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Helmand (/ˈhɛlmənd/ HEL-mənd;[3] Pashto/Dari: هلمند), also known as Hillmand or Helman, and, in ancient times, as Hermand and Hethumand [4] is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, in the south of the country. It is the largest province by area, covering 58,584 square kilometres (20,000 sq mi) area. The province contains 13 districts, encompassing over 1,000 villages, and roughly 879,500 settled people.[2] Lashkar Gah
Lashkar Gah
serves as the provincial capital. Helmand was part of the Greater Kandahar
Kandahar
region until made into a separate province by the Afghan government in the 20th century. The province has a domestic airport (Bost Airport), in the city of Lashkar Gah and heavily used by NATO-led forces. The British Camp Bastion
Camp Bastion
and U.S. Camp Leatherneck
Camp Leatherneck
are a short distance southwest of Lashkar Gah. The Helmand River
Helmand River
flows through the mainly desert region of the province, providing water for irrigation. The Kajaki Dam, which is one of Afghanistan's major reservoirs, is located in the Kajaki district. Helmand is believed to be one of the world's largest opium-producing regions, responsible for around 42% of the world's total production.[5][6] This is believed to be more than the whole of Burma, which is the second largest producing nation after Afghanistan. The region also produces tobacco, sugar beets, cotton, sesame, wheat, mung beans, maize, nuts, sunflowers, onions, potato, tomato, cauliflower, peanut, apricot, grape, and melon.[7]

Contents

1 History

1.1 Helmand culture 1.2 Vedic to Achaemenid times 1.3 Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
to modern times 1.4 Karzai and Ghani era

2 Politics and governance 3 Transport and economy 4 Healthcare 5 Education 6 Demographics 7 Districts 8 Politicians 9 See also 10 Gallery 11 References 12 External links

History[edit]

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Further information: History of Afghanistan Helmand culture[edit] Helmand culture of western Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was a Bronze Age
Bronze Age
culture of the 3rd millennium BC. It is exemplified by such major sites as Shahr-i Sokhta, Mundigak, and Bampur. The term "Helmand civilization" was proposed by M. Tosi. This civilization flourished between 2500 BC and 1900 BC, and may have coincided with the great flourishing of the Indus Valley Civilisation. This was also the final phase of Periods III and IV of Shahr-i Sokhta, and the last part of Mundigak
Mundigak
Period IV. According to Jarrige et al.,

"... the pottery of Mundigak
Mundigak
I, the earliest occupation of the “Helmand” cultural complex, corresponds to the Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
III pottery, in technique — quality of the paste and manufacture — as well as in the shapes and decoration, probably within a phase dated to the end of the 5th millennium [BC]."[8]

There were also links between Shahr-i Sokhta
Shahr-i Sokhta
I, II and III periods, and Mundigak
Mundigak
III and IV periods, and between the sites of Balochistan and the Indus valley at the end of the 4th millennium, as well as in the first half of the 3rd millennium BC. Jiroft culture
Jiroft culture
is closely related to Helmand culture. Jiroft culture flourished in the eastern Iran, and the Helmand culture in western Afghanistan
Afghanistan
at the same time. In fact, they may represent the same cultural area. Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
culture, on the other hand, is far earlier. Vedic to Achaemenid times[edit] Some Vedic scholars (e.g. Kochhar 1999) also believe the Helmand valley corresponds to the Sarasvati area mentioned in the Rig Veda
Rig Veda
as the homeland for the Indo-Aryan migrations into India, ca. 1500 BC.[9] Helmand was inhabited by ancient peoples and governed by the Medes before falling to the Achaemenids. Later, the area was part of the ancient Arachosia
Arachosia
polity, and a frequent target for conquest because of its strategic location in Asia, which connects Southern, Central and Southwest Asia. The Helmand river valley is mentioned by name in the Avesta
Avesta
(Fargard 1:13) as Haetumant, one of the early centers or origins of the Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
faith, in pre-Islamic Afghan history. However, owing to the preponderance of non-Zoroastrians before the Islamization
Islamization
of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
– particularly Hindus and Buddhists – the Helmand and Kabul
Kabul
regions were also known as "White India" in those days.[10] Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
to modern times[edit] It was invaded in 330 BC by Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and became part of the Seleucid Empire. Later, it came under the rule of the Indian emperor Ashoka, who erected a pillar there with a bilingual inscription in Greek and Aramaic. The territory was referred to as part of Zabulistan and ruled by the sun-worshipping Hindus Zunbils
Zunbils
before the Muslim Arabs arrived in the 7th century, who were led by Abdur Rahman bin Samara. It later fell to the Saffarids of Zaranj
Zaranj
and saw the first Muslim
Muslim
rule. Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni
made it part of the Ghaznavids
Ghaznavids
in the 10th century, who were replaced by the Ghurids.

Grishk Dam, built by the United States
United States
around the 1960s.

After the destructions caused by Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan
and his Mongol army in the 13th century, the Timurids established rule and began rebuilding Afghan cities. From about 1383 until his death in 1407, it was governed by Pir Muhammad, a grandson of Timur. By the early 16th century, it fell to Babur. However, the area was often contested by the Shia Safavids and Sunni Mughals until the rise of Mir Wais Hotak in 1709. He defeated the Safavids and established the Hotaki dynasty. The Hotakis ruled it until 1738 when the Afsharids defeated Shah Hussain Hotaki
Hussain Hotaki
at what is now Old Kandahar. In 1747, it finally submitted to Ahmad Shah Durrani
Ahmad Shah Durrani
and since then remained part of the modern state of Afghanistan. Some fighting took place during the 19th century Anglo-Afghan wars between the British and the local Afghans. In 1880, the British assisted the forces of Abdur Rahman Khan in re-establishing Afghan rule over the warring tribes. The area stayed calm for 100 years until the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Helmand was the center of the USAID program in the 1960s to develop the Helmand and Arghandab Valley Authority (HAVA) – it became known locally as "little America". The program laid out tree-lined streets in Lashkar Gah, built a network of irrigation canals and constructed a large hydroelectric dam. The development program was abandoned when pro-Soviet Union forces seized power in 1978, although much of the province is still irrigated by the HAVA. Karzai and Ghani era[edit] Further information: Helmand province campaign More recently the USAID program has contributed to a counter-narcotics initiative called the Alternative Livelihoods Program (ALP) in the province. It pays communities to work to improve their environment and economic infrastructure as an alternative to opium poppy farming. The project undertakes drainage and canal rehabilitation projects. In 2005 and 2006, there were problems in getting promised finance to communities and this is a source of considerable tension between the farmers and the Coalition forces[citation needed] It was announced in January 2006 in the British Parliament that International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
(ISAF) would replace the U.S. troops in the province as part of Operation Herrick. The British 16 Air Assault Brigade would be the core of the force in Helmand Province. British bases were located in the districts of Sangin, Lashkar Gah
Lashkar Gah
and Gereshk. British forces were replaced in Sangin
Sangin
by elements of the United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
I Marine Expeditionary Force Forward.

Camp Leatherneck

As of Summer 2006, Helmand was one of the provinces involved in Operation Mountain Thrust, a combined NATO-Afghan mission targeted at Taliban
Taliban
fighters in the south of the country. In July 2006, this offensive mission essentially stalled in Helmand as NATO, primarily British, and Afghan troops were forced to take increasingly defensive positions under heavy insurgent pressure. In response, British troop levels in the province were increased, and new encampments were established in Sangin
Sangin
and Gereshk. Fighting has been particularly heavy in the districts of Sangin, Naway, Nawzad and Garmsir. There were reports that the Taliban
Taliban
saw Helmand province as a key testing area for their ability to take and hold Afghan territory from NATO-led Afghan National Security Forces.[11] Commanders on the ground have described the situation as the most brutal conflict the British Army has been involved in since the Korean War.

Locals drive on the new 12-kilometer road built by Afghans partnered with Marine and British engineer mentors. The new road was completed five months ahead of schedule and built entirely by Afghans.

In Autumn 2006, British troops started to reach "cessation of hostilities" agreements with local Taliban
Taliban
forces around the district centers where they had been stationed earlier in the summer.[12] Under the terms of the agreement, both sets of forces were to withdraw from the conflict zone. This agreement from the British forces implied that the strategy of holding key bases in the district, as requested by Afghan President Hamid Karzai, was essentially untenable with the current levels of British troop deployment. The agreement was also a setback for Taliban
Taliban
fighters, who were desperate to consolidate their gains in the province, but were under heavy pressure from various NATO offensives.

A U.S. Marine greeting local children working in an opium poppy field in 2011.

News reports identified the insurgents involved in the fighting as a mix of Taliban
Taliban
fighters and warring tribal groups who are heavily involved in the province's lucrative opium trade.[13] Given the amount of drugs produced in the area, it is likely that foreign drug traffickers are also involved. Fighting continued throughout the winter, with British and allied troops taking a more pro-active stance against the Taliban
Taliban
insurgents. Several operations were launched including the more recent Operation Silicone at the start of spring. In May 2007, Mullah Dadullah, one of the Taliban's top commanders, along with 11 of his men were killed by NATO-led Afghan forces in Helmand.

Afghan National Police
Afghan National Police
station in Lashkar Gah.

In April 2008, about 1,500 2nd Battalion 7th Marines
2nd Battalion 7th Marines
occupied over 300 square miles (800 km2) of Helmand River
Helmand River
valley and neighboring Farah Province. The operation was to set up forward operation bases and train the Afghan National Police
Afghan National Police
in an area with little or no outside support. Also in 2008, an Embedded Training Team
Embedded Training Team
from the Oregon Army National Guard led a Kandak of Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
troops in fighting against the Taliban
Taliban
in Lashkar Gah, as seen in the documentary Shepherds of Helmand. In June 2009, Operation Panther's Claw was launched with the stated aim of securing control of various canal and river crossings and establishing a lasting ISAF
ISAF
presence in an area described by Lt. Col. Richardson as "one of the main Taliban
Taliban
strongholds" ahead of the 2009 Afghan presidential election. In July 2009, around 4,000 U.S. Marines pushed into the Helmand River valley in a major offensive to liberate the area from Taliban insurgents. The operation, dubbed Operation Khanjar
Operation Khanjar
(Operation Dagger), was the first major push since U.S. President Obama's request for 21,000 additional soldiers in Afghanistan, targeting the Taliban insurgents. In February 2013, BBC
BBC
reported that corruption occurs in Afghan National Police bases, with some bases arming children, using them as servants and sometimes sexually abusing them;[14] in early March 2013, the New York Times
New York Times
reported that government corruption is rampant with routine accusations against the police of shaking down and sexually abusing civilians causing loyalty to the government to be weaker.[15] Politics and governance[edit] Further information: List of governors of Helmand
List of governors of Helmand
and Politics of Afghanistan The current Governor of the province is Mirza Khan Rahimi.[1] The city of Lashkar Gah
Lashkar Gah
is the capital of Helmand province. All law enforcement activities throughout the province are controlled by the Afghan National Police (ANP). Helmand's border with neighboring Balochistan province of Pakistan
Pakistan
is monitored and protected by the Afghan Border Police (ABP), which is part of the ANP. The border is called the Durand Line
Durand Line
and is known to be one of the most dangerous in the world due to heavy militant activities and illegal smugglings. A provincial Police Chief is assigned to lead both the ANP. The Police Chief represents the Ministry of the Interior in Kabul. The ANP is backed by other Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), including the NATO-led forces. Transport and economy[edit] Further information: Transport in Afghanistan

The Antonov An-225 Mriya
Antonov An-225 Mriya
at Camp Bastion

Bost Airport
Bost Airport
serves the population of Helmand for domestic flights to other parts of the country. It is designed for civilian use. NATO-led forces are heavily using the airport at Camp Bastion, where Camp Leatherneck is located nearby. There is no rail service. Primary roads include the ring road passes through Helmand from Kandahar
Kandahar
to Delaram. There is a major north-south route (Highway 611) that goes from Lashkar Gah
Lashkar Gah
to Sangin. About 33% of Helmands roads are not passable during certain seasons and in some areas there are no roads at all. Farming is the main source of income for the majority. This includes agriculture and animal husbandry. Animals include cows, sheep, goats, and chicken. Donkeys and camels are used for labor. The province has a potential for fishery. The region produce the following: opium, tobacco, sugar beets, cotton, sesame, wheat, mung beans, maize, nuts, sunflowers, onions, potato, tomato, cauliflower, peanut, apricot, grape and melon. Healthcare[edit] Further information: Health in Afghanistan The percentage of households with clean drinking water fell from 28% in 2005 to 3% in 2011.[16] The percentage of births attended to by a skilled birth attendant increased from 2% in 2005 to 3% in 2011.[16] Education[edit] Further information: Education in Afghanistan The overall literacy rate (6+ years of age) increased from 5% in 2005 to 12% in 2011.[16] The overall net enrollment rate (6–13 years of age) fell from 6% in 2005 to 4% in 2011.[16] Demographics[edit]

Ethnolinguistic groups of Afghanistan

Districts of Helmand Province

Further information: Demographics of Afghanistan The population of Helmand Province
Helmand Province
was reported at 879,500 in the year 2013.[2] It is mostly a tribal and rural society, with the native ethnic Pashtuns being the majority, followed by Baloch, Tajiks, Hazaras and others as the minority. There may also be small number of Hindus and Sikhs who run businesses in the provincial capital, Lashkar Gah.[17] The Pashtuns are divided into the following tribes: Barakzai (32%), Nurzai
Nurzai
(16%), Alakozai
Alakozai
(9%), and Eshaqzai (5.2%).[7] All the inhabitants practice Sunni Islam
Sunni Islam
except the small number of Hazaras who are Shi'as and the Sikhs who follow Sikhism. Districts[edit]

Districts of Helmand Province

District Capital Population[4] Area Number of villages and ethnic groups

Baghran

129,947 3,124 km2 38 villages. Pashtun.[18]

Dishu

29,005 9,485 km2 80% Pashtun and 20% Baloch[19][20]

Garmsir

107,153 10,345 km2 112 villages. Pashtun.[21]

Kajaki

119,023 1,976 km2 220 villages[22] 100% Pashtun[23]

Khanashin

17,333 13,153 km2 Pashtun[24]

Lashkar Gah Lashkar Gah 201,546 998 km2 160 villages. Pashtun.[25]

Marjah Marjah

2,300 km2 95% Pashtun, 5% Tajik and Hazara.[26]

Musa Qala Musa Qala 138,896 1,694 km2 Pashtun[27]

Nad Ali

235,590 4,564 km2 90% Pashtun, 10% Turkmen and Hazara.[28]

Nahri Saraj

166,827 1,543 km2 97 villages. Pashtun[29]

Nawa-I-Barakzayi

300,000 4135 km2 350 villages. Pashtun[30]

Nawzad

108,258 4,135 km2 100% Pashtun[31][32]

Sangin Sangin 66,901 508 km2 99% Pashtun, 1% Hazara, Tajik and Arab.[33]

Washir

31,476 4,319 km2 Pashtun[34]

Bahram Chah

(300-3500)

Politicians[edit]

Dad Mohammad Khan Sher Mohammed Akhundzada Mohammad Daoud

See also[edit]

Provinces of Afghanistan 2007 Helmand province airstrikes Dashti Margo Operation Khanjar

Gallery[edit]

Images of Helmand Province

The Kajaki Dam
Kajaki Dam
(left) and spillway (right)

Camp Bastion
Camp Bastion
at night

New Afghan recruit

Forward Operating Base Edinburgh

Soldier of the Afghan National Army
Afghan National Army
(ANA) with an RPG-7 at Camp Shorabak in Helmand province

Afghan National Security Forces, which includes Afghan National Police (ANP), Afghan Border Police
Afghan Border Police
(ABP) and Afghan Local Police
Afghan Local Police
(ALP)

Afghans with national flags

References[edit]

^ a b Zain ullah Stanakzai (August 30, 2015). "300 casualties inflicted on rebels in Musa Qala: Governor". Pajhwok Afghan News. Retrieved August 15, 2016.  ^ a b c "Settled Population of Helmand province by Civil Division, Urban, Rural and Sex-2012-13" (PDF). Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Central Statistics Organization. Retrieved 2012-12-27.  ^ "Helmand". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.  ^ a b "Hillmand Province". Government of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development. Retrieved 2012-12-27.  ^ Pat McGeough (2007-03-05). "Where the poppy is king". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on 2010-02-03. More than 90 per cent of the province's arable land is choked with the hardy plant. A 600-strong, US-trained eradication force is hopelessly behind schedule on its target for this growing season in Helmand - to clear about a third of the crop, which is estimated to be a head-spinning 70,000 hectares.  ^ " Afghanistan
Afghanistan
still the largest producer of opium: UN report". Zee News. Archived from the original on 2010-02-03. She said opium cultivation is concentrated in the south of the country, with just one province ‘Helmand’ accounting for 42% of all the illicit production in the world. Many of the provinces with the highest levels of production also have the worst security problems.  ^ a b "Helmand" (PDF). Program for Culture & Conflict Studies. May 1, 2010. Retrieved 2012-12-28.  ^ Jarrige, J.-F., Didier, A. & Quivron, G. (2011) Shahr-i Sokhta and the Chronology of the Indo-Iranian Borderlands. Paléorient 37 (2) : 7-34 academia.edu ^ Kochhar, Rajesh, 'On the identity and chronology of the Ṛgvedic river Sarasvatī' in Archaeology and Language III; Artefacts, languages and texts, Routledge
Routledge
(1999), ISBN 0-415-10054-2. ^ "AVESTA: VENDIDAD (English): Fargard 1". avesta.org.  ^ "Coalition 'retakes Taleban towns'". BBC
BBC
News. 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2010-05-04.  ^ Smith, Michael (2006-10-01). "British troops in secret truce with the Taliban". The Times. London. Retrieved 2010-05-04.  ^ Leithead, Alastair (2006-07-14). "Unravelling the Helmand impasse". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 2010-05-04.  ^ Ben Anderson (25 February 2013). "Afghan police: Panorama uncovers corruption in Helmand bases". BBC
BBC
News. Retrieved 4 March 2013.  ^ James Dao (3 March 2013). "As Marines Exit Afghan Province, a Feeling That a Campaign Was Worth It". New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2013.  ^ a b c d Archive, Civil Military Fusion Centre, "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-05-31. Retrieved 2014-05-30.  ^ "Welcome - Naval Postgraduate School" (PDF). www.nps.edu. Retrieved 28 March 2018.  ^ Baghran District
Baghran District
Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.aims.org.af/afg/dist_profiles/unhcr_district_profiles/southern/helmand/dishu.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ Disho District Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Garmser District Archived 2013-07-29 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kajaki District
Kajaki District
Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.aims.org.af/afg/dist_profiles/unhcr_district_profiles/southern/helmand/kajaki.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ Khanishin District Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Bost District (Re-elected) Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Marja District Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Mousa Qala District Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nad Ali District
Nad Ali District
Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nahri Saraj District
Nahri Saraj District
Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nawa District
Nawa District
(Re-elected) Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ http://www.aims.org.af/afg/dist_profiles/unhcr_district_profiles/southern/helmand/naw_zad.pdf[permanent dead link] ^ Nawa District
Nawa District
(Re-elected) Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Sangin
Sangin
District Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Baghran District
Baghran District
Archived 2013-07-05 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Helmand Province.

Places adjacent to Helmand Province

Farah Province Ghor Province Daykundi Province Urozgan Province

Nimruz Province

Helmand Province

Kandahar
Kandahar
Province

Balochistan,  Pakistan

v t e

Provinces of Afghanistan

Badakhshan Badghis Baghlan Balkh Bamyan Daykundi Farah Faryab Ghazni Ghor Helmand Herat Jowzjan Kabul Kandahar Kapisa Khost Kunar Kunduz Laghman Logar Maidan Wardak Nangarhar Nimruz Nuristan Paktia Paktika Panjshir Parwan Samangan Sar-e Pol Takhar Urozgan Zabul

v t e

Districts of Afghanistan
Afghanistan
by province

Badakhshan

Arghanj Khwa Argo Baharak Darayim Maimay Nusay Fayzabad Ishkashim Jurm Khash Khwahan Kishim Kohistan Kuf Ab Kuran Wa Munjan Raghistan Shahri Buzurg Shighnan Shekay Shuhada Tagab Tishkan Wakhan Wurduj Yaftali Sufla Yamgan Yawan Zebak

Badghis

Ab Kamari Jawand Muqur Murghab Qadis Qala i Naw

Baghlan

Andarab Baghlan Baghlani Jadid Burka Dahana i Ghuri Dih Salah Dushi Farang Wa Gharu Guzargahi Nur Khinjan Khost Wa Fereng Khwaja Hijran Nahrin Puli Hisar Puli Khumri Tala Wa Barfak

Balkh

Balkh Charbolak Charkint Chimtal Dawlatabad Dihdadi Kaldar Kholm Kishindih Marmul Mazar-e Sharif Nahri Shahi Sholgara Shortepa Zari

Bamyan

Bamyan Kahmard Panjab Sayghan Shibar Waras Yakawlang

Daykundi

Ishtarlay Kajran Khadir Kiti Miramor Nili Sangtakht Shahristan

Farah

Anar Dara Bakwa Bala Buluk Farah Gulistan Khaki Safed Lash Wa Juwayn Pur Chaman Pusht Rod Qala i Kah Shib Koh

Faryab

Almar Andkhoy Bilchiragh Dawlat Abad Ghormach Gurziwan Khani Chahar Bagh Khwaja Sabz Posh Kohistan Maymana Pashtun Kot Qaramqol Qaysar Qurghan Shirin Tagab

Ghazni

Ab Band Ajristan Andar Dih Yak Gelan Ghazni Giro Jaghori Jaghatu (Bahrami Shahid) Khogyani Khwaja Umari Malistan Muqur Nawa Nawur Qarabagh Rashidan Waghaz Zana Khan

Ghor

Chaghcharan Charsada Dawlat Yar Du Layna Lal Wa Sarjangal Pasaband Saghar Shahrak Taywara Tulak

Helmand

Baghran Dishu Garmsir Kajaki Khanashin Lashkargah Musa Qala Nad Ali Nahri Saraj Nawa-I-Barakzayi Nawzad Sangin Washir

Herat

Adraskan Chishti Sharif Farsi Ghoryan Gulran Guzara Herat Injil Karukh Kohsan Kushk Kushki Kuhna Obe Pashtun Zarghun Shindand Zinda Jan

Jowzjan

Aqcha Darzab Fayzabad Khamyab Khaniqa Khwaja Du Koh Mardyan Mingajik Qarqin Qush Tepa Shibirghan

Kabul

Bagrami Chahar Asyab Deh Sabz Farza Guldara Istalif Kabul Kalakan Khaki Jabbar Mir Bacha Kot Mussahi Paghman Qarabagh Shakardara Surobi

Kandahar

Arghandab Arghistan Daman Ghorak Kandahar Khakrez Maruf Maywand Miyanishin Nesh Panjwayi Reg Shah Wali Kot Shorabak Spin Boldak Zhari

Kapisa

Alasay Hesa Awal Kohistan Hesa Duwum Kohistan Koh Band Mahmud Raqi Nijrab Tagab

Khost

Bak Gurbuz Zazi Maidan Khost (Matun) Mandozayi Musakhel Nadir Shah Kot Qalandar Sabari Shamal Spera Tani Tirazayi

Kunar

Asadabad Bar Kunar Chapa Dara Chawkay Dangam Dara-I-Pech Ghaziabad Khas Kunar Marawara Narang Aw Badil Nari Nurgal Shaigal Aw Shiltan Sirkanay Wata Pur

Kunduz

Ali Abad Archi Chardara Imam Sahib Khan Abad Kunduz Qalay-I-Zal

Laghman

Alingar Alishing Dawlat Shah Mihtarlam Qarghayi

Logar

Azra Baraki Barak Charkh Kharwar Khoshi Mohammad Agha Puli Alam

Nangarhar

Achin Bati Kot Bihsud Chaparhar Darai Nur Dih Bala Dur Baba Goshta Hisarak Jalalabad Kama Khogyani Kot Kuz Kunar Lal Pur Momand Dara Nazyan Pachir Aw Agam Rodat Sherzad Shinwar Surkh Rod

Nimruz

Chahar Burjak Chakhansur Delaram Kang Khash Rod Zaranj

Nuristan

Bargi Matal Du Ab Kamdesh Mandol Nurgaram Paroon Wama Waygal

Paktia

Ahmadabad Tsamkani Dand Aw Patan Gardez Zazi Janikhel Lazha Ahmadkhel Sayid Karam Shwak Wuza Zadran Zurmat

Paktika

Barmal Dila Gayan Gomal Janikhel Mata Khan Nika Omna Sar Hawza Surobi Sharana Terwa Urgun Wazakhwa Wor Mamay Yahyakhel Yusufkhel Zarghun Shar Ziruk

Panjshir

Anaba Bazarak Darah Khenj Paryan Rokha Shotul

Parwan

Bagram Chaharikar Ghorband Jabul Saraj Kohi Safi Salang Sayed Khel Shekh Ali Shinwari Surkhi Parsa

Samangan

Aybak Darah Sof Feroz Nakhchir Hazarati Sultan Khuram Wa Sarbagh Ruyi Du Ab

Sar-e Pol

Balkhab Gosfandi Kohistanat Sancharak Sari Pul Sayyad Sozma Qala

Takhar

Baharak Bangi Chah Ab Chal Darqad Dashti Qala Farkhar Hazar Sumuch Ishkamish Kalafgan Khwaja Baha Wuddin Khwaja Ghar Namak Ab Rustaq Taluqan Warsaj Yangi Qala

Urozgan

Chora Deh Rawud Gizab Khas Urozgan Shahidi Hassas Tarinkot

Wardak

Chaki Wardak Day Mirdad Hisa-I-Awali Bihsud Jaghatu Jalrez Markazi Bihsud Maidan Shar Nirkh Saydabad

Zabul

Argahandab Atghar Dey Chopan Kakar Mizan Naw Bahar Qalat Shahjoy Shamulzayi Shinkay Tarnak Aw Jaldak

v t e

War on Terror

War in Afghanistan Iraq
Iraq
War War in North-West Pakistan Symbolism of terrorism

Participants

Operational

ISAF Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Enduring Freedom
participants Afghanistan Northern Alliance Iraq
Iraq
(Iraqi Armed Forces) NATO Pakistan United Kingdom United States European Union Philippines Ethiopia

Targets

al-Qaeda Osama bin Laden al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula Abu Sayyaf Anwar al-Awlaki Al-Shabaab Boko Haram Harkat-ul-Jihad al-Islami Hizbul Mujahideen Islamic Courts Union Islamic State of Iraq
Iraq
and the Levant Jaish-e-Mohammed Jemaah Islamiyah Lashkar-e-Taiba Taliban Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan

Conflicts

Operation Enduring Freedom

War in Afghanistan OEF – Philippines Georgia Train and Equip Program Georgia Sustainment and Stability OEF – Horn of Africa OEF – Trans Sahara Drone strikes in Pakistan

Other

Operation Active Endeavour Insurgency in the Maghreb (2002–present) Insurgency in the North Caucasus Moro conflict
Moro conflict
in the Philippines Iraq
Iraq
War Iraqi insurgency Operation Linda Nchi Terrorism in Saudi Arabia War in North-West Pakistan War in Somalia (2006–09) 2007 Lebanon conflict al-Qaeda insurgency in Yemen Korean conflict

See also

Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse Axis of evil Black sites Bush Doctrine Clash of Civilizations Cold War Combatant Status Review Tribunal Criticism of the War on Terror Death of Osama bin Laden Enhanced interrogation techniques Torture Memos Extrajudicial prisoners Extraordinary rendition Guantanamo Bay detention camp Iranian Revolution Islamic terrorism Islamism Military Commissions Act of 2006 North Korea and weapons of mass destruction Terrorist Surveillance Program Operation Noble Eagle Operation Eagle Assist Pakistan's role Patriot Act President's Surveillance Program Protect America Act of 2007 September 11 attacks State Sponsors of Terrorism Targeted killing Targeted Killing in International Law Targeted Killings: Law and Morality in an Asymmetrical World Unitary executive theory Unlawful combatant Withdrawal of U.S. troops from Afghanistan CAGE

Terrorism

.