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The genus Helichrysum
Helichrysum
/hɛlɪˈkraɪsəm/ consists of an estimated 600 species of flowering plants, in the sunflower family (Asteraceae). The type species is Helichrysum
Helichrysum
orientale. The name is derived from the Greek words ἑλίσσω (helisso, to turn around) and χρῡσός (chrysos, gold). It occurs in Africa (with 244 species in South Africa), Madagascar, Australasia and Eurasia. The plants may be annuals, herbaceous perennials or shrubs, growing to a height of 60–90 cm (24–35 inches). The genus was a wastebasket taxon, and many of its members have been reclassified in smaller genera, most notably the Everlastings, now in the genus Xerochrysum. Their leaves are oblong to lanceolate. They are flat and pubescent on both sides. The bristles of the pappus are scabrous, barbellate, or plumose. The receptacle (base of the flower head) is often smooth, with a fringed margin, or honey-combed, and resemble daisies. They may be in almost all colors, except blue. There are many capitula and generally flat-topped corymbs or panicles. The corolla lobes show glandular hairs at the abaxial surface. Helichrysum
Helichrysum
species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
species including the bucculaticid leaf-miners Bucculatrix gnaphaliella (which feeds exclusively on Helichrysum
Helichrysum
arenarium) and Bucculatrix helichrysella (feeds exclusively on H. italicum) and the Coleophora
Coleophora
case-bearers C. caelebipennella, C. gnaphalii (feeds exclusively on H arenarium) and C. helichrysiella (feeds exclusively on H. italicum).

Contents

1 Species 2 Uses 3 Gallery 4 Notes 5 References 6 External links

Species[edit] Hilliard (1983) divided this large and heterogeneous genus in 30 morphological groups. But this genus is controversial and is considered by many as an artificial genus. The taxonomy of the large polymorphic and probably polyphyletic Helichrysum
Helichrysum
genus is complex and not yet satisfactorily resolved. Several Australian species, such as H. acuminatum and H. bracteatum, have been reclassified in the genus Xerochrysum
Xerochrysum
in 1991, resp. as X. subundulatum and X. bracteatum. In 1989, misaligned species of Helichrysum
Helichrysum
were reclassified in Syncarpha. Species included in Pseudognaphalium, Anaphalis, Achyrocline
Achyrocline
and Humeocline are probably congeneric with Helichrysum.[1] Established species include:

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
abrotaniforme Helichrysum
Helichrysum
aciculare Helichrysum
Helichrysum
acuminatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
acutatum : Sticky everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
adenocarpum : Pink everlasting, red everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
adenophorum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
adnatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
adonidiforme Helichrysum
Helichrysum
aggregatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
alatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
albicans Helichrysum
Helichrysum
allioides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
alpinum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
ambiguum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
amorginum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
angustifolium : Curry plant Helichrysum
Helichrysum
angustum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
anomalum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
antennaria Helichrysum
Helichrysum
anthemoides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
apiculatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
appendiculatum : Sheep's ears everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
arachnoides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
arenarium : Dwarf everlasting

Helichrysum arenarium
Helichrysum arenarium
ssp. arenarium Helichrysum arenarium
Helichrysum arenarium
ssp. ponticum

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
argentissimum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
argyroglottis Helichrysum
Helichrysum
argyrolepis Helichrysum
Helichrysum
argyrophyllum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
argyrosphaerum : Wild everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
asteroides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
aureonitens : Golden everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
aureum : Yellow everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
auriceps Helichrysum
Helichrysum
ayersii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
baccharoides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
backhousei Helichrysum
Helichrysum
balfourii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
banksii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
basedowii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
beckleri Helichrysum
Helichrysum
biafranum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
bicolor Helichrysum
Helichrysum
bidwillii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
bilobum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
blackallii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
blandowskianum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
boormanii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
brachyrhynchum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
buftonii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
bupthalmoides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
caespititium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
calvertianum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cameroonense Helichrysum
Helichrysum
candolleanum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cassinioides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cassiope Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cephaloideum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cerastioides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
chionosphaerum : Dwarf everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
chlorochrysum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cinereum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cladochaetum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cochleariforme : Gold-and-silver Helichrysum
Helichrysum
collinum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
conditum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
confertifolium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cooperi : Yellow everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cordatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
coriaceum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
costatifructum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
crispum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cunninghamii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cylindrifolium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
cymosum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
dasyanthum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
dasymallum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
davenportii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
decorum Helichrysum diosmifolium
Helichrysum diosmifolium
(synonym of Ozothamnus diosmifolius) Helichrysum
Helichrysum
diotophyllum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
doerfleri Helichrysum
Helichrysum
ecklonis : Ecklon's everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
epapposum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
eremaeum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
eriocephalum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
erosum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
expansifolium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
felinum : Strawberry everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
ferrugineum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
filifolium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
flavissimum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
foetidum : Polecat strawflower, stinking strawflower Helichrysum
Helichrysum
formosissimum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
frigidum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
gatesii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
gerberaefolium[2] Helichrysum
Helichrysum
gilesii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
glomeratum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
glumaceum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
glutinosum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
gracilescens Helichrysum
Helichrysum
grandiflorum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
graveolens Helichrysum
Helichrysum
grayi Helichrysum
Helichrysum
griseum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
gymnocephalum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
gymnocomum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
harveyanum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
hebelepis Helichrysum
Helichrysum
heldreichii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
herbaceum : Monkey-tail everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
hirtoviscosum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
humboldtianum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
hypoleucum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
incanum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
indicum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
inornatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
insigne Helichrysum
Helichrysum
involucratum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
italicum : Curry plant

Helichrysum italicum
Helichrysum italicum
ssp. italicum Helichrysum italicum
Helichrysum italicum
ssp. microphyllum Helichrysum italicum
Helichrysum italicum
ssp. serotinum

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
kempei Helichrysum
Helichrysum
kraussii : Straw everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
krookii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
lanuginosum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
lawrencella Helichrysum
Helichrysum
ledifolium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
lepidophyllum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
leptolepis Helichrysum
Helichrysum
leucocephalum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
leucopsideum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
lindleyi Helichrysum
Helichrysum
lindsayanum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
lucidum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
lucilioides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
lycopodioides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
macivorii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
maidenii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
manglesii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
mannii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
melanacme Helichrysum
Helichrysum
melitense Helichrysum
Helichrysum
mellorianum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
milfordiae Helichrysum
Helichrysum
milliganii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
mimetes : Curry everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
moeserianum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
monochaetum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
mundtii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
nanum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
newcastlianum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
nimmoanum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
niveum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
nudifolium : Hottentot's tea Helichrysum
Helichrysum
obcordatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
obovatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
obtusifolium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
occidentale Helichrysum
Helichrysum
odoratissimum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
oldfieldii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
oligochaetum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
oreophilum Helichrysum orientale
Helichrysum orientale
(type species) Helichrysum
Helichrysum
oxylepis Helichrysum
Helichrysum
pallidum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
panduratum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
pandurifolium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
paralium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
patulum : Honey everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
paulayanum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
pedunculatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
petiolare : Licorice plant Helichrysum
Helichrysum
pholidotum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
pilosellum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
pleurandroides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
plicatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
podolepidium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
populifolium : Poplar helichrysum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
porrectum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
pseudoferrugineum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
pseudoturbinatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
pterochaetum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
pumilio Helichrysum
Helichrysum
purpurascens Helichrysum
Helichrysum
puteale Helichrysum
Helichrysum
ramosissimum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
readeri Helichrysum
Helichrysum
reticulatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
reflexum : White everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
retortum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
revolutum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
robustum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
rogersianum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
roseum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
rosulatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
rosum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
ruderale Helichrysum
Helichrysum
rufescens Helichrysum
Helichrysum
rugulosum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
rupestre Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sanguineum : Red everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sarcodes Helichrysum
Helichrysum
saxatile

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
saxatile ssp. errerae Helichrysum
Helichrysum
saxatile ssp. saxatile

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
scitulum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
scutellifolium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
secundiflorum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
selaginoides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
semiamplexicaule Helichrysum
Helichrysum
semicalvum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
semifertile Helichrysum
Helichrysum
semipapposum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
setosum : Yellow everlasting Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sibthorpii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sonderi Helichrysum
Helichrysum
spiceri Helichrysum
Helichrysum
spiralepis Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sphaerocephalum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
splendidum : Cape gold Helichrysum
Helichrysum
stellatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
stipitatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
stirlingii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
stoechas : Shrubby everlasting

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
stoechas ssp. barrelieri Helichrysum
Helichrysum
stoechas ssp. stoechas

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
stoveae Helichrysum
Helichrysum
subulifolium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
suffruticosum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sulcaticaule Helichrysum
Helichrysum
superbum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sutherlandii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
tasmanicum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
teretifolium Helichrysum
Helichrysum
thianschanicum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
thomsonii Helichrysum
Helichrysum
trilineatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
tuckeri Helichrysum
Helichrysum
turbinatum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
umbraculigerum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
vagans Helichrysum
Helichrysum
versicolor Helichrysum
Helichrysum
viscosum Helichrysum
Helichrysum
waitzioides Helichrysum
Helichrysum
whitei

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
stoechas is similar to the Helichrysum
Helichrysum
arenarium, but the leaves are all linear, with rolled under edges. It is found in western France on dunes near the sea. New species: In 2004, A. Miller identified five potentially new species that have not yet been published but were included in the IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
data, given their restricted range in Yemen. They are as follows:

Helichrysum sp. nov. A
Helichrysum sp. nov. A
- Its natural habitat is rocky areas. It was given a status of "Vulnerable" by the IUCN.[3] Helichrysum sp. nov. B
Helichrysum sp. nov. B
- Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland and rocky areas. It was given a status of "Vulnerable".[4] Helichrysum sp. nov. C
Helichrysum sp. nov. C
- Its natural habitat is rocky areas. It is threatened by habitat loss. It was given a status of "Endangered".[5] Helichrysum sp. nov. D
Helichrysum sp. nov. D
- Its natural habitat is rocky areas. It was given a status of "Endangered".[6] Helichrysum sp. nov. E
Helichrysum sp. nov. E
- Its natural habitat is rocky areas. It was given a status of "Data deficient".[7]

Uses[edit]

Helichrysum italicum
Helichrysum italicum
essential oil in glass vial

Several species are grown as ornamental plants, and for dried flowers. When cut young and dried, the open flowers and stalks preserve their colour and shape for long periods. Helichrysum italicum
Helichrysum italicum
(synonym Helichrysum
Helichrysum
angustifolium) is steam distilled to produce a yellow-reddish essential oil popular in fragrance for its unique scent, best described as a mixture of burnt sugar and ham. The epithet angustifolium means narrow leaved. It is commonly misspelled as augustifolium.[8] Gallery[edit]

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
candolleanum in Namibia

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
moeserianum in De Hoop N.R., South Africa

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
orientale

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
petiolare, Licorice Plant

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
roseo-niveum in Namibia

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
setosum

Helichrysum thianschanicum
Helichrysum thianschanicum
'Icicles' on display at the San Diego County Fair, CA, USA

Helichrysum thianschanicum
Helichrysum thianschanicum
(Icicles leaves) at nursery on Maui

Helichrysum
Helichrysum
umbraculigerum

Notes[edit]

^ Galbany-Casals, M. et al. 2014 Taxon, 63:608-624. Phylogenetic relationships in Helichrysum
Helichrysum
(Compositae: Gnaphalieae) and related genera: Incongruence between nuclear and plastid phylogenies, biogeographic and morphological patterns, and implications for generic delimitation ^ Bussmann, R. W., et al. (2006). Plant use of the Maasai of Sekenani Valley, Maasai Mara, Kenya. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2 22. ^ Miller, A. 2004. Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sp. nov. A. 2006 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Archived 2014-06-27 at the Wayback Machine. Downloaded on 20 July 2007. ^ Miller, A. 2004. Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sp. nov. B. 2006 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Archived 2014-06-27 at the Wayback Machine. Downloaded on 20 July 2007. ^ Miller, A. 2004. Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sp. nov. C. 2006 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Archived 2014-06-27 at the Wayback Machine. Downloaded on 20 July 2007. ^ Miller, A. 2004. Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sp. nov. D. 2006 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Archived 2014-06-27 at the Wayback Machine. Downloaded on 20 July 2007. ^ Miller, A. 2004. Helichrysum
Helichrysum
sp. nov. E. 2006 IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. Archived 2014-06-27 at the Wayback Machine. Downloaded on 20 July 2007. ^ http://www.floralimages.co.uk/info/botanicallatin.html for more details on botanical naming.

References[edit]

HILLIARD, O. 1983. Flora of Southern Africa, Part 7 Inuleae, Fascicle 2 Gnaphaliinae. Government Printer, Pretoria, South Africa. WILSON, P.G. 1992c. The classification of some Australian species currently included in Helipterum and Helichrysum
Helichrysum
(Asteraceae: Gnaphalieae): part 3 Anemocarpa and Argentipallium, two new genera from Australia. Nuytsia 8: 447–460. Mesfin Tadesse & Reilly, T. 1995. 17. A contribution to studies on Helichrysum
Helichrysum
(Compositae - Gnaphalieae) - a revision of the species of north-east tropical Africa. In: Advances in Compositae Systematics (eds. D.J.H. Hind, C. Jeffrey & G.V. Pope). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 379–450.

External links[edit]

Xeranthemum annuum photo Phylogenetic relationships within this genus Helichrysum
Helichrysum
Essential Oil species PHYLOGENY OF SOUTH AFRICAN GNAPHALIEAE (ASTERACEAE) Details of botanical naming

Dressler, S.; Schmidt, M. & Zizka, G. (2014). "Helichrysum". African plants – a Photo Guide. Frankfurt/Main: Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg. 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Helichrysum.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q28195 APDB: 191285 EoL: 62706 EPPO: 1HECG FloraBase: 22235 FNA: 114875 FoC: 114875 GBIF: 3131108 GRIN: 5477 IPNI: 9255-1 ITIS: 38768 NCBI: 59430 PLANTS: HELIC4

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