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HELMAND (/ˈhɛlmənd/ _HELL-mənd_ ; Pashto /Dari : هلمند), also known as HILLMAND, and, in ancient times, as HERMAND and HETHUMAND is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan , in the south of the country. It is the largest province by area, covering 58,584 square kilometres (20,000 sq mi) area. The province contains 13 districts , encompassing over 1,000 villages, and roughly 879,500 settled people. Lashkar Gah serves as the provincial capital.

Helmand was part of the _Greater Kandahar_ region until made into a separate province by the Afghan government in the 20th century. The province has a domestic airport ( Bost Airport ), in the city of Lashkar Gah and heavily used by NATO -led forces. The British Camp Bastion and U.S. Camp Leatherneck are a short distance southwest of Lashkar Gah.

The Helmand River flows through the mainly desert region of the province, providing water for irrigation. The Kajaki Dam , which is one of Afghanistan\'s major reservoirs , is located in the Kajaki district . Helmand is believed to be one of the world's largest opium -producing regions, responsible for around 42% of the world's total production. This is believed to be more than the whole of Burma , which is the second largest producing nation after Afghanistan. The region also produces tobacco, sugar beets, cotton, sesame, wheat, mung beans, maize, nuts, sunflowers, onions, potato, tomato, cauliflower, peanut, apricot, grape, and melon.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Helmand culture * 1.2 Vedic to Achaemenid times * 1.3 Alexander the Great to modern times

* 2 Karzai and Ghani era * 3 Politics and governance * 4 Transport and economy * 5 Healthcare * 6 Education * 7 Demographics * 8 Districts * 9 Politicians * 10 See also * 11 Gallery * 12 References * 13 External links

HISTORY

HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN

Timeline

Ancient

Indus Valley Civilisation 2200–1800 BC

Oxus civilization 2100–1800 BC

Aryans 1700–700 BC

Median Empire 728–550 BC

Achaemenid Empire 550–330 BC

Seleucid Empire 330–150 BC

Maurya Empire 305–180 BC

Greco-Bactrian Kingdom 256–125 BC

Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD

Indo-Greek Kingdom 180–130 BC

Indo-Scythian Kingdom 155–80? BC

Kushan Empire 135 BC – 248 AD

Indo-Parthian Kingdom 20 BC – 50? AD

Sasanian Empire 230–651

Kidarite Kingdom 320–465

Alchon Huns 380–560

Hephthalite Empire 410–557

Nezak Huns 484–711

Medieval

Kabul Shahi 565–879

Principality of Chaghaniyan 7th–8th centuries

Rashidun Caliphate 652–661

Umayyads 661–750

Abbasids 750–821

Tahirids 821–873

Saffarids 863–900

Samanids 875–999

Ghaznavids 963–1187

Ghurids before 879–1215

Seljuks 1037–1194

Khwarezmids 1215–1231

Qarlughids 1224–1266

Ilkhanate 1258–1353

Chagatai Khanate 1225–1370

Khiljis 1290–1320

Karts 1245–1381

Timurids 1370–1507

Arghuns 1479–1522

Mughals 1501–1738

Safavids 1510–1709

Afsharids 1738-1747

Modern

Hotak dynasty 1709–1738

Durrani Empire 1747–1826

Emirate of Afghanistan 1826–1919

Kingdom of Afghanistan 1919–1973

Republic of Afghanistan 1973–1978

Democratic Republic of Afghanistan 1978–1992

Islamic State of Afghanistan 1992–2001

Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 1996–2004

Interim /Transitional Administration 2001–2004

Islamic Republic of Afghanistan since 2004

* Book * Category * Portal

* v * t * e

Further information: History of Afghanistan

HELMAND CULTURE

Helmand culture of western Afghanistan was a Bronze Age culture of the 3rd millennium BC. It is exemplified by such major sites as Shahr-i Sokhta , Mundigak , and Bampur .

The term "Helmand civilization" was proposed by M. Tosi. This civilization flourished between 2500 BC and 1900 BC, and may have coincided with the great flourishing of the Indus Valley Civilisation . This was also the final phase of Periods III and IV of Shahr-i Sokhta, and the last part of Mundigak Period IV.

According to Jarrige et al.,

"... the pottery of Mundigak I, the earliest occupation of the “Helmand” cultural complex, corresponds to the Mehrgarh III pottery, in technique — quality of the paste and manufacture — as well as in the shapes and decoration, probably within a phase dated to the end of the 5th millennium ."

There were also links between Shahr-i Sokhta I, II and III periods, and Mundigak III and IV periods, and between the sites of Balochistan and the Indus valley at the end of the 4th millennium, as well as in the first half of the 3rd millennium BC.

Jiroft culture is closely related to Helmand culture. Jiroft culture flourished in the eastern Iran, and the Helmand culture in western Afghanistan at the same time. In fact, they may represent the same cultural area. Mehrgarh culture, on the other hand, is far earlier.

VEDIC TO ACHAEMENID TIMES

Some Vedic scholars (e.g. Kochhar 1999) also believe the Helmand valley corresponds to the Sarasvati area mentioned in the _ Rig Veda _ as the homeland for the Indo-Aryan migrations into India, ca. 1500 BC.

Helmand was inhabited by ancient peoples and governed by the Medes before falling to the Achaemenids .

Later, the area was part of the ancient Arachosia polity, and a frequent target for conquest because of its strategic location in Asia , which connects Southern , Central and Southwest Asia .

The Helmand river valley is mentioned by name in the Avesta (Fargard 1:13) as _Haetumant_, one of the early centers or origins of the Zoroastrian faith, in pre-Islamic Afghan history . However, owing to the preponderance of non-Zoroastrians before the Islamization of Afghanistan – particularly Hindus and Buddhists – the Helmand and Kabul regions were also known as "White India" in those days.

ALEXANDER THE GREAT TO MODERN TIMES

It was invaded in 330 BC by Alexander the Great and became part of the Seleucid Empire . Later, it came under the rule of the Indian emperor Ashoka , who erected a pillar there with a bilingual inscription in Greek and Aramaic . The territory was referred to as part of Zabulistan and ruled by the sun-worshipping Hindus Zunbils before the Muslim Arabs arrived in the 7th century, who were led by Abdur Rahman bin Samara . It later fell to the Saffarids of Zaranj and saw the first Muslim rule. Mahmud of Ghazni made it part of the Ghaznavids in the 10th century, who were replaced by the Ghurids . Grishk Dam , built by the United States around the 1960s.

After the destructions caused by Genghis Khan and his Mongol army in the 13th century, the Timurids established rule and began rebuilding Afghan cities. From about 1383 until his death in 1407, it was governed by Pir Muhammad , a grandson of Timur . By the early 16th century, it fell to Babur . However, the area was often contested by the Shia Safavids and Sunni Mughals until the rise of Mir Wais Hotak in 1709. He defeated the Safavids and established the Hotaki dynasty . The Hotakis ruled it until 1738 when the Afsharids defeated Shah Hussain Hotaki at what is now Old Kandahar .

In 1747, it finally submitted to Ahmad Shah Durrani and since then remained part of the modern state of Afghanistan. Some fighting took place during the 19th century Anglo-Afghan wars between the British and the local Afghans. In 1880, the British assisted the forces of Abdur Rahman Khan in re-establishing Afghan rule over the warring tribes. The area stayed calm for 100 years until the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan .

Helmand was the center of the USAID program in the 1960s to develop the Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority (HAVA) – it became known locally as "little America". The program laid out tree-lined streets in Lashkar Gah, built a network of irrigation canals and constructed a large hydroelectric dam. The development program was abandoned when pro-Soviet Union forces seized power in 1978, although much of the province is still irrigated by the HAVA.

KARZAI AND GHANI ERA

Further information: Helmand province campaign

More recently the USAID program has contributed to a counter-narcotics initiative called the Alternative Livelihoods Program (ALP) in the province. It pays communities to work to improve their environment and economic infrastructure as an alternative to opium poppy farming. The project undertakes drainage and canal rehabilitation projects. In 2005 and 2006, there were problems in getting promised finance to communities and this is a source of considerable tension between the farmers and the Coalition forces

It was announced in January 2006 in the British Parliament that International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) would replace the U.S. troops in the province as part of Operation Herrick . The British 16 Air Assault Brigade would be the core of the force in Helmand Province. British bases were located in the districts of Sangin , Lashkar Gah and Gereshk . British forces were replaced in Sangin by elements of the United States Marine Corps I Marine Expeditionary Force Forward. Camp Leatherneck

As of Summer 2006, Helmand was one of the provinces involved in Operation Mountain Thrust , a combined NATO-Afghan mission targeted at Taliban fighters in the south of the country. In July 2006, this offensive mission essentially stalled in Helmand as NATO, primarily British, and Afghan troops were forced to take increasingly defensive positions under heavy insurgent pressure. In response, British troop levels in the province were increased, and new encampments were established in Sangin and Gereshk. Fighting has been particularly heavy in the districts of Sangin, Naway, Nawzad and Garmsir . There were reports that the Taliban saw Helmand province as a key testing area for their ability to take and hold Afghan territory from NATO-led Afghan National Security Forces . Commanders on the ground have described the situation as the most brutal conflict the British Army has been involved in since the Korean War . Locals drive on the new 12-kilometer road built by Afghans partnered with Marine and British engineer mentors. The new road was completed five months ahead of schedule and built entirely by Afghans.

In Autumn 2006, British troops started to reach "cessation of hostilities" agreements with local Taliban forces around the district centers where they had been stationed earlier in the summer. Under the terms of the agreement, both sets of forces were to withdraw from the conflict zone. This agreement from the British forces implied that the strategy of holding key bases in the district, as requested by Afghan President Hamid Karzai , was essentially untenable with the current levels of British troop deployment. The agreement was also a setback for Taliban fighters, who were desperate to consolidate their gains in the province, but were under heavy pressure from various NATO offensives. A U.S. Marine greeting local children working in an opium poppy field in 2011.

News reports identified the insurgents involved in the fighting as a mix of Taliban fighters and warring tribal groups who are heavily involved in the province's lucrative opium trade. Given the amount of drugs produced in the area, it is likely that foreign drug traffickers are also involved.

Fighting continued throughout the winter, with British and allied troops taking a more pro-active stance against the Taliban insurgents. Several operations were launched including the more recent _Operation Silicone_ at the start of spring. In May 2007, Mullah Dadullah , one of the Taliban's top commanders, along with 11 of his men were killed by NATO-led Afghan forces in Helmand. Afghan National Police station in Lashkar Gah .

In April 2008, about 1,500 2nd Battalion 7th Marines occupied over 300 square miles (800 km2) of Helmand River valley and neighboring Farah Province . The operation was to set up forward operation bases and train the Afghan National Police in an area with little or no outside support.

Also in 2008, an Embedded Training Team from the Oregon Army National Guard led a Kandak of Afghan National Army troops in fighting against the Taliban in Lashkar Gah , as seen in the documentary Shepherds of Helmand .

In June 2009, _Operation Panther's Claw_ was launched with the stated aim of securing control of various canal and river crossings and establishing a lasting ISAF presence in an area described by Lt. Col. Richardson as "one of the main Taliban strongholds" ahead of the 2009 Afghan presidential election.

In July 2009, around 4,000 U.S. Marines pushed into the Helmand River valley in a major offensive to liberate the area from Taliban insurgents. The operation, dubbed Operation Khanjar (_Operation Dagger_), was the first major push since U.S. President Obama 's request for 21,000 additional soldiers in Afghanistan, targeting the Taliban insurgents.

In February 2013, _ BBC _ reported that corruption occurs in Afghan National Police bases, with some bases arming children, using them as servants and sometimes sexually abusing them; in early March 2013, the _ New York Times _ reported that government corruption is rampant with routine accusations against the police of shaking down and sexually abusing civilians causing loyalty to the government to be weaker.

POLITICS AND GOVERNANCE

Further information: List of governors of Helmand and Politics of Afghanistan

The current Governor of the province is Mirza Khan Rahimi. The city of Lashkar Gah is the capital of Helmand province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are controlled by the Afghan National Police (ANP). Helmand's border with neighboring Balochistan province of Pakistan is monitored and protected by the Afghan Border Police (ABP), which is part of the ANP. The border is called the Durand Line and is known to be one of the most dangerous in the world due to heavy militant activities and illegal smugglings. A provincial Police Chief is assigned to lead both the ANP. The Police Chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul . The ANP is backed by other Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), including the NATO-led forces.

TRANSPORT AND ECONOMY

Further information: Transport in Afghanistan The Antonov An-225 Mriya at Camp Bastion

Bost Airport serves the population of Helmand for domestic flights to other parts of the country. It is designed for civilian use. NATO-led forces are heavily using the airport at Camp Bastion , where Camp Leatherneck is located nearby.

There is no rail service. Primary roads include the ring road passes through Helmand from Kandahar to Delaram. There is a major north-south route (Highway 611) that goes from Lashkar Gah to Sangin. About 33% of Helmands roads are not passable during certain seasons and in some areas there are no roads at all.

Farming is the main source of income for the majority. This includes agriculture and animal husbandry. Animals include cows, sheep, goats, and chicken. Donkeys and camels are used for labor. The province has a potential for fishery. The region produce the following: Opium, tobacco, sugar beets, cotton, sesame, wheat, mung beans, maize, nuts, sub flowers, onions, potato, tomato, cauliflower, peanut, apricot, grape, and melon.

HEALTHCARE

Further information: Health in Afghanistan

The percentage of households with clean drinking water fell from 28% in 2005 to 3% in 2011. The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 2% in 2005 to 3% in 2011.

EDUCATION

Further information: Education in Afghanistan

The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) increased from 5% in 2005 to 12% in 2011. The overall net enrollment rate (6–13 years of age) fell from 6% in 2005 to 4% in 2011.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Ethnolinguistic groups of Afghanistan Districts of Helmand Province Further information: Demographics of Afghanistan

The population of Helmand Province was reported at 879,500 in the year 2013. It is mostly a tribal and rural society, with the native ethnic Pashtuns being the majority, followed by Baloch , Tajiks , Hazaras and others as the minority. There may also be small number of Hindus and Sikhs who run businesses in the provincial capital, Lashkar Gah. The Pashtuns are divided into the following tribes: Barakzai (32%), Nurzai (16%), Alakozai (9%), and Eshaqzai (5.2%). All the inhabitants practice Sunni Islam except the small number of Hazaras who are Shi\'as and the Sikhs who follow Sikhism .

DISTRICTS

Districts of Helmand Province DISTRICT CAPITAL POPULATION AREA NUMBER OF VILLAGES AND ETHNIC GROUPS

Baghran

129,947 3,124 km2 38 villages. Pashtun.

Dishu

29,005 9,485 km2 80% Pashtun and 20% Baloch

Garmsir

107,153 10,345 km2 112 villages. Pashtun.

Kajaki

119,023 1,976 km2 220 villages 100% Pashtun

Khanashin

17,333 13,153 km2 Pashtun

Lashkar Gah Lashkar Gah 201,546 998 km2 160 villages. Pashtun.

Marjah Marjah

2,300 km2 95% Pashtun, 5% Tajik and Hazara.

Musa Qala Musa Qala 138,896 1,694 km2 Pashtun

Nad Ali

235,590 4,564 km2 90% Pashtun, 10% Turkmen and

Hazara.

Nahri Saraj

166,827 1,543 km2 97 villages. Pashtun

Nawa-I-Barakzayi

300,000 4135 km2 350 villages. Pashtun

Nawzad

108,258 4,135 km2 100% Pashtun

Sangin Sangin 66,901 508 km2 99% Pashtun, 1% Hazara, Tajik and Arab.

Washir

31,476 4,319 km2 Pashtun

Bahram Chah

(300-3500)

POLITICIANS

* Dad Mohammad Khan * Sher Mohammed Akhundzada * Mohammad Daoud

SEE ALSO

* Provinces of Afghanistan * 2007 Helmand province airstrikes * Dashti Margo * Operation Khanjar

GALLERY

* Images of Helmand Province

*

The Kajaki Dam (left) and spillway (right) *

Camp Bastion at night *

New Afghan recruit *

Forward Operating Base Edinburgh *

Soldier of the Afghan National Army (ANA) with an RPG-7 at Camp Shorabak in Helmand province *

Afghan National Security Forces , which includes Afghan National Police (ANP), Afghan Border Police (ABP) and Afghan Local Police (ALP) *

Afghans with national flags

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ Zain ullah Stanakzai (August 30, 2015). "300 casualties inflicted on rebels in Musa Qala: Governor". _ Pajhwok Afghan News _. Retrieved August 15, 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Settled Population of Helmand province by Civil Division, Urban, Rural and Sex-2012-13" (PDF). Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Central Statistics Organization. Retrieved 2012-12-27. * ^ "Helmand". _ Dictionary.com Unabridged_. Random House . * ^ _A_ _B_ "Hillmand Province". _Government of Afghanistan and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)_. Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development . Retrieved 2012-12-27. * ^ Pat McGeough (2007-03-05). "Where the poppy is king". Sydney Morning Herald . Archived from the original on 2010-02-03. More than 90 per cent of the province's arable land is choked with the hardy plant. A 600-strong, US-trained eradication force is hopelessly behind schedule on its target for this growing season in Helmand - to clear about a third of the crop, which is estimated to be a head-spinning 70,000 hectares. * ^ " Afghanistan still the largest producer of opium: UN report". Zee News . Archived from the original on 2010-02-03. She said opium cultivation is concentrated in the south of the country, with just one province ‘Helmand’ accounting for 42% of all the illicit production in the world. Many of the provinces with the highest levels of production also have the worst security problems. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Helmand" (PDF). _Program for Culture & Conflict Studies_. May 1, 2010. Retrieved 2012-12-28. * ^ Jarrige, J.-F., Didier, A. Artefacts, languages and texts, Routledge (1999), ISBN 0-415-10054-2 . * ^ "AVESTA: VENDIDAD (English): Fargard 1.". _avesta.org_. * ^ "Coalition \'retakes Taleban towns\'". _ BBC News_. 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2010-05-04. * ^ Smith, Michael (2006-10-01). "British troops in secret truce with the Taliban". _The Times_. London. Retrieved 2010-05-04. * ^ Leithead, Alastair (2006-07-14). "Unravelling the Helmand impasse". _ BBC News_. Retrieved 2010-05-04. * ^ Ben Anderson (25 February 2013). "Afghan police: Panorama uncovers corruption in Helmand bases". _ BBC News_. Retrieved 4 March 2013. * ^ James Dao (3 March 2013). "As Marines Exit Afghan Province, a Feeling That a Campaign Was Worth It". _New York Times_. Retrieved 4 March 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Archive, Civil Military Fusion Centre, https://www.cimicweb.org/AfghanistanProvincialMap/Pages/Helmand.aspx * ^ NPS.edu * ^ Baghran District * ^ http://www.aims.org.af/afg/dist_profiles/unhcr_district_profiles/southern/helmand/dishu.pdf * ^ Disho District * ^ Garmser District * ^ Kajaki District * ^ http://www.aims.org.af/afg/dist_profiles/unhcr_district_profiles/southern/helmand/kajaki.pdf * ^ Khanishin District * ^ Bost District (Re-elected) * ^ Marja District * ^ Mousa Qala District * ^ Nad Ali District * ^ Nahri Saraj District * ^ Nawa District (Re-elected) * ^ http://www.aims.org.af/afg/dist_profiles/unhcr_district_profiles/southern/helmand/naw_zad.pdf * ^ Nawa District (Re-elected) * ^ Sangin District * ^ Baghran District

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