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The Info List - Henri, Comte De Chambord





Legitimist
Legitimist
division:

Juan, Count of Montizón
Juan, Count of Montizón
(Anjou) Prince Philippe, Count of Paris
Prince Philippe, Count of Paris
(Orléanist)

Born (1820-09-29)29 September 1820 Tuileries Palace, Paris, France

Died 24 August 1883(1883-08-24) (aged 62) Frohsdorf, Austria-Hungary

Burial Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady, Nova Gorica, Slovenia

Spouse Archduchess Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Austria-Este (m. 1846–1883); his death

Full name

Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné d'Artois

House Bourbon

Father Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry

Mother Princess Carolina of Naples and Sicily

Religion Roman Catholicism

Henri, Count of Chambord
Henri, Count of Chambord
(French: Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné d'Artois, duc de Bordeaux, comte de Chambord); 29 September 1820 – 24 August 1883)[1] was disputedly King of France
France
from 2 to 9 August 1830 as Henry V, although he was never officially proclaimed as such. Afterwards, he was the Legitimist
Legitimist
pretender to the throne of France
France
from 1844 to 1883. Henri was the posthumous son of Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, younger son of Charles X of France, by his wife, Princess Carolina of Naples and Sicily, daughter of King Francis I of the Two Sicilies. As the grandson of the King Charles X of France, Henri was a Petit-Fils de France. He also was the last legitimate descendant in the male line of Louis XV of France
France
(His grandfather Charles X was a grandson of Louis XV).

Contents

1 Early life 2 Pretender
Pretender
monarch 3 Hope 4 Defeat 5 Gallery 6 Ancestry

6.1 Patrilineal descent

7 See also 8 Footnotes 9 Further reading 10 External links

Early life[edit]

The Duchess of Berry presents her son Henri, Duke of Bordeaux, to the French court and Royal Family.

Henri was born on 29 September 1820, in the Pavillon de Marsan, a portion of the Tuileries Palace
Tuileries Palace
which still survives in the compound of the Louvre Palace
Louvre Palace
in Paris. His father, the duc de Berry, had been assassinated seven months before his birth. At the actual moment of Henri's birth, no member of the French court was present in the room; this enabled the supporters of Louis Philippe, duc d'Orléans to later spread the canard that Henri was not in fact a French prince.[citation needed] At birth, Henri was given the title of duc de Bordeaux. Because of his posthumous birth when the senior line of the House of Bourbon
House of Bourbon
appeared about to become extinct, he was given the name Dieudonné ("God-given"). Royalists called him "the miracle child". Pretender
Pretender
monarch[edit]

The young Prince Henri inspecting the royal guard at Rambouillet
Rambouillet
on 2 August 1830.[2]

France
France
Pretender
Pretender
Bronze Coin 5 Fr 1831 Henri V, Count of Chambord, 1820 Paris
Paris
- 1883 Frohsdorf, Austria. Juvenile head l. / Crowned royal arms of France.

On 2 August 1830, in response to the July Revolution, Henri's grandfather, Charles X, abdicated, and twenty minutes later Charles' elder son Louis Antoine, duc d'Angoulême, also abdicated in favor of the young duc de Bordeaux. Charles X urged his cousin Louis Philippe of Orléans, as Lieutenant général du royaume, to proclaim Henri as Henri V, King of France, but Louis Philippe ignored him. As a consequence, after seven days, a period in which legitimist monarchists considered that Henri had been the rightful monarch of France, the National Assembly decreed that the throne should pass to Louis Philippe, who was proclaimed King of the French on 9 August.[3] Henri and his family left France
France
and went into exile on 16 August 1830. While some French monarchists recognized him as their sovereign, others disputed the validity of the abdications of his grandfather and of his uncle[citation needed]. Still others recognised the July Monarchy of Louis Philippe. With the death of his 79-year-old grandfather in 1836 and of his uncle in 1844, young Henri became the genealogically senior claimant to the French throne. His supporters were called Legitimists
Legitimists
to distinguish them from the Orléanists, the supporters of the family of Louis Philippe. Henri, who preferred the courtesy title of comte de Chambord (from the château de Chambord, which had been presented to him by the Restoration government, and which was the only significant piece of personal property of which he was allowed to retain ownership upon his exile), continued his claim to the throne throughout the July Monarchy of Louis Philippe, the Second Republic, the Second Empire of Napoléon III, and the Third Republic. In November 1846, the comte de Chambord married his second cousin Archduchess Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Austria-Este, daughter of Duke Francis IV of Modena and Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy. The couple had no children.

Hope[edit]

Plaque, at the château de Chambord, of the 5 July 1871 declaration, known as déclaration du drapeau blanc, by Henri, comte de Chambord (Henri V).

The French tricolore with the royal crown and fleur-de-lys was possibly designed by the count in his younger years as a compromise[4]

In the early 1870s, as the Second Empire collapsed following its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War at the battle of Sedan on 1 September 1870, the royalists became a majority in the National Assembly. The Orléanists
Orléanists
agreed to support the aging comte de Chambord's claim to the throne, with the expectation that at his childless death he would be succeeded by their own claimant, Philippe d'Orléans, comte de Paris. Henri was then pretender for both Legitimists
Legitimists
and Orléanists, and the restoration of monarchy in France seemed a close possibility. However, Henri insisted that he would accept the crown only on condition that France
France
abandon its tricolour flag and return to the use of the white fleur de lys flag. He rejected a compromise, whereby the fleur-de-lys would be the new king's personal standard, and the tricolour would remain the national flag. Defeat[edit] A temporary Third Republic was established, to wait for Henri's death and his replacement by the more liberal Comte de Paris. But by the time this occurred in 1883, public opinion had swung behind the Republic as the form of government which, in the words of the former President Adolphe Thiers, "divides us least". Thus, Henri could be mockingly hailed by republicans such as Georges Clemenceau
Georges Clemenceau
as "the French Washington" — the one man without whom the Republic could not have been founded. Henri died on 24 August 1883 at his residence in Frohsdorf, Austria, at the age of sixty-two. He was buried in his grandfather Charles X's crypt in the church of the Franciscan Kostanjevica Monastery
Kostanjevica Monastery
in Gorizia, then Austria, now in Slovenian city of Nova Gorica. His personal property, including the château de Chambord, was left to his nephew, Robert I, Duke of Parma
Robert I, Duke of Parma
(son of Henri's late sister). Henri's death left the Legitimist
Legitimist
line of succession distinctly confused. On one hand, Henri himself had accepted that the head of the Maison de France
France
(as distinguished from the Maison de Bourbon) would be the head of the Orléans line, i.e. the Comte de Paris. This was accepted by many Legitimists, and was the default on legal grounds; the only surviving Bourbon line more senior was the Spanish branch, which had renounced its right to inherit the throne of France
France
as a condition of the Treaty of Utrecht. However, many if not most of Henri's supporters, including his widow, chose to disregard his statements and this law, arguing that no one had the right to deny to the senior direct-male-line male Bourbon to be the head of the Maison de France
France
and thus the legitimate King of France; the renunciation of the Spanish branch is under this interpretation illegitimate and therefore void. Thus these Legitimists
Legitimists
settled on Juan, Count of Montizón, the Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne (the Salic law having been suspended in Spain, the actual king, Alfonso XII, was not the senior descendant in the male line), as their claimant to the French crown. Gallery[edit]

The Duchess of Berry and her children by François Gérard, 1822

The Duchess of Berry and her son by François Gérard, 1828

Detail of portrait, c.1830

Portrait, c.1833

Ancestry[edit]

Ancestors of Henri V of France

16. Louis XV of France

8. Louis, Dauphin of France

17. Marie Leszczyńska

4. Charles X of France

18. Augustus III of Poland

9. Maria Josepha of Saxony

19. Maria Josepha of Austria

2. Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry

20. Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia

10. Victor Amadeus III of Sardinia

21. Polyxena of Hesse-Rotenburg

5. Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Savoy

22. Philip V of Spain

11. Maria Antonia Ferdinanda of Spain

23. Elisabeth Farnese

1. Henri V of France

24. Charles III of Spain

12. Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies

25. Maria Amalia of Saxony

6. Francis I of the Two Sicilies

26. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor

13. Maria Carolina of Austria

27. Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Austria

3. Marie Caroline of Naples and Sicily

28. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
(= 26)

14. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor

29. Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa
of Austria
Austria
(= 27)

7. Maria Clementina of Austria

30. Charles III of Spain
Charles III of Spain
(= 24)

15. Maria Luisa of Spain

31. Maria Amalia of Saxony
Maria Amalia of Saxony
(= 25)

Patrilineal descent[edit]

Patrilineal descent

Henri's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son. Patrilineal descent is the principle behind membership in royal houses, as it can be traced back through the generations - which means that if Henri were to choose an historically accurate house name it would be Robertian, as all his male-line ancestors have been of that house. Henri is a member of the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty and of the Robertians. Henri's patriline is the line from which he is descended father to son. It follows the Bourbon, Kings of France, and the Counts of Paris and Worms. This line can be traced back more than 1,200 years from Robert of Hesbaye to the present day, through Kings of France
France
& Navarre, Spain and Two-Sicilies, Dukes of Parma and Grand-Dukes of Luxembourg, Princes of Orléans and Emperors of Brazil. It is one of the oldest in Europe.

Robert II of Worms and Rheingau (Robert of Hesbaye), 770–807 Robert III of Worms and Rheingau, 808–834 Robert IV the Strong, 820–866 Robert I of France, 866–923 Hugh the Great, 895–956 Hugh Capet, 941–996 Robert II of France, 972–1031 Henry I of France, 1008–1060 Philip I of France, 1053–1108 Louis VI of France, 1081–1137 Louis VII of France, 1120–1180 Philip II of France, 1165–1223 Louis VIII of France, 1187–1226 Louis IX of France, 1215–1270 Robert, Count of Clermont, 1256–1317 Louis I, Duke of Bourbon, 1279–1342 James I, Count of La Marche, 1319–1362 John I, Count of La Marche, 1344–1393 Louis, Count of Vendôme, 1376–1446 Jean VIII, Count of Vendôme, 1428–1478 François, Count of Vendôme, 1470–1495 Charles de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, 1489–1537 Antoine, King of Navarre, Duke of Vendôme, 1518–1562 Henry IV, King of France
France
and of Navarre, 1553–1610 Louis XIII, King of France
France
and Navarre, 1601–1643 Louis XIV, King of France
France
and Navarre, 1638–1715 Louis, Grand Dauphin
Louis, Grand Dauphin
of France, 1661–1711 Louis, Duke of Burgundy, Petit Dauphin of France, 1682–1712 Louis XV, King of France
France
and Navarre, 1710–1774 Louis, Dauphin of France, 1729–1765 Charles X of France
Charles X of France
and Navarre, 1757–1836 Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, 1778–1820 Henri, Count of Chambord, 1820–1883

See also[edit]

List of shortest-reigning monarchs

Footnotes[edit]

^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Chambord, Henri Charles Ferdinand Marie Dieudonné, Comte de". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 822–823.  ^ Castelot, André (1988). Charles X. Paris: Perrin. p. 492. ISBN 2-262-00545-1.  ^ Price, Munro (2007). The Perilous Crown: France
France
between Revolutions. London: Macmillan. pp. 177, 181–182, 185. ISBN 978-1-4050-4082-2.  ^ Smith, Whitney (1975). Flags: Through the Ages and Across the World. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 75. ISBN 0-07-059093-1. 

Further reading[edit]

Brown, Marvin Luther. The Comte de Chambord :The Third Republic's Uncompromising King. Durham, N.C.:, Duke University Press, 1967. Delorme, Philippe. Henri, comte de Chambord, Journal (1846-1883), Carnets inédits. Paris: Guibert, 2009. "The Death of the comte de Chambord", British Medical Journal
British Medical Journal
2, no. 1186 (September 22, 1883): 600-01.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Henri d'Artois, comte de Chambord.

Works by or about Henri, Count of Chambord
Henri, Count of Chambord
at Internet Archive The Birth of the Duc de Bordeaux Obituary in The Times

Henri, Count of Chambord House of Bourbon Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty Born: 29 September 1820 Died: 24 August 1883

Regnal titles

Preceded by Louis XIX (disputed) King of France (disputed) 2 – 9 August 1830 Succeeded by Louis Philippe as King of the French

Titles in pretence

Preceded by Louis XIX — TITULAR — King of France Legitimist
Legitimist
pretender to the French throne 3 June 1844 – 24 August 1883 Reason for succession failure: July Revolution Succeeded by John III or Philip VII

v t e

House of Bourbon

Henry IV of France

Spouse(s)

Margaret of Valois Marie de' Medici

Children

Louis XIII Elisabeth, Queen of Spain Christine Marie, Duchess of Savoy Nicolas Henri, Duke of Orléans Gaston, Duke of Orléans Henriette Marie, Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland

Siblings

Henri, Duke of Beaumont (1551–1553) Louis, Count of Marle (1555–1557) Madeleine (1556) Catherine, Duchess of Lorraine

Illegitimate children

César, Duke of Vendôme Catherine Henriette, Duchess of Elbeuf Alexandre, Chevalier de Vendôme Henri, Duke of Verneuil Gabrielle Angelique, Duchess of La Valette and Epernon Antoine, Count of Moret Jeanne Baptiste, Abess of Fontevraud Marie Henriette, Abess of Chelles

Grandchildren

Anne Marie Louise, Duchess of Montpensier Marguerite Louise, Grand Duchess of Tuscany Élisabeth Marguerite, Duchess of Alençon and Angoulême Françoise Madeleine, Duchess of Savoy Princess Marie Anne Jean Gaston, Duke of Valois Louis XIV of France Philippe, Duke of Orléans

Louis XIII of France

Spouse(s)

Infanta Ana Maria Mauricia of Spain 3

Children

Louis XIV of France Philippe, Duke of Orléans

Grandchildren

Louis, Dauphin of France Princess Anne Élisabeth Princess Marie Anne Princess Marie Therèse, Madame Royale Philippe Charles, Duke of Anjou Louis François, Duke of Anjou Marie Louise, Queen of Spain Philippe Charles, Duke of Valois Anne Marie, Queen of Sardinia Alexandre Louis, Duke of Valois Philippe Charles, Duke of Orléans Élisabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Lorraine

Great grandchildren

Louis, Duke of Burgundy King Felipe of Spain Charles, Duke of Berry Louis, Duke of Orléans

Louis XIV of France

Spouse(s)

Infanta María Teresa of Spain 3 Françoise d'Aubigné, Marchioness of Maintenon

Children

Louis, Dauphin of France Princess Anne Élisabeth Princess Marie Anne Princess Marie Therèse, Madame Royale Philippe Charles, Duke of Anjou Louis François, Duke of Anjou

Illegitimate children

Marie Anne, Princess of Conti Louis, Count of Vermandois Louis Auguste, Duke of Maine Louis César, Count of Vexin Louise Françoise, Duchess of Bourbon Louise Marie Anne, Mademoiselle de Tours Françoise Marie, Duchess of Orléans Louis Alexandre, Count of Toulouse Louise, Baroness of La Queue

Grandchildren

Louis, Duke of Burgundy King Felipe V of Spain p Charles, Duke of Berry Louis Auguste, Prince of Dombes Louis Charles, Count of Eu Louise Françoise, Mademoiselle du Maine Louis Jean Marie, Duke of Penthièvre

Great grandchildren

Louis, Duke of Brittany Louis, Duke of Brittany Louis XV of France Louis I of Spain 1 Felipe of Spain 1 Felipe of Spain 1 Ferdinand VI of Spain 1 Charles III of Spain 1 Francisco of Spain 1 Mariana Víctoria, Queen of Portugal 1 Philip, Duke of Parma 1 Maria Teresa Rafaela, Dauphine of France 1 Luis, Count of Chinchón 1 Maria Antonietta, Queen of Sardinia 1 Charles, Duke of Alençon Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Alençon Louis Alexandre, Prince of Lamballe

Louis XV of France

Spouse(s)

Maria Carolina Sophia Felicity Leszczyńska

Children

Louise Élisabeth, Duchess of Parma Princess Henriette Princess Louise (1728–1733) Louis, Dauphin of France Philippe, Duke of Anjou Marie Adélaïde, Duchess of Louvois Princess Victoire Sophie, Duchess of Louvois Princess Thérèse Princess Louise (1737–1787)

Grandchildren

Princess Marie Therèse, Madame Royale Princess Marie Zéphyrine Louis, Duke of Burgundy Xavier, Duke of Aquitaine Louis XVI of France Louis XVIII of France Charles X of France Clothilde, Queen of Sardinia Princess Élisabeth

Illegitimate children included

Charles de Vintimille Agathe Louise de Saint-Antoine Philippe, Duke of Narbonne-Lara Louis, comte de Narbonne-Lara

Louis XVI of France

Spouse(s)

Archduchess Maria Antonia of Austria 2

Children

Marie Thérèse, Duchess of Angoulême Louis Joseph, Dauphin of France Louis XVII of France Princess Sophie Hélène

Louis XVII of France

Note

Louis had no children; he died aged 10 in 1795. His uncle, the future Louis XVIII of France, proclaimed himself regent but both titles were disputed.

See Bourbon Restoration.

Louis XVIII of France

Spouse(s)

Princess Marie Joséphine of Savoy

Charles X of France

Spouse(s)

Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy

Children

Louis Antoine, Duke of Angoulême Sophie, Mademoiselle Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry Marie Thérèse, Mademoiselle d'Angoulême

Grandchildren

Princess Louise Élisabeth Prince Louis Louise Marie Thérèse, Duchess of Parma Henri, Count of Chambord

Notes 1 also an Infante
Infante
or Infanta of Spain 2 also an Archduchess of Austria 3 both p Philip was the first Bourbon king of Spain, the country's present ruling house.

v t e

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Charles de Gaulle Alain Poher* Georges Pompidou Alain Poher* Valéry Giscard d'Estaing François Mitterrand Jacques Chirac Nicolas Sarkozy François Hollande Emmanuel Macron

Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. Acting heads of state are denoted by an asterisk*. Millerand held the presidency in an acting capacity before being fully elected.

v t e

Pretenders to the French throne since 1792

Monarchy in exile (1792–1815)

1792 Louis XVI 1793 Louis XVII 1795 Louis XVIII 1814 1815

Legitimist
Legitimist
pretenders (1830–present)

1830 Charles X 1836 Louis Antoine 1844 Henri 1883 Jean 1887 Charles 1909 Jacques 1931 Alphonse Charles 1936 Alphonse 1941 Jacques 1975 Alphonse 1989 Louis Alphonse present

Orléanist
Orléanist
pretenders (1848–present)

1848 Louis Philippe I 1850 Philippe 1894 Philippe 1926 Jean 1940 Henri 1999 Henri present

Unionist succession (1830–present)

1830 Charles X 1836 Louis Antoine 1844 Henri 1883 Philippe 1894 Philippe 1926 Jean 1940 Henri 1999 Henri present

Bonapartist Prince Imperial (1814–present)

1814 1815 Napoléon I 1821 Napoléon II 1832 Joseph 1844 Louis 1846 Napoléon III (Emperor 1852–1870) 1873 Napoléon 1879 Victor 1926 Louis 1997 Charles / Jean-Christophe present (disputed)

Bonapartist Prince Canino (1832–1924)

1832 Lucien 1840 Charles 1857 Joseph 1865 Lucien 1895 Napoléon Charles 1899 Roland 1924

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 49223104 LCCN: n50082122 ISNI: 0000 0001 2131 7937 GND: 120033755 SUDOC: 026776901 BNF: cb11895952g (data) NLA: 35913969 NKC: skuk0000225 SN

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