Henry Morrison Flagler (January 2, 1830 – May 20, 1913) was an
American industrialist and a founder of Standard Oil, first based in
Ohio. He was also a key figure in the development of the Atlantic
Florida and founder of what became the
Florida East Coast
Railway. He is known as the father of St. Augustine,
Miami and Palm
1 Early life and education
2 Business and Standard Oil
2.2 Flagler's contributions
3 Florida: resort hotels and railroads
4 Death and legacy
5 See also
7 Further reading
8 External links
Early life and education
Flagler was born in Hopewell, New York, the son of Isaac Flagler, a
Presbyterian minister and his wife, the widowed Elizabeth Caldwell
(Morrison) Harkness. She had brought two sons to the marriage with
Flagler from her previous marriage to the widower Dr. David Harkness
of Milan, Ohio. His son by his first marriage, Stephen V. Harkness,
became Elizabeth's stepson. Together David and Elizabeth had a son
Daniel M. Harkness
Daniel M. Harkness before his death.
Flagler attended local schools through eighth-grade. His half-brother
Daniel had left Hopewell to live and work with his paternal uncle
Lamon G. Harkness, who had a store in Republic, Ohio. He recruited
Henry Flagler to join him, and the youth went to
Ohio at age 14, where
he started work in 1844 at a salary of US$5 per month plus room and
board. By 1849, Flagler was promoted to the sales staff at a salary of
$40 per month. He later joined Daniel in a grain business started with
his uncle Lamon in Bellevue, Ohio.
In 1862, Flagler and his brother-in-law Barney York founded the
Flagler and York
Salt Company, a salt mining and production business
in Saginaw, Michigan. He found that salt mining required more
technical knowledge than he had and struggled in the industry during
the Civil War. The company collapsed when the war undercut commercial
demand for salt. Flagler returned to Bellevue having lost his initial
$50,000 investment and an additional $50,000 he had borrowed from his
father-in-law and Daniel. Flagler believed that he had learned a
valuable lesson: invest in a business only after thorough
Business and Standard Oil
Henry Flagler, c. 1882
Flaglers Gingerbread house in Bellevue, OH
Share of the
Standard Oil Company signed by
John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller and
Henry Flagler 
After the failure of his salt business in Saginaw, Flagler returned to
Bellevue in 1866 and reentered the grain business as a commission
merchant with The Harkness Grain Company. During this time he worked
to pay back Steve Harkness. Through this business, Flagler became
acquainted with John D. Rockefeller, who worked as a commission agent
with Hewitt and Tuttle for the Harkness Grain Company. By the
Cleveland had become the center of the oil refining
industry in America and Rockefeller left the grain business to start
his own oil refinery. Rockefeller worked in association with chemist
and inventor Samuel Andrews.
Standard Oil Articles of Incorporation signed by John D. Rockefeller,
Henry M. Flagler, Samuel Andrews,
Stephen V. Harkness
Stephen V. Harkness and William
Needing capital for his new venture, Rockefeller approached Flagler in
1867. Flagler obtained $100,000 (equivalent of $1.8 million in 2017)
from family member
Stephen V. Harkness
Stephen V. Harkness on the condition that Flagler
be made a partner. The Rockefeller, Andrews & Flagler partnership
was formed with Flagler in control of Harkness' interest. The
partnership eventually grew into the
Standard Oil Corporation. It was
Flagler's idea to use the rebate system to strengthen the firm's
position against competitors and the transporting enterprises alike.
Flagler was in a special position to make those deals due to his
connections as a grain merchant. Though the refunds issued amounted to
no more than fifteen cents on the dollar, they put
Standard Oil in
position to undercut other oil refineries. By 1872, it led the
American oil refining industry, producing 10,000 barrels per day
(1,600 m3/d). The Flagler family moved to New York in 1877 since
New York was becoming the center of commerce in the US. In 1885,
Standard Oil moved its corporate headquarters to
New York City
New York City to the
26 Broadway location.
By the end of the American Civil War,
Cleveland was one of the five
main refining centers in the U.S. (besides Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania,
New York City, and the region in northwestern
Pennsylvania where most
of the oil originated).
By 1869, there was three times more kerosene refining capacity than
needed to supply the market, and the capacity remained in excess for
many years. In June 1870, Flagler and Rockefeller formed Standard
Oil of Ohio, which rapidly became the most profitable refiner in Ohio.
Standard Oil grew to become one of the largest shippers of oil and
kerosene in the country. The railroads were fighting fiercely for
traffic and, in an attempt to create a cartel to control freight
rates, formed the
South Improvement Company in collusion with Standard
and other oil men outside the main oil centers. The cartel received
preferential treatment as a high-volume shipper, which included not
just steep rebates of up to 50% for their product but also rebates for
the shipment of competing products. Part of this scheme was the
announcement of sharply increased freight charges. This touched off a
firestorm of protest from independent oil well owners, including
boycotts and vandalism, which eventually led to the discovery of
Standard Oil's part in the deal. A major New York refiner, Charles
Pratt and Company, headed by
Charles Pratt and Henry H. Rogers, led
the opposition to this plan, and railroads soon backed off.
Pennsylvania revoked the cartel’s charter, and non-preferential
rates were restored for the time being.
Undeterred, though vilified for the first time by the press, Flagler
and Rockefeller continued with their self-reinforcing cycle of buying
competing refiners, improving the efficiency of his operations,
pressing for discounts on oil shipments, undercutting his competition,
making secret deals, raising investment pools, and buying rivals out.
In less than four months in 1872, in what was later known as "The
Cleveland Conquest" or "The
Standard Oil had
absorbed 22 of its 26
Cleveland competitors. Eventually, even his
former antagonists, Pratt and Rogers, saw the futility of continuing
to compete against Standard Oil: in 1874, they made a secret agreement
with their old nemesis to be acquired. Pratt and Rogers became Flagler
and Rockefeller's partners. Rogers, in particular, became one of
Flagler and Rockefeller's key men in the formation of the Standard Oil
Trust. Pratt's son, Charles Millard Pratt, became Secretary of
Standard Oil. For many of his competitors, Flagler and Rockefeller had
merely to show them the books so they could see what they were up
against and make them a decent offer. If they refused his offer,
Flagler and Rockefeller told them they would run them into bankruptcy
and then cheaply buy up their assets at auction. Flagler and
Rockefeller saw themselves as the industry’s saviors, "an angel of
mercy" absorbing the weak and making the industry as a whole stronger,
more efficient, and more competitive. Standard was growing
horizontally and vertically. It added its own pipelines, tank cars,
and home delivery network. It kept oil prices low to stave off
competitors, made its products affordable to the average household,
and, to increase market penetration, sometimes sold below cost if
necessary. It developed over 300 oil-based products from tar to paint
Vaseline petroleum jelly to chewing gum. By the end of the 1870s,
Standard was refining over 90% of the oil in the U.S.
In 1877, Standard clashed with
Thomas A. Scott
Thomas A. Scott the president of the
Pennsylvania Railroad, its chief hauler. Flagler and Rockefeller had
envisioned the use of pipelines as an alternative transport system for
oil and began a campaign to build and acquire them. The railroad,
seeing Standard’s incursion into the transportation and pipeline
fields, struck back and formed a subsidiary to buy and build oil
refineries and pipelines. Standard countered and held back its
shipments and, with the help of other railroads, started a price war
that dramatically reduced freight payments and caused labor unrest as
well. Flagler and Rockefeller eventually prevailed and the railroad
sold all its oil interests to Standard. But in the aftermath of that
battle, in 1879 the Commonwealth of
Pennsylvania indicted Flagler and
Rockefeller on charges of monopolizing the oil trade, starting an
avalanche of similar court proceedings in other states and making a
national issue of Standard Oil’s business practices.
Standard Oil gradually gained almost complete control of oil refining
and marketing in the United States through horizontal integration. In
the kerosene industry,
Standard Oil replaced the old distribution
system with its own vertical system. It supplied kerosene by tank cars
that brought the fuel to local markets, and tank wagons then delivered
to retail customers, thus bypassing the existing network of wholesale
jobbers. Despite improving the quality and availability of
kerosene products while greatly reducing their cost to the public (the
price of kerosene dropped by nearly 80% over the life of the company),
Standard Oil's business practices created intense controversy.
Standard's most potent weapons against competitors were underselling,
differential pricing, and secret transportation rebates. The firm
was attacked by journalists and politicians throughout its existence,
in part for these monopolistic methods, giving momentum to the
antitrust movement. By 1880, according to the New York World, Standard
Oil was "the most cruel, impudent, pitiless, and grasping monopoly
that ever fastened upon a country." To the critics Flagler and
Rockefeller replied, "In a business so large as ours..... some things
are likely to be done which we cannot approve. We correct them as soon
as they come to our knowledge."
At that time, many legislatures had made it difficult to incorporate
in one state and operate in another. As a result, Flagler and
Rockefeller and their associates owned dozens of separate
corporations, each of which operated in just one state; the management
of the whole enterprise was rather unwieldy. In 1882, Flagler and
Rockefeller's lawyers created an innovative form of corporation to
centralize their holdings, giving birth to the
Standard Oil Trust.
The "trust" was a corporation of corporations, and the entity's size
and wealth drew much attention. Nine trustees, including Rockefeller,
ran the 41 companies in the trust. The public and the press were
immediately suspicious of this new legal entity, and other businesses
seized upon the idea and emulated it, further inflaming public
Standard Oil had gained an aura of invincibility, always
prevailing against competitors, critics, and political enemies. It had
become the richest, biggest, most feared business in the world,
seemingly immune to the boom and bust of the business cycle,
consistently racking up profits year after year.
Its vast American empire included 20,000 domestic wells, 4,000 miles
of pipeline, 5,000 tank cars, and over 100,000 employees. Its
share of world oil refining topped out above 90% but slowly dropped to
about 80% for the rest of the century. In spite of the formation
of the trust and its perceived immunity from all competition, by the
Standard Oil had passed its peak of power over the world oil
market. Flagler and Rockefeller finally gave up their dream of
controlling all the world’s oil refining. Rockefeller admitted
later, "We realized that public sentiment would be against us if we
actually refined all the oil." Over time foreign competition and
new finds abroad eroded his dominance. In the early 1880s, Flagler and
Rockefeller created one of their most important innovations. Rather
than try to influence the price of crude oil directly, Standard Oil
had been exercising indirect control by altering oil storage charges
to suit market conditions. Flagler and Rockefeller then decided to
order the issuance of certificates against oil stored in its
pipelines. These certificates became traded by speculators, thus
creating the first oil-futures market which effectively set spot
market prices from then on. The
National Petroleum Exchange opened in
Manhattan in late 1882 to facilitate the oil futures trading.
Even though 85% of world crude production was still coming from
Pennsylvania wells in the 1880s, overseas drilling in Russia and Asia
began to reach the world market.
Robert Nobel had established his
own refining enterprise in the abundant and cheaper Russian oil
fields, including the region’s first pipeline and the world’s
first oil tanker. The Paris Rothschilds jumped into the fray providing
financing. Additional fields were discovered in Burma and Java.
Even more critical, the invention of the light bulb gradually began to
erode the dominance of kerosene for illumination. But Standard Oil
adapted, developing its own European presence, expanding into natural
gas production in the U.S. then into gasoline for automobiles, which
until then had been considered a waste product.
Standard Oil moved its headquarters to New York City, at 26 Broadway,
and Flagler and Rockefeller became central figures in the city's
business community. In 1887, Congress created the Interstate Commerce
Commission which was tasked with enforcing equal rates for all
railroad freight, but by then Standard depended more on pipeline
transport. More threatening to Standard’s power was the Sherman
Antitrust Act of 1890, originally used to control unions, but later
central to the breakup of the
Standard Oil trust.
especially vigorous in applying its state anti-trust laws, and finally
forced a separation of
Standard Oil of
Ohio from the rest of the
company in 1892, the first step in the dissolution of the trust.
Upon his ascent to the presidency, Theodore Roosevelt initiated dozens
of suits under the Sherman
Antitrust Act and coaxed reforms out of
Congress. In 1901, U.S. Steel, now controlled by J. Pierpont Morgan,
having bought Andrew Carnegie's steel assets, offered to buy
Standard’s iron interests as well. A deal brokered by Henry Clay
Frick exchanged Standard’s iron interests for
U.S. Steel stock and
gave Rockefeller and his son membership on the company’s board of
One of the most effective attacks on Flagler and Rockefeller and their
firm was the 1905 publication of The History of the Standard Oil
Company, by Ida Tarbell, a leading muckraker. She documented the
company’s espionage, price wars, heavy-handed marketing tactics, and
courtroom evasions. Although her work prompted a huge backlash
against the company, Tarbell claims to have been surprised at its
magnitude. "I never had an animus against their size and wealth, never
objected to their corporate form. I was willing that they should
combine and grow as big and wealthy as they could, but only by
legitimate means. But they had never played fair, and that ruined
their greatness for me." Tarbell's father had been driven out of the
oil business during the
South Improvement Company affair.[citation
Flagler and Rockefeller began a publicity campaign to put the company
and themselves in a better light. Though Flagler and Rockefeller had
long maintained a policy of active silence with the press, they
decided to make themselves more accessible and responded with
conciliatory comments such as "capital and labor are both wild forces
which require intelligent legislation to hold them in
Flagler and Rockefeller continued to consolidate their oil interests
as best they could until New Jersey, in 1909, changed its
incorporation laws to effectively allow a re-creation of the trust in
the form of a single holding company. Rockefeller retained his nominal
title as president until 1911 and he kept his stock. At last in 1911,
Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States found
Standard Oil Company of
New Jersey in violation of the Sherman
Antitrust Act. By then the
trust still had a 70% market share of the refined oil market but only
14% of the U.S. crude oil supply. The court ruled that the trust
originated in illegal monopoly practices and ordered it to be broken
up into 34 new companies. These included, among many others,
Continental Oil, which became Conoco, now part of ConocoPhillips;
Standard of Indiana, which became Amoco, now part of BP; Standard of
California, which became Chevron; Standard of New Jersey, which became
Esso (and later, Exxon), now part of ExxonMobil; Standard of New York,
which became Mobil, now part of ExxonMobil; and Standard of Ohio,
which became Sohio, now part of BP.
Pennzoil and Chevron have remained
When Flagler envisioned successes in the oil industry, he and
Rockefeller started building their fortune in refining oil in
Cleveland became very well known for oil refining,
as, "More and more crude oil was shipped from the oil regions to
Cleveland for the refining process because of transportation
facilities and the aggressiveness of the refiners there. It was due
largely to the efforts of Henry M. Flagler and John D.
Rockefeller." Flagler and Rockefeller worked hard for their
company to achieve such prominence. Henry explained: "We worked night
and day, making good oil as cheaply as possible and selling it for all
we could get." Not only did Flagler and Rockefeller's Standard Oil
company become well known in Ohio, they expanded to other states, as
well as gained additional capital in purchasing smaller oil refining
companies across the nation. According to Allan Nevins, in John D.
Rockefeller (p 292), "
Standard Oil was born as a big enterprise, it
had cut its teeth as a partnership and was now ready to plunge forward
into a period of greater expansion and development. It soon was doing
one tenth of all the petroleum business in the United States. Besides
its two refineries and a barrel plant in Cleveland, it possessed a
fleet of tank cars and warehouses in the oil regions as well as
warehouses and tanks in New York."
Henry Flagler’s steam yacht Alicia, 160’ long at the waterline,
custom built in 1890 by Harlan and Hollingsworth of Wilmington,
Standard Oil had a monopoly over all oil refineries in the
United States. In an overall calculation of America's oil refineries'
assets and capital,
Standard Oil surpassed all. Standard Oil's
combined assets equalled approximately $42,882,650.00 (U.S) from:
Indiana, Kentucky, New Jersey, New York and Ohio. As well as the
highest capitalization, totaling $26,000,000 (U.S). The history of
American oil refining begins with Henry Morrison Flagler, and his
business associate and friend, John D. Rockefeller, as they built the
biggest, most prosperous and monopolizing oil empire of their time:
Standard Oil.
Standard Oil had the same principal owners that Rockefeller, Andrews
and Flagler had, give or take a few business associates: one of whom
was Rockefeller's brother, William.
Standard Oil monopolized
quickly and took America by storm. Although
Standard Oil was a
partnership, Flagler was credited as the brain behind the booming oil
refining business. According to Edwin Lefevre, in "Flagler and
Florida" from Everybody's Magazine, XXII (February, 1910) p. 183,
John D. Rockefeller
John D. Rockefeller was asked if the
Standard Oil company was
the result of his thinking, he answered, "No, sir. I wish I had the
brains to think of it. It was Henry M. Flagler." Flagler served as
an active part of
Standard Oil until 1882. John Dustin Archbold, known
for being more aggressive, was hired by the Rockefellers. Flagler
stepped back to take a secondary role at Standard Oil, but served as a
vice president through 1908 and was part of ownership until 1911.
Florida: resort hotels and railroads
On the advice of his physician, Flagler traveled to Jacksonville for
the winter with his first wife, Mary (née Harkness), who was quite
ill. Two years after she died in 1881, he married again. Ida Alice
(née Shourds) Flagler had been a caregiver for Mary. After their
wedding, the couple traveled to Saint Augustine. Flagler found the
city charming, but the hotel facilities and transportation systems
Franklin W. Smith
Franklin W. Smith had just finished building Villa Zorayda
and Flagler offered to buy it for his honeymoon. Smith would not sell,
but he planted the seed of St. Augustine's and Florida's future in
Although Flagler remained on the board of directors of Standard Oil,
he gave up his day-to-day involvement in the corporation to pursue his
interests in Florida. He returned to St. Augustine in 1885 and made
Smith an offer. If Smith could raise $50,000, Flagler would invest
$150,000 and they would build a hotel together. Perhaps fortunately
for Smith, he couldn't come up with the funds, so Flagler began
construction of the 540-room
Ponce de Leon Hotel
Ponce de Leon Hotel by himself, but spent
several times his original estimate. Smith helped train the masons on
the mixing and pouring techniques he used on Zorayda.
Florida East Coast Railway,
Key West Extension, express train at sea,
Long Key Viaduct, Florida. photo from
Realizing the need for a sound transportation system to support his
hotel ventures, Flagler purchased short line railroads in what would
later become known as the
Florida East Coast Railway. He modernized
the existing railroads for them to accommodate heavier loads and more
His next project was the Ponce de Leon Hotel, now part of Flagler
College. He invested with the guidance of Dr. Andrew Anderson, a
native of St. Augustine. After many years of work, it opened on
January 10, 1888, and was an instant success.
Ponce de Leon Hotel
Ponce de Leon Hotel - Now Flagler College
This project sparked Flagler's interest in creating a new "American
Riviera." Two years later, he expanded his
Florida holdings. He built
a railroad bridge across the
St. Johns River
St. Johns River to gain access to the
southern half of the state and purchased the Hotel Ormond, just north
of Daytona. He also built the Alcazar Hotel as an overflow hotel for
the Ponce de Leon Hotel. The Alcazar is today the Lightner Museum,
next to the
Casa Monica Hotel
Casa Monica Hotel in St. Augustine that Flager bought from
Franklin W. Smith. His personal dedication to the state of
demonstrated when he began construction on his private residence,
Kirkside, in St. Augustine.
An immense engineering effort was required to cut through the
wilderness and marsh from St. Augustine to Palm Beach. The state
provided incentive in the form of 3,840 acres for every mile of track
Flagler completed the 1,100-room
Royal Poinciana Hotel
Royal Poinciana Hotel on the shores
of Lake Worth in Palm Beach and extended his railroad to its service
town, West Palm Beach, by 1894, founding Palm Beach and West Palm
Royal Poinciana Hotel
Royal Poinciana Hotel was at the time the largest wooden
structure in the world. Two years later, Flagler built the Palm Beach
Breakers Hotel Complex in 1901), overlooking the Atlantic
Ocean in Palm Beach.
Flagler originally intended West Palm Beach to be the terminus of his
railroad system, but in 1894 and 1895, severe freezes hit the area,
causing Flagler to reconsider. Sixty miles south, the area today known
Miami was reportedly unharmed by the freeze. To further convince
Flagler to continue the railroad to Miami, he was offered land in
exchange for laying rail tracks from private landowners, the Florida
Canal and Transportation Company, and the Boston and
Florida Atlantic Coast Land Company. The land owners were Julia
Tuttle, whom he had met in Cleveland, Ohio, and William Brickell, who
ran a trading post on the
Such incentive led to the development of Miami, which was an
unincorporated area at the time. Flagler encouraged fruit farming and
settlement along his railway line and made many gifts to build
hospitals, churches and schools in Florida.
By 1896, Flagler's railroad, the
Florida East Coast Railway, reached
Biscayne Bay. Flagler dredged a channel, built streets, instituted the
first water and power systems, and financed the city's first
newspaper, The Metropolis. When the city was incorporated in 1896, its
citizens wanted to honor the man responsible for its growth by naming
it "Flagler". He declined the honor, persuading them to use an old
Indian name, "Mayaimi". Instead, an artificial island was constructed
Biscayne Bay called Flagler Monument Island. In 1897, Flagler
opened the exclusive Royal Palm Hotel there. He became known as the
Father of Miami, Florida.
Flagler's second wife, the former Ida Alice Shourds, was declared
insane by Flagler's friend Dr. Anderson in 1896 and was
institutionalized on and off starting that year. At the same time, he
began to have a relationship affair with Mary Lily Kenan. In 1899
Flagler had created a strong enough acquaintance with Mary Lily that
papers began to openly question whether the two were having an affair.
That year he reportedly gifted her more than $1 million in
jewelry. In 1901, Flagler bribed the
Florida Legislature and
Governor to pass a law that made incurable insanity grounds for
divorce, opening the way for Flagler to remarry. Flagler was the only
person to be divorced under the law before it was repealed in
1905. A spouse's mental incapacity was later restored by the
legislature as a grounds for dissolution of marriage, and remains the
On August 24, 1901, 10 days after his divorce, Flagler married Mary
Lily at her family's plantation, Liberty Hall, and the couple soon
moved into their new Palm Beach estate, Whitehall, a 55-room beaux
arts home designed by the New York-based firm of Carrère and
Hastings, which also had designed the
New York Public Library
New York Public Library and the
Pan American Exposition. Built in 1902 as a wedding present to
Mary Lily, Whitehall (now the Flagler Museum) was a 60,000-square-foot
(5,600 m²) winter retreat that established the Palm Beach
"season" of about 8–12 weeks, for the wealthy of America's Gilded
By 1905, Flagler decided that his
Florida East Coast Railway should be
Biscayne Bay to Key West, a point 128 miles
(206 km) past the end of the
Florida peninsula. At the time, Key
West was Florida's most populous city, with a population of 20,000,
and it was also the United States' deep water port closest to the
canal that the U.S. government proposed to build in Panama. Flagler
wanted to take advantage of additional trade with
Cuba and Latin
America as well as the increased trade with the west that the Panama
Canal would bring.
In 1912, the
Overseas Railroad was completed to Key West. Over
thirty years, Flagler had invested about $50 million in railroad, home
and hotel construction and had made donations to suffering farmers
after the freeze in 1894. When asked by the president of Rollins
College in Winter Park about his philanthropic efforts, Flagler
reportedly replied, "I believe this state is the easiest place for
many men to gain a living. I do not believe any one else would develop
it if I do not ... but I do hope to live long enough to prove I
am a good business man by getting a dividend on my investment."
Death and legacy
Henry Flagler that stands in front of Flagler College
(Flagler's former Ponce de León Hotel) in Saint Augustine, Florida.
In May 1913, Flagler fell down a flight of marble stairs at Whitehall.
He never recovered and died in Palm Beach of his injuries on May 20 at
83 years of age. At 3 p.m. on the day of the funeral, May 23,
1913, every engine on the
Florida East Coast Railway stopped wherever
it was for ten minutes as a tribute to Flagler. It was reported that
people along the railway line waited all night for the passing of the
funeral train as it traveled from Palm Beach to St. Augustine.
Flagler was entombed in the Flagler family mausoleum at Memorial
Presbyterian Church in St. Augustine alongside his first wife, Mary
Harkness; daughter, Jenny Louise; and granddaughter, Marjorie. Only
his son Harry survived of the three children by his first marriage in
1853 to Mary Harkness. A large portion of his estate was designated
for a "niece" who was said actually to be a child born out of
When looking back at Flagler's life, after Flagler's death, George W.
Perkins, of J.P. Morgan & Co., reflected, "But that any man could
have the genius to see of what this wilderness of waterless sand and
underbrush was capable and then have the nerve to build a railroad
here, is more marvelous than similar development anywhere else in the
Miami's main east-west street is named
Flagler Street and is the main
shopping street in Downtown Miami. There is also a monument to him on
Flagler Monument Island
Flagler Monument Island in
Biscayne Bay in Miami;
Flagler College and
Flagler Hospital are named after him in St. Augustine. Flagler County,
Florida, Flagler Beach,
Flagler, Colorado are also named
for him. Whitehall, Palm Beach, is open to the public as the Henry
Morrison Flagler Museum; his private railcar No. 91 is preserved
inside a Beaux Arts pavilion built to look like a 19th-century railway
On February 24, 2006, a statue of Flagler was unveiled in Key West
near the spot where the Over-Sea Railroad once terminated. Also, on
July 28, 2006, a statue of Flagler was unveiled on the southeast steps
of Miami's Dade County Courthouse, located on Miami's Flagler
The Overseas Railroad, also known as the
Key West Extension of the
Florida East Coast Railway, was heavily damaged and partially
destroyed in the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935. The railroad was
financially unable to rebuild the destroyed sections, so the roadbed
and remaining bridges were sold to the State of Florida, which built
Overseas Highway to Key West, using much of the remaining railway
Flagler's third wife, Mary Lily Kenan Flagler, was born in North
Carolina; the top-ranked
Kenan-Flagler Business School
Kenan-Flagler Business School at the
North Carolina at Chapel Hill is named for Flagler and
his wife, who was an early benefactor of UNC along with her family and
descendants. After Flagler's death, she married an old friend,
Robert Worth Bingham, who used an inheritance from her to buy the
Louisville Courier-Journal newspaper. The Bingham-Flagler marriage
(and questions about her death or possible murder) figured prominently
in several books that appeared in the 1980s, when the Bingham family
sold the newspaper in the midst of great acrimony. Control of the
Flagler fortune largely passed into the hands of Mary Lily Kenan's
family of sisters and brother, who survived into the 1960s.[citation
Florida East Coast Railway
Mary Flagler Cary
St. Augustine, Florida
Casa Monica Hotel
Casa Monica Hotel - purchased by Flagler and renamed Cordova
Ponce de León Hotel
Ponce de León Hotel - Built by Flagler
The Alcazar Hotel now the Lightner Museum
Memorial Presbyterian Church
Memorial Presbyterian Church St. Augustine, FL
Palm Beach, Florida
Royal Poinciana Hotel
Whitehall now Flagler Museum
Royal Palm Hotel (Miami)
Flagler Beach, Florida
List of railroad executives
^ Klepper (1996), p. xiii.
^ a b "Madoff scandal stuns Palm Beach Jewish community". Reuters.
December 19, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-20.
^ Martin 1949. 05.
^ Martin. 29.
^ Udo Hielscher: Historische amerikanische Aktien, p. 68 - 74,
^ Martin. p. 45.
^ Martin. p. 64.
^ Yergin, Daniel (1992). The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money
& Power. ISBN 978-1-4391-1012-6.
^ a b Segall (2001), p. 42.
^ Segall (2001), p. 43.
^ Segall (2001), p. 44.
^ Segall (2001), p. 46.
^ Segall (2001), pp. 48–49.
^ Chernow 1998, p. 171.
^ Segall (2001), p. 57.
^ Segall (2001), p. 58.
^ Chernow 1998, p. 253.
^ Chernow 1998, p. 258.
^ a b Segall (2001), p. 60.
^ a b Segall (2001), p. 61.
^ a b Chernow 1998, p. 249.
^ a b Segall (2001), p. 67.
^ Chernow 1998, p. 259.
^ Chernow 1998, p. 242.
^ Chernow 1998, p. 246.
^ Segall (2001), p. 68.
^ Rockefeller 1984, p. 48.
^ a b Segall (2001), p. 69.
^ Segall (2001), p. 89.
^ Segall (2001), p. 91.
^ Segall (2001), p. 93.
^ Segall (2001), p. 112.
^ Martin, Sidney Walter."Florida's Flagler." Georgia: University of
Georgia Press, 2010, p. 55.
^ a b Sammons, Sandra Wallus. "Henry Flagler, Builder of Florida."
Sarasota, Florida: Pineapple Press Inc, 2010, p. 4.
^ Martin, Sidney Walter. "Florida's Flagler." Georgia: University of
Georgia Press, 2010, p. 58.
^ a b Tarbell (1905), p. 376.
^ Derbyshire (2008), p. 132.
^ Derbyshire (2008), p. 129-132.
^ Martin, Sidney Walter. "Florida's Flagler." Georgia: University of
Georgia Press, 2010, p. 56.
^ Chandler (1986), p. 92-93.
^ Nolan (1984), p. 95.
^ Nolan (1984), p. 101.
^ Nolan (1984), p. 105.
^ "Henry M. Flagler American financier". Encyclopedia Britannica.
^ Eriksen, John M. Brevard County, Florida : A Short History to
1955. Chapter Eight
^ Chandler (1986), p. 168-172.
^ "Divorce Law Was For One Person". The Ledger. March 28, 2010.
Florida Statutes, Section 61.052 Dissolution of marriage
^ Chandler (1986), p. 193.
^ Chandler (1986).
^ "Whitehall Flagler Museum". Destination 360. Retrieved
^ "Henry Morrison Flagler". Everglades Digital Library. Retrieved
^ “News of Henry Flagler's death rediscovered years later;
Descendants of Marie Smith find rare copy of The Record reporting
benefactor's funeral” The St. Augustine Record, Nov. 14, 2011
^ Moffet, Samuel. Henry Morrison Flagler The Cosmopolitan; a Monthly
Illustrated Magazine (1902) APS Online
^ "Henry Morrison Flagler Museum". Fodor's. May 12, 2014.
^ "History". Kenan-Flagler Business School. Retrieved
Chandler, David Leon (1986). Henry Flagler: The Astonishing Life and
Times of the Visionary Robber Baron who Founded Florida. New York:
Macmillan Publishing Company.
Derbyshire, Wyn (2008). Six Tycoons: The lives of John Jacob Astor,
Cornelius Vanderbilt, Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, Henry Ford
and Joseph P. Kennedy. London: Spiramus Press.
ISBN 978-1-9049-0585-1. OCLC 231588563.
Klepper, Michael; Gunther, Michael (1996). The Wealthy 100: From
Benjamin Franklin to Bill Gates — A Ranking of the Richest
Americans, Past and Present. Secaucus, New Jersey: Carol Publishing
Group. ISBN 978-0-8065-1800-8. OCLC 33818143.
Martin, Sidney Walter (1998).
Henry Flagler Visionary of the Gilded
Age. Tailored Tours Publications, Buena Vista, Florida.
Martin, Sydney Walter (1949). Florida's Flagler. University of Georgia
Segall, Grant (2001-02-08). John D. Rockefeller: Anointed With Oil.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19512147-6. Retrieved
December 19, 2012.
Standiford, Les (2002). Last Train to Paradise. Crown Publishers, New
York. ISBN 0-609-60748-0.
Tarbell, Ida M. (1905). The History of the
Standard Oil Company. New
York: McClure, Phillips & Co.
Akin, Edward N. (1991). Flagler: Rockefeller Partner and Florida
Baron. University Press of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-1108-6.
Bramson, Seth H. (2002). Speedway to Sunshine: The Story of the
Florida East Coast Railway. Boston Mills Press, Erin, ONT, Canada.
ISBN 1-55046-358-6. Noted by the author as the official
history of the
Florida East Coast Railway.
Mendez, Jesus. "1892-A Year of Crucial Decisions in Florida", Florida
Historical Quarterly, Summer 2009, Vol. 88 Issue 1, pp 83–106, focus
on Flager's aggressive urban development of the city of St. Augustine,
his improvement of the local railroad networks between several Florida
communities, and negotiations regarding international government trade
policies and regulations.
Nolan, David (1984). Fifty Feet in Paradise: The Booming of Florida.
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. ISBN 978-0-1513-0748-7.
Ossman, Laurie; Ewing, Heather (2011). Carrère and Hastings, The
Masterworks. Rizzoli USA. ISBN 9780847835645.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Henry Morrison Flagler.
Henry Flagler biography
History of The Breakers Hotel
Indiana Transportation Museum exhibit of Henry Flagler's private
railroad car (
Florida East Coast No.90)
Photo of Flagler and his wife
Ohio Historical Marker 5-39[permanent dead link] located in Bellevue,
Henry Flagler at Find a Grave
The History of the
Standard Oil Company by Ida Tarbell
Railroad Bells at A History of Central
ISNI: 0000 0001 2209 5379