HEJAZI ARABIC or HIJAZI ARABIC (
In antiquity, the
* 1 Classification
* 1.1 Features
* 1.1.1 Sedentary features * 1.1.2 Conservative features
* 2 Phonology
* 2.1 Consonants
* 2.2 Vowels
* 2.2.1 Monophthongization
* 3 Vocabulary
* 4 Grammar
* 4.1 Subject pronouns
* 4.2 Verbs
* 4.2.1 Regular verbs
* 4.3 Object pronouns
* 6 Rural Dialects
* 6.1 Al-`Ula * 6.2 Badr
* 7 References * 8 Bibliography * 9 External links
Also referred to as the sedentary Hejazi dialect, this is the form
most commonly associated with the term "Hejazi Arabic", and is spoken
in the urban centers of the region, such as Jeddah, Mecca, and Medina.
With respect to the axis of bedouin versus sedentary dialects of the
* The present progressive tense is marked by the prefix بـ /bi/ or
د /gaːʕid/ as in بيدر
س /bijidrus/ or قاع
/gaːʕid jidrus/ ("he is studying").
* In contrast to bedouin dialects, the distinction between the
emphatic sounds /dˤ/
ض and /zˤ/
_ An Early Qur'anic Manuscript written in Hijazi script (8th century AD).
سمكة /samaka/ ("fish"), as opposed to bedouin /smika/. ضربَته /dˤarabatu/ ("she hit him"), as opposed to bedouin /ðˤrabətah/. أكت ب /aktub/ ("write"), Imperative mood, as opposed to bedouin /iktib/. عندَكُ م /ʕindakum/ ("in your possession" pl.), as opposed to bedouin /ʕandkum/, Egyptian /ʕanduku/, and Levantine /ʕandkun/.
Main article: Hejazi Arabic phonology
In general Hejazi phonemic inventory consists of twenty-six to
twenty-eight consonant phonemes depending on the speaker's background
and formality, while the number of vowel phonemes is eight; three
short and five long /a, u, i, aː, uː, oː, iː, eː/ (in contrast to
Classical Arabic six vowels) in addition to two diphthongs /aw, aj/.
LABIAL DENTAL DENTI-ALVEOLAR PALATAL VELAR PHARYNGEAL GLOTTAL
d dˤ d͡ʒ ɡ
FRICATIVE VOICELESS f θ s sˤ ʃ x ħ h
ð z zˤ
l (ɫ ) j w
* the classicized is an allophone of /ɡ/ ⟨
ق ⟩ in few words
and proper names as in القرآ
ن /algurˈʔaːn/→ ('Quran') and
القاهرة /alˈgaːhira/→ ('Cairo').
* the marginal phoneme /ɫ / only occurs in the word الله
/aɫːaːh/ ('god') and words derived from it, it contrasts with /l/
in والله /waɫːa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّ
ا /walːa/ ('or').
* the phonemes /θ/ ⟨
ث ⟩ and /ð/ ⟨
ذ ⟩ are completely
distinct, or they partially or completely merge with other phonemes,
depending on the speaker's accent.
* the phonemes /d͡ʒ/ ⟨
ج ⟩ and the trill /r/ ⟨
ر ⟩ are
realised as a and a tap respectively by a number of speakers.
* the classicized is an optional allophone for ⟨
FRONT BACK FRONT BACK
CLOSE i u iː uː
MID eː oː
OPEN a aː
* /oː/ and /eː/ are pronounced as true mid vowels and respectively.
* /u/ is pronounced allophonically as or in word initial or medial syllables and strictly as at the end of words or before or when isolate. * /i/ is pronounced allophonically as or in word initial or medial syllables and strictly as at the end of words or before or when isolate.
Most of the occurrences of the two diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ in the Classical Arabic period underwent monophthongization in Hejazi, and are realized as the long vowels /eː/ and /oː/ respectively, but they are still preserved as diphthongs in a number of words which created a contrast with the long vowels /uː/, /oː/, /iː/ and /eː/.
EXAMPLE (WITHOUT DIACRITICS ) MEANING HEJAZI ARABIC MODERN STANDARD ARABIC
دوري league /dAWri/ /dAWri/
my turn /dOːri/
turn around! /dUːri/ /dUːri/
Not all instances of mid vowels are a result of monophthongization,
some are from grammatical processes قالو
ا /gaːlU/ 'they said'
ا /gaːlOːlaha/ 'they said to her' (opposed to
Classical Arabic قالو
ا /qaːlUː lahaː/), and some occur
Hejazi vocabulary derives primarily from
Classical Arabic Semitic
roots. The urban Hejazi vocabulary differs in some respect from that
of other dialects in the Arabian Peninsula. For example, there are
fewer specialized terms related to desert life, and more terms related
to seafaring and fishing. Loanwords are mainly of Persian , Turkish ,
Latin (French and Italian ) and English origins, and due to the
diverse origins of the inhabitants of Hejazi cities, some loanwords
are only used by some families. Many loanwords are fading due to the
Modern Standard Arabic
General Hejazi Expressions include بالتوفي ق /bitːawfiːg/ "good luck", ل و سمح ت /law samaħt/ "please/excuse me" to a male, إيوه /ʔiːwa/ "yes", لأ /laʔ/ "no", لسة /lisːa/ "not yet", ق د /ɡid/ or قي د /ɡiːd/ "already", دحي ن /daħiːn/ or /daħeːn/ "now"..
A common feature in Hejazi vocabulary is
* إيوه (/ʔiːwa/, "yes") : from إ ي (/ʔiː/, "yes") and و (/wa/, "and") and الله (/aɫːaːh/, "god"). * معلي ش (/maʕleːʃ/, is it ok?/sorry) : from م ا (/maː/, nothing) and عليه (/ʕalajh/, on him) and شيء (/ʃajʔ/, thing). * إي ش (/ʔeːʃ/, "what?") : from أ ي (/aj/, "which") and شيء (/ʃajʔ/, "thing"). * لي ش (/leːʃ/, "why?") : from لأ ي (/liʔaj/, for what) and شيء (/ʃajʔ/, "thing"). * في ن (/feːn/, where?) : from ف ي (/fiː/, in) and أين (/ʔajn/, where). * إلي ن (/ʔileːn/, "until") : from إلى (/ʔilaː/, "to") and أ ن (/an/, "that"). * دحي ن (/daħiːn/ or /daħeːn/, "now") or ذحين (/ðaħiːn/ or /ðaħeːn/, "now") : from ذ ا (/ðaː/, "this") and الحي ن (/alħiːn/, part of time). * بعدي ن (/baʕdeːn/, later) : from بع د (baʕd, after) and أَيْ ن (ʔayn, part of time). * علشا ن or عشا ن (/ʕalaʃaːn/ or /ʕaʃaːn/, "because") : from على (/ʕalaː/, "on") and شأ ن (/ʃaʔn/, "matter"). * كما ن (/kamaːn/, "also") : from كم ا (/kamaː/, "like") and أ ن (/ʔan/, "that"). * يلّ ا (/jaɫːa/, come on) : from ي ا (/jaː/, "o!") and الله (/aɫːaːh/, "god").
The Cardinal number system in Hejazi is much more simplified than the Classical Arabic
1 واحد /waːħid/ 11 احدعش /iħdaʕaʃ/ 10 عشرة /ʕaʃara/ 100 مية /mijːa/
2 اثنين /itneːn/ 12 اطنعش /itˤnaʕaʃ/ 20 عشرين /ʕiʃriːn/ 200 ميتين /mijteːn/ or /mijːateːn/
3 ثلاثة /talaːtA/ 13 ثلثطعش /talatTˤAʕAʃ/ 30 ثلاثين /talaːtIːN/ 300 ثلثميَّة /tultumijːa/
4 أربعة /arbaʕA/ 14 أربعطعش /arbaʕTˤAʕAʃ/ 40 أربعين /arbiʕIːN/ 400 أربعميَّة /urbuʕmijːa/
5 خمسة /xamsA/ 15 خمسطعش /xamisTˤAʕAʃ/ 50 خمسين /xamsIːN/ 500 خمسميَّة /xumsumijːa/
6 ستة /sitːA/ 16 ستطعش /sitTˤAʕAʃ/ 60 ستين /sitːIːN/ 600 ستميَّة /sutːumijːa/
7 سبعة /sabʕA/ 17 سبعطعش /sabaʕTˤAʕAʃ/ 70 سبعين /sabʕIːN/ 700 سبعميَّة /subʕumijːa/
8 ثمنية /tamanjA/ 18 ثمنطعش /tamanTˤAʕAʃ/ 80 ثمانين /tamaːnIːN/ 800 ثمنميَّة /tumnumijːa/
9 تسعة /tisʕA/ 19 تسعطعش /tisaʕTˤAʕAʃ/ 90 تسعين /tisʕIːN/ 900 تسعميَّة /tusʕumijːa/
10 عشرة /ʕaʃara/ 20 عشرين /ʕiʃriːn/ 100 ميَّة /mijːa/ 1000 ألف /alf/
A system similar to the German numbers system is used for other numbers between 20 and above : 21 is واح د و عشري ن /waːħid u ʕiʃriːn/ which literally mean ('one and twenty') and 485 is أربعمية و خمسة و ثماني ن /urbuʕmijja u xamsa u tamaːniːn/ which literally mean ('four hundred and five and eighty').
Unlike Classical Arabic,the only number that is gender specified in Hejazi is "one" which has two forms واح د and وحدة as in كتا ب واح د /kitaːb waːħid/ ('one book') or سيارة وحدة /sajːaːra waħda/ ('one car').
* for 2 as in 'two cars' 'two years' 'two houses' etc. the dual form is used instead of the number with the suffix ēn /eːn/ or tēn /teːn/ (if the noun ends with a feminine /a/) as in كتابين /kitaːbEːN/ ('two books') or سيّارتي ن /sajːaraTEːN/ ('two cars'). * for numbers 3 to 10 the noun following the number is in plural form as in اربعة كت ب /arbaʕa kutub/ ('4 books') or عشرة سيّارا ت /ʕaʃara sajːaːraːt/ ('10 cars').
* for numbers 11 and above the noun following the number is in singular form as in :-
* from 11 to 19 an ـ ر is added to the end of the numbers as in اربعطعش ر كتا ب /arbaʕtˤaʕʃAR kitaːb/ ('14 books') or احدعش ر سيّارة /iħdaʕʃAR sajːaːra/ ('11 cars'). * for 100s a is added to the end of the numbers before the counted nouns as in ثلثميّة سيّارة /tultumijːaT sajːaːra/ ('300 cars'). * other numbers are simply added to the singular form of the noun واح د و عشري ن كتا ب /waːħid u ʕiʃriːn kitaːb/ ('21 books').
In Hejazi Arabic, personal pronouns have eight forms. In singular, the 2nd and 3rd persons differentiate gender, while the 1st person and plural do not.
Subject pronouns PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL
1ST _ana_ انا _iħna_ احنا
2ND MASCULINE _inta_ َانت _intu_ انتو
FEMININE _inti_ ِانتي_/_انت
3RD MASCULINE _huwwa_ هو _humma_ همَّ
FEMININE _hiyya_ هي
Negative subject pronouns PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL
1ST _mani_ مني _maħna_ محنا
2ND MASCULINE _manta_ َمنت _mantu_ منتو
FEMININE _manti_ ِمنتي_/_منت
3RD MASCULINE _mahu_ مهو _mahum_ مهم
FEMININE _mahi_ مهي
* Two tenses (PAST, PRESENT; present progressive is indicated by the prefix (b-), future is indicated by the prefix (ħ-)) * Two voices (active, passive) * Two genders (masculine, feminine) * Three persons (first, second, third) * Two numbers (singular, plural) * Two moods (indicative, imperative).
Hejazi Has a single indicative present verb mood instead of the three Classical Arabic present verb moods (indicative رفع, subjunctive نصب, jussive جزم), it also includes present progressive tense which was not part of the Classical Arabic grammar, and has a two grammatical number in verbs (Singular and Plural) instead of the Classical (Singular, Dual and Plural).
the most common verbs in Hejazi have a given vowel pattern for past (A and I) to present (A or U or I). Combinations of each exist:
VOWEL PATTERNS EXAMPLE
According to Arab grammarians, verbs are divided into THREE categories; Past ماضي, Present مضار ع and Imperative أمر. An example from the root _k-t-b_ the verb _katabT/ʼAktub_ 'i wrote/i write' (which is a regular sound verb):
TENSE/MOOD PAST "WROTE" PRESENT (INDICATIVE) "WRITE" IMPERATIVE "WRITE!"
PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
While present progressive and future are indicated by adding the prefix (b-) and (ħ-) respectively to the present (indicative) :
TENSE/MOOD PRESENT PROGRESSIVE "WRITING" FUTURE "WILL WRITE"
PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
* The Active Participles قاع د /gaːʕid/, قاعدة /gaːʕda/ and قاعدي ن /gaːʕdiːn/ can be used instead of the prefix بـ as in قاع د اكت ب /gaːʕid aktub/ ('i'm writing') instead of بأكتب/ بكت ب /baktub/ / /baʔaktub/ ('i'm writing') without any change in the meaning. * the 3rd person past plural suffix -/u/ turns into -/oː/ (long o) before pronouns. as in كتبو ا /katabU/ ('they wrote') → كتبو ا ل ي /katabOːli/ ('they wrote to me'), and عرفوا /ʕirfU/ ('they knew') → عرفون ي /ʕirfOːni/ ('they knew me') * the verbs highlighted in silver sometimes come in irregular forms e.g. (ħabbē)-t "i loved", (ħabbē)-na "we loved" but (ħabb) "he loved" and (ħabb)-u "they loved".
Example: KATABT/AKTUB "write": non-finite forms
MASC. SG. _kātib_ كاتب _maktūb_ مكتوب _kitāba_ كتابة
FEM. SG. _kātb-a_ كاتبة _maktūb-a_ مكتوبة
PL. _kātb-īn_ كاتبين _maktūb-īn_ مكتوبين
Active participles act as adjectives, and so they must agree with their subject. An active participle can be used in several ways:
* to describe a state of being (understanding; knowing). * to describe what someone is doing right now (going, leaving) as in some verbs like رح ت ("i went") the active participle راي ح ("i'm going") is used instead of present continuous form to give the same meaning of an ongoing action. * to indicate that someone/something is in a state of having done something (having put something somewhere, having lived somewhere for a period of time).
Enclitic forms of object pronouns are suffixes that are affixed to various parts of speech, with varying meanings:
* To the construct state of nouns, where they have the meaning of possessive demonstratives, e.g. "my, your, his". * To verbs, where they have the meaning of direct object pronouns, e.g. "me, you, him". * To verbs, where they have the meaning of indirect object pronouns, e.g. "(to/for) me,(to/for) you, (to/for) him". * To prepositions.
Unlike Egyptian Arabic , in Hejazi no more than one pronoun can be suffixed to a word.
Possessive Pronouns (nominal) PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL
1ST _-i/(-ya/-yya)2 my_ ـي _-na our_ ـنا
2ND MASCULINE M. _-ak/(-k) your_ ـك _-kum your_ ـكم
FEMININE F. _-ik/(-ki) your_ ـكي)/ـك)
3RD MASCULINE M. _-uʰ/( -ʰ 1 ) his_ ـه _-hum their_ ـهم
FEMININE F. _-ha her_ ـها
Direct Object Pronouns (verbal) PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL
1ST _-ni me_ ـني _-na us_ ـنا
2ND MASCULINE M. _-ak/(-k) you_ ـك _-kum you_ ـكم
FEMININE F. _-ik(-ki) you_ ـكي)/ـك)
3RD MASCULINE M. _-uʰ/( -ʰ 1 ) him_ ـه _-hum them_ ـهم
FEMININE F. _-ha her_ ـها
Indirect Object Pronouns (verbal) PERSON SINGULAR PLURAL
1ST _-li (for/to) me_ لي _-lana us_ لنا
2ND MASCULINE M. _-lak you_ لَك _-lakum you_ لكم
FEMININE F. _-lik you_ لِك
3RD MASCULINE M. _-luʰ him_ له _-lahum them_ لهم
FEMININE F. _-laha her_ لها
* When a noun ends in a feminine /a/ vowel as in مدرسة /madrasa/ ('school') : a /t/ is added before the suffixes as in → مدرست ي /madrasaTi/ ('my school'), مدرسته /madrasaTu/ ('his school'), مدرسته ا /madrasaTha/ ('her school') and so on.
* After a word ends in a vowel (other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns), the vowel is lengthened, and the pronouns in (Parentheses) are used instead of their original counterparts :-
* the possessive pronouns as in كرس ي /kursi/ ('chair') → كرسيه /kursIː/ ('his chair'), كرسين ا /kursIːna/ ('our chair'), كرسيك ي /kursIːKI/ ('your chair' f.) * the direct object pronouns لاحقن ا /laːħagna/ ('we followed') → لاحقناه /laːħagnAː/ ('we followed him'), لاحقناك ي /laːħagnAːki/ ('we followed you' feminine). * the indirect object pronouns رحن ا /ruħna/ ('we went') → رحن ا له /ruħnAːlu/ ('we went to him').
* After a word that ends in two consonants, or which has a long vowel in the last syllable, /-a-/ is inserted before the 5 suffixes which begin with a consonant /-ni/, /-na/, /-ha/, /-hom/, /-kom/ :-
* the possessive pronouns كتا ب /kitaːb/ ('book') → كتابه ا /kitaːbAha/ ('her book'), كتابه م /kitaːbAhum/ ('their book'), كتابك م /kitaːbAkum/ ('your book' plural), كتابن ا /kitaːbAna/ ('our book'). * the direct object pronouns عرف ت /ʕirift/ ('you knew') → عرفتن ي /ʕiriftAni/ ('you knew me'), عرفتن ا /ʕiriftAna/ ('you knew us'), عرفته ا /ʕiriftAha/ ('you knew her'), عرفته م /ʕiriftAhum/ ('you knew them').
* ONLY with indirect object pronouns when a verb ends in two consonants as in katabt كتب ت /katabt/ ('i wrote') : an /-al-/ is added before the Indirect object pronoun suffixes → katabtallu كتب ت له /katabtALːu/ ('i wrote to him'), katabtallahum كتبت له م /katabtALːahum/ ('i wrote to them'). * ONLY with indirect object pronouns when a verb has a long vowel in the last syllable as in أرو ح ('I go') : the vowel is shortened before the suffixes → أرُ ح له ا ('I go to her') with the verbs resembling the Jussive mood conjugation in Classical Arabic. * ^1 the colon between the (Parentheses) indicate that only the vowel is lengthened, since the word-final ـه is silent in this position. * ^2 if a noun ends with a vowel (other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns) that is /u/ or /a/ then the suffix (-ya) is used as in أب و ('father') becomes َابو ي ('my father') but if it ends with an /i/ then the suffix (-yya) is added as in َّكرس ي ('my chair'). * it is uncommon for Hejazi nouns to end in a vowel other than the /-a/ of the feminine nouns.
Hejazi is written using the
Arabic alphabet , like other varieties of
LETTER CORRESPONDING PHONEMES / ALLOPHONES EXAMPLE PRONUNCIATION
/aː / با ب "door" /baːb/
in some words /t /; merger with ⟨ت⟩ or always/in some words as /θ / (distinct phoneme) ثخي ن "thick" /taxiːn/ or /θaxiːn/
in some words /s /; merger with ⟨س⟩ مثا ل "example" /misaːl/ or /miθaːl/
خ /x / خرقة "rag" /xirga/
in some words /d /; merger with ⟨د⟩ or always/in some words as /ð / (distinct phoneme) ذي ل "tail" /deːl/ or /ðeːl/
in some words /z /; merger with ⟨ز⟩ ذو ق "taste" /zoːg/ or /ðoːg/
ز /z / زحليقة "slide" /zuħleːga/
س /s / سمكة "fish" /samaka/
ص /sˤ / صُفِّيرة "whistle" /sˁuˈfːeːra/
ط /tˤ / طرقة "corridor" /tˤurga/
in some words /zˤ / (distinct phoneme) or always/in some words as /ðˤ / لحظة "moment" /laħzˤa/ or /laħðˤa/
in some words /dˤ /; merger with ⟨ض⟩ ظ ل "shade" /dˤilː/ or /ðˤilː/
م /m / موية "water" /moːja/
و /w / وردة "rose" /warda/
/uː / فو ق "wake up!" /fuːg/
/oː / فو ق "above, up" /foːg/
/iː / بي ض "whites _pl._" /biːdˤ/
/eː / بي ض "eggs" /beːdˤ/
ADDITIONAL NON-NATIVE LETTERS
* Some words are an exception to these rules such as ضب
worked") is pronounced /zˤabatˤ/ and not /dˤabatˤ/.
* The classical is an allophone for /g/ ⟨
ق ⟩ only in few words
and proper nouns e.g. قامو
س "dictionary" /gaːmuːs/→.
* The classical is an optional allophone for the letter ⟨
* Short vowels are written as diacritics :-
* ـَ above the letter for /a/. * ـُ above the letter for /u/. * ـِ under the letter for /i/.
The varieties of
The dialect of Al-`Ula governorate in the northern part of the Madinah region . Although understudied, it is considered to be unique among the Hejazi dialects, it is known for its pronunciation of Classical Arabic ⟨ ك ⟩ /k/ as a ⟨ ش ⟩ /ʃ / (e.g. تكذب /takðib/ becomes تشذ ب /taʃðib/), the dialect also shows a tendency to pronounce long /aː/ as (e.g. Classical ماء /maːʔ/ becomes ميء ), in some instances the Classical /q/ becomes a /d͡ʒ / as in قايلة /qaːjla/ becomes جايلة /d͡ʒaːjla/, also the second person singular feminine pronoun /ik/ tends to be pronounced as /iʃ / (e.g. رجل ك /rid͡ʒlik/ ('your foot') becomes رجل ش /rid͡ʒliʃ/.
The dialect of Badr governorate in the western part of the Madinah
region is mainly noted for its lengthening of word-final syllables and
its alternative pronunciation of some phonemes as in سؤال
/suʔaːl/ which is pronounced as سعا
ل /suʕaːl/, it also shares
some features with the general urban dialect in which modern standard
* ^ Hejazi
Kees Versteegh , The
* Abdoh, Eman Mohammed (2010). _A Study of the Phonological Structure and Representation of First Words in Arabic_ (PDF) (Thesis).
* Alzaidi, Muhammad Swaileh A. (2014). _Information Structure and Intonation in Hijazi Arabic_ (PDF) (Thesis). * Omar, Margaret k. (1975). "Saudi Arabic, Urban Hijazi Dialect" (PDF). * Kheshaifaty, Hamza M.J. (1997). "Numerals: a comparative study between classical and hijazi arabic" (PDF). _Journal of King Saud University, Arts_. 9 (1): 19–36. * Watson, Janet C. E. (2002). _The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic_ (PDF).
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