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Helwan
Helwan
(Arabic: حلوان‎ Ḥelwān, IPA: [ħelˈwæːn], Coptic: ϩⲁⲗⲟⲩⲁⲛ, translit. Halouan[1]) is a city in Egypt
Egypt
and part of Greater Cairo, on the bank of the Nile, opposite the ruins of Memphis. Originally a southern suburb of Cairo, it served as the capital of the now defunct Helwan Governorate
Helwan Governorate
from April 2008 to April 2011, after which it was re-incorporated into the Cairo Governorate. The kism of Helwan
Helwan
had a population of 643,327 in the 2006 census.[2]

Contents

1 History 2 Ecclesiastical history

2.1 Titular see

3 Administrative divisions 4 Economy 5 Climate 6 Notability 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

History[edit] The Helwan
Helwan
and Isnian cultures of the late epipaleolithic, and their Ouchata retouch methods for creating microlithic tools may have contributed to the development of the Harifian cultural assemblage of the Sinai, which may have introduced Proto-Semitic languages into the Middle East. Around 3000 to 2600 BC, there was a cemetery near Helwan
Helwan
serving the city of Memphis. The Khedivial Astronomical Observatory was built here 1903-1904, and was used to observe Halley's comet. Egypt's oldest and largest private psychiatric clinic, the Behman Hospital, was constructed here in 1939. During the early part of the 20th century, the city was the site of RAF Helwan, a major British airfield, which was later used by the Egyptian Air Force. In 1959 Helwan
Helwan
was chosen to serve as a site of a major industrial city, as part of President Gamal Abdel Nasser's attempts to industrialize Egypt. Throughout the 1960s, it developed into a massive steelworks zone, with numerous automobile factories being built. The site continues to use electricity from the Aswan Dam
Aswan Dam
and iron ore from Egypt's western deserts. Helwan
Helwan
was gradually transformed into a mass suburb of Cairo
Cairo
for the working class.[3] In April 2008, the Helwan Governorate
Helwan Governorate
was split from the Cairo Governorate. It encompassed most of the suburbs, new compounds and villages located in the southern part of Cairo. The city of Helwan became the capital of the new governorate. Following the dissolution of the Helwan Governorate
Helwan Governorate
in April 2011, the city of Helwan
Helwan
was reincorporated into the Cairo
Cairo
Governorate. Ecclesiastical history[edit] Alphocranon was important enough in the Late Roman province
Roman province
of Arcadia Aegypti to be a suffragan of its Metropolitan Archbishop of Oxyrhynchus. Its bishop, Harpocration, participated in the First Council of Nicaea in 325. The bishopric is mentioned in two Notitiae Episcopatuum.[4][5] Titular see[edit] No longer a residential diocese, Alphocranon is today listed by the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
as a Latin Catholic
Latin Catholic
titular bishopric,[6] nominally restoring the diocese since 1933, but no incumbent is recorded. Administrative divisions[edit] The now defunct Helwan Governorate
Helwan Governorate
encompassed the following cities or districts: Maadi, Helwan, 15th of May, El Shorouk, New Cairo, Madinaty. The city of Helwan
Helwan
itself includes districts such as Wadi Hof, Hadayek Helwan, and Maasara. Economy[edit]

President Gamal Abdel Nasser
Gamal Abdel Nasser
inaugurating the Al Nasr automobile factory in Helwan, 1963

Local industry includes iron, steel, textiles and cement. The area has hot sulphur springs, an astronomical observatory, the Helwan University and a burial chamber (discovered in 1946). It is the terminus of Cairo's light rail Metro Line 1. Also trams in Helwan serve the people. Climate[edit] Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
Köppen-Geiger climate classification system
classifies its climate as hot desert (BWh). Owing to its proximity to Cairo, its average monthly temperatures are quite similar, but it has a quite different distribution of humidity and its diurnal average temperature variation is slightly larger.

Climate data for Helwan

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 30.4 (86.7) 33.2 (91.8) 37.2 (99) 42.4 (108.3) 46.6 (115.9) 46.7 (116.1) 44.1 (111.4) 43.8 (110.8) 44.0 (111.2) 40.2 (104.4) 35.9 (96.6) 29.8 (85.6) 46.7 (116.1)

Average high °C (°F) 18.5 (65.3) 20.4 (68.7) 23.4 (74.1) 28.5 (83.3) 32.2 (90) 34.3 (93.7) 35.0 (95) 34.6 (94.3) 32.6 (90.7) 29.3 (84.7) 24.5 (76.1) 19.5 (67.1) 27.7 (81.9)

Daily mean °C (°F) 13.0 (55.4) 14.5 (58.1) 16.9 (62.4) 21.4 (70.5) 24.7 (76.5) 27.3 (81.1) 27.7 (81.9) 27.6 (81.7) 25.8 (78.4) 23.3 (73.9) 18.8 (65.8) 14.4 (57.9) 21.3 (70.3)

Average low °C (°F) 7.9 (46.2) 8.9 (48) 10.9 (51.6) 14.3 (57.7) 17.3 (63.1) 20.0 (68) 20.9 (69.6) 21.1 (70) 19.8 (67.6) 17.6 (63.7) 13.7 (56.7) 9.8 (49.6) 15.2 (59.4)

Record low °C (°F) −3.4 (25.9) 2.2 (36) 1.2 (34.2) 6.6 (43.9) 10.6 (51.1) 14.8 (58.6) 15.0 (59) 11.2 (52.2) 14.4 (57.9) 10.8 (51.4) 3.7 (38.7) 2.8 (37) −3.4 (25.9)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 5 (0.2) 3 (0.12) 2 (0.08) 1 (0.04) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (0.08) 5 (0.2) 18 (0.71)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 1.0 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.5 2.5

Average relative humidity (%) 62 57 54 43 41 45 52 56 56 55 58 61 53

Mean monthly sunshine hours 220.8 211.7 266.3 275.8 314.6 357.5 350.2 337.8 282.7 289.6 244.1 197.1 3,348.2

Source: NOAA[7]

Notability[edit]

This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. You can help by converting this article to prose, if appropriate. Editing help is available. (July 2017)

Sadd el-Kafara, one of the earliest prehistoric man-made dams in the world. Harold Knox-Shaw, one of the earliest astronomy specialists in Helwan Observatory. John Reynolds, one of the earliest astronomy specialists in Helwan Observatory & president of the English Royal Astronomical Society between 1935 and 1937. Operation Priha: Helwan
Helwan
was targeted in Priha-1. Tewfik Pasha
Tewfik Pasha
died in his palace at Helwan. The 6th Armoured Division (South Africa)
6th Armoured Division (South Africa)
was present at Helwan
Helwan
during WW II. The 82-BM-37
82-BM-37
is known as " Helwan
Helwan
M-69 82mm mortar". Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam Pasha lived in Helwan. Moataz Eno was born in Helwan. Cars produced at Helwan:

Nasr 128 Sahin 1.4S Sahin 1.6SL Zastava Florida
Zastava Florida
In Fiat 1100 Fiat 1300/1500 Fiat 2300 Polski Fiat 125p/FSO 125p FSO Polonez
FSO Polonez
MR'83/MR'85 FSO Polonez
FSO Polonez
MR'86/MR'87/MR'89 Fiat Ritmo Fiat Regata Fiat Tempra

The English Middle East Command Camouflage Directorate
Middle East Command Camouflage Directorate
was present in Helwan. Geoffrey Barkas
Geoffrey Barkas
designed the Operation Bertram
Operation Bertram
while heading Middle East Command Camouflage Directorate. RAF Helwan
Helwan
was a British airbase. No. 112 Squadron RAF
No. 112 Squadron RAF
was stationed at Helwan. A crater on the 951 Gaspra asteroid was named after the spa city of Helwan. Aneb-Hetch

See also[edit]

Maadi 15th of May Greater Cairo Helwan
Helwan
University Helwan
Helwan
retouch

References[edit]

^ Emile, Amélineau (1893). La géographie de l’Egypte à l'époque copte. Paris: Imprimerie nationale. p. 584.  ^ Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics, Population and Housing Census
Census
2006, Population distribution by sex, gov: Cairo Archived 2008-12-11 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2008-04-01. ^ Beattie, Andrew. (2005) Cairo: A Cultural and Literary History. Signal Books. p. 196. ISBN 9781902669779 ^ Siméon Vailhé, v. Alphocranon, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, col. 677 ^ Klaas A. Worp, A Checklist of Bishops in Byzantine Egypt
Egypt
(A.D. 325 - c. 750), in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 100 (1994) 283-318 ^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 829 ^ " Helwan
Helwan
Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 25, 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Helwan.

(in German) Helwan
Helwan
on Wikivoyage GCatholic

v t e

Districts and suburbs of Greater Cairo

Cairo
Cairo
Governorate

Abbassia Ain Shams Azbakeya Bulaq Daher El Marg Helwan

15th of May

Mokattam

City of the Dead Manshiyat Naser

Nasr City El Qobbah Rhoda Island

El Manial

El Sakkakini Shubra

Shubra El Sahel Rod El Farag

Zeitoun

Historical

Coptic Cairo Downtown Cairo Faggala Fustat Islamic Cairo El Matareya Old Cairo

Affluent

Garden City Heliopolis Maadi Zamalek

Newly planned

Badr Madinaty New Cairo

Fifth Settlement

New Heliopolis El Shorouk

Giza Governorate

Agouza Mit Okba Imbaba

Historical

Kerdasa

Affluent

Dokki Mohandessin

Newly planned

6th of October Sheikh Zayed

Qalyubia Governorate

Shubra
Shubra
El Kheima

Newly planned

Obour

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 245817151 GND: 4409012-2

Coordinates: 29°51′N 31°20′E / 29.850°N 31.333°E / 29

.