Henry Dearborn (February 23, 1751 – June 6, 1829) was an
American soldier and statesman. In the Revolutionary War, he served
Benedict Arnold in the expedition to Quebec, of which his
journal provides an important record. After being captured and
exchanged, he served in George Washington's Continental Army, and was
present at the British surrender at Yorktown. Dearborn served on
General Washington's staff in Virginia. He was US Secretary of War,
serving under President
Thomas Jefferson from 1801 to 1809, and served
as a commanding general in the War of 1812. In later life his
criticism of General Israel Putnam's performance at the Battle of
Bunker Hill caused a major controversy.
Fort Dearborn in Illinois and
the city of Dearborn, Michigan, were named in his honor.
2 Revolutionary War service
2.1 Revolutionary War journals
4 War of 1812
5 Later life
7 See also
10.1 Further reading
11 External links
Henry Dearborn was born February 23, 1751, to Simon Dearborn and Sarah
Marston in North Hampton, New Hampshire. He was descended from Godfrey
Exeter in England, who came to the
Colony in 1639. Godfrey Dearborn settled at Exeter, New Hampshire, and
then soon after at Hampton, where four successive generations of his
descendants lived. Henry spent much of his youth in Epping, New
Hampshire, where he attended public schools. He grew up as an athletic
boy, notably strong and a champion wrestler. He studied medicine
under Dr. Hall Jackson of Portsmouth and opened a practice on the
square in Nottingham, New Hampshire, in 1772.
Dearborn was married three times: to Mary Bartlett in 1771, to Dorcas
(Osgood) Marble in 1780, and to Sarah Bowdoin, widow of James Bowdoin,
Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn
Henry Alexander Scammell Dearborn was his son by his second
Revolutionary War service
When fighting in the
American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War began, Dearborn fought
Continental Army as a captain in the 1st and 3rd New
Hampshire Regiments and soon rose to the rank of lieutenant colonel.
He was appointed Deputy Quartermaster General in July 1781 and served
on George Washington's staff while in Virginia. At age
twenty-three, he organized and led a local militia troop of sixty men
Boston area, where he fought on June 17, 1775, at the Battle of
Bunker Hill as a captain in
Colonel John Stark's 1st New Hampshire
Regiment. During the battle, Dearborn observed that "Not an
officer or soldier of the continental troops engaged was in uniform,
but were in the plain and ordinary dress of citizens; nor was there an
officer on horseback."[a] Dearborn years later would accuse Israel
Putnam of failing his duty during that battle, resulting in what has
since been known as the Dearborn-Putnam controversy.
Dearborn volunteered to serve under
Benedict Arnold in
September 1775, during the difficult American expedition to Quebec.
Later Dearborn would record in his Revolutionary War journal their
overall situation and condition: "We were small indeed to think of
entering a place like Quebec. But being now almost out of provisions
we were sure to die if we attempted to return back and we could be in
no worse situation if we proceeded on our rout."
On the final leg of the march he was taken seriously ill with fever,
forcing him to remain behind in a cottage on the Chaudière River.
Later he rejoined the combined forces of Arnold and Gen. Richard
Montgomery in time to take part in the assault on Quebec.[b]
Dearborn's journal is an important record for that campaign. During
the march he and
Aaron Burr became companions. Along with a number
of other officers, Dearborn was captured on December 31, 1775, during
the Battle of Quebec, and detained for a year. He was released
on parole in May 1776, but he was not exchanged until March 1777.
After fighting at Ticonderoga in July 1777, Dearborn was appointed
major in the regiment commanded by Alexander Scammell.
In September 1777, Dearborn was transferred to the 1st New Hampshire
Colonel Joseph Cilley. He took part in the Saratoga
campaign against Burgoyne at Freeman's Farm. The first battle was
largely fought by troops from New Hampshire, Dearborn's home state.
New Hampshire brigade under General Poor and a detachment of
Major Dearborn, numbering about three hundred, along
with detachments of other militia, and Whitcomb's Rangers, co-operated
with Morgan in the repulse of Fraser's attack. The cautious
Horatio Gates reluctantly ordered a reconnaissance force
consisting of Daniel Morgan's Provisional Rifle Corps and Dearborn's
light infantry to scout out the
Bemis Heights area. Gates later
noted Dearborn's marked ability as a soldier and officer in his
report. Thereafter Dearborn joined General George Washington's main
Continental Army at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, as a lieutenant
colonel, where he spent the winter of 1777–1778.
Dearborn fought at the
Battle of Monmouth
Battle of Monmouth in
New Jersey in 1778,
following the British evacuation of Philadelphia to retreat to
concentrate at New York City, in the final major battle of the
Northern Theatre, and in the summer of 1779 he accompanied Major
General John Sullivan on the
Sullivan Expedition against the Iroquois
in upstate New York and in the
Battle of Wyoming
Battle of Wyoming against the Six
Nations, thereafter laying waste to the
Genesee Valley and the various
regions around the Finger Lakes.
During the winter of 1778-1779, he was encamped at what is now Putnam
Memorial State Park in Redding, Connecticut. Dearborn rejoined General
Washington's staff in 1781 as deputy quartermaster general and
commanded the 1st
New Hampshire at the Battle of Yorktown with the
rank of colonel and was present when Cornwallis surrendered in
October of that year.
In June 1783, Dearborn received his discharge from the Continental
Army and settled in Gardiner, Maine, where he became
Major General of
the Maine militia. Washington appointed him marshal of the District of
Maine. Dearborn served in the
U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives from the
District of Maine, 1793 to 1797.[c] He was an original member of
New Hampshire Society of the Cincinnati.
Revolutionary War journals
During the American Revolution Dearborn maintained six separate
journals where he recorded the various campaigns, battles and other
notable events from his point of experience. His Revolutionary War
journals of Henry Dearborn, 1775-1783, have provided historians of
early American history with valuable first-hand information from the
perspective of an officer who was engaged in the various battles and
surrounding events. His journals were first published in 1939 by the
Caxton Club of
Chicago and were edited from the original manuscripts
by historians Lloyd A. Brown and Howard Henry Peckham; the publication
includes a biographical essay of Dearborn by Hermon D. Smith. The six
journals are enumerated as follows:
Journal I. The
Journal II. The Burgoyne Campaign
Journal III. Operations in the Middle Colonies
Journal IV. Sullivan's Indian Expedition
Journal V. The Yorktown Campaign
Journal VI. Peace Negotiations
Dearborn also wrote An Account of the Battle of Bunker Hill. Various
scholars have cited the short work as being culturally important and
greatly contributing to the knowledge base of early American
Dearborn was commissioned as a brigadier general in the Massachusetts
Militia in 1787 and was promoted to major general in 1789. The same
year he was appointed as the first
U.S. Marshal for the District of
Maine under the new Constitution of 1787 by President Washington. He
represented this district as a
Democratic-Republican in the Third and
Fourth Congresses from 1793 to 1797.
Thomas Jefferson frequently consulted
Henry Dearborn on
matters of military law and management.
In 1801, third President
Thomas Jefferson appointed Dearborn Secretary
of War, a post he held for eight years until March 7, 1809. Dearborn
advised Jefferson in matters of military personnel when Jefferson was
Military Peace Establishment Act
Military Peace Establishment Act in 1800-01, which
outlined a new set of laws and limits for the military and also led to
the founding of a national military academy at West Point. In
April 1801, Dearborn asked George Baron, an Englishman who was
Dearborn's friend from Maine, to be the mathematics instructor at the
academy. Dearborn also offered the superintendency of the school to
Jonathan Williams,[d] who had translated into English some European
treatises on artillery and fortification.
During the 1801 and 1802 period, Dearborn and Jefferson corresponded
frequently, discussing various political and military matters. Notable
among them was Dearborn's report of 12 May 1801 on the War
Department, and his recommendation for "designating the boundary
line between the United States, and the adjacent British possessions,
in such manner as may prevent any disputes in future..."
During his tenure, he helped Jefferson form a policy on Native
Americans, the goal being to establish a western boundary by procuring
lands along the Mississippi River.
In 1805 while events in the
Burr conspiracy were beginning to unfold,
Aaron Burr and
Louisiana Territory governor
James Wilkinson were
allegedly planning war with Mexico, with the aim of establishing a
secessionist state in the Southwest in the process.[e] Hoping to
incite war with Spain, Wilkinson in a letter to Secretary of War
Dearborn urged him to attack Western
Spanish Florida from Baton Rouge.
Prompted by prevailing rumors of war, Deaborn ordered him to send
three companies of troops to
Fort Adams in
Western Florida as a
precaution.[f] The prospect of war in turn was used by Wilkinson to
justify sending an exploratory military expedition into the Southwest
to find a route that would be used to supply a war effort at the
U.S.-Spanish-Mexican border.[g] In May, Dearborn ordered Wilkinson
to the Orleans territory, directing his general to "repel any invasion
United States east of the Sabine River or north or west of the
bounds of what has been called West Florida..." Dearborn further
maintained that any such movements across these borders would
constitute "an actual invasion of our territorial rights". This was
the opportunity both Burr and Wilkinson were hoping for, thinking that
Spanish officials were on edge over the prospect of confrontation with
the U.S. and could easily be provoked into war. When Wilkinson,
however, had asked Dearborn to send an exploratory military expedition
into the Southwest, Dearborn replied that, "you, Burr, etc., are
becoming too intimate ... keep every suspicious person at arm's
length."[h] At this time Dearborn also warned his top general that
"your name has very frequently been mentioned with Burr's." Shortly
thereafter Burr was arrested for treason.
Dearborn was appointed collector of the port of
Boston by President
James Madison in March 1809, a position he held until January 27,
1812, when he was appointed as the Commanding General of the United
War of 1812
James Madison appointed
Henry Dearborn as Commanding General
of the Northeastern theater.
During the War of 1812, while President Madison was urging Federalists
to join in "united support" against Britain in a war they were given
little reason to cooperate in, he gave
Henry Dearborn senior command
of the northeast sector which ranged from the
Niagara River to the New
England coast. Dearborn had favor with Madison as a Revolutionary War
veteran who rose to the rank of colonel and for serving as Secretary
of War under President Jefferson, and especially for helping
Jefferson draft the Military Peace Establishment Act, which served to
remove many Federalist officers from the ranks of the military.
Subsequently, Madison's choice for commanding general of the northeast
theater was not well received by most Federalists. [i] At age 61,
however, Dearborn was now overweight, slow and insecure, and he found
it difficult to inspire confidence among the men under his command. In
March he suffered a minor injury from a fall, and it is suggested that
Dearborn took his time recovering. When the war broke out he spent
even more time in Boston, fearing, as did Vice President Elbridge
Gerry, that the Federalists were once again plotting a northeastern
secession[j] and ready to install a "Hanoverian"-like monarchy in
opposition to them.
Needing to present Congress with reports of progress, Secretary of War
William Eustis urged Dearborn to promptly embark for Albany and plan
and make preparations for an invasion of
Montreal in Canada. Dearborn
maintained, however, that he must first get to
New England and secure
the militia for defending the
New England coast, which would free up
the regular troops of the region for the coming campaign against
Canada, and before the Federalists effected an open revolt there.
After disputes with New England's several Federalist governors, who
refused to supply the militia for coastal defense, Dearborn
New England for Albany with regular troops in late
July, leaving the coast almost defenseless against British coastal
On August 9, while General
William Hull was expecting a diversionary
attack by Dearborn in the Niagara area, the latter was still at his
headquarters at Greenbush, just outside of Albany, and was having
great difficulty amassing troops for the coming offensive in Canada.
At this time
George Prévost had sent British
Edward Baynes to
negotiate a temporary armistice with Dearborn. Dearborn learned that
Lord Liverpool was giving the American government time to respond.
Lacking the means to adequately engage the British in Canada, Dearborn
was not eager for battle, welcomed the delay, and rushed news of the
armistice to Madison for approval. In the meantime Dearborn gave
orders to General Van Rensselaer to avoid any engagements along the
Niagara. The truce, however, was short-lived when on August 15 Madison
repudiated Dearborn's agreement and orders were issued to renew the
The War of 1812,
Niagara River and
Lake Ontario theaters
Dearborn prepared plans for simultaneous assaults on Montreal,
Kingston, Fort Niagara, and Amherstburg, but the execution was
imperfect. Some scholars believe that he did not move quickly enough
to provide sufficient troops to defend Detroit. Hull, without firing a
shot, surrendered the city to British General Isaac Brock.[l] Hull was
court-martialed and sentenced to death, but the sentence was commuted.
Dearborn headed the court martial.
On April 27, American forces on
Lake Ontario under Dearborn and
Isaac Chauncey gained success at the Battle of York,
occupying the town for several days and capturing many guns and
stores. Thereafter the American army was transported across the lake
in Chauncey's ships to Fort Niagara. Dearborn assembled 4,500 troops
Fort Niagara and planned to attack Fort George next, and entrusted
the attack to
Colonel Winfield Scott, but his army required rest
and reorganisation. No preparations had been made to accommodate the
troops at Fort Niagara, and they suffered considerable shortages and
privations for several days.
Although Dearborn had minor successes at the capture of York (now
Toronto) on April 27, 1813, and at the capture of Fort George on May
27, 1813, his command was, for the most part, ineffective. He was
recalled from the frontier on July 6, 1813, and reassigned to an
administrative command in New York City, and married his third
wife, Sarah Bowdoin.
Dearborn was honorably discharged from the Army on June 15, 1815.
Dearborn was elected a member of the
American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society in
1816, now the oldest historical society in the United States.
Dearborn ran for Governor of
Massachusetts in 1818 against incumbent
John Brooks. Because Dearborn was a
Democratic-Republican in a
predominantly Federalist state, he needed favorable press to help his
campaign. Subsequently, Dearborn accepted an offer from Charles Miner,
the editor of The Port Folio, a Philadelphia political magazine,
asking him to verify and edit a British soldier's map depicting the
Battle of Bunker Hill. Dearborn saw this as a chance to win public
favor and seized the opportunity. However, his efforts backfired
when he also wrote a "correct account" of the battle in the article,
which was reprinted in 1818, accusing
Israel Putnam of inaction and
cowardly leadership during the battle, which sparked a major and
long-lasting controversy among veterans of the war and various
James Madison nominated Dearborn for reappointment as
Secretary of War,[when?] but the Senate rejected the nomination, and
in the face of fierce criticism over Dearborn's performance during the
War of 1812, Madison withdrew the nomination. He was later
appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to Portugal by President James
Monroe and served from May 7, 1822, until June 30, 1824, when, by his
own request, he was recalled.
He retired to his home in Roxbury, Massachusetts, where he died five
years later. He is interred in
Forest Hills Cemetery
Forest Hills Cemetery in Jamaica Plain
Boston at the time; annexed to the city in 1874).
Lewis and Clark, appointed by Thomas Jefferson, named the Dearborn
River in west-central
Montana after Dearborn in 1803. Dearborn County,
Indiana; Dearborn, Michigan; and Dearborn, Missouri, were also named
for him, as was
Fort Dearborn in Chicago, which in turn was the
namesake for Dearborn Street, a major street in downtown Chicago.
There was also a
Fort Dearborn in Adams County, Mississippi, in the
early 1800s; see Leonard Covington.
Augusta, Maine, was so renamed after Henry's daughter, Augusta
Dearborn, in August 1797.
A U.S. military armory, initially named "Mount Dearborn", was planned
in the early 1800s to be built on an island near the confluence of the
Catawba and Wateree rivers, adjacent to Great Falls, South Carolina.
The facility was never constructed, but the island name stuck, and
after the town was founded in 1905, its main thoroughfare was named
During World War II, a coast defense fort named
Fort Dearborn was
established in Henry Dearborn's home state of New Hampshire, to guard
the approaches to Portsmouth.
General Dearborn's son, Henry A. S. Dearborn, was a U.S. congressman
representing Massachusetts' 10 District from 1831 to 1833.
American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War battles
Unsuccessful nominations to the Cabinet of the United States
^ In 1822 Dearborn wrote an anonymous plea in the
Boston Patriot to
urge the purchase of the site of the Bunker Hill battlefield, which
was currently listed for sale.
^ During the battle Montgomery was killed and Arnold seriously
^ Maine then being a part of Massachusetts.
^ A grandnephew of Benjamin Franklin;
John Adams appointed Williams a
major in the Corps of Artillerists and Engineers in February 1801.
President Jefferson appointed him the Army's Inspector of
^ Both Burr and Wilkinson, with large land holdings and other
interests in the Louisiana Territory, claimed that most Louisiana
residents, who were recently ruled by France, preferred to be separate
from the United States.
^ Present-day southern Louisiana
^ Burr and Wilkinson, with the support of General Andrew Jackson, were
earnestly promoting the idea (e.g. via newspapers) in the Southwest
that war with Spain was imminent and that he would use "Mexican
treasure" to entice the Western states along the Mississippi and Ohio
rivers into secession.
^ This is when Wilkinson realized that knowledge of his plotting with
Burr was becoming commonplace, confirming similar reports coming out
of New Orleans.
^ The Federalists viewed the war as a political plot against them,
while the Democratic-Republicans portrayed the Federalists as traitors
for their concerted efforts to oppose the war effort.
Timothy Pickering and the Federalists once attempted a northeastern
secession during Jefferson's first term.
^ No British coastal attacks occurred for the first year of the war
— presumably a favor from the British for New England's open
opposition to the war.
^ While governor, Hull's repeated requests to build a naval fleet on
Lake Erie to properly defend Detroit, Fort Mackinac, and Fort Dearborn
were ignored by Dearborn, which contributed to Hull's overall
^ a b c d e U.S. Army Center of Military History
^ a b c d U.S. Biographical Directory
^ Dearborn, Smith, 1939, p.4
^ a b c d Malone, Allan, 1930, p. 174
^ N.Y. Public library: Archives division
^ Willey, 1903, p. 161
^ Philbrick, 2013, chap.10
^ Dearborn, Peckham, 2009, p. 5
^ a b c Cray, 2001
^ Dearborn, Smith, 1939, p.50
^ Dearborn, Smith, 1939, p.19
^ a b c d e Willey, 1903, p. 162
^ Dearborn, Peckham, 2009, pp. 36-37
^ Willey, 1903, p. 9
^ Willey, 1903, p. 13
^ Proceedings of the General Society of the Cincinnati, 1784-, Volume
1 (1887), p. 98
^ Dearborn, Peckham, 2009, pp. i - vii5
^ Dearborn, 2016
Thomas Jefferson to the Senate, 25 March 1802
^ a b Henry Dearborn's Report on the War Department, 12 May 1801
^ Dearborn's 5 December 1801 letter to Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson Foundation:
Henry Dearborn (Physiognotrace)
^ a b Wheelan, 2005, p. 128
^ Stewart, 2011 pp. 148-149
^ Stewart, 2011, p. 111
^ Stewart, 2011, pp. 110-111, 209
^ McDonald, 2004, p. 115
^ Daughan, 2011, p. 28
^ a b c Taylor, 2010, pp. 180-182
^ DiLorenzo, 1998, Yankee Confederates
^ a b c Taylor, 2010, p. 182
^ Daughan, 2011, p. 95
^ Hickey, 1989 p. 84
^ Taylor, 2010, p. 217
^ Elting, 1991, p.119
^ Hickey, 1989 p. 88
^ Dictionary of American Biography, Vol. V, p.174
American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society Members Directory
^ Journal of the American Revolution
^ Purcell, 2010, pp.164-168
^ Fredriksen, 1999, p. 210
Johnson, Allen; Malone, Dumas (Eds.) (1930). Dictionary of American
Biography, Feb. 23, 1751 - Jun. 6, 1829, Vol. V. Charles Scribner's
Sons, New York. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
Dearborn, Henry; Putnam, Daniel (1818). An Account of the Battle of
Bunker's Hill. Munroe & Francis, Boston.
Biographical Directory of the
United States Congress, 1774-2005: The
Continental Congress, September 5, 1774, to October 21, 1788.
Government Printing Office. 2005.
Cray, Robert E. (2001). Bunker Hill Refought: Memory Wars and Partisan
Conflicts, 1775-1825 (PDF). Historical Journal of Massachusetts.
Dearborn, Henry; Peckham, Howard Henry (2009). Revolutionary War
Journals of Henry Dearborn, 1775-1783. Heritage Books, 282
Daughan, George C. (2011). 1812, The Navy's War. Perseus Books, New
York, 491 pages.
Elting, John R. (1991). Amateurs, to Arms! A Military History of the
War of 1812. DaCapo Press. ISBN 0-306-80653-3.
Fredriksen, John C. (1999). American Military Leaders. ABC-CLIO.
Green (2009). The Guns of Independence: The Siege of Yorktown,
Hickey, Donald R. (1989). The War of 1812, The Forgotten Conflict.
University of Illinois Press, 454 pages.
McDonald, Forrest (2004). Thomas Jefferson's Military Academy:
Founding West Point. University of
Philbrick, Nathaniel (2013). Bunker Hill: A City, A Siege, A
Revolution. Penguin Books, 416 pages.
Purcell, Sarah J. (2010). Sealed with Blood: War, Sacrifice, and
Memory in Revolutionary America. University of Pennsylvania
Press. , pages covering account
Proceedings of the General Society of the Cincinnati, 1784-1884,
Volume 1. Society of the Cincinnati, Philadelphia. 1887.
Stewart, David O. (2011). American Emperor: Aaron Burr's challenge to
Jefferson's America. Simon & Schuster, 411 pages.
Taylor, Alan (2010). The Civil War of 1812. Alfred A Knopf, New York,
Wheelan, Joseph (2005). Jefferson's Vendetta. Carroll and Graf
Publishers, New York, 344 pages.
Willey, George Franklyn (1903). State Builders: An Illustrated
Historical and Biographical Record of the State of New Hampshire.
State Builders Publishing, Manchester, NH.
"Dearborn, H.A.S. (Henry Alexander Scammell), 1783-1851". New York
Public library. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
"Dearborn's 5 December 1801 letter to Jefferson". U.S. National
Archives. 1801. Retrieved April 6, 2016.
"Henry Dearborn's Report on the War Department, [12 May 1801]". U.S.
National Archives. 1801.
Thomas Jefferson to the Senate, 25 March 1802". U.S. National
Archives. Retrieved March 23, 2016.
"DEARBORN, Henry, (1751 - 1829)". U.S. Congress. Retrieved March 26,
"Henry Dearborn". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Retrieved
March 26, 2016.
Henry Dearborn (Physiognotrace)".
Thomas Jefferson Foundation.
Retrieved March 25, 2016.
DiLorenzo, Thomas J. (1998). "Yankee Confederates". Retrieved March
"Bunker Hill Monument and Memory". Journal of the American Revolution.
Retrieved April 15, 2016.
Dale, Ronald J. (2001). The Invasion of Canada: Battles of the War of
1812. James Lorimer & Company, 96 pages.
Frothingham, Richard (1890). Battle of Bunker Hill. Little, Brown
& Company, 136 pages. — eBook
Livingston, William Farrand (1901). Israel Putnam: Pioneer, Ranger,
and Major-general, 1718-1790. G. P. Putnam's Sons. — eBook
Tarbox, Increase Niles (1876). Life of Israel Putnam. Lockwood, Brooks
& Company, Boston. — eBook
Winsor, Justin (1887). Narrative and Critical History of America,
Volume 6. Houghton, Mifflin and Company, 777 pages. — eBook
Letters from Henry Dearborn, to Washington, Adams, Jefferson, etc.
Bell, William Gardner (2005). "Henry Dearborn". Commanding Generals
and Chiefs of Staff: Portraits and Biographical Sketchs. United States
Army Center of Military History. pp. 72–73.
George LaBarre Galleries:
Henry Dearborn autographed as President,
Republican Institution Certificate dated 1821.
U.S. House of Representatives
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 4th congressional district
Served alongside: George Thatcher, Peleg Wadsworth
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Massachusetts's 12th congressional district
United States Secretary of War
Senior Officer of the
United States Army
United States Minister to Portugal
United States Secretaries of War and the Army
of the Army
of the Army
of the Army
Members of the
U.S. House of Representatives
U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts
T. D. Eliot
T. D. Eliot
J. R. Thayer
J. A. Thayer
L. Lincoln Sr.
L. Lincoln Jr.
J. Reed Sr.
J. Reed Jr.
J. M. S. Williams
C. H. Allen
J. Reed Jr.
J. Reed Jr.
T. H. Eliot
H. A. S. Dearborn
J. E. Russell
J. Reed Jr.
J. Reed Jr.
Leaders of the
United States Army
Senior Officer /
Chiefs of Staff
Vice Chiefs of Staff
Cabinet of President
Thomas Jefferson (1801–09)
Secretary of State
James Madison (1801–09)
Secretary of the Treasury
Samuel Dexter (1801)
Albert Gallatin (1801–09)
Secretary of War
Henry Dearborn (1801–09)
Levi Lincoln Sr.
Levi Lincoln Sr. (1801–04)
Robert Smith (1805)
John Breckinridge (1805–06)
Caesar A. Rodney (1807–09)
Joseph Habersham (1801)
Gideon Granger (1801–09)
Secretary of the Navy
Benjamin Stoddert (1801)
Robert Smith (1801–09)
US Congress: D000