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Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, lawyer and Republican Party politician. Over his long career, he emerged as a leading figure in the foreign policy of the United States, serving in Republican and Democratic administrations. He served as Secretary of War (1911–1913) under William Howard Taft, Secretary of State (1929–1933) under Herbert Hoover, and Secretary of War (1940–1945) under Franklin D. Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman. The son of prominent surgeon Lewis Atterbury Stimson, Stimson became a Wall Street
Wall Street
lawyer after graduating from Harvard Law School. He served as a United States
United States
Attorney under President Theodore Roosevelt, prosecuting several antitrust cases. After being defeated in the 1910 New York gubernatorial election, Stimson served as Secretary of War under Taft. He continued the reorganization of the United States
United States
Army that had begun under his mentor, Elihu Root. After the outbreak of World War I, Stimson became part of the Preparedness Movement. He served as an artillery officer in France
France
after the U.S. entered the war. From 1927 to 1929, he served as Governor-General of the Philippines
Philippines
under President Calvin Coolidge. In 1929, President Hoover appointed Stimson as Secretary of State. Stimson sought to limit worldwide naval build-up and helped negotiate the London Naval Treaty
London Naval Treaty
to that end. He protested the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, instituting the Stimson Doctrine
Stimson Doctrine
of non-recognition of international territorial changes that were executed by force. After World War II
World War II
broke out in Europe, Stimson accepted Roosevelt's appointment to the position of Secretary of War. After the United States
United States
entered World War II, Stimson took charge of raising and training 13 million soldiers and airmen, supervised the spending of a third of the nation's GDP on the Army and the Air Forces, helped formulate military strategy, and oversaw the Manhattan Project, which built the first atomic bombs. He supported the atomic bombings of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki, which ultimately ended the war against Japan. During and after the war, Stimson strongly opposed the Morgenthau Plan, which would have de-industrialized and partitioned Germany
Germany
into several smaller states. He also insisted on judicial proceedings against Nazi
Nazi
war criminals, leading to the Nuremberg trials. Stimson retired from office in September 1945 and died in 1950.

Contents

1 Early career 2 Secretary of War (1st term) 3 World War I 4 Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Philippines 5 Secretary of State 6 Secretary of War (2nd term)

6.1 Japanese American internment 6.2 General Patton 6.3 Morgenthau Plan 6.4 Atomic bomb 6.5 Stimson's vision

7 Later years and death 8 Awards 9 Legacy 10 In popular culture 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading

13.1 Primary sources

14 External links

Early career[edit]

Young Stimson, with Mimi the cat. Portrait by Dora Wheeler Keith

Stimson as a young lawyer.

Henry Lewis Stimson was born in Manhattan, New York City, the son of Lewis Atterbury Stimson, a prominent surgeon, and his wife, the former Candace Thurber Wheeler. When he was nine in 1876 his mother died of kidney failure, after which the boy was sent to boarding school. He spent summers with his grandmother Candace Wheeler
Candace Wheeler
at her Catskills country house, playing with his nephew Dunham Wheeler, almost the same age, in "the Armory" - their nickname for one corner of a large room in the house.[1][2] Roaming the Catskills mountains he grew to love the outdoors and would become an avid sportsman.[3] He was educated at Phillips Academy
Phillips Academy
in Andover, Massachusetts, where he gained a lifelong interest in religion and a close relationship with the school and ultimately donated Woodley, his Washington DC real estate to the school in his will (the property is now the Maret School).[4] He was an honorary lifetime member of Theodore Roosevelt's Boone and Crockett Club, North America's first wildlife conservation organization.[5] He was a Phillips trustee from 1905 to 1947, serving as president of the board from 1935 to 1945.[6][7] He then attended Yale College
Yale College
where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He joined Skull and Bones, a secret society that afforded many contacts for the rest of his life.[8] He graduated in 1888 and attended Harvard Law School, graduating in 1890, and joined the prestigious Wall Street
Wall Street
law firm of Root and Clark in 1891. He became a partner in 1893. Elihu Root, a future Secretary of War and Secretary of State, became a major influence on and role model for Stimson.[9] In July 1893, Stimson married the former Mabel Wellington White, a great-great granddaughter of American founding father Roger Sherman and the sister of Elizabeth Selden Rogers. An adult case of mumps had left Stimson infertile and they had no children.[10] In 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
appointed Stimson U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York. Here, he made a distinguished record prosecuting antitrust cases. Stimson later served from 1937 to 1939 as president of the New York City
New York City
Bar Association, where a medal honoring service as a U.S. Attorney is still awarded in his honor. Stimson was defeated as Republican candidate for Governor of New York in 1910. Secretary of War (1st term)[edit] In 1911, President William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
appointed Stimson Secretary of War. He continued the reorganization of the Army begun by Elihu Root, improving its efficiency prior to its vast expansion in World War I. In 1913, following the accession of President Woodrow Wilson, Stimson left office. World War I[edit] Following the outbreak of World War I
World War I
in 1914, he was a strong supporter of Britain and France, but also supported the nation's neutrality policy. He called for preparation of a large, powerful army and was active in the privately funded Plattsburg Training Camp Movement to train potential officers. When war came in 1917 Stimson was one of eighteen officers selected by former President Theodore Roosevelt to raise a volunteer infantry division, Roosevelt's World War I volunteers, for service in France
France
in 1917. President Woodrow Wilson refused to make use of the volunteers and the unit disbanded. Stimson served the regular U.S. Army in France
France
as an artillery officer, reaching the rank of colonel in August 1918. He continued his military service in the Organized Reserve Corps, rising to the rank of brigadier general in 1922.[11] Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Philippines[edit] In 1927, Stimson was sent by President Calvin Coolidge
Calvin Coolidge
to Nicaragua
Nicaragua
to negotiate an end to the civil war taking place there. Stimson wrote that Nicaraguans "were not fitted for the responsibilities that go with independence and still less fitted for popular self-government"[12] He opposed Filipino independence for the same reason, after he had been appointed Governor-General of the Philippines, an office he held from 1927 to 1929.[13] Secretary of State[edit]

The U.S. Secretary of State
U.S. Secretary of State
Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(right) and Frank B. Kellogg, at the leaving from the State Department, (July 25, 1929).

Stimson returned to the cabinet in 1929, when President Herbert Hoover appointed him Secretary of State. Both served until 1933. Stimson lived in the Woodley Mansion
Woodley Mansion
in Washington, D.C. and lived there until 1946. In 1930-31, Stimson was the Chairman of the U.S. delegation to the London Naval Conference of 1930. In the following year, he was the Chairman of the U.S. delegation to World Disarmament Conference
World Disarmament Conference
in Geneva. That same year, the United States
United States
issued the "Stimson Doctrine" as a result of the Japanese invasion of Manchuria: the United States
United States
refused to recognize any situation or treaty that limited U.S. treaty rights or that was brought about by aggression. Returning to private life at the end of Hoover's administration, Stimson was an outspoken advocate of strong opposition to Japanese aggression. Secretary of War (2nd term)[edit]

Stimson and Colonel William H. Kyle (right) arrive at the Gatow Airport in Berlin, Germany
Germany
to attend the Potsdam Conference (July 16, 1945).

After World War II
World War II
broke out in Europe, President Franklin D. Roosevelt returned Stimson to his post at the head of the War Department. The choice of Stimson, a conservative Republican, was a calculated effort by the president to win bipartisan support for what was considered an almost inevitable US entrance into the war. Ten days before the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Stimson entered in his diary the following statement: "[Roosevelt] brought up the event that we are likely to be attacked perhaps next Monday, for the Japanese are notorious for making an attack without warning, and the question was what we should do. The question was how we should maneuver them into the position of firing the first shot without allowing too much danger to ourselves."[14] During the war, Stimson oversaw a great expansion of the military including the conscription and training of 13 million soldiers and airmen, and the purchase and transportation of 30% of the nation's industrial output to battlefields .[15] He worked closely with his top aides Robert P. Patterson
Robert P. Patterson
(who succeeded Stimson as Secretary),[16] Robert Lovett (who handled the Air Force), Harvey Bundy and John J. McCloy
John J. McCloy
(Assistant Secretary of War).[17] Stimson was 73 years old when he took the reins as Secretary of War and many critics doubted that a man of his age could tackle a job this enormous. However he defied all naysayers and plunged into the task with "an energy that men 20 years his junior could not have mustered".[this quote needs a citation] But at seventy-five, Stimson confessed he was “feeling very tired. The unconscious strain has been pretty heavy on me.” [18] Japanese American internment[edit] Stimson was initially opposed to the mass removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast, but he would eventually give in to pro-exclusion military advisers and secure Roosevelt's final approval for the incarceration program.[citation needed] The administration was split in the wake of Pearl Harbor, with Justice Department officials arguing against "evacuation" on one side and Army and War Department leaders demanding immediate relocation on the other. At this point still opposed to the idea of wholesale eviction, Stimson spent much of January 1942 fielding calls from military advisers and West Coast politicians on the potential threat of Japanese American fifth columnists. By February, John McCloy and others from the pro-exclusion camp had won him over. On February 11, Stimson and McCloy briefed the President in a phone conference; Roosevelt gave his Secretary of War the go-ahead to pursue whatever course he saw fit, and McCloy contacted Karl Bendetsen
Karl Bendetsen
to begin formulating a removal strategy immediately after. Roosevelt granted Stimson final approval to carry out the eviction of West Coast Japanese Americans on February 17, and two days later Executive Order 9066
Executive Order 9066
authorized the establishment of military zones excluding certain persons.[19] As the Western Defense Command
Western Defense Command
began circulating civilian exclusion orders, a new debate formed regarding Japanese Americans in the then-territory of Hawaii. Stimson joined other officials to push for the exclusion of all "enemy alien" Japanese from the Islands.[19] (Japanese immigrants were prohibited by law from naturalization and were therefore classified as enemy aliens regardless of their residential status.) However, Japanese Hawaiians were the largest ethnic group in the territory and the foundation of the Island's labor force; mass removal was infeasible both economically and politically, and Stimson's proposal quickly fell through.[20] Although Stimson believed it was "quite impossible" to determine the loyalty of Japanese Americans and eventually came to support the army's incarceration program, he remained unconvinced on the legality of the policy: "The second generation Japanese can only be evacuated either as part of a total evacuation, giving access to the areas only by permits, or by frankly trying to put them out on the ground that their racial characteristics are such that we cannot understand or trust even the citizen Japanese. The latter is the fact but I am afraid it will make a tremendous hole in our constitutional system."[21] Stimson authorized the release of Japanese Americans from camp in May 1944, but postponed allowing them to return to the West Coast until after the November elections to avoid controversy in Roosevelt's upcoming campaign.[19] General Patton[edit] On November 21, 1943, the news broke that General George S. Patton, commander of the U.S. Seventh Army, had slapped an enlisted man suffering from nervous exhaustion at a medical evacuation hospital in Sicily.[22] The incident caused a storm of controversy, and members of Congress called for Patton to be relieved of command. General Dwight D. Eisenhower opposed any move to recall General Patton from the European theater saying privately, "Patton is indispensable to the war effort - one of the guarantors of our victory."[23] Stimson and McCloy agreed; Stimson told the Senate that Patton would be retained because of the need for his "aggressive, winning leadership in the bitter battles which are to come before final victory".[24] Morgenthau Plan[edit] Stimson strongly opposed the Morgenthau Plan
Morgenthau Plan
to de-industrialize and partition Germany
Germany
into several smaller states.[25] The plan also envisioned the deportation and summary imprisonment of anybody suspected of responsibility for war crimes. Initially, Roosevelt had been sympathetic to this plan, but later, due to Stimson's opposition and the public outcry when the plan was leaked, the President backtracked. Stimson thus retained overall control of the U.S. occupation zone in Germany, and although the Morgenthau plan did influence the early occupation, it never became official policy. Explaining his opposition to the plan, Stimson insisted to Roosevelt that ten European countries, including Russia, depended upon Germany's export-import trade and production of raw materials and that it was inconceivable that this "gift of nature", populated by peoples of "energy, vigor, and progressiveness", should be turned into a "ghost territory" or "dust heap". What Stimson most feared, however, was that a subsistence-level economy would turn the anger of the German people against the Allies and thereby "obscure the guilt of the Nazis and the viciousness of their doctrines and their acts". Stimson pressed similar arguments on President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
in the spring of 1945.[26] Stimson, a lawyer, insisted — against the initial wishes of both Roosevelt and Churchill - on proper judicial proceedings against leading war criminals. He and the United States
United States
Department of War drafted the first proposals for an International Tribunal, and this soon received backing from the incoming President Truman. Stimson's plan eventually led to the Nuremberg Trials
Nuremberg Trials
of 1945-1946 that have had a significant impact on the development of International Law. Atomic bomb[edit]

Stimson arriving for a Truman cabinet meeting in August 1945.

As Secretary of War, Stimson took direct personal control of the entire atomic bomb project, with direct supervision over General Leslie Groves, head of the Manhattan Project. Both Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman followed Stimson's advice on every aspect of the bomb, and Stimson overruled military officers when they opposed his views.[27][28] The Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
was managed by Major General Groves (Corps of Engineers) with a staff of reservists and many thousands of civilian scientists and engineers. Nominally Groves reported directly to General George Marshall, but in fact Stimson was in charge. Stimson secured the necessary money and approval from Roosevelt and from Congress, and made sure Manhattan had the highest priorities. He controlled all planning for the use of the bomb. Stimson wanted "Little Boy" (the Hiroshima
Hiroshima
bomb) dropped within hours of its earliest possible availability — it was; Japan was to be forced to surrender and the bombing of Hiroshima
Hiroshima
August 6 would likely be a finishing blow for Tokyo.[29] Stimson would ultimately conclude that if the United States
United States
had guaranteed the Japanese that they would retain their Emperor, they might have surrendered, making the use of atomic bombs unnecessary.[30] Stimson's vision[edit] In retrospect historians debate whether the impact of continued blockade, relentless bombing, and the Russian invasion of Manchuria would have somehow forced the Emperor to surrender sometime in late 1945 or early 1946 even without the atomic bombs (though not without very large numbers of allied casualties).[31] Stimson looked beyond the immediate end of the war. He was the only top government official who tried to predict the meaning of the atomic age—he envisioned a new era in human affairs.[32] For a half century he had worked to inject order, science, and moralism into matters of law, of state, and of diplomacy.[citation needed] The impact of the atom bomb, he thought, would go far beyond military concerns to encompass diplomacy and world affairs, as well as business, economics and science. Above all, said Stimson, this "most terrible weapon ever known in human history" opened up "the opportunity to bring the world into a pattern in which the peace of the world and our civilization can be saved".[this quote needs a citation] That is, the very destructiveness of the new weaponry would shatter the ages-old belief that wars could be advantageous.[citation needed] It might now be possible to call a halt to the use of destruction as a ready solution to human conflicts.[citation needed] Indeed, society's new control over the most elemental forces of nature finally "caps the climax of the race between man's growing technical power for destructiveness and his psychological power of self-control and group control--his moral power".[33][34] In 1931, when Japan invaded Manchuria, Stimson, as Secretary of State, proclaimed the "Stimson Doctrine". It said no fruits of illegal aggression would ever be recognized by the United States. Japan ignored it. Now, according to Stimson, the wheels of justice had turned and the "peace-loving" nations (as Stimson called them) had the chance to punish Japan's misdeeds in a manner that would warn aggressor nations never again to invade their neighbors. To validate the new moral order, he believed that the atomic bomb had to be used against combatants and war workers; Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and Nagasaki
Nagasaki
both in fact contained combatant bases and major centers of war industry employing tens of thousands of civilians. The question for Stimson was not one of whether the weapon should be used or not. Involved was the simple issue of ending a horrible war, and the more subtle and more important question of the possibility of genuine peace among nations. Stimson's decision involved the fate of mankind, and he posed the problem to the world in such clear and articulate fashion that there was near unanimous agreement mankind had to find a way so that atomic weapons would never be used again to kill people.[35][36][37] Later years and death[edit] Stimson officially announced his retirement on September 21, 1945. Afterwards, he wrote his memoirs with the aid of McGeorge Bundy. On Active Service in Peace and War was published by Harper in 1948 to critical acclaim. It is often cited by historians, as are the 170,000 typed pages of candid diaries that Stimson dictated at the end of every day.[according to whom?] The diary is now in the Yale University Library; parts have been published in microfilm.[38] Two months after leaving office, in November 1945, Stimson suffered a heart attack from which he recovered.[39] In the summer of 1950, Stimson fell and broke his leg, after which he was confined to a wheelchair. On October 20, one month after his 83rd birthday, he succumbed to complications from a second heart attack.[40] Stimson died at his estate Highhold in West Hills, New York.[41] He is buried in the adjacent town of Cold Spring Harbor, in the cemetery of St. John's Church.[42][43] Awards[edit]

Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army)
Distinguished Service Medal (U.S. Army)
[44] World War I
World War I
Victory Medal American Legion
American Legion
Distinguished Service Medal [45]

Legacy[edit] Mount Stimson
Mount Stimson
in Montana's Glacier National Park is named after Stimson, who in the 1890s hiked and assisted George Bird Grinnell
George Bird Grinnell
in surveying the area and later supported creating the park. The Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
Center, a private research institute in Washington, DC, advocates what it says is Stimson's "practical, non-partisan approach" to international relations.[46] The Benjamin Franklin-class ballistic missile submarine USS Henry L. Stimson (SSBN-655) was commissioned in 1966. Stimson's name graces the Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
Middle School in Huntington Station, Long Island; a residential building on the campus of Stony Brook University; as well as a dorm at his alma mater Phillips Academy. Stimson is also commemorated by the New York City
New York City
Bar Association, where he served as President from 1937 to 1939, with the Henry L. Stimson Medal. The medal is awarded annually to outstanding Assistant U.S. Attorneys in the Southern and Eastern Districts of New York. Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
also had a middle school named after him in Huntington Station, New York named " Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
Middle School". In popular culture[edit]

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Stimson has been portrayed in nearly a dozen movies and television shows about World War II
World War II
and its aftermath, including Manhattan (2014-2015), Truman (1995), Truman at Potsdam (1995), Fat Man and Little Boy
Little Boy
(1989), Day One (1989), War and Remembrance (1988), Race for the Bomb (1987), Churchill and the Generals
Churchill and the Generals
(1981), Oppenheimer (1980), Tora! Tora! Tora!
Tora! Tora! Tora!
(1970), and The Beginning or the End
The Beginning or the End
(1947). In the alternate history short story "Truth, Justice, and the American Way" by Lawrence Watt-Evans contained in Alternate Presidents, Stimson succeeded Hoover as President in 1936, defeating Roosevelt. He once again defeated Roosevelt in 1940. See also[edit]

List of U.S. political appointments that crossed party lines

References[edit]

^ Amelia Peck and Carol Irish (2001). Candace Wheeler: The Art and Enterprise of American Design. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. p. 88. ISBN 1-58839-002-0.  ^ Wheeler, Candace, The Annals of Onteora, 1887-1914, privately printed, Erle W. Whitfield, New York (1914)( Special
Special
Collections, University of Virginia Library)(p. 24) ^ Candace Wheeler, Yesterdays in a Busy Life, Harper & Brothers: New York (1918) p. 299) ^ "Stimson Estate Goes to Phillips Academy". The Milwaukee Journal. 1938-05-15. p. 13. Retrieved 2014-02-06.  ^ " Boone and Crockett Club
Boone and Crockett Club
Archives".  ^ Henry L. Stimson: The First Wise Man. Wilmington, Delaware: Scholarly Resources Inc. 2001. p. 4. ISBN 0842026312. Retrieved 2014-02-06.  ^ " Phillips Academy
Phillips Academy
- Notable Alumni: Short List". Phillips Academy. Archived from the original on 2016-10-27. Retrieved 2014-02-06.  ^ Sean L. Malloy (2008). Atomic Tragedy: Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
and the Decision to Use the Bomb Against Japan. Cornell University Press. pp. 14–15.  ^ see Malloy, Ch. 1, "The Education of Henry L. Stimson" ^ Conant, Jennet (2002). Tuxedo Park. Simon & Schuster. p. 24. ISBN 0-684-87287-0.  ^ "Henry Lewis Stimson". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 5 January 2017.  ^ David F. Schmitz, Henry L. Stimson: the first wise man (2001) p 55. ^ David F. Schmitz, Henry L. Stimson: the first wise man (2001) p 69. ^ Richard N. Current, "How Stimson Meant to 'Maneuver' the Japanese," Mississippi Valley Historical Review Vol. 40, No. 1 (Jun., 1953), pp. 67-74 in JSTOR ^ Herman, Arthur. Freedom's Forge: How American Business Produced Victory in World War II, pp. 83-4, 90, 94, 112-15, 121, 125-6, 139, 141, Random House, New York, NY, 2012. ISBN 978-1-4000-6964-4. ^ Kieth Eiler, Mobilizing America: Robert P. Patterson
Robert P. Patterson
and the War Effort (Cornell U.P. 1997) ^ Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas, The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made: Acheson, Bohlen, Harriman, Kennan, Lovett, and McCloy (1986) ^ Nigel Hamilton, The Mantle of Command, 2014 ^ a b c Niiya, Brian. "Henry Stimson". Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 October 2014.  ^ Scheiber, Jane L.; Scheiber, Harry N. "Martial Law in Hawaii". Densho Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 October 2014.  ^ Hodgson, Godfrey. The Colonel: The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson, 1867-1950 (New York: Knopf, 1990), p 259. ^ Atkinson, Rick, The Day of Battle: The War in Sicily and Italy 1943-1944, New York: Henry Holt & Co., ISBN 978-0-8050-8861-8 (2007), p. 147. ^ Carlo D'Este, Patton: A Genius For War, New York: HarperCollins, ISBN 0-06-016455-7 (1995), p. 536 ^ D'Este, Patton: A Genius For War, p. 543 ^ Morgenthau-Plan. Retrieved 2014-07-20.  ^ Arnold A. Offner, "Research on American-German Relations: A Critical View" in Joseph McVeigh and Frank Trommler, eds. America and the Germans: An Assessment of a Three-Hundred-Year History (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1990) v2 p. 176; see also Michael R. Beschloss, The Conquerors: Roosevelt, Truman and the Destruction of Hitler's Germany, 1941-1945 (2002) ^ Sean Malloy, Atomic Tragedy: Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
and the Decision to Use the Bomb Against Japan The Manhattan Project, Department of Energy at mbe.doe.gov] ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-11. Retrieved 2011-06-20.  ^ Art, Robert J.; Waltz, Kenneth Neal (2004). The Use of Force: Military Power and International Politics. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 179.  ^ David F. Schmitz, Henry L. Stimson: the first wise man (2001) p 153. ^ for "revisionists" who reject use of the bomb, see Gar Alperovitz, The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb (1996) and Barton J. Bernstein. "Seizing the Contested Terrain of Early Nuclear History: Stimson, Conant, and Their Allies Explain the Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb," Diplomatic History 17 (Winter 1993): 35-72.  ^ Henry Stimson to Harry S. Truman, accompanied by a memorandum, September 11, 1945. Truman Papers, President's Secretary's File. Atomic Bomb. ^ Henry L. Stimson, On Active Services in Peace and War (1948) p. 636 ^ Michael Kort, The Columbia guide to Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and the bomb (2007) p. 179 ^ See Bonnett, John. "Jekyll and Hyde: Henry L. Stimson, Mentalite, and the Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb on Japan." War in History 1997 4(2): 174-212. ISSN 0968-3445 Fulltext: Ebsco ^ McGeorge Bundy, Danger and Survival: Choices about the Bomb in the First Fifty Years (1988) ^ Robert P. Newman, " Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and the Trashing of Henry Stimson" The New England Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 5-32 in JSTOR ^ "The Diaries of Henry Lewis Stimson in the Yale University
Yale University
Library". Microformguides.gale.com. 1945-09-21. Retrieved 2014-07-20.  ^ Universal Press Syndicate (Nov 13, 1945). "Stimson Recovering from Heart Attack". Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved 2014-01-23.  ^ " Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
Dies at 83 In His Home on Long Island". New York Times. October 21, 1950. Retrieved 2014-01-23.  ^ "Henry L. Stimson, 83, Dies on LI, Served Nation in Four Cabinets". Newsday. October 21, 1950. p. 2.  ^ "Memorial Cemetery, St. John's Church". Retrieved October 20, 2016.  ^ "St. John's Church Memorial Cemetery". Oldlongisland.com. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Public Papers Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
1945-1953". Trumanlibrary.org. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "Distinguished Service Medal Recipients - Page 9 - The American Legion". Legion.org. Retrieved 13 October 2017.  ^ "About Stimson The Stimson Center Pragmatic Steps for Global Security". Stimson.org. Retrieved 2013-06-10. 

Further reading[edit]

Bonnett, John. "Jekyll and Hyde: Henry L. Stimson, Mentalite, and the Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb on Japan." War in History 1997 4(2): 174-212. ISSN 0968-3445 online Ferrell, Robert H. Frank B. Kellogg; Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1963); as Secretary of State online Gerber, Larry G. "Stimson, Henry Lewis"; American National Biography Online February 2000. Gerber, Larry G. The Limits of Liberalism: Josephus Daniels, Henry Stimson, Bernard Baruch, Donald Richberg, Felix Frankfurter and the Development of the Modern American Political Economy (1983). Hodgson, Godfrey. The Colonel: The Life and Wars of Henry Stimson, 1867-1950 (1990). popular biography Jordan, Jonathan W., American Warlords: How Roosevelt's High Command Led America to Victory in World War II
World War II
(NAL/Caliber 2015). Malloy, Sean L. Atomic Tragedy: Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
and the Decision to Use the Bomb Against Japan (2008) Morison, Elting E. Turmoil and Tradition: A Study of the Life and Times of Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1960), scholarly biography Newman, Robert P. " Hiroshima
Hiroshima
and the Trashing of Henry Stimson" The New England Quarterly, Vol. 71, No. 1 (Mar., 1998), pp. 5–32 in JSTOR Schmitz, David F. Henry L. Stimson: The First Wise Man (2000)

Primary sources[edit]

Stimson, Henry and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War. (1948) (memoirs)

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Henry L. Stimson

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Henry Lewis Stimson.

Obituary, New York Times, October 21, 1950 Henry Stimson Center Annotated bibliography for Henry Stimson from the Alsos Digital Library Sherman Genealogy Including Families of Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk, England By Thomas Townsend Sherman Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
at Find a Grave verbatim copy of "Stimson Diary" entries regarding Atomic Bomb, Dec 1944 to Sept 1945 Works by Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

Party political offices

Preceded by Charles Evans Hughes Republican nominee for Governor of New York 1910 Succeeded by Job E. Hedges

Political offices

Preceded by Jacob M. Dickinson United States
United States
Secretary of War 1911–1913 Succeeded by Lindley Miller Garrison

Preceded by Leonard Wood Acting Governor-General of the Philippines 1927–1929 Succeeded by Eugene Allen Gilmore Acting

Preceded by Frank B. Kellogg United States
United States
Secretary of State 1929–1933 Succeeded by Cordell Hull

Preceded by Harry H. Woodring United States
United States
Secretary of War 1940–1945 Succeeded by Robert P. Patterson

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Department of the Army (1947–present)

Secretaries of the Army

Royall Gray Pace Stevens Brucker Stahr Vance Ailes Resor Froehlke Callaway Hoffmann C. Alexander Marsh Stone West Caldera White Harvey Geren McHugh Fanning Esper

Under Secretaries of the Army

Draper Gray Voorhees A. Alexander Bendetsen E. Johnson Slezak Finucane Milton Ailes Ignatius Resor McGiffert Beal BeLieu Staudt Augustine LaBerge Ambrose Stone Shannon Reeder Walker Rostker Dahlberg Brownlee Geren Ford Westphal Carson Murphy McCarthy

v t e

American Governors-General of the Philippines

1898–1935

Military Government (1898–1902)

Merritt Otis MacArthur Chaffee

Insular Government (1901–1935)

Taft Wright Ide Smith Forbes Gilbert Harrison Yeater Wood Gilmore Stimson Gilmore Davis Butte Roosevelt Murphy

Smallcaps indicate military governors Italics indicate acting governors

v t e

Cabinet of President William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
(1909–13)

Secretary of State

Philander C. Knox
Philander C. Knox
(1909–13)

Secretary of the Treasury

Franklin MacVeagh
Franklin MacVeagh
(1909–13)

Secretary of War

Jacob M. Dickinson
Jacob M. Dickinson
(1909–11) Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1911–13)

Attorney General

George W. Wickersham
George W. Wickersham
(1909–13)

Postmaster General

Frank H. Hitchcock (1909–13)

Secretary of the Navy

George von L. Meyer (1909–13)

Secretary of the Interior

Richard A. Ballinger
Richard A. Ballinger
(1909–11) Walter L. Fisher
Walter L. Fisher
(1911–13)

Secretary of Agriculture

James Wilson (1909–13)

Secretary of Commerce and Labor

Charles Nagel
Charles Nagel
(1909–13)

v t e

Cabinet of President Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
(1929–33)

Vice President

Charles Curtis
Charles Curtis
(1929–33)

Secretary of State

Frank B. Kellogg
Frank B. Kellogg
(1929) Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1929–33)

Secretary of the Treasury

Andrew W. Mellon
Andrew W. Mellon
(1929–32) Ogden L. Mills
Ogden L. Mills
(1932–33)

Secretary of War

James W. Good (1929) Patrick J. Hurley
Patrick J. Hurley
(1929–33)

Attorney General

William DeWitt Mitchell (1929–33)

Postmaster General

Walter F. Brown (1929–33)

Secretary of the Navy

Charles F. Adams, III (1929–33)

Secretary of the Interior

Ray Lyman Wilbur
Ray Lyman Wilbur
(1929–33)

Secretary of Agriculture

Arthur M. Hyde
Arthur M. Hyde
(1929–33)

Secretary of Commerce

Robert P. Lamont
Robert P. Lamont
(1929–32) Roy D. Chapin
Roy D. Chapin
(1932–33)

Secretary of Labor

James J. Davis
James J. Davis
(1929–30) William N. Doak
William N. Doak
(1930–33)

v t e

Cabinet of President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt
(1933–45)

Vice President

John N. Garner (1933–41) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1941–45) Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945)

Secretary of State

Cordell Hull
Cordell Hull
(1933–44) Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1944–45)

Secretary of the Treasury

William Hartman Woodin (1933–34) Henry Morgenthau Jr.
Henry Morgenthau Jr.
(1934–45)

Secretary of War

George H. Dern (1933–36) Harry H. Woodring
Harry H. Woodring
(1936–40) Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1940–45)

Attorney General

Homer S. Cummings (1933–39) Frank Murphy
Frank Murphy
(1939–40) Robert H. Jackson
Robert H. Jackson
(1940–41) Francis B. Biddle (1941–45)

Postmaster General

James A. Farley (1933–40) Frank C. Walker (1940–45)

Secretary of the Navy

Claude A. Swanson
Claude A. Swanson
(1933–39) Charles Edison
Charles Edison
(1940) Frank Knox
Frank Knox
(1940–44) James V. Forrestal (1944–45)

Secretary of the Interior

Harold L. Ickes
Harold L. Ickes
(1933–45)

Secretary of Agriculture

Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1933–40) Claude Raymond Wickard (1940–45)

Secretary of Commerce

Daniel C. Roper
Daniel C. Roper
(1933–38) Harry L. Hopkins (1938–40) Jesse H. Jones
Jesse H. Jones
(1940–45) Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1945)

Secretary of Labor

Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
(1933–45)

v t e

Cabinet of President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
(1945–53)

Vice President

None (1945–49) Alben W. Barkley
Alben W. Barkley
(1949–53)

Secretary of State

Edward R. Stettinius Jr. (1945) James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
(1945–47) George C. Marshall (1947–49) Dean G. Acheson (1949–53)

Secretary of the Treasury

Henry Morgenthau Jr.
Henry Morgenthau Jr.
(1945) Fred M. Vinson
Fred M. Vinson
(1945–46) John W. Snyder (1946–53)

Secretary of War

Henry L. Stimson
Henry L. Stimson
(1945) Robert P. Patterson
Robert P. Patterson
(1945–47) Kenneth C. Royall (1947)

Secretary of Defense

James V. Forrestal (1947–49) Louis A. Johnson
Louis A. Johnson
(1949–50) George C. Marshall (1950–51) Robert A. Lovett
Robert A. Lovett
(1951–53)

Attorney General

Francis B. Biddle (1945) Tom C. Clark
Tom C. Clark
(1945–49) J. Howard McGrath
J. Howard McGrath
(1949–52) James P. McGranery (1952–53)

Postmaster General

Frank C. Walker (1945) Robert E. Hannegan
Robert E. Hannegan
(1945–47) Jesse Monroe Donaldson (1947–53)

Secretary of the Navy

James V. Forrestal (1945–47)

Secretary of the Interior

Harold L. Ickes
Harold L. Ickes
(1945–46) Julius A. Krug (1946–49) Oscar Littleton Chapman (1949–53)

Secretary of Agriculture

Claude Raymond Wickard (1945) Clinton P. Anderson (1945–48) Charles F. Brannan
Charles F. Brannan
(1948–53)

Secretary of Commerce

Henry A. Wallace
Henry A. Wallace
(1945–46) W. Averell Harriman
W. Averell Harriman
(1946–48) Charles Sawyer (1948–53)

Secretary of Labor

Frances Perkins
Frances Perkins
(1945) Lewis B. Schwellenbach
Lewis B. Schwellenbach
(1945–48) Maurice J. Tobin
Maurice J. Tobin
(1948–53)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 61621173 LCCN: n50011364 ISNI: 0000 0001 0800 7897 GND: 11879891X SUDOC: 032601131 BNF: cb12346232d (data) NLA: 35832074 NDL: 00526

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