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HELSINKI (/hɛlˈsɪŋki/ ; Finnish pronunciation: ( listen ); Swedish : Helsingfors; Swedish pronunciation: ( listen )) is the capital and largest city of Finland
Finland
. It is in the region of Uusimaa
Uusimaa
, in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland
Finland
. Helsinki has a population of 629,512, an urban population of 1,231,595, and a metropolitan population of over 1.4 million, making it the most populous municipality and urban area in Finland. Helsinki
Helsinki
is located some 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Tallinn
Tallinn
, Estonia
Estonia
, 400 km (250 mi) east of Stockholm
Stockholm
, Sweden
Sweden
, and 390 km (240 mi) west of Saint Petersburg , Russia
Russia
. Helsinki
Helsinki
has close historical connections with these three cities.

The Helsinki metropolitan area includes the urban core of Helsinki, Espoo
Espoo
, Vantaa
Vantaa
, Kauniainen , and surrounding commuter towns . It is the world's northernmost metro area of over one million people, and the city is the northernmost capital of an EU member state . The Helsinki metropolitan area is the third largest metropolitan area in the Nordic countries
Nordic countries
after Stockholm
Stockholm
and Copenhagen
Copenhagen
, and the City of Helsinki
Helsinki
being the third largest after Stockholm
Stockholm
and Oslo
Oslo
. Helsinki is Finland's major political, educational, financial, cultural, and research center as well as one of northern Europe's major cities. Approximately 75% of foreign companies operating in Finland
Finland
have settled in the Helsinki
Helsinki
region. The nearby municipality of Vantaa
Vantaa
is the location of Helsinki Airport , with frequent service to various destinations in Europe
Europe
and Asia
Asia
.

In 2009, Helsinki
Helsinki
was chosen to be the World Design Capital for 2012 by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design , narrowly beating Eindhoven
Eindhoven
for the title. The city was the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
and the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest 2007
Eurovision Song Contest 2007
.

In 2011, the Monocle magazine ranked Helsinki
Helsinki
the most liveable city in the world in its "Liveable Cities Index 2011 ". In the Economist Intelligence Unit 's 2016 Liveability survey, assessing the best and worst cities to live in globally, Helsinki
Helsinki
placed in ninth place among 140 cities.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Early history * 2.2 Twentieth century

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Metropolitan area
Metropolitan area
* 3.2 Climate

* 4 Cityscape * 5 Government

* 6 Demographics
Demographics

* 6.1 Language * 6.2 Immigration

* 7 Economy

* 8 Education

* 8.1 Universities * 8.2 Universities of Applied Sciences

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Museums * 9.2 Theatres * 9.3 Music * 9.4 Art * 9.5 Media * 9.6 Sports

* 10 Transport

* 10.1 Roads * 10.2 Intercity rail * 10.3 Aviation * 10.4 Sea transport * 10.5 Urban transport

* 11 International relations

* 11.1 Special
Special
partnership cities

* 12 Notable people

* 12.1 Born before 1900 * 12.2 Born after 1900

* 13 References * 14 Bibliography * 15 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Helsinki
Helsinki
is nowadays used to refer to the city in most languages, but it is called Helsingfors in Swedish and other Scandinavian languages .

According to a theory presented in the 1630s, settlers from Hälsingland in central Sweden
Sweden
arrived to what is now known as Vantaanjoki River and called the river Helsingå ("Helsinge River"), which gave name to Helsinge village and church in the 1300s. This theory is nowadays questioned, because dialect research suggest the settlers arrived from Uppland and nearby areas. Others have proposed that the name derives from the Swedish word helsing, a former version of the word hals (neck ), referring to the narrowest part of a river, i.e. the rapids. Other Scandinavian cities located at similar geographic locations were given similar names at the time, for example Helsingør
Helsingør
and Helsingborg
Helsingborg
.

When a town was founded in Forsby village in 1548 it was named Helsinge fors, i.e. Helsinge Rapids. The name refers to the Vanhankaupunginkoski rapids at the mouth of the river. The town was commonly known as Helsinge or Helsing, from which the Finnish name Helsinki
Helsinki
developed.

The name Helsinki
Helsinki
has been used in Finnish official documents and in Finnish language
Finnish language
newspapers since 1819, when the Senate of Finland moved to Helsinki
Helsinki
from Turku
Turku
(Swedish : Åbo). The decrees issued in Helsinki
Helsinki
were dated with Helsinki
Helsinki
as the place of issue. This is how the form Helsinki
Helsinki
came to be used in written Finnish. As part of the Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
, Helsinki
Helsinki
was known as Gelsingfors in Russian.

In Helsinki slang the city is called Stadi (from the Swedish word stad, meaning "city"). Hesa (short for Helsinki), is not used by natives to the city. Helsset is the Northern Sami
Northern Sami
name of Helsinki.

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Helsinki and Timeline of Helsinki Central Helsinki
Helsinki
in 1820 before rebuilding. Illustration by Carl Ludvig Engel . Construction of Suomenlinna
Suomenlinna
began in the 18th century.

EARLY HISTORY

Historical affiliations Sweden
Sweden
1550–1713

Tsardom of Russia
Russia
1713–1721 Sweden
Sweden
1721–1742 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
1742–1743 Sweden
Sweden
1743–1808 Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
( Russian Empire
Russian Empire
) 1809–1917 Finland
Finland
1917 Finnish Socialist Workers\' Republic 1918 Finland
Finland
1918–present

Helsinki
Helsinki
was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval (today known as Tallinn
Tallinn
). Little came of the plans as Helsinki
Helsinki
remained a tiny town plagued by poverty, wars, and diseases. The plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg (In Finnish Viapori, today also Suomenlinna) in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden
Sweden
in the Finnish War and annexed Finland
Finland
as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
in 1809 that the town began to develop into a substantial city. During the war, Russians besieged the Sveaborg fortress, and about one quarter of the town was destroyed in an 1808 fire.

Russian Emperor Alexander I of Russia
Russia
moved the Finnish capital from Turku
Turku
to Helsinki
Helsinki
in 1812 to reduce Swedish influence in Finland, and to bring the capital closer to St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
. Following the Great Fire of Turku
Turku
in 1827, The Royal Academy of Turku
Turku
, at the time the country's only university, was also relocated to Helsinki, and eventually became the modern University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki
. The move consolidated the city's new role and helped set it on a path of continuous growth. This transformation is highly apparent in the downtown core, which was rebuilt in neoclassical style to resemble St. Petersburg, mostly to a plan by the German-born architect C. L. Engel . As elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city's growth.

TWENTIETH CENTURY

Despite the tumultuous nature of Finnish history during the first half of the 20th century (including the Finnish Civil War and the Winter War
Winter War
which both left marks on the city), Helsinki
Helsinki
continued its steady development. A landmark event was the 1952 Olympic Games , held in Helsinki. Finland's rapid urbanization in the 1970s, occurring late relative to the rest of Europe, tripled the population in the metropolitan area, and the Helsinki Metro subway system was built. The relatively sparse population density of Helsinki
Helsinki
and its peculiar structure have often been attributed to the lateness of its growth.

GEOGRAPHY

Parts of Helsinki
Helsinki
and Espoo
Espoo
seen from the SPOT satellite Main article: Geography of Helsinki

Called the "Daughter of the Baltic", Helsinki
Helsinki
is located on the tip of a peninsula and on 315 islands. The inner city area occupies a southern peninsula, which is rarely referred to by its actual name Vironniemi . Population density in certain parts of Helsinki's inner city area is very high, reaching 16,494 inhabitants per square kilometre (42,720/sq mi) in the district of Kallio , but as a whole Helsinki's population density of 3,050 per square kilometre (7,900/sq mi) ranks the city as quite sparsely populated in comparison to other European capital cities. Much of Helsinki
Helsinki
outside the inner city area consists of postwar suburbs separated from each other by patches of forest. A narrow, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) long Helsinki
Helsinki
Central Park , stretching from the inner city to the northern border of Helsinki, is an important recreational area for residents. The City of Helsinki has about 11,000 boat berths and possesses over 14 000 hectares of marine fishing waters adjacent to the Capital Region. Some 60 fish species are found in this area. Recreational fishing is a popular hobby among kids and adults alike.

Major islands in Helsinki
Helsinki
include Seurasaari
Seurasaari
, Vallisaari , Lauttasaari , and Korkeasaari – the lattermost being the site of the country's biggest zoo . Other noteworthy islands are the fortress island of Suomenlinna
Suomenlinna
(Sveaborg), the military island of Santahamina , and Isosaari . Pihlajasaari island is a favorite summer spot for gay men and naturists, comparable to Fire Island off New York City
New York City
.

METROPOLITAN AREA

Main article: Greater Helsinki Helsingin keskustaajama , an officially recognized urban area

The Helsinki
Helsinki
Capital Region consists of the four municipalities of Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, and Kauniainen and is considered to be the only metropolis in Finland
Finland
. It has a population of over 1,1 million, and is by far the biggest and most densely populated area of Finland
Finland
, over four times bigger than Tampere . The Capital Region spreads over a land area of 770 square kilometres (300 sq mi) and has a population density of 1,418 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,670/sq mi). With over 20 percent of the country's population in just 0.2 percent of its surface area, the housing density of the area is high by Finnish standards.

The Helsinki
Helsinki
Metropolitan Area ( Greater Helsinki ) consists of the cities of Helsinki
Helsinki
Capital Region and ten surrounding municipalities. The Metropolitan Area covers 3,697 square kilometres (1,427 sq mi) and contains a total population of over 1.4 million, or about a fourth of the total population of Finland. The Metropolitan Area has a high concentration of employment: approximately 750,000 jobs. Despite the intensity of land use, the region also has large recreational areas and green spaces. The Greater Helsinki area is the world's northernmost urban area with a population of over one million people, and the city is the northernmost capital of an EU member state.

Helsingin keskustaajama is an officially recognized urban area in Finland
Finland
, defined by its population density. The area stretches throughout 11 municipalities, and is the largest such area in Finland, with a land area of 66,931 square kilometres (25,842 sq mi) and approximately 1.2 million inhabitants.

CLIMATE

Owing to the mitigating influence of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
and North Atlantic Current (see also Extratropical cyclone
Extratropical cyclone
), temperatures in winter are higher than the northern location might suggest, with the average in January and February around −5 °C (23 °F).

Winters in Helsinki
Helsinki
are notably warmer than in the north, and the snow season is much shorter. Temperatures below −20 °C (−4 °F) occur a few times a year or less. However, because of the latitude, days last 5 hours and 48 minutes around the winter solstice with very low Sun (at noon Sun is little bit over 6 degrees in the sky), and the cloudy weather at this time of year accentuates the darkness. Conversely, Helsinki
Helsinki
enjoys long daylight in summer, during the summer solstice days last 18 hours and 57 minutes .

The average maximum temperature from June to August is around 19 to 22 °C (66 to 72 °F). Due to the marine effect, especially during hot summer days, daily temperatures are a little cooler and night temperatures are higher than further away in the mainland. The highest temperature ever recorded in the city centre was 33.1 °C (91.6 °F), on 18 July 1945, and the lowest was −34.3 °C (−30 °F), on 10 January 1987. Helsinki Airport (located in Vantaa, 17 kilometres (11 mi) north of the Helsinki
Helsinki
city centre) recorded a temperature of 34.0 °C (93.2 °F), on 29 July 2010, and a low of −35.9 °C (−33 °F), on 9 January 1987. Precipitation
Precipitation
is received from frontal passages and thunderstorms. Thunderstorms are most common in summer.

CLIMATE DATA FOR CENTRAL HELSINKI (KAISANIEMI )

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 8.5 (47.3) 11.8 (53.2) 17.1 (62.8) 21.9 (71.4) 29.6 (85.3) 32.0 (89.6) 33.1 (91.6) 31.2 (88.2) 26.2 (79.2) 19.4 (66.9) 13.8 (56.8) 10.5 (50.9) 33.1 (91.6)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −1.3 (29.7) −1.9 (28.6) 1.6 (34.9) 7.6 (45.7) 14.4 (57.9) 18.5 (65.3) 21.5 (70.7) 19.8 (67.6) 14.6 (58.3) 9.0 (48.2) 3.7 (38.7) 0.5 (32.9) 9.0 (48.2)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −3.9 (25) −4.7 (23.5) −1.3 (29.7) 3.9 (39) 10.2 (50.4) 14.6 (58.3) 17.8 (64) 16.3 (61.3) 11.5 (52.7) 6.6 (43.9) 1.6 (34.9) −2 (28) 5.9 (42.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −6.5 (20.3) −7.4 (18.7) −4.1 (24.6) 0.8 (33.4) 6.3 (43.3) 10.9 (51.6) 14.2 (57.6) 13.1 (55.6) 8.7 (47.7) 4.3 (39.7) −0.6 (30.9) −4.5 (23.9) 2.9 (37.2)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −34.3 (−29.7) −31.5 (−24.7) −24.5 (−12.1) −16.3 (2.7) −4.8 (23.4) 0.7 (33.3) 5.4 (41.7) 2.8 (37) −4.5 (23.9) −11.6 (11.1) −18.6 (−1.5) −29.5 (−21.1) −34.3 (−29.7)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 52 (2.05) 36 (1.42) 38 (1.5) 32 (1.26) 37 (1.46) 57 (2.24) 63 (2.48) 80 (3.15) 56 (2.2) 76 (2.99) 70 (2.76) 58 (2.28) 655 (25.79)

AVERAGE SNOWFALL CM (INCHES) 21 (8.3) 23 (9.1) 14 (5.5) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (1.6) 12 (4.7) 74 (29.2)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 19 17 15 11 11 14 12 15 14 16 18 20 182

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 38 70 138 194 284 297 291 238 150 93 36 29 1,858

Source: Climatological statistics for the normal period 1981–2010 (except the Records rows, which are 'all-time' records )

CLIMATE DATA FOR HELSINKI AIRPORT (VANTAA )

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 8.2 (46.8) 10.0 (50) 17.5 (63.5) 24.0 (75.2) 29.0 (84.2) 31.4 (88.5) 34.0 (93.2) 31.5 (88.7) 25.3 (77.5) 18.2 (64.8) 11.3 (52.3) 10.8 (51.4) 34 (93.2)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) −2.4 (27.7) −2.7 (27.1) 1.5 (34.7) 8.7 (47.7) 15.8 (60.4) 19.6 (67.3) 22.5 (72.5) 20.5 (68.9) 14.8 (58.6) 8.6 (47.5) 2.6 (36.7) −0.7 (30.7) 9.1 (48.4)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) −5 (23) −5.7 (21.7) −1.9 (28.6) 4.1 (39.4) 10.4 (50.7) 14.6 (58.3) 17.7 (63.9) 15.8 (60.4) 10.7 (51.3) 5.6 (42.1) 0.4 (32.7) −3.2 (26.2) 5.3 (41.5)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −8.1 (17.4) −8.9 (16) −5.4 (22.3) −0.2 (31.6) 4.8 (40.6) 9.5 (49.1) 12.6 (54.7) 11.3 (52.3) 6.9 (44.4) 2.7 (36.9) −2.1 (28.2) −6 (21) 1.4 (34.5)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −35.9 (−32.6) −30.2 (−22.4) −27.2 (−17) −12.1 (10.2) −5.4 (22.3) −0.5 (31.1) 4.0 (39.2) 2.0 (35.6) −7.3 (18.9) −14.5 (5.9) −19.9 (−3.8) −29.5 (−21.1) −35.9 (−32.6)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 54 (2.13) 37 (1.46) 37 (1.46) 32 (1.26) 39 (1.54) 61 (2.4) 66 (2.6) 79 (3.11) 64 (2.52) 82 (3.23) 73 (2.87) 58 (2.28) 682 (26.86)

AVERAGE RAINY DAYS 23 20 17 12 12 14 13 15 16 18 21 24 205

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 38 74 131 196 275 266 291 219 143 84 37 26 1,780

PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 17 28 38 43 54 52 52 48 39 30 17 15 36.1

Source: Climatological statistics for the normal period 1981–2010 (except the Records rows, which are 'all-time' records ) Sun and record temperatures 1981–2011 only, Sunshine percentages

CITYSCAPE

The view across summertime Eläintarhanlahti The Helsinki Cathedral is among the most prominent buildings in the city.

Carl Ludvig Engel , appointed to plan a new city centre all on his own, designed several neoclassical buildings in Helsinki. The focal point of Engel's city plan is the Senate Square . It is surrounded by the Government Palace (to the east), the main building of Helsinki University (to the west), and (to the north) the large Cathedral , which was finished in 1852, twelve years after Engel's death. Helsinki's epithet "The White City of the North" derives from this construction era.

Helsinki
Helsinki
is also home to numerous Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
( Jugend
Jugend
in Finnish) influenced buildings of the romantic nationalism , designed in the early 20th century and strongly influenced by The Kalevala
Kalevala
, which is a very popular theme in the national romantic art of that era. Helsinki's Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
style is also featured in large residential areas such as Katajanokka and Ullanlinna. The master of the Finnish Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
was Eliel Saarinen , whose architectural masterpiece was the Helsinki Central railway station
Helsinki Central railway station
.

Helsinki
Helsinki
also features several buildings by Finnish architect Alvar Aalto , recognized as one of the pioneers of architectural functionalism . However, some of his works, such as the headquarters of the paper company Stora Enso
Stora Enso
and the concert venue Finlandia Hall
Finlandia Hall
, have been subject to divided opinions from the citizens.

Functionalist buildings in Helsinki
Helsinki
by other architects include the Olympic Stadium , the Tennis Palace , the Rowing Stadium, the Swimming Stadium , the Velodrome, the Glass Palace , the Exhibition Hall (now Töölö Sports Hall), and Helsinki-Malmi Airport . The sports venues were built to serve the 1940 Helsinki
Helsinki
Olympic Games; the games were initially cancelled due to the Second World War
Second World War
, but the venues eventually got to fulfill their purpose in the 1952 Olympic Games . Many of them are listed by DoCoMoMo as significant examples of modern architecture. The Olympic Stadium and Helsinki-Malmi Airport are in addition catalogued by the Finnish National Board of Antiquities as cultural-historical environments of national significance.

Helsinki's neoclassical buildings were often used as a backdrop for scenes set to take place in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in many Cold War
Cold War
era Hollywood movies, when filming in the USSR was not possible. Some of them include The Kremlin Letter (1970), Reds (1981), and Gorky Park (1983). Because some streetscapes were reminiscent of Leningrad
Leningrad
's and Moscow
Moscow
's old buildings, they too were used in movie productions. At the same time the government secretly instructed Finnish officials not to extend assistance to such film projects.

In the 21st century Helsinki
Helsinki
has decided to allow the construction of skyscrapers . As of April 2017 there are no skyscrapers taller than 100 meters in the Helsinki
Helsinki
area, but there are several projects under construction or planning, mainly in Pasila and Kalasatama . An international architecture competition for at least 10 high-rises to be built in Pasila is being held. Construction of the towers is planned to start before 2020. In Kalasatama, the first 35-story (130 m) and 32-story (122 m) residential towers are already under construction. Later they will be joined by a 37-story (140 metres), two 32-story (122 metres, 400 feet), 31-story (120 metres), and 27-story (100 metres) residential buildings. In the Kalasatama area, there will be about 15 high-rises within 10 years. A panoramic view over the southernmost districts of Helsinki
Helsinki
from Hotel Torni . The Helsinki Old Church and its surrounding park are seen in the foreground, while the towers of St. John\'s Church (near center) and Mikael Agricola Church (right) can be seen in the middle distance, backdropped by the Gulf of Finland
Finland
.

GOVERNMENT

Main article: Politics of Helsinki The Helsinki
Helsinki
City Hall houses the City Council of Helsinki

As in all Finnish municipalities , the city council is the main decision-making organ in local politics, dealing with issues such as city planning , schools, health care, and public transport . The council is elected every four years.

The City Council of Helsinki consists of eighty-five members. Following the most recent municipal elections, in 2012, the three largest parties are the National Coalition Party (23), the Greens (19), and the Social Democrats (15). The Mayor, Jussi Pajunen, is a member of the National Coalition Party.

Traditionally, the conservative National Coalition Party (Kokoomus) has been the biggest party on Helsinki
Helsinki
City Council, with the Social Democrats being the second biggest. In 2000 the Greens, for which Helsinki
Helsinki
is the strongest area of support nationally, gained the position of second most popular party in the city, in 2004 the Social Democrats regained that position, and since 2008 the Greens have again been the second biggest party.

The Left Alliance is the fourth largest party, while the True Finns have increased their support steadily to become the fifth largest party. Support for the Swedish People\'s Party has been steadily declining over the years, most likely because of the diminishing proportion of Swedish speakers in Helsinki. The Centre Party of Finland
Finland
, despite being one of the major parties in national politics, has little support in Helsinki, as is the case in most big cities.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Helsinki
Helsinki
has a higher proportion of women (53.4%) than elsewhere in Finland
Finland
(51.1%). Helsinki's current population density of 2,739.36 people per square kilometre is by far the highest in Finland. Life expectancy for both genders is slightly below the national averages: 75.1 years for men as compared to 75.7 years, 81.7 years for women as compared to 82.5 years.

Helsinki
Helsinki
has experienced strong growth since the 1810s, when it replaced Turku
Turku
as the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland
Finland
, which later became the sovereign Republic of Finland
Finland
. The city continued to show strong growth from that time onward, with the exception during the Finnish Civil War period. From the end of World War II
World War II
up until the 1970s there was a massive exodus of people from the countryside to the cities of Finland, in particular Helsinki. Between 1944 and 1969 the population of the city nearly doubled from 275,000 to 525,600.

In the 1960s, the population growth of Helsinki
Helsinki
proper began to decrease mainly due to lack of housing. Many residents began to move to neighbouring Espoo
Espoo
and Vantaa, where population growth has since soared. Espoo's population increased ninefold in sixty years, from 22,874 people in 1950 to 244,353 in 2009. Neighboring Vantaa
Vantaa
has seen even more dramatic change in the same time span: from 14,976 in 1950 to 197,663 in 2009, a thirteenfold increase. These dramatic increases pushed the municipalities of greater Helsinki
Helsinki
into more intense cooperation in such areas as public transportation and waste management. The increasing scarcity of housing and the higher costs of living in the Helsinki
Helsinki
Capital Region have pushed many daily commuters to find housing in formerly very rural areas, and even further, to such cities as Lohja (50 km (31 mi) northwest from the city centre), Hämeenlinna and Lahti
Lahti
(both 100 km (62 mi) from Helsinki), and Porvoo (50 km (31 mi) to the east).

LANGUAGE

POPULATION BY MOTHER TONGUE

LANGUAGE POPULATION (2013) PERCENTAGE

Finnish 494,627 81.9%

Swedish 35,674 5.9%

Russian 15,341 2.5%

Estonian 10,207 1.7%

Somali 7,193 1.2%

English 4,879 0.8%

Arabic 3,446 0.6%

Chinese 2,691 0.4%

Kurdish 2,264 0.4%

Spanish 2,073 0.3%

German 1,665 0.3%

French 1,462 0.2%

Persian 1,457 0.2%

Vietnamese 1,416 0.2%

Turkish 1,408 0.2%

Thai 1,123 0.2%

Albanian 1,005 0.2%

Other 15,978 2.6%

The population broken down by language group, 1870–2013. During the period, the population increased significantly, and the city changed its linguistic majority from Swedish to Finnish. Finnish speakers Swedish speakers Russian speaker Speakers of other languages

Finnish and Swedish are the official languages of the municipality of Helsinki. The majority, or 81.9% of the population, speaks Finnish as their native language . A minority, at 5.9%, speaks Swedish . Around 12.2% of the population speaks a native language other than Finnish or Swedish. Helsinki slang today combines influences mainly from Finnish and English, but has traditionally had strong Russian and Swedish influences. Finnish today is the common language of communication between Finnish speakers, Swedish speakers, and speakers of other languages ( New Finns ) in day-to-day affairs in the public sphere between unknown persons. In instances where a speaker's knowledge of Finnish is not known, English is usually spoken. Swedish is commonly spoken in city or national agencies specifically aimed at Finland-Swedish speakers, such as the Social Services Department on Hämeentie or the Luckan Cultural centre in Kamppi. Knowledge of Finnish is also essential in business and is usually a basic requirement in the employment market.

Finnish speakers surpassed Swedish speakers in 1890 to become the majority of the city's population. At the time, the population of Helsinki
Helsinki
was 61,530.

IMMIGRATION

Helsinki
Helsinki
is the global gateway to and from Finland. The city has Finland's largest immigrant population in both absolute and relative terms. There are over 140 nationalities represented in Helsinki. The largest groups (as of 2013 ) are from Sweden, Russia, Estonia, Somalia, China, Kurdistan, Spain, Germany, France, Vietnam, and Turkey. Helsinki
Helsinki
was already an international city in the 19th century with a distinctive Swedish majority as well as Finnish, Russian, and German minorities.

Foreign citizens make up 8.0% of the population, while the total foreign-born population makes up 11.1%. In 2012, 68,375 residents spoke a native language other than Finnish, Swedish, or one of the three Sami languages spoken in Finland. The largest groups of residents not of Finnish background come from Russia
Russia
(14,532), Estonia (9,065), and Somalia
Somalia
(6,845). Half of the immigrant population in Finland
Finland
lives in Greater Helsinki, and one third in the city of Helsinki.

ECONOMY

Kamppi Center , a shopping and transportation complex in Kamppi
Kamppi

The Helsinki
Helsinki
Metropolitan Area generates approximately one third of Finland's GDP. GDP per capita is roughly 1.3 times the national average.

The metropolitan area's gross value added per capita is 200% of the mean of 27 European metropolitan areas, equalling those of Stockholm or Paris. The gross value added annual growth has been around 4%.

83 of the 100 largest Finnish companies are headquartered in Greater Helsinki. Two-thirds of the 200 highest-paid Finnish executives live in Greater Helsinki and 42% in Helsinki. The average income of the top 50 earners was 1.65 million euro.

The tap water is of excellent quality and it is supplied by 120 km (75 mi) long Päijänne Water Tunnel , one of the world's longest continuous rock tunnels. Bottled Helsinki
Helsinki
tap water is even sold to other countries, such as Saudi Arabia.

EDUCATION

Main building of the University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki
Haaga-Helia University Of Applied Sciences is the largest business polytechnic in Finland.

Helsinki
Helsinki
has 190 comprehensive schools, 41 upper secondary schools, and 15 vocational institutes. Half of the 41 upper secondary schools are private or state-owned, the other half municipal. Higher level education is given in eight universities (see the section "Universities" below) and four polytechnics.

UNIVERSITIES

See also: List of universities in Finland
Finland

* University of Helsinki
University of Helsinki
* Aalto University
Aalto University
* Hanken School of Economics * University of the Arts Helsinki * National Defence University

UNIVERSITIES OF APPLIED SCIENCES

* Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences * Laurea University of Applied Sciences * Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences * Arcada University of Applied Sciences * Diaconia University of Applied Sciences

Helsinki
Helsinki
is one of the co-location centres of the Knowledge and Innovation Community (Future information and communication society) of The European Institute of Innovation and Technology
European Institute of Innovation and Technology
(EIT).

The educational department takes part in Lifelong Learning Programme 2007–2013 in Finland
Finland
.

CULTURE

MUSEUMS

The biggest historical museum in Helsinki
Helsinki
is the National Museum of Finland
Finland
, which displays a vast historical collection from prehistoric times to the 21st century. The museum building itself, a national romantic style neomedieval castle, is a tourist attraction. Another major historical museum is the Helsinki City Museum , which introduces visitors to Helsinki's 500-year history. The University of Helsinki also has many significant museums, including the Helsinki
Helsinki
University Museum "Arppeanum" and the Finnish Museum of Natural History .

The Finnish National Gallery consists of three museums: Ateneum Art Museum for classical Finnish art, Sinebrychoff Art Museum for classical European art, and Kiasma Art Museum for modern art, in a building by architect Steven Holl . The old Ateneum, a neo-Renaissance palace from the 19th century, is one of the city's major historical buildings. All three museum buildings are state-owned through Senate Properties .

The city of Helsinki
Helsinki
hosts its own art collection in the Helsinki
Helsinki
Art Museum (HAM), primarily located in its Tennispalatsi gallery. Pieces outside of Tennispalatsi include about 200 public art pieces and all art held in property owned by the city.

The Design Museum is devoted to the exhibition of both Finnish and foreign design, including industrial design, fashion, and graphic design. Other museums in Helsinki
Helsinki
include the Military Museum of Finland
Finland
, Didrichsen Art Museum , Amos Anderson Art Museum , and the Tram Museum.

* Museums in Helsinki

*

Classical art museum Ateneum (1887) *

Kiasma museum of contemporary art (1998) *

Sinebrychoff Art Museum (1842) *

Helsinki Art Museum (1968) *

The Design Museum (1894) *

The National Museum of Finland
Finland
(1910) *

Tram museum (Ratikkamuseo) (1900) *

The Military Museum of Finland
Finland
(1881) *

Kunsthalle Helsinki art venue (1928) *

The Finnish Museum of Natural History (1913) *

Didrichsen Art Museum (1964) *

Amos Anderson Art Museum (1913) *

Helsinki University Museum "Arppeanum" (1869)

THEATRES

The Finnish National Theatre
Finnish National Theatre
(1902), designed by architect Onni Tarjanne

Helsinki
Helsinki
has three major theatres: The Finnish National Theatre
Finnish National Theatre
, the Helsinki City Theatre , and the Swedish Theatre
Swedish Theatre
(Svenska Teatern). Other notable theatres in the city include the Alexander Theatre , Q-teatteri, Savoy Theatre, KOM-theatre, and Teatteri Jurkka.

MUSIC

Helsinki
Helsinki
is home to two full-size symphony orchestras, the Helsinki Philharmonic Orchestra and the Finnish Radio Symphony Orchestra , both of which perform at the Helsinki Music Centre concert hall. Acclaimed contemporary composers Kaija Saariaho , Magnus Lindberg , Esa-Pekka Salonen , and Einojuhani Rautavaara , among others, were born and raised in Helsinki, and studied at the Sibelius Academy . The Finnish National Opera , the only full-time, professional opera company in Finland, is located in Helsinki. The opera singer Martti Wallén , one of the company's long-time soloists, was born and raised in Helsinki, as was mezzo-soprano Monica Groop .

Many widely renowned and acclaimed bands have originated in Helsinki, including Hanoi Rocks
Hanoi Rocks
, HIM , Stratovarius , The 69 Eyes , Finntroll , Ensiferum , Wintersun , The Rasmus , Poets of the Fall , and Apocalyptica
Apocalyptica
.

The city's main musical venues are the Finnish National Opera , the Finlandia concert hall , and the Helsinki Music Centre . The Music Centre also houses a part of the Sibelius Academy . Bigger concerts and events are usually held at one of the city's two big ice hockey arenas: the Hartwall Areena or the Helsinki Ice Hall . Helsinki
Helsinki
has Finland's largest fairgrounds .

Helsinki Arena hosted the Eurovision Song Contest 2007
Eurovision Song Contest 2007
, the first Eurovision Song Contest
Eurovision Song Contest
arranged in Finland, following Lordi 's win in 2006 .

ART

Strange Fruit performing at the Night of the Arts in Helsinki
Helsinki

The Helsinki Festival is an annual arts and culture festival, which takes place every August (including the Night of the Arts ).

Vappu is an annual carnival for students and workers.

At the Senate Square in September / October 2010, the largest open-air art exhibition ever in Finland
Finland
took place: About 1.4 million people saw the international exhibition of United Buddy Bears .

Helsinki
Helsinki
is the 2012 World Design Capital , in recognition of the use of design as an effective tool for social, cultural, and economic development in the city. In choosing Helsinki, the World Design Capital selection jury highlighted Helsinki's use of 'Embedded Design', which has tied design in the city to innovation, "creating global brands, such as Nokia
Nokia
, Kone
Kone
, and Marimekko
Marimekko
, popular events, like the annual Helsinki
Helsinki
Design Week, outstanding education and research institutions, such as the University of Art and Design Helsinki
Helsinki
, and exemplary architects and designers such as Eliel Saarinen and Alvar Aalto
Alvar Aalto
".

Helsinki
Helsinki
also hosts many film festivals. Most of them are small venues, but some have gained renown even abroad. The most prolific would be the Love "> Yle headquarters in Pasila , Helsinki
Helsinki

Today, there are around 200 newspapers, 320 popular magazines, 2,100 professional magazines, 67 commercial radio stations, three digital radio channels, and one nationwide and five national public service radio channels .

Each year, around 12,000 book titles are published and 12 million records are sold across Finland.

Sanoma publishes the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat
Helsingin Sanomat
(its circulation of 412,000 making it the largest), the tabloid Ilta-Sanomat , the commerce-oriented Taloussanomat , and the television channel Nelonen . The other major publisher Alma Media publishes over thirty magazines, including the newspaper Aamulehti , tabloid Iltalehti , and commerce-oriented Kauppalehti . Worldwide, Finns, along with other Nordic peoples and the Japanese , spend the most time reading newspapers.

Yle, the Finnish Broadcasting Company, operates five television channels and thirteen radio channels in both national languages. Headquartered in the neighbourhood of Pasila, Yle is funded through a mandatory television license and fees for private broadcasters. All TV channels are broadcast digitally , both terrestrially and on cable. The commercial television channel MTV3 and commercial radio channel Radio Nova are owned by Nordic Broadcasting (Bonnier and Proventus Industrier).

As of 2007 , around 79% of the Finnish population uses the Internet. Finland
Finland
had around 1.52 million broadband Internet connections by the end of June 2007 or around 287 per 1,000 inhabitants. All Finnish schools and public libraries have Internet connections and computers, and most residents have a mobile phone. Value-added services are rare. In October 2009, Finland's Ministry of Transport and Communications committed to ensuring that every person in Finland
Finland
would be able to access the Internet at a minimum speed of one megabit-per-second beginning July 2010.

SPORTS

Main article: Sport in Helsinki The Helsinki
Helsinki
Olympic Stadium was the centre of activities during the 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
.

Helsinki
Helsinki
has a long tradition of sports: the city gained much of its initial international recognition during the 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
, and the city has arranged sporting events such as the first World Championships in Athletics 1983 and 2005, and the European Championships in Athletics 1971, 1994, and 2012. Helsinki
Helsinki
hosts successful local teams in both of the most popular team sports in Finland: football and ice hockey . Helsinki
Helsinki
houses HJK Helsinki , Finland's largest and most successful football club, and IFK Helsingfors , their local rivals with 7 championship titles. The fixtures between the two are commonly known as Stadin derby . Helsinki's track and field club Helsingin Kisa-Veikot is also dominant within Finland. Ice hockey
Ice hockey
is popular among many Helsinki
Helsinki
residents, who usually support either of the local clubs IFK Helsingfors (HIFK) or Jokerit . HIFK, with 14 Finnish championships titles, also plays in the highest bandy division, along with Botnia−69 . The Olympic stadium hosted the first ever Bandy World Championship in 1957.

Helsinki
Helsinki
was elected host-city of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but due to World War II
World War II
they were canceled. Instead Helsinki
Helsinki
was the host of the 1952 Summer Olympics. The Olympics were a landmark event symbolically and economically for Helsinki
Helsinki
and Finland
Finland
as a whole that was recovering from the winter war and the continuation war fought with the Soviet Union. Helsinki
Helsinki
was also in 1983 the first ever city to host the World Championships in Athletics. Helsinki
Helsinki
also hosted the event in 2005, thus also becoming the first city to ever host the Championships for a second time. The Helsinki
Helsinki
City Marathon has been held in the city every year since 1980, usually in August. A Formula 3000 race through the city streets was held on 25 May 1997. In 2009 Helsinki
Helsinki
was host of the European Figure Skating Championships
European Figure Skating Championships
, and in 2017 it will host World Figure Skating Championships .

TRANSPORT

ROADS

Helsinki
Helsinki
region roads

The backbone of Helsinki's motorway network consists of three semicircular beltways , Ring I , Ring II , and Ring III , which connect expressways heading to other parts of Finland, and the western and eastern arteries of Länsiväylä and Itäväylä respectively. While variants of a Keskustatunneli tunnel under the city centre have been repeatedly proposed, as of 2017 the plan remains on the drawing board.

Helsinki
Helsinki
has some 390 cars per 1000 inhabitants. This is less than in cities of similar population and construction density, such as Brussels
Brussels
' 483 per 1000, Stockholm
Stockholm
's 401, and Oslo
Oslo
's 413.

INTERCITY RAIL

The Helsinki Central Railway Station
Helsinki Central Railway Station
is the main terminus of the rail network in Finland. Two rail corridors lead out of Helsinki, the Main Line to the north (to Tampere , Oulu , Rovaniemi ), and the Coastal Line to the west (to Turku
Turku
). The railway connection to the east branches from the Main Line outside of Helsinki
Helsinki
at Kerava, and leads via Lahti
Lahti
to eastern parts of Finland
Finland
and to Russia.

A majority of intercity passenger services in Finland
Finland
originate or terminate at the Helsinki Central Railway Station
Helsinki Central Railway Station
. All major cities in Finland
Finland
are connected to Helsinki
Helsinki
by rail service, with departures several times a day. The most frequent service is to Tampere, with more than 25 intercity departures per day as of 2017. There are international services from Helsinki
Helsinki
to St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
and to Moscow in Russia. The St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
- Helsinki
Helsinki
route is operated with the Allegro high-speed trains .

A Helsinki
Helsinki
to Tallinn
Tallinn
Tunnel has been proposed and agreed upon by representatives of the cities. The rail tunnel would connect Helsinki to the Estonian capital Tallinn
Tallinn
, further linking Helsinki
Helsinki
to the rest of continental Europe
Europe
by Rail Baltica .

AVIATION

Air traffic is handled primarily from the international Helsinki Airport , located approximately 17 kilometres (11 mi) north of Helsinki's downtown area, in the neighbouring city of Vantaa
Vantaa
. Helsinki's own airport, Helsinki-Malmi Airport , is mainly used for general and private aviation. Charter
Charter
flights are available from Hernesaari Heliport .

SEA TRANSPORT

The South Harbour

Like many other cities, Helsinki
Helsinki
was deliberately founded at a location on the sea in order to take advantage of shipping. The freezing of the sea imposed limitations on sea traffic up to the end of the 19th century. But for the last hundred years, the routes leading to Helsinki
Helsinki
have been kept open even in winter with the aid of icebreakers , many of them built in the Helsinki
Helsinki
Hietalahti shipyard. The arrival and departure of ships has also been a part of everyday life in Helsinki. Regular route traffic from Helsinki
Helsinki
to Stockholm, Tallinn, and St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
began as far back as 1837. Over 300 cruise ships and 360,000 cruise passengers visit Helsinki
Helsinki
annually. There are international cruise ship docks in South Harbour, Katajanokka, West Harbour, and Hernesaari. Helsinki
Helsinki
is the second busiest passenger port in Europe
Europe
with approximately 11 million passengers in 2013. Ferry connections to Tallinn
Tallinn
, Mariehamn , and Stockholm
Stockholm
are serviced by various companies. Finnlines passenger-freight ferries to Gdynia
Gdynia
, Poland; Travemünde , Germany; and Rostock
Rostock
, Germany
Germany
are also available. St Peter Line
St Peter Line
offers passenger ferry service to Saint Petersburg several times a week.

URBAN TRANSPORT

Main article: Public transport in Helsinki
Helsinki
The Helsinki
Helsinki
Metro with its characteristic bright orange trains is the world's northernmost subway Central railway station

In the Helsinki
Helsinki
metropolitan area, public transportation is managed by the Helsinki Regional Transport Authority , the metropolitan area transportation authority. The diverse public transport system consists of trams , commuter rail , the metro , bus lines, two ferry lines and a public bike system .

Helsinki\'s tram system has been in operation with electric drive continuously since 1900. 13 routes that cover the inner part of the city are operated. As of 2017, the city is expanding the tram network, with several major tram line construction projects under way. These include the 550 trunk line (Raide-Jokeri), roughly along Ring I around the city center, and a new tramway to the island of Laajasalo.

The Helsinki Metro , opened in 1982, is the only metro system in Finland, albeit the Helsinki commuter rail trains operate at metro-like frequencies. In 2006, the construction of the long debated extension of the metro into Western Helsinki
Helsinki
and Espoo
Espoo
was approved, and serious debate about an eastern extension into Sipoo has taken place. Helsinki's metro system currently consists of 17 stations, with six of them being underground. Once the western expansion is completed, seven new metro stations will be opened, with all of them being underground. As of May 2017, the opening of the Metro expansion has been delayed until autumn 2017.

The commuter rail system includes purpose-built double track for local services in two rail corridors along intercity railways, and the Ring Rail Line , an urban double-track railway with a station at the Helsinki Airport in Vantaa. Electric operation of commuter trains was first begun in 1969, and the system has been gradually expanded since. 15 different services are operated as of 2017, some extending outside of the Helsinki
Helsinki
region. The frequent services run at a 10-minute headway in peak traffic.

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Finland
Finland

SPECIAL PARTNERSHIP CITIES

Helsinki
Helsinki
has a special partnership relation with:

* St. Petersburg
St. Petersburg
, Russia
Russia
* Tallinn
Tallinn
, Estonia
Estonia
* Stockholm
Stockholm
, Sweden
Sweden
* Berlin
Berlin
, Germany
Germany
* Beijing
Beijing
, China
China
(since 2006) * Moscow
Moscow
, Russia
Russia

NOTABLE PEOPLE

BORN BEFORE 1900

Karl Fazer , the chocolatier and Olympic sport shooter best known for founding the Fazer company

* Peter Forsskål (1732–1763), Swedish-Finnish naturalists and orientalist * Axel Hampus Dalström (1829–1882), architect * Jakob Johannes Sederholm (1863–1934), Petrologe * Karl Fazer (1866–1932), baker, confectioner, chocolatier, entrepreneur, and sport shooter * Emil Lindh (1867–1937), sailor * Oskar Merikanto (1868–1924), composer * Gunnar Nordström (1881–1923), theoretical physicist * Väinö Tanner (1881–1966), politician * Walter Jakobsson (1882–1957), figure skater * Mauritz Stiller (1883–1928), Russian-Swedish director and screenwriter * Karl H. Wiik (1883–1946), Social Democratic politician * Lennart Lindroos (1886–?), swimmer, Olympic games 1912 * Erkki Karu (1887–1935), film director and producer * Kai Donner (1888–1935), linguist, anthropologist and politician * Gustaf Molander (1888–1973), Swedish director and screenwriter * Johan Helo (1889–1966), lawyer and politician * Artturi Ilmari Virtanen (1895–1973), chemist, Nobel Prize 1945 * Elmer Diktonius (1896–1961), Finnish-Swedish writer and composer * Yrjö Leino (1897–1961), communist politician * Toivo Wiherheimo (1898–1970), economist and politician

BORN AFTER 1900

Linus Torvalds
Linus Torvalds
, the software engineer best known for creating the popular open-source kernel Linux
Linux

* Paavo Berglund (1929–2012), conductor * Laci Boldemann (1921–1969), composer * Irja Browallius (1901–1968), Swedish writer * Bo Carpelan (1926–2011), Finland-Swedish writer, literary critic and translator * Tarja Cronberg (born 1943), politician * Ragnar Granit
Ragnar Granit
(1900–1991), Finnish-Swedish neurophysiologist and Nobel laureate * Tarja Halonen (born 1943), President of Finland * Reino Helismaa (1913–1965), writer, film actor and singer * Bengt Holmström (born 1949), Professor of Economics, Nobel laureate * Tove Jansson (1914–2001), Finland-Swedish writer, illustrator, comic writer, graphic designer, illustrator and painter * Lennart Koskinen (born 1944), Swedish, Lutheran bishop * Olli Lehto (born 1925), mathematician * Samuel Lehtonen (1921–2010), bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland * Juha Leiviskä (born 1936), architect * Magnus Lindberg (born 1958), composer and pianist * Lill Lindfors (born 1940), Finland-Swedish singer and TV presenter * Georg Malmstén (1902–1981), singer, musician, composer, orchestra director and actor * Tauno Marttinen (1912–2008), composer * Susanna Mälkki (born 1969), conductor * Arne Nevanlinna (1925–2016), architect, university teacher and writer * Markku Peltola (1956–2007), actor and musician * Einojuhani Rautavaara (1928–2016), composer * Elisabeth Rehn (born 1935), politician * Kaija Saariaho (born 1952), composer * Riitta Salin (born 1950), athlete * Esa-Pekka Salonen (born 1958), composer and conductor * Heikki Sarmanto (born 1939), jazz pianist and composer * Märta Tikkanen (born 1935), Finland-Swedish writer and philosophy teacher * Linus Torvalds
Linus Torvalds
(born 1969), software engineer, creator of Linux * Sirkka Turkka (born 1939), poet * Mika Waltari (1908–1979), writer

REFERENCES

Citations

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– International Edition – Metro". Hs.fi. 9 November 2005. Retrieved 8 July 2009. * ^ Archived 11 October 2009 at the Wayback Machine
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. * ^ "European Institute of Innovation and Technology: Home". Eit.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 28 March 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2010. * ^ " Eurovision Song Contest 2007
Eurovision Song Contest 2007
Final". eurovision.tv. Retrieved 8 November 2016. * ^ " Helsinki
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Festival". Retrieved 8 November 2016. * ^ " Helsinki
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International Film Festival". hiff.fi. Retrieved 21 January 2015. * ^ "DocPoint". docpoint.info. Retrieved 21 January 2015. * ^ "Night Visions Film Festival". Nightvisions.info. Retrieved 21 January 2015. * ^ "Media moves". ThisisFINLAND (Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland
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). Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. * ^ "Circulation Statistics". The Finnish Audit Bureau of Circulations (Levikintarkastus Oy). Archived from the original on 1 June 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2009. * ^ "World Press Trends: Newspapers Still Reach More Than Internet". World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers. Retrieved 19 November 2012. * ^ "Internet used by 79 per cent of the population at the beginning of 2007". Statistics Finland. Retrieved 22 December 2007. * ^ "Market Review 2/2007" (PDF). Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). 31 August 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 September 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007. * ^ "Information technology has become part of Finns\' everyday life". Tilastokeskus.fi. Retrieved 17 February 2014. * ^ "1Mb Broadband Access Becomes Legal Right". YLE . 14 October 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2009. * ^ Video from the Finnish final 2009 against OLS from Oulu : Youtube.com * ^ "The Finnish Bandy Federation". Retrieved 2 April 2016. * ^ " World Figure Skating Championships 2017". * ^ Archived 11 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine
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. * ^ "Runge" (PDF). European Academy of the Urban Environment. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2014. * ^ "Tietokeskus: suunnatframe". Hel2.fi. Retrieved 8 July 2009. * ^ "Helsinki- Tallinn
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rakentaa tulevaisuutta turvallisesti". Lansimetro.fi. Retrieved 17 February 2014. * ^ "Route maps". * ^ http://www.railway-technology.com/projects/helsinki-metro/ * ^ "West Metro ready for trial operation in January 2017 – No major changes to Espoo
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bus network on 15 August". * ^ A B C D E F "International Relations". Hel.fi. City of Helsinki. Retrieved 2017-06-11. Helsinki’s main bilateral city partners are St. Petersburg, Tallinn, Stockholm
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and Berlin. In addition, Helsinki
Helsinki
maintains special long-term partnerships with Beijing
Beijing
and Moscow. Helsinki
Helsinki
has no official sister cities. Helsinki primarily works with other capitals. * ^ Yan, Yangtze (14 July 2006). "Beijing, Helsinki
Helsinki
forge sister city relationship". Gov.cn. Chinese Government. Retrieved 5 August 2013. * ^ "Sister Cities". Beijing
Beijing
Municipal Government. Retrieved 23 June 2009.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Helsinki
Helsinki

EXTERNAL LINKS

Find more aboutHELSINKIat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

* Official website * Visithelsinki.fi – Official

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