinson, William A. _Henry Ford's Lean Vision: Enduring
Principles from the First Ford Motor Plant_, 2002; ISBN 1-56327-260-1
* Lewis, David L. "Ford and Kahn" _Michigan History_ 1980 64(5):
17–28. Ford commissioned architect Albert Kahn to design factories
* Lewis, David L. "
* Foust, James C. (1997). "Mass-produced Reform: Henry Ford's
Dearborn Independent". _American Journalism_. 14 (3–4): 411–424.
doi :10.1080/08821127.1997.10731933 .
* Higham, Charles, _Trading with the Enemy_ The Nazi–American
Money Plot 1933–1949 ; Delacorte Press 1983
* Kandel, Alan D. "Ford and Israel" _Michigan Jewish History_ 1999
39: 13–17. covers business and philanthropy
* Lee, Albert; _
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