The Info List - Henry Cabot Lodge

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Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
(May 12, 1850 – November 9, 1924) was an American Republican Congressman and historian from Massachusetts. A member of the prominent Lodge family, he received his PhD in history from Harvard University. He is best known for his positions on foreign policy, especially his battle with President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
in 1919 over the Treaty of Versailles. The failure of that treaty ensured that the United States
United States
never joined the League of Nations. Born in Beverly, Massachusetts, Lodge won election to the Massachusetts
House of Representatives after graduating from Harvard. He and his close friend, Theodore Roosevelt, opposed James G. Blaine's nomination at the 1884 Republican National Convention, but supported Blaine in the general election against Grover Cleveland. Lodge was elected to the United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
in 1886 before joining the United States Senate
United States Senate
in 1893. In the Senate, he sponsored the unsuccessful Lodge Bill, which sought to protect the voting rights of African Americans. He supported the Spanish–American War
Spanish–American War
and called for the annexation of the Philippines
after the war. He also supported immigration restrictions, becoming a member of the Immigration Restriction League and influencing the Immigration Act of 1917. Lodge served as Chairman of the 1900 and 1908 Republican National Conventions. A member of the conservative wing of the Republican Party, Lodge opposed Roosevelt's third party bid for president in 1912, but the two remained close friends. During the presidency of Woodrow Wilson, Lodge advocated entrance into World War I
World War I
on the side of the Entente Powers. He became Chairman of the Senate Republican Conference
Senate Republican Conference
and Chairman of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, emerging as the leader of the Senate Republicans. He led the opposition to Wilson's Treaty of Versailles, proposing twelve reservations to the treaty. He most strongly objected to the provision of the treaty that required all nations to repel aggression, fearing that this would erode Congressional powers and commit the U.S. to burdensome obligations. Lodge prevailed in the treaty battle and Lodge's objections would influence the United Nations, the successor to the League of Nations. After the war, Lodge participated in the creation of the Washington Naval Treaty, which sought to prevent a naval arms race. He remained in the Senate until his death in 1924.


1 Early life 2 Historian 3 Political career

3.1 Civil Rights 3.2 Spanish–American War 3.3 Immigration 3.4 World War I 3.5 League of Nations 3.6 Washington Naval Conference 3.7 Lodge-Fish Resolution

4 Legacy 5 Personal life 6 Ancestry 7 Publications 8 See also 9 Notes 10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life[edit] Lodge was born in Beverly, Massachusetts. His father was John Ellerton Lodge. His mother was Anna Cabot,[1] through whom he was a great-grandson of George Cabot. Lodge grew up on Boston's Beacon Hill and spent part of his childhood in Nahant, Massachusetts
where he witnessed the 1860 kidnapping of a classmate and gave testimony leading to the arrest and conviction of the kidnappers.[2] He was cousin to the American polymath Charles Peirce. In 1872, he graduated from Harvard College, where he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, the Porcellian Club, and the Hasty Pudding Club. In 1874, he graduated from Harvard Law School, and was admitted to the bar in 1875, practicing at the Boston
firm now known as Ropes & Gray.[3] Historian[edit] After traveling through Europe, Lodge returned to Harvard, and in 1876, became one of the first recipients of a Ph.D. in history and government from Harvard.[4] His dissertation dealt with the Germanic origins of Anglo-Saxon land law. His teacher and mentor during his graduate studies was Henry Adams; Lodge maintained a lifelong friendship with Adams.[5] Lodge was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1878.[6] In 1881, he was elected a member of the American Antiquarian Society.[7] Political career[edit] In 1880–1882, Lodge served in the Massachusetts
House of Representatives. Lodge represented his home state in the United States House of Representatives from 1887 to 1893 and in the Senate from 1893 to 1924. Along with his close friend Theodore Roosevelt, Lodge was sympathetic to the concerns of the Mugwump
faction of the Republican Party. Nonetheless, both reluctantly supported James Blaine
James Blaine
and protectionism in the 1884 election. Blaine lost narrowly.[8] Lodge was a staunch supporter of the gold standard, vehemently opposing the Populists and the silverites, who were led by the populist Democrat William Jennings Bryan in 1896. Lodge was easily reelected time and again but his greatest challenge came in his reelection bid in January 1911. The Democrats had made significant gains in Massachusetts
and the Republicans were split between the progressive and conservative wings, with Lodge trying to mollify both sides. In a major speech before the legislature voted, Lodge took pride in his long selfless service to the state. He emphasized that he had never engaged in corruption or self-dealing. He rarely campaigned on his own behalf but now he made his case, explaining his important roles in civil service reform, maintaining the gold standard, expanding the Navy, developing policies for the Philippine Islands, and trying to restrict immigration by illiterate Europeans, as well as his support for some progressive reforms. Most of all he appealed to party loyalty. Lodge was reelected by five votes.[9]

Lodge in 1901

Lodge was very close to Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
for both of their entire careers. However, Lodge was too conservative to accept Roosevelt's attacks on the judiciary in 1910, and his call for the initiative, referendum, and recall. Lodge stood silent when Roosevelt broke with the party and ran as a third-party candidate in 1912. Lodge voted for Taft instead of Roosevelt; after Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
won the election the Lodge-Roosevelt friendship resumed.[10] Civil Rights[edit] In 1890, Lodge co-authored the Federal Elections Bill, along with Sen. George Frisbie Hoar, that guaranteed federal protection for African American voting rights. Although the proposed legislation was supported by President Benjamin Harrison, the bill was blocked by filibustering Democrats in the Senate.[11] In 1891, he became a member of the Massachusetts
Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. He was assigned national membership number 4,901. That same year, following the lynching of eleven Italian Americans in New Orleans, Lodge published an article blaming the victims and proposing new restrictions on Italian immigration.[12][13] Spanish–American War[edit] Lodge was a strong backer of U.S. intervention in Cuba
in 1898, arguing that it was the moral responsibility of the United States
United States
to do so:

"Of the sympathies of the American people, generous, liberty-loving, I have no question. They are with the Cubans in their struggle for freedom. I believe our people would welcome any action on the part of the United States
United States
to put an end to the terrible state of things existing there. We can stop it. We can stop it peacefully. We can stop it, in my judgment, by pursuing a proper diplomacy and offering our good offices. Let it once be understood that we mean to stop the horrible state of things in Cuba
and it will be stopped. The great power of the United States, if it is once invoked and uplifted, is capable of greater things than that."

Following American victory in the Spanish–American War, Lodge came to represent the imperialist faction of the Senate, those who called for the annexation of the Philippines. Lodge maintained that the United States
United States
needed to have a strong navy and be more involved in foreign affairs. Immigration[edit]

Henry Cabot Lodge, 1909 in Encyclopædia Britannica

Lodge was a vocal proponent of immigration restrictions, for a number of reasons. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, large numbers of immigrants, primarily from Eastern and Southern Europe, were flooding into industrial centers. Lodge feared that unskilled foreign labor was undermining the standard of living for American workers, and that a mass influx of uneducated immigrants would result in social conflict and national decline. His position was also influenced by his beliefs about race. In a May 1891 article on Italian immigration, Lodge expressed his concern that immigration by "the races who have peopled the United States" was declining, while "the immigration of people removed from us in race and blood" was on the rise.[14] He considered northern Italians superior to southern Italians, not only because they tended to be better educated, but because they were more "Teutonic" than their southern counterparts, whose immigration he sought to restrict.[15][16] Lodge was a supporter of "100% Americanism," a common theme in the nativist movement of the era. In an address to the New England Society of Brooklyn in 1888, Lodge stated:

Let every man honor and love the land of his birth and the race from which he springs and keep their memory green. It is a pious and honorable duty. But let us have done with British-Americans and Irish-Americans and German-Americans, and so on, and all be Americans...If a man is going to be an American at all let him be so without any qualifying adjectives; and if he is going to be something else, let him drop the word American from his personal description.[17]

He did not believe, however, that all races were equally capable or worthy of being assimilated. In "The Great Peril of Unrestricted Immigration" he wrote that "you can take a Hindoo and give him the highest education the world can afford...but you cannot make him an Englishman", and cautioned against the mixing of "higher" and "lower" races:

On the moral qualities of the English-speaking race, therefore, rest our history, our victories, and all our future. There is only one way in which you can lower those qualities or weaken those characteristics, and that is by breeding them out. If a lower race mixes with a higher in sufficient numbers, history teaches us that the lower race will prevail.[18]

As the public voice of the Immigration Restriction League, Lodge argued in support of literacy tests for incoming immigrants. The tests would be designed to exclude members of those races he deemed "most alien to the body of the American people."[19] He proposed that the United States
United States
should temporarily shut out all further entries, particularly persons of low education or skill, the more efficiently to assimilate the millions who had come. From 1907 to 1911, he served on the Dillingham Commission, a joint congressional committee established to study the era's immigration patterns and make recommendations to Congress based on its findings. The Commission's recommendations led to the Immigration Act of 1917. World War I[edit] Lodge was a staunch advocate of entering World War I
World War I
on the side of the Allied Powers, attacking President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
for poor military preparedness and accusing pacifists of undermining American patriotism. After the United States
United States
entered the war, Lodge continued to attack Wilson as hopelessly idealistic, assailing Wilson's Fourteen Points as unrealistic and weak. He contended that Germany needed to be militarily and economically crushed and saddled with harsh penalties so that it could never again be a threat to the stability of Europe. However, apart from policy differences, even before the end of Wilson's first term and well before America's entry into the Great War, Lodge confided to Teddy Roosevelt, "I never expected to hate anyone in politics with the hatred I feel toward Wilson."[20] He served as chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee (1919–1924). He also served as chairman of the Senate Republican Conference from 1918 to 1924. His leadership of the Senate Republicans has led some to retrospectively call him the de facto Senate Majority Leader.[21] During his term in office, he and another powerful senator, Albert J. Beveridge, pushed for the construction of a new navy. League of Nations[edit] Main article: Lodge Reservations The summit of Lodge's Senate career came in 1919, when as the unofficial Senate majority leader, he dealt with the Treaty of Versailles. He wanted to join the League of Nations
League of Nations
with reservations. The Democrats in the Senate, following Wilson's direction, rejected Lodge's proposal to join the League with reservations. Republicans opposed joining under Wilson's terms of no reservations which meant the League could force the U.S. to enter a war without approval of Congress. In the end the U.S. never joined the League of Nations.[22] Lodge won in the long run—his reservations were incorporated into the United Nations
United Nations
in 1945, where the U.S. was given a veto.[23] Lodge's key objection to the League of Nations
League of Nations
was Article X. It required all signatory nations to repel aggression of any kind if ordered to do so by the League. Lodge rejected an open-ended commitment regardless of relevance to the national security interests of the United States. He especially insisted that Congress must approve. Lodge was also motivated by political concerns; he strongly disliked President Wilson[24] and was eager to find an issue for the Republican Party to run on in the presidential election of 1920. Senator Lodge argued for a powerful American role in world affairs:

The United States
United States
is the world's best hope, but if you fetter her in the interests and quarrels of other nations, if you tangle her in the intrigues of Europe, you will destroy her powerful good, and endanger her very existence. Leave her to march freely through the centuries to come, as in the years that have gone. Strong, generous, and confident, she has nobly served mankind. Beware how you trifle with your marvelous inheritance; this great land of ordered liberty. For if we stumble and fall, freedom and civilization everywhere will go down in ruin.[25]

Lodge appealed to the patriotism of American citizens by objecting to what he saw as the weakening of national sovereignty: "I have loved but one flag and I can not share that devotion and give affection to the mongrel banner invented for a league." The Senate was divided into a "crazy-quilt" of positions on the Versailles question.[26] It proved possible to build a majority coalition, but impossible to build a two thirds coalition that was needed to pass a treaty.[27] One block of Democrats strongly supported the Versailles Treaty. A second group of Democrats supported the Treaty but followed Wilson in opposing any amendments or reservations. The largest bloc, led by Lodge, comprised a majority of the Republicans. They wanted a Treaty with reservations, especially on Article X, which involved the power of the League of Nations
League of Nations
to make war without a vote by the United States
United States
Congress. Finally, a bi-partisan group of 13 "irreconcilables" opposed a treaty in any form. The closest the Treaty came to passage was in mid-November 1919, when Lodge and his Republicans formed a coalition with the pro-Treaty Democrats, and were close to a two-thirds majority for a Treaty with reservations, but Wilson rejected this compromise. Cooper and Bailey suggest that Wilson's stroke on September 25, 1919, had so altered his personality that he was unable to effectively negotiate with Lodge. Cooper says the psychological effects of a stroke were profound: "Wilson's emotions were unbalanced, and his judgment was warped....Worse, his denial of illness and limitations was starting to border on delusion."[28] The Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles
went into effect but the United States
United States
did not sign it, and made separate peace with Germany and Austria-Hungary. The League of Nations
League of Nations
went into operation, but the United States
United States
never joined. Historians agree that the League was ineffective in dealing with major issues, but they debate whether American membership would have made much difference.[29] In 1945 it was replaced by the United Nations, which assumed many of the League's procedures and peacekeeping functions, although Article X of the League of Nations
League of Nations
was notably absent from the UN mandate. That is, the UN was structured in accordance with Lodge's plan, with the United States
United States
having a veto power in the UN which it did not have in the old League of Nations. Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., Lodge's grandson, served as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations from 1953 to 1960. Washington Naval Conference[edit] In 1922, President Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
appointed Lodge as a delegate to the Washington Naval Conference
Washington Naval Conference
(International Conference on the Limitation of Armaments), led by Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes, and included Elihu Root
Elihu Root
and Oscar Underwood. This was the first disarmament conference in history and had a goal of world peace through arms reduction. Attended by nine nations, the United States, Japan, China, France, Great Britain, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Portugal, the conference resulted in three major treaties: Four-Power Treaty, Five-Power Treaty (more commonly known as the Washington Naval Treaty) and the Nine-Power Treaty, as well as a number of smaller agreements.[30] Lodge-Fish Resolution[edit] In June 1922, he introduced the Lodge-Fish Resolution, to illustrate American support for the British policy in Palestine per the 1917 Balfour Declaration. Legacy[edit] Historian George E. Mowry argues that:

Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
was one of the best informed statesmen of his time, he was an excellent parliamentarian, and he brought to bear on foreign questions a mind that was at once razor sharp and devoid of much of the moral cant that was so typical of the age....[Yet] Lodge never made the contributions he should have made, largely because of Lodge the person. He was opportunistic, selfish, jealous, condescending, supercilious, and could never resist calling his opponent's spade a dirty shovel. Small wonder that except for Roosevelt and Root, most of his colleagues of both parties disliked him, and many distrusted him.[31]

Lodge served on the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution for many years. His first appointment was in 1890, as a Member of the House of Representatives, and he served until his election as a senator in 1893. He was reappointed to the Board in 1905 and served until he died in 1924. The other Regents considered Lodge to be a "distinguished colleague, whose keen, constructive interest in the affairs of the Institution led him to place his broad knowledge and large experience at its service at all times."[32] Personal life[edit] In 1871, he married Anna "Nannie" Cabot Mills Davis,[33] daughter of Admiral Charles Henry Davis. They had three children:

Constance Davis Lodge (1872–1948), wife of U.S. Representative Augustus Peabody Gardner
Augustus Peabody Gardner
(from 1892 to 1918) and Brigadier General Clarence Charles Williams (from 1923 to 1948) George Cabot Lodge (1873–1909), a noted poet and politician. George's sons, Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
Henry Cabot Lodge Jr.
(1902–1985) and John Davis Lodge (1903–1985), also became politicians.[34] John Ellerton Lodge (1876–1942), an art curator.[35]

On November 5, 1924, Lodge suffered a severe stroke while recovering in the hospital from surgery for gallstones.[36] He died four days later at the age of 74.[37] He was interred in the Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.[38] Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Henry Cabot Lodge

16. John Mathew Lodge (1707–1792)

8. Mathew Francis Lodge (1737–1789)

17. Margaret Coldwell (1709–1792)

4. Giles Lodge (1770–1852)

9. Elizabeth Ellerton

2. John Ellerton Lodge (1820–1901)

5. Abigail Langton (1776–1846)

1. Henry Cabot Lodge

24. Joseph Cabot (1720–1767)

12. George Cabot, U.S. Senator from Massachusetts

25. Elizabeth Higginson (1722–1781)

6. Henry Cabot (1783–1864)

26. Stephen H. Higginson (1716–1761)

13. Elizabeth Higginson (1756–1826)

27. Elizabeth Mary Cabot (1715–1797)

3. Anna Sophia Cabot (1821–1900)

28. Joseph Blake (1739–1818)

14. John Welland Blake (1761–1818)

29. Deborah Smith (1737–1781)

7. Anna Sophia Blake (1796–1845)

15. Abigail Jones (1763–1808)


1877. Life and letters of George Cabot. Little, Brown. 1880. Ballads and Lyrics, Selected and Arranged by Henry Cabot Lodge. Houghton Mifflin (1882 reissue contains a Preface by Lodge) 1882. Alexander Hamilton. Houghton Mifflin 1883. Daniel Webster. Houghton Mifflin. 1887. Alexander Hamilton. Houghton Mifflin. 1889. George Washington. (2 volumes). Houghton Mifflin. 1891. Boston
(Historic Towns series). Longmans, Green, and Co. 1891. "Lynch Law and Unrestricted Immigration". The North American Review. 152 (414): 602–612. May 1891.  1892. Speeches. Houghton Mifflin. 1895. Hero tales from American history. With Theodore Roosevelt. Century. 1898. The story of the Revolution. (2 volumes). Charles Scribner's Sons. 1898. "The Great Peril of Unrestricted Immigration". The New Century Speaker for School and College. Ginn. 1898. pp. 177–179.  1902. A Fighting Frigate, and Other Essays and Addresses. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1906. A Frontier Town and Other Essays. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1909. Speeches and Addresses: 1884–1909. Charles Scribner's Sons.online 1909. The Best of the World's Classics, Restricted to Prose. (10 volumes). With Francis Whiting Halsey. Funk & Wagnalls. 1910. The History of Nations. H. W. Snow. 1913. Early Memories. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1915. The Democracy of the Constitution, and Other Addresses and Essays. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1919. Theodore Roosevelt. Houghton Mifflin. 1921. The Senate of the United States
United States
and other essays and addresses, historical and literary. Charles Scribner's Sons. 1925. The Senate and the League of Nations. Charles Scribner's Sons. Roosevelt, Theodore, and Henry Cabot Lodge. Selections from the Correspondence of Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
and Henry Cabot Lodge, 1884–1918 (2 vol. 1925)

See also[edit]

Nativism in the United States Lodge Committee List of United States
United States
Congress members who died in office (1900–49)


^ " Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
Photographs ca. 1860–1945: Guide to the Photograph Collection". Massachusetts
Historical Society Library. Retrieved July 28, 2011.  ^ "How Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
earned his gold watch by John Mason". Yankee Magazine. August 1965. Archived from the original on 2010-08-23.  ^ Carl M. Brauer, Ropes & Gray 1865–1992, (Boston: Thomas Todd Company, 1991.) ^ "U.S. Senate: Featured Bio Lodge". www.senate.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-30.  ^ John A. Garraty, Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
(1953) ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter L" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 14 April 2011.  ^ American Antiquarian Society
American Antiquarian Society
Members Directory ^ David M. Tucker, Mugwumps: Public Moralists of the Gilded Age (1991). ^ John A. Garraty, Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography (1953) 280-83 ^ Garraty, Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography (1953) 287-91, 323 ^ Wilson, Kirt H. (2005). "1". The Politics of Place and Presidential Rhetoric in the United States, 1875–1901. pp. 32, 33. ISBN 978-1-58544-440-3. Retrieved November 19, 2011.  ^ Leach, Eugene E. (1992). "Mental Epidemics: Crowd Psychology and American Culture, 1890–1940". American Studies. Mid-America American Studies Association. 33 (1). JSTOR 40644255.  ^ Lodge, Henry Cabot (May 1891). "Lynch Law and Unrestricted Immigration". The North American Review. 152 (414): 602–612. JSTOR 25102181.  ^ Lodge (1891), p. 611 ^ Puleo, Stephen (2007). The Boston
Italians. Boston: Beacon Press. pp. 82–83. ISBN 9780807050361.  ^ Puleo, Stephen (2010). Dark Tide: The Great Molasses Flood of 1919. Boston: Beacon Press. p. 34. ISBN 9780807096673.  ^ Lodge, Henry Cabot (1892). Speeches. Houghton Mifflin. p. 46.  ^ Lodge, Henry Cabot (1898). "The Great Peril of Unrestricted Immigration". In Frink, Henry Allyn. The New Century Speaker for School and College. Ginn. pp. 177–179.  ^ O'Connor, Thomas H. (1995). The Boston
Irish: A Political History. Back Bay Books. p. 156. ISBN 0-316-62661-9.  ^ Berg, A. Scott (2013). Wilson. New York, NY: G.P. Putnam's Sons. p. 612. ISBN 978-0-399-15921- -3.  ^ " Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
Senate Leader, Presidential Foe". United States Senate. Retrieved 19 August 2017.  ^ David Mervin, " Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
and the League of Nations." Journal of American Studies 4#2 (1971): 201-214. ^ Leo Gross, "The Charter of the United Nations
United Nations
and the Lodge Reservations." American Journal of International Law 41.3 (1947): 531-554. in JSTOR ^ Brands 2008, part 3 at 0:00. ^ Lodge 1919. ^ John Milton Cooper, Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
(2009) 507–560 ^ Thomas A. Bailey, Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
and the Great Betrayal (1945) ^ Cooper, Woodrow Wilson, 544, 557–560; Bailey calls Wilson's rejection, "The Supreme Infanticide," Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
and the Great Betrayal (1945) p. 271 ^ Edward C. Luck (1999). Mixed Messages: American Politics and International Organization, 1919–1999. Brookings Institution Press. p. 23.  ^ Raymond Leslie Buell, The Washington Conference (D. Appleton, 1922) ^ George E. Mowry, "Politicking in Acid," The Saturday Review October 3, 1953, p. 30 ^ PROCEEDINGS OF THE BOARD OF REGENTS OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION AT A SPECIAL MEETING HELD JUNE 3, 1924., Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, June 3, 1924, p. 632  ^ Zimmermann 2002, p. 157. ^ http://bioguide.congress.gov/scripts/biodisplay.pl?index=L000395 ^ Rand 1890, p. 381. ^ "Senator Lodge Suffers Shock in Hospital; Death May Come at Any Moment". The New York Times. November 6, 1924. p. 1. Retrieved November 21, 2009.  ^ "Senator Lodge Dies, Victim of Stroke, in his 75th Year". The New York Times. November 10, 1924. p. 1. Retrieved November 21, 2009.  ^ "Final Rites Said for Senator Lodge". The New York Times. November 13, 1924. p. 21. Retrieved January 31, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

Adams, Henry (1911). The Life of George Cabot
George Cabot
Lodge. Boston
and New York: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-8201-1316-6.  Bailey, Thomas A. Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
and the Great Betrayal (1945) online Brands, H. W. (March 11, 2008). Six Lessons for the Next President, Lesson 5: Leave Under a Cloud. Hauenstein Center at Grand Valley. Retrieved January 23, 2010.  Donald, Aida D. (2007). Lion in the White House: A Life of Theodore Roosevelt. Basic Books.  Garraty, John A. (1953). Henry Cabot Lodge: A Biography. Alfred A. Knopf.  the standard scholarly biography Garraty, John A. "Lodge, Henry Cabot" American National Biography Online Feb. 2000. Access: Jun 30 2014 Hewes, James E. Jr. (August 20, 1970). " Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
and the League of Nations". Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. American Philosophical Society. 114 (4): 245–255.  Lodge, Henry Cabot (August 12, 1919). Treaty of peace with Germany: Speech of Hon. Henry Cabot Lodge. United States
United States
Senate, Washington, D. C.  Rand, John Clark (1890). One of a thousand: a series of biographical sketches of one thousand representative men resident in the commonwealth of Massachusetts, A.D. 1888–'89. First National Publishing. Retrieved 20 November 2009.  Schriftgiesser, Karl (1946). The Gentleman from Massachusetts: Henry Cabot Lodge. Little, Brown and Company. , a hostile biography Thomas, Evan. The War Lovers: Roosevelt, Lodge, Hearst, and the Rush to Empire, 1898 (Hachette Digital, 2010) Widenor, William C. Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
and the search for an American foreign policy (U. of California Press, 1983) Zimmermann, Warren (2002). First Great Triumph: How Five Americans Made Their Country a World Power. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-17939-5. 

External links[edit]

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Works by Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Henry Cabot Lodge
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at Internet Archive Works by Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
at LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks) Library of Congress: "Today in History: May 12" For Intervention in Cuba

United States
United States
Congress. " Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
(id: L000393)". Biographical Directory of the United States
United States
Congress.  Henry Cabot Lodge
Henry Cabot Lodge
at Find a Grave

U.S. House of Representatives

Preceded by Henry B. Lovering Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts's 6th congressional district 1887–1893 Succeeded by William Cogswell

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Henry L. Dawes U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Massachusetts 1893–1924 Served alongside: George Hoar, Winthrop Crane, John Weeks, David Walsh Succeeded by William M. Butler

Preceded by David B. Hill Chair of the Senate Immigration Committee 1895–1899 Succeeded by Boies Penrose

Preceded by Eugene Hale Chair of the Senate Printing Committee 1897–1899 Succeeded by Thomas C. Platt

New office Chair of the Senate Philippines
Committee 1899–1911 Succeeded by Simon Guggenheim

Preceded by Augustus Octavius Bacon Chair of the Senate Private Land Claims Committee 1913–1919 Succeeded by Charles Allen Culberson

Preceded by Gilbert Hitchcock Chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee 1919–1924 Succeeded by William Borah

New office Senate Majority Leader 1920–1924 Succeeded by Charles Curtis

Political offices

Preceded by Augustus Octavius Bacon President pro tempore of the U.S. Senate 1912 Succeeded by Augustus Octavius Bacon

Party political offices

First Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Massachusetts (Class 1) 1916, 1922 Succeeded by William M. Butler

New office Senate Republican Leader 1918–1924 Succeeded by Charles Curtis

Preceded by Jacob Harold Gallinger Chair of the Senate Republican Conference 1918–1924

Preceded by Warren G. Harding Keynote Speaker of the Republican National Convention 1920 Succeeded by Theodore E. Burton

Honorary titles

Preceded by Jacob Harold Gallinger Dean of the U.S. Senate 1918–1924 Succeeded by Francis E. Warren

Awards and achievements

Preceded by William Lawrence Cover of Time January 21, 1924 Succeeded by Herbert B. Swope

v t e

Members of the U.S. House of Representatives from Massachusetts

1st district

F. Ames Dexter Goodhue Holten Sedgwick Skinner Sedgwick J. Bacon Eustis Quincy Ward Jr. Mason Gorham Webster Gorham N. Appleton Gorham A. Lawrence Fletcher A. Lawrence Winthrop N. Appleton Winthrop S. Eliot W. Appleton Scudder T. D. Eliot Hall T. D. Eliot Buffington Crapo R. Davis Randall Wright G. Lawrence Treadway Heselton Conte Olver Neal

2nd district

Goodhue Foster W. Lyman Sedgwick Ward Sr. W. Lyman Shepard J. Crowninshield Story Pickman W. Reed Pickering Silsbee Barstow B. Crowninshield Choate Phillips Saltonstall D. King Rantoul Fay Crocker Buffington O. Ames Harris Long E. Morse Gillett Churchill Bowles Kaynor Granfield Clason Furcolo Boland Neal McGovern

3rd district

Gerry Bourne Coffin Lyman Mattoon Cutler Nelson Livermore White Pickering Nelson Varnum Nelson Osgood Cushing A. Abbott Duncan Edmands Damrell C. Adams Thomas A. Rice Twichell Whiting I Pierce Field B. Dean Field Ranney L. Morse J. Andrew Walker J. R. Thayer R. Hoar C. Washburn J. A. Thayer Wilder Paige F. Foss Casey Philbin Drinan Donohue Early Blute McGovern N. Tsongas

4th district

Sedgwick Dearborn G. Thatcher Wadsworth Foster L. Lincoln Sr. Hastings Varnum W. Richardson Dana Stearns Fuller E. Everett Sa. Hoar Parmenter Thompson Palfrey Thompson Sabine Walley Comins A. Rice Hooper Frost J. Abbott L. Morse Collins O'Neil Apsley Weymouth Tirrell Mitchell Wilder Winslow Stobbs P. Holmes Donohue Drinan Frank Kennedy III

5th district

Partridge Bourne Freeman L. Williams T. Dwight Ely Mills Lathrop Sibley J. Davis L. Lincoln Jr. Hudson C. Allen W. Appleton Burlingame W. Appleton Hooper Alley Butler Gooch Banks Bowman L. Morse Hayden Banks Sh. Hoar Stevens Knox B. Ames J. Rogers E. Rogers B. Morse Cronin P. Tsongas Shannon Atkins Meehan N. Tsongas Markey Clark

6th district

G. Thatcher Leonard J. Reed Sr. J. Smith Taggart S. Allen Locke Kendall Grennell Alvord Baker Ashmun G. Davis Upham T. Davis Alley Gooch Banks Butler Thompson Loring Stone Lovering Lodge Cogswell Moody Gardner Lufkin A. Andrew G. Bates W. Bates Harrington Mavroules Torkildsen Tierney Moulton

7th district

Leonard Ward Sr. Leonard Bullock Bishop Mitchell Barker Baylies Turner Baylies Hulbert Shaw H. Dwight S. Allen Grennell Briggs J. Rockwell Goodrich Banks Gooch Boutwell Brooks Esty E. Hoar Tarbox Butler W. Russell Stone Cogswell W. Everett Barrett Roberts Phelan Maloney W. Connery L. Connery Lane Macdonald Markey Capuano

8th district

Grout G. Thatcher F. Ames Otis Eustis L. Williams Green Gardner Green J. Reed Jr. Baylies Sampson Hobart Lathrop Bates Calhoun J. Adams Mann Wentworth Knapp Train Baldwin G. Hoar J. M. S. Williams Warren Claflin Candler W Russell C. H. Allen Greenhalge Stevens McCall Deitrick Dallinger H. Thayer Dallinger Healey Goodwin Macdonald O'Neill Kennedy II Capuano Lynch

9th district

Varnum Bishop J. Dean Wheaton J. Reed Jr. Folger J. Reed Jr. H. Dwight Briggs Jackson Hastings H. Williams Hale Fowler Little De Witt E. Thayer Bailey A. Walker W. Washburn Crocker G. Hoar W. Rice T. Lyman Ely Burnett Candler G. Williams O'Neil Fitzgerald Conry Keliher Murray Roberts Fuller Underhill Luce R. Russell Luce T. H. Eliot Gifford Nicholson Keith McCormack Hicks Moakley Lynch Keating

10th district

Goodhue Sewall Read Hastings Upham J. Allen Brigham Wheaton Morton F Baylies Bailey H. A. S. Dearborn W. Baylies Borden H. Williams Borden Burnell Grinnell Scudder Dickinson Chaffee Delano Dawes Crocker Stevens Seelye Norcross W. Rice J. E. Russell J. Walker McEttrick Atwood Barrows Naphen McNary O'Connell Curley Murray Tague Fitzgerald Tague Douglass Tinkham Herter Curtis Martin Heckler Studds Delahunt Keating

11th district

Bradbury Bartlett Cutler Stedman A. Bigelow Brigham B. Adams J. Russell Hobart J. Richardson J. Adams J. Reed Jr. Burnell Goodrich Trafton Dawes Chapin Robinson Whiting II Wallace Coolidge Draper Sprague Powers Sullivan Peters Tinkham Douglass Higgins Flaherty Curley Kennedy O'Neill Burke Donnelly

12th district

H. Dearborn I. Parker Lee S. Thatcher Skinner Larned Bidwell Bacon Dewey Hulbert Strong Kendall L. Bigelow Baylies Hodges J. Adams Robinson F. Rockwell Crosby E. Morse Lovering Powers Weeks Curley Gallivan McCormack Keith Studds

13th district

Wadsworth Seaver Ruggles Dowse Eustis J. Reed Jr. Randall Simpkins Greene Weeks Mitchell Carter Luce Wigglesworth Burke

14th district

G. Thatcher Cutts C. King J. Holmes Lovering E. Foss Harris Gilmore Olney Frothingham Wigglesworth Martin

15th district

Wadsworth Ilsley Whitman Widgery Bradbury Whitman Greene Leach Martin Gifford

16th district

S. Thatcher Cook Tallman S. Davis Brown Orr Hill Thacher Walsh Gifford

17th district

Bruce Chandler Gannett F. Carr Wood J. Carr Wilson Kinsley

18th district

Wilson T. Rice J. Parker

19th district

J. Parker Conner Gage Cushman

20th district

Hubbard Parris E. Lincoln



v t e

United States
United States
Senators from Massachusetts

Class 1

Dalton Cabot Goodhue Mason Adams Lloyd Gore Ashmun Mellen Mills Webster Choate Webster Winthrop Rantoul Sumner Washburn Dawes Lodge, Sr. Butler Walsh Lodge J. Kennedy Smith E. Kennedy Kirk Brown Warren

Class 2

Strong Sedgwick Dexter Foster Pickering Varnum Otis Lloyd Silsbee Davis Bates Davis Everett Rockwell Wilson Boutwell Hoar Crane J. Weeks Walsh Gillett Coolidge Lodge S. Weeks Saltonstall Brooke Tsongas Kerry Cowan Markey

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Foreign Relations

Barbour Macon Brown Barbour R. King Barbour Macon Sanford Macon Tazewell Forsyth Wilkins Clay Buchanan Rives Archer Allen Sevier Hannegan Benton W. King Foote Mason Sumner Cameron Hamlin Eaton Burnside Edmunds Windom Miller Sherman Morgan Sherman Frye Davis Cullom Bacon Stone Hitchcock Lodge Borah Pittman George Connally Vandenberg Connally Wiley George Green Fulbright Sparkman Church Percy Lugar Pell Helms Biden Helms Biden Lugar Biden Kerry Menendez Corker

v t e

Presidents pro tempore of the United States
United States

Langdon Lee Langdon Izard H Tazewell Livermore Bingham Bradford Read Sedgwick Laurance Ross Livermore Tracy Howard Hillhouse Baldwin Bradley Brown Franklin Anderson Smith Bradley Milledge Gregg Gaillard Pope Crawford Varnum Gaillard Barbour Gaillard Macon Smith L Tazewell White Poindexter Tyler W R King Southard Mangum Sevier Atchison W R King Atchison Cass Bright Stuart Bright Mason Rusk Fitzpatrick Bright Fitzpatrick Foot Clark Foster Wade Anthony Carpenter Anthony Ferry Thurman Bayard Davis Edmunds Sherman Ingalls Manderson Harris Ransom Harris Frye Bacon/Curtis/Gallinger/Brandegee/Lodge Clarke Saulsbury Cummins Moses Pittman W H King Harrison Glass McKellar Vandenberg McKellar Bridges George Hayden Russell Ellender Eastland Magnuson Young Magnuson Thurmond Stennis Byrd Thurmond Byrd Thurmond Byrd Stevens Byrd Inouye Leahy Hatch

v t e

United States Senate
United States Senate
Majority Leaders

Lodge Curtis Watson Robinson Barkley White Lucas McFarland Taft Knowland Johnson Mansfield Byrd Baker Stevens (Acting) Baker Dole Byrd Mitchell Dole Lott Daschle Lott Daschle Frist Reid McConnell

v t e

Republican Party Leaders in the United States
United States

Lodge Curtis Watson McNary Austin McNary White Wherry Bridges Taft Knowland Dirksen Scott Baker Dole Lott Frist McConnell

v t e

Deans of the United States
United States

Gunn/Langdon Foster Brown Hillhouse Anderson Gaillard Ruggles King Benton Mangum Pearce Bayard/Foot Foot Wade Sumner Chandler Anthony Edmunds Morrill Allison Hale Frye Cullom Gallinger Lodge Warren Simmons Smoot Borah Smith McKellar George Hayden Russell Ellender Aiken Eastland/McClellan Eastland Magnuson Stennis Thurmond Byrd Inouye Leahy

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 100166801 LCCN: n79092575 ISNI: 0000 0001 0859 5334 GND: 118728687 SUDOC: 027485137 BNF: cb119514665 (data) BIBSYS: 90233565 NLA: 35310250 US Congress: L000