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Helmshore
Helmshore
is a village in the Rossendale
Rossendale
Valley, Lancashire, England, south of Haslingden
Haslingden
between the A56 and the B6235, 16 miles (26 km) north of Manchester. The population at the 2011 census was 5,805.[1]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 The Park 1.3 The pilgrims' route 1.4 The Industrial Revolution 1.5 1860 rail crash 1.6 First World War 1.7 Recent

2 Culture

2.1 Music

3 Helmshore
Helmshore
Mills Textile Museum 4 The Tor Mile Race 5 Gallery 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] The area around Helmshore
Helmshore
is moorland. Post- Ice Age
Ice Age
this would have been forested, and bog oak can still be found on the flat peatland tops over 250 metres high. The forest declined in the Neolithic period, and largely disappeared during the Bronze Age, mainly as a result of climatic change although hastened by human activity.[2] There is some evidence of human habitation in the area during the Neolithic
Neolithic
period: stone implements found on Bull Hill and in the Musbury valley, and the stones at Thirteen Stone Hill near Grane, and there are a relatively complex network of both local and long-distance old tracks crossing the area. The Park[edit] The village is dominated by the spectacular flat-topped Musbury Tor, once the centre of the medieval hunting park, or Forest. Either side of the Tor are two valleys: Alden valley
Alden valley
in the south-west and Musbury valley to the north-west. The 'whole land of Musbury' was granted to John de Lacy (before 1241) by Lewis de Bernavill. A licence for a 'free warren' was granted to the Earl of Lincoln in 1294. Work on fencing the Park was completed by 1304–05, with palings being erected. The park, with its 'herbage and agistments' was said to be worth 13s. 4d. in 1311. In 1329 and 1330 it is described as 'Queen Isabel's park of Musbury', and fines were being applied for trespass to, among others, the rector of Bury. Stretches of the ditch enclosure are clearly visible at Grane and Alden valleys, and deer are still occasionally seen in the area. There are several current placenames identifying the Park.[3] The pilgrims' route[edit] One of the main early tracks that passed through Helmshore
Helmshore
was a route from the south (by the Pilgrim's Cross which was in existence in AD 1176) on Holcombe Moor, and then goes through Haslingden
Haslingden
on its way to Whalley.[4] This also connected with Watling Street
Watling Street
at Affetside, and a well-established way from Bolton to Rossendale. In Anglo-Saxon times, Whalley church was an important Minster and the mother church of an enormous parish. Later, in the medieval period, several chapels-of-ease were attached to Whalley church for the 'ease' of the scattered population providing access to the Mass and the sacraments. After the move made by the Cistercian
Cistercian
monks of Stanlow
Stanlow
to Whalley at the end of the 13th century, traffic would have increased along this route. To the south on the old pilgrim road is Robin Hood's Well, and above that is a cairn and memorial stone in memory of Ellen Strange, generally believed to be a young girl murdered by her lover – an event recorded in a Victorian ballad by John Fawcett Skelton but now known to be a murder of a wife by a husband in 1761[5] that has become replaced by a colourful, but fictional, story. The event was commemorated by Bob Frith and the Horse and Bamboo Theatre
Horse and Bamboo Theatre
group in 1978. The memorial stone was carved by Liverpool artist Don McKinlay and depicts the murdered woman. These routes fell into disuse for anything other than foot traffic after the turnpike improvements of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution[edit] Helmshore
Helmshore
owes its development to a damp climate that was ideally suited to the development of the wool, cotton and linen industries. During the early part of the Industrial Revolution, from the 1790s on, small mills were built on the river valleys, such as Alden valley where there are still ruins, close to the farming areas – indeed most mill-owners were also farmers. But by the latter half of the 19th century these mills became redundant and industry expanded enormously as mill owners such as the Turner family built terraced dwellings to house the workforce necessary to run their cotton mills close to the roads and railways.[6] During this period Helmshore
Helmshore
gradually superseded Musbury as the main name for the community. Helmshore
Helmshore
became a mill workers' settlement, comprising an extensive area of woollen and cotton mills and associated workers' housing built along the valley of the River Ogden. The Turner family, whose tan pits and Hollin Bank mills were built as water-powered mills in the early 19th century, first established the settlement. The surviving mills later converted to cotton production. The area expanded with the opening of the railway in 1848, and includes the Station Hotel and St Thomas's Church (1851/2). The housing is mixed, with some two-up, two-down terraces, top-and-bottom houses and a few surviving back-to-back cottages. [7] 1860 rail crash[edit]

Helmshore
Helmshore
rail accident

Date 4 September 1860

Location Helmshore, Lancashire

Country England

Rail line Lancashire
Lancashire
and Yorkshire Railway

Cause split train

Statistics

Trains 2

Deaths 11

List of UK rail accidents by year

There was a major railway accident in Helmshore
Helmshore
in September 1860. There were eleven lives lost and 77 people were injured. The accident happened on the line between Snig Hole and the Ogden Viaduct, both local beauty spots, 400 yards from Helmshore
Helmshore
station. About 3,000 people had gone from East Lancashire
Lancashire
on three excursion trains to Salford to visit the attractions at Belle Vue Gardens.[8] The second train with about 1,000 passengers and 31 carriages got to Helmshore
Helmshore
Station where it stopped to let out some passengers. "When the guard released the brakes there was a jerk and 16 carriages broke away from the train and started sliding down the line between Helmshore
Helmshore
and Ramsbottom. Mr Shaw, the superintendent, saw what had happened and unhooked the engine from the train in order to go down the other line to warn the third train, but unfortunately he was too late. The carriages had already run 400 yards down the line and collided with the oncoming train."[9] First World War[edit] On 25 September 1916 a 179m-long German military Zeppelin
Zeppelin
airship flew over Helmshore
Helmshore
on a bombing mission. It was probably following the railway, attempting to inflict damage on the transport system. One bomb dropped near Clod Lane, Haslingden, where there was a gun cotton factory. Ewood Bridge station was destroyed by bombs and, after passing over Helmshore, the Zeppelin
Zeppelin
flew on to Holcombe where it did further damage.[10] Recent[edit] The railway that ran through Helmshore
Helmshore
was closed in 1966 as part of the Beeching Axe, but relics of the old railway routes remain in and around the village. The Ravenshore viaduct has been vandalised but remains a considerable monument to the railway heritage. The Helmshore viaduct, close to the textile museum, is now a footpath. The railway preservation society that was founded to fight the Beeching cuts became the East Lancashire
Lancashire
Railway, which now operates the Rawtenstall to Bury
Bury
line. One of the world's first municipal bus services linked Helmshore
Helmshore
to Haslingden
Haslingden
in 1907. Helmshore
Helmshore
has had a second major expansion since the 1970s with the building of a large number of new estates, and infill, often for commuters to Manchester. However, parts of the village—and the surrounding countryside—remain very attractive. Helmshore
Helmshore
was the site of the notorious 2016 murder of businesswoman Sadie Hartley.[11][12] Culture[edit] Music[edit] In 2001 the American musical group The Factory Incident released an EP entitled Helmshore.[13] Karl Hill, one of the guitarists, named it as a tribute to his late mother, Joyce Bargh Hill, who was born in Haslingden
Haslingden
and raised in Helmshore. Helmshore Mills Textile Museum
Helmshore Mills Textile Museum
[edit] Main article: Helmshore
Helmshore
Mills Textile Museum

A spinning room in the Helmshore
Helmshore
Mills Textile Museum.

Originally Higher Mill, Helmshore Mills Textile Museum
Helmshore Mills Textile Museum
is a water-powered fulling mill and a 19th-century condenser cotton spinning mill, with working machinery. Built by the Turners in 1789, and rescued from dereliction by Derek Pilkington and Chris Aspin in the 1960s, it is now managed by Lancashire
Lancashire
County Council Museums Service and details the changes made in textile technology over the last three hundred years through the use of interactive displays. Mill ponds, weirs, sluice gates and an aqueduct are also part of the museum as well as a 19th-century working waterwheel, fulling stocks and other machinery associated with the finishing of woollen cloth, an original Arkwright water frame, and a Hargreaves Spinning Jenny. It also houses a museum and bookshop selling, among other things, books on local textile history. In 1856 Joseph Porritt established Sunnybank Mill, an enormous mill that once housed the world's largest spinning mules. The other main Helmshore
Helmshore
mill dynasty were the Whittakers, one of whose mills makes up part of the Textile Museum. The Tor Mile Race[edit] Every year, an athletics race takes place in Helmshore
Helmshore
– The Musbury Tor Mile. The race was first run in 1911,[14] and may have an even older ancestry. Originally the runners ran to, and around, Big Nor, a large stone at the tip of Musbury Tor, and back, but it was stopped after the farmer withdrew permission to use his land. The route was altered to make all parties happy, and it now actually measures nearer two miles than one – a mile up and a mile back down.[citation needed] Since 2004 the race has been taking place again and is part of the fell running tradition of the area. Gallery[edit]

Helmshore
Helmshore
Signal Box. Rebuilt as private housing by Alan Dunn in 1990

Helmshore railway station
Helmshore railway station
in 1970, looking west along Helmshore
Helmshore
Road with the signal box (left)

Helmshore
Helmshore
Road

Helmshore
Helmshore
Road

Helmshore
Helmshore
Store

These cottages on the B6214 Helmshore
Helmshore
Road were built in 1783

Helmshore
Helmshore
Mill Museum

Memorial Gardens

References[edit]

^ " Rossendale
Rossendale
ward population 2011". Retrieved 19 January 2016.  ^ Rackham, Oliver (1986). The History of the Countryside. Phoenix Press. ISBN 978-1-84212-440-6.  ^ Farrer; Brownbill, eds. (1911). A History of the County of Lancashire. Victoria County History. 5.  ^ Haigh, Christopher (1975). Reformation and Resistance in Tudor Lancashire. Cambridge University Press. p. 168. ISBN 0521083931.  ^ Simpson, John (2015). Ellen Strange: a moorland murder mystery explained (2nd ed.). Helmshore
Helmshore
Local History Society. p. 10.  ^ Aspin, Chris (1995). Lancashire
Lancashire
– The First Industrial Society. Carnegie. ISBN 1-85936-016-5.  ^ " Haslingden
Haslingden
Historic Town Assessment Report" (PDF). Lancashire Historic Town Survey Programme. June 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2018.  ^ "Accident at Helmshore
Helmshore
on 4th September 1860" (PDF). The Railways Archive. Retrieved 27 January 2014.  ^ Haworth, Christine (July 2006). "The Story Behind the Stones: Railway Collision near Helmshore" (PDF). The Gazette. Lancashire Family History and Heraldry Society, Burnley and Pendle Branch. 23: 4. Retrieved 1 February 2018.  ^ "World War One". Rossendale
Rossendale
Free Press. 3 March 2003. Retrieved 1 February 2018.  ^ "Sadie Hartley killing: Women jailed for murdering love rival". BBC News. 17 August 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2018.  ^ Harley, Nicola (17 August 2016). "Fantasist who murdered Sadie Hartley in love triangle obsession faked her own kidnap aged 13, friends reveal". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 February 2018.  ^ " Helmshore
Helmshore
EP". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-09.  ^ Nelson, Craig (31 March 2017). "Radcliffe AC chairman bids to revive Helmshore
Helmshore
Tor Mile". Bury
Bury
Times. Retrieved 1 February 2018. 

Further reading[edit]

Aspen, Chris; Pilkington, Derek; Simpson, John (2000). Helmshore. Helmshore
Helmshore
Local History Society. ISBN 0-906881-07-2.  Baker, Sydney J (1923). History of Methodism in Helmshore: A Souvenir of the Jubilee. ASIN B00088YO92.  Simpson, John (2008). Musbury and Alden: 700 years of life and landscape. Helmshore
Helmshore
Local History Society. ISBN 978-0-906881-19-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Helmshore.

Website Helmshore Mills Textile Museum
Helmshore Mills Textile Museum
site Neighbourhood statistics data

v t e

Geography of the Borough of Rossendale

Towns

Bacup Haslingden Rawtenstall

Villages

Broadclough Crawshawbooth Edenfield Helmshore Lumb Newchurch Waterfoot Whitworth

Hamlets

Balladen Bent Gate Britannia Chatterton Cloughfold Cowpe Goodshaw Irwell Vale Loveclough Sharneyford Shawforth Stacksteads Strongstry Stubbins Turn Village Weir

Parishes

Whitworth

Topography

Hills

Brown Wardle Hill Hail Storm Hill Musbury Tor

Waterways

River Irwell Limy Water River Ogden Whitewell Brook

Reservoirs

Calf Hey Reservoir

Valleys

Alden Valley Haslingden
Haslingden
Grane Irwell Valley Musbury Valley

.