Arabic or Hijazi
Arabic (Arabic: حجازي ḥijāzī),
also known as West Arabian Arabic, is a variety of
Arabic spoken in
Hejaz region in Saudi Arabia. Strictly speaking, there are two
main groups of dialects spoken in the
Hejaz region, one by the
urban population originally spoken in the major cities of Jeddah,
Mecca and Medina, and another by the bedouin or rural populations.
However, the term most often applies to the urban variety.
In antiquity, the
Hejaz was home to the
Old Higazi dialect of Arabic.
Old Higazi is distinct from modern Hejazi Arabic, and represents an
older linguistic layer wiped out by centuries of migration, but
curiously shares with the modern dialect the imperative prefix vowel
1.1.1 Innovative features
1.1.2 Conservative features
5.1 Subject pronouns
5.2.1 Regular verbs
5.3 Object pronouns
6 Writing system
7 Rural dialects
10 External links
Arabic belongs to the western
Peninsular Arabic branch of the
Arabic language, which itself is a Semitic language. It includes
features of both urban and bedouin dialects giving its history between
the ancient urban cities of
Mecca and the bedouin tribes
that lived on the outskirts of these cities.
Also referred to as the sedentary Hejazi dialect, this is the form
most commonly associated with the term "Hejazi Arabic", and is spoken
in the urban centers of the region, such as Jeddah, Mecca, and Medina.
With respect to the axis of bedouin versus sedentary dialects of the
Arabic language, this dialect group exhibits features of both. Like
other sedentary dialects, the urban Hejazi dialect is less
conservative than the bedouin varieties in some aspects and has
therefore shed some Classical forms and features that are still
present in bedouin dialects, These include gender-number disagreement,
and the feminine marker -n (see Varieties of Arabic). But in contrast
to bedouin dialects, the distinction between the emphatic sounds /dˤ/
ض and /zˤ/
ظ is generally preserved in a number of words.
The present progressive tense is marked by the prefix بـ /bi/ or
د /gaːʕid/ as in بيدر
س /bijidrus/ or قاع
/gaːʕid jidrus/ ("he is studying").
the internal passive form, which in Hejazi, is replaced by the pattern
ل /anfaʕal/, ينفع
The final -n in present tense plural verb forms is no longer employed
ا /jirkabu/ instead of يركبو
The dominant case ending before the 3rd person masculine singular
pronoun is -u, rather than the -a that is prevalent in bedouin
dialects. For example, بيته /beːtu/ ("his house"), عنده
/ʕindu/ ("he has"), أعرفه /aʕrifu/ ("I know him").
Arabic does not employ double negation, nor does it append the
negation particles -sh to negate verbs: Hejazi م
aʕrif/ ("I don't know"), as opposed to Egyptian معرفش
/maʕrafʃ/ and Palestinian بعرف
The prohibitive mood of
Classical Arabic is preserved in the
ح /laː tiruːħ/ ("don't go").
The possessive suffixes are generally preserved in their Classical
forms. For example, بيتك
م /beːtakum/ "your (pl) house".
The plural first person pronoun is نحن
ا /niħna/ or إحنا
/iħna/, as opposed to the bedouin حنّ
ا /ħənna/ or إنّا
When used to indicate location, the preposition ف
ي /fi/ is preferred
to بـ /b/. In bedouin dialects, the preference differs by region.
Less restriction on the distribution of /i/ and /u/.
The glottal stop can be added to final syllables ending in a vowel as
a way of emphasising.
Compared to neighboring dialects, urban Hejazi retains most of the
short vowels of
Classical Arabic with no vowel reduction, for example:
سمكة /samaka/ ("fish"), as opposed to bedouin [sməka].
ق /nutˤg/ ("pronunciation"), as opposed to bedouin
ضربَته /dˤarabatu/ ("she hit him"), as opposed to bedouin
وَلَدُه /waladu/ ("his son"), as opposed to bedouin [wlədah].
م /ʕindakum/ ("in your possession" pl.), as opposed to
bedouin [ʕəndəkum], Egyptian [ʕanduku], and Levantine [ʕandkun].
Approximate distribution of
Arabic language around the 1st century in
Hejaz and Najd
Arabic of today is derived principally from the old dialects of
Central and North Arabia which were divided by the classical Arab
grammarians into three groups: Hejaz, Najd, and the language of the
tribes in adjoining areas. Though the modern Hejazi dialects has
developed markedly since the development of Classical Arabic, and
Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic is quite distinct from the modern dialect of
Arabic now differs considerably from modern Hejazi
Arabic in terms of its phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexicon,
such diglossia in
Arabic began to emerge at the latest in the sixth
century CE when oral poets recited their poetry in a proto-Classical
Arabic based on archaic dialects which differed greatly from their
Main article: Hejazi
In general Hejazi phonemic inventory consists of 26 to 28 consonant
phonemes depending on the speaker's background and formality, while it
has an eight-vowel system, consisting of three short and five long
vowels /a, u, i, aː, uː, oː, iː, eː/, in addition to two
diphthongs /aw, aj/ (in contrast to
Classical Arabic 6 vowels).
Consonant length and
Vowel length are both distinctive in Hejazi. The
main phonological features that differentiate Urban Hejazi from the
neighboring Urban Najdi ِdialect and other
Bedouin dialects in the
Arabian peninsula is the absence of vowel reduction, for example
ت /gult/ 'I said' is pronounced [gʊlt] in Hejazi but pronounced
with the reduced vowel ([ə]) as [gəlt] in Najdi, it also retains the
standard pronunciation of the letter ⟨ض⟩ and the distinction
between it and ⟨ظ⟩, but it alternates between the pronunciations
of the letters ⟨ث⟩, ⟨ذ⟩, and ⟨ظ⟩.
Consonant phonemes of Urban Hejazi Arabic
the classicized [q] is an allophone of /ɡ/ ⟨ق⟩ in few words and
proper names as in القرآ
('Quran') and القاهرة /alˈgaːhira/→[alˈqaːhɪra]
the marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only occurs in the word الله /aɫːaːh/
('god') and words derived from it, it contrasts with /l/ in والله
/waɫːa/ ('i swear') vs. ولَّ
ا /walːa/ ('or').
the phonemes /θ/ ⟨ث⟩ and /ð/ ⟨ذ⟩ are completely distinct,
or they partially or completely merge with other phonemes, depending
on the speaker's accent.
the phonemes /d͡ʒ/ ⟨ج⟩ and the trill /r/ ⟨ر⟩ are realised
as a [ʒ] and a tap [ɾ] respectively by a number of speakers.
the classicized [ðˤ] is an optional allophone for ⟨ظ⟩, but it
is always used when pronouncing the letter's name which is
[ˈðˤaːʔ]. In general, urban Hejazi speakers pronounce it as /zˤ/
or merge it with /dˤ/ depending on the word.
Vowel phonemes of Hejazi Arabic
/oː/ and /eː/ are pronounced as true mid vowels [o̞ː] and [e̞ː]
/u/ is pronounced allophonically as [ʊ] or [o̞] in word initial or
medial syllables and strictly as [u] at the end of words or before [w]
or when isolate.
/i/ is pronounced allophonically as [ɪ] or [e̞] in word initial or
medial syllables and strictly as [i] at the end of words or before [j]
or when isolate.
Most of the occurrences of the two diphthongs /aj/ and /aw/ in the
Classical Arabic period underwent monophthongization in Hejazi, and
are realized as the long vowels /eː/ and /oː/ respectively, but they
are still preserved as diphthongs in a number of words which created a
contrast with the long vowels /uː/, /oː/, /iː/ and /eː/.
Example (without diacritics)
Modern Standard Arabic
Not all instances of mid vowels are a result of monophthongization,
some are from grammatical processes قالو
ا /gaːlu/ 'they said'
ا /gaːloːlaha/ 'they said to her' (opposed to
Classical Arabic قالو
ا /qaːluː lahaː/), and some occur
Portmanteau words e.g. لي
ش /leːʃ/ 'why?' (from
Classical Arabic لأ
ي /liʔaj/ 'for what' and شيء /ʃajʔ/
Hejazi vocabulary derives primarily from
Classical Arabic Semitic
roots. The urban Hejazi vocabulary differs in some respect from that
of other dialects in the Arabian Peninsula. For example, there are
fewer specialized terms related to desert life, and more terms related
to seafaring and fishing. Loanwords are mainly of Persian, Turkish,
Latin (French and Italian) and English origins, and due to the diverse
origins of the inhabitants of Hejazi cities, some loanwords are only
used by some families. Many loanwords are fading due to the influence
Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic and their association with lower social
class and education. Most of the loanwords are nouns (with a change
of meaning sometimes) as in : جزمة /d͡ʒazma/ "shoe" from
Turkish çizme /t͡ʃizme/ originally meaning "boot" or كُبري
/kubri/ "overpass" from köprü /køpry/ originally meaning "bridge".
General Hejazi Expressions include بالتوفي
"good luck", ل
ت /law samaħt/ "please/excuse me" to a male,
إيوه /ʔiːwa/ "yes", لأ /laʔ/ "no", لسة /lisːa/ "not yet",
د /ɡid/ or قي
د /ɡiːd/ "already", دحي
ن /daħiːn/ or
A common feature in Hejazi vocabulary is
Portmanteau words (also
called a blend in linguistics); in which parts of multiple words or
their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, it is especially
innovative in making Interrogative words, examples include:
إيوه (/ʔiːwa/, "yes") : from إ
ي (/ʔiː/, "yes") and و
(/wa/, "and") and الله (/aɫːaːh/, "god").
ش (/maʕleːʃ/, is it ok?/sorry) : from م
nothing) and عليه (/ʕalajh/, on him) and شيء (/ʃajʔ/,
ش (/ʔeːʃ/, "what?") : from أ
ي (/aj/, "which") and
شيء (/ʃajʔ/, "thing").
ش (/leːʃ/, "why?") : from لأ
ي (/liʔaj/, for what) and
شيء (/ʃajʔ/, "thing").
ن (/feːn/, where?) : from ف
ي (/fiː/, in) and أين
ن (/ʔileːn/, "until") : from إلى (/ʔilaː/, "to")
ن (/an/, "that").
ن (/daħiːn/ or /daħeːn/, "now") or ذحي
ن (/ðaħiːn/ or
/ðaħeːn/, "now") : from ذ
ا (/ðaː/, "this") and الحين
(/alħiːn/, part of time).
ن (/baʕdeːn/, later) : from بع
د (baʕd, after) and
ن (ʔayn, part of time).
ن or عشا
ن (/ʕalaʃaːn/ or /ʕaʃaːn/,
"because") : from على (/ʕalaː/, "on") and شأ
ن (/kamaːn/, "also") : from كم
ا (/kamaː/, "like") and
ن (/ʔan/, "that").
ا (/jaɫːa/, come on) : from ي
ا (/jaː/, "o!") and
الله (/aɫːaːh/, "god").
The Cardinal number system in Hejazi is much more simplified than the
/itneːn/ or /iθneːn/
/itˤnaʕaʃ/ or /iθnaʕaʃ/
/mijteːn/ or /mijːateːn/
/talaːta/ or /θalaːθa/
/talattˤaʕaʃ/ or /θalaθtˤaʕaʃ/
/talaːtiːn/ or /θalaːθiːn/
/tultumijːa/ or /θulθumijːa/
/tamanja/ or /θamanja/
/tamantˤaʕaʃ/ or /θamantˤaʕaʃ/
/tamaːniːn/ or /θamaːniːn/
/tumnumijːa/ or /θumnumijːa/
A system similar to the German numbers system is used for other
numbers between 20 and above : 21 is واح
/waːħid u ʕiʃriːn/ which literally mean ('one and twenty') and
485 is أربعمية
ن /urbuʕmijːa u
xamsa u tamaːniːn/ which literally mean ('four hundred and five and
Unlike Classical Arabic,the only number that is gender specified in
Hejazi is "one" which has two forms واح
د and وحدة as in
د /kitaːb waːħid/ ('one book') or سيارة
وحدة /sajːaːra waħda/ ('one car').
for 2 as in 'two cars' 'two years' 'two houses' etc. the dual form is
used instead of the number with the suffix ēn /eːn/ or tēn /teːn/
(if the noun ends with a feminine /a/) as in كتابين
/kitaːbeːn/ ('two books') or سيّارتي
ن /sajːarateːn/ ('two
for numbers 3 to 10 the noun following the number is in plural form as
in اربعة كت
ب /arbaʕa kutub/ ('4 books') or عشرة
ت /ʕaʃara sajːaːraːt/ ('10 cars').
for numbers 11 and above the noun following the number is in singular
form as in :-
from 11 to 19 an ـ
ر [ar] is added to the end of the numbers as in
ب /arbaʕtˤaʕʃar kitaːb/ ('14 books') or
ر سيّارة /iħdaʕʃar sajːaːra/ ('11 cars').
for 100s a [t] is added to the end of the numbers before the counted
nouns as in ثلثميّة سيّارة /tultumijːat sajːaːra/
other numbers are simply added to the singular form of the noun
ب /waːħid u ʕiʃriːn kitaːb/ ('21
In Hejazi Arabic, personal pronouns have eight forms. In singular, the
2nd and 3rd persons differentiate gender, while the 1st person and
plural do not.
Negative subject pronouns
Arabic verbs, as with the verbs in other Semitic languages, and
the entire vocabulary in those languages, are based on a set of three,
four also five consonants (but mainly three consonants) called a root
(triliteral or quadriliteral according to the number of consonants).
The root communicates the basic meaning of the verb, e.g. k-t-b 'to
write', ʼ-k-l 'to eat'. Changes to the vowels in between the
consonants, along with prefixes or suffixes, specify grammatical
functions such as :
Two tenses (past, present; present progressive is indicated by the
prefix (b-), future is indicated by the prefix (ħ-))
Two voices (active, passive)
Two genders (masculine, feminine)
Three persons (first, second, third)
Two numbers (singular, plural)
Two moods (indicative, imperative).
Hejazi Has a single indicative present verb mood instead of the three
Classical Arabic present verb moods (indicative رفع, subjunctive
نصب, jussive جزم), it also includes present progressive tense
which was not part of the
Classical Arabic grammar, and has a two
grammatical number in verbs (Singular and Plural) instead of the
Classical (Singular, Dual and Plural).
the most common verbs in Hejazi have a given vowel pattern for past (a
and i) to present (a or u or i). Combinations of each exist:
م he forgave – yirħam يرح
م he forgives
ب he hit – yiḍrub يضر
ب he hits
ل he washed – yiġsil يغس
ل he washes
م he understood – yifham يفه
م he understands
ف he knew – yiʕrif يعر
ف he knows
According to Arab grammarians, verbs are divided into three
categories; Past ماضي, Present مضار
ع and Imperative أمر.
An example from the root k-t-b the verb katabt/ʼaktub 'i wrote/i
write' (which is a regular sound verb):
Present (Indicative) "write"
While present progressive and future are indicated by adding the
prefix (b-) and (ħ-) respectively to the present (indicative) :
Present Progressive "writing"
Future "will write"
ب or بأكت
ب or حأكت
The Active Participles قاع
د /gaːʕid/, قاعدة /gaːʕda/ and
ن /gaːʕdiːn/ can be used instead of the prefix بـ [b-]
as in قاع
ب /gaːʕid aktub/ ('i'm writing') instead of
ب /baktub/ / /baʔaktub/ ('i'm writing') without
any change in the meaning.
when an indirect object pronoun (ل
ا ,لهم...etc) is added
to a present verb or a masculine singular imperative verb that has a
long vowel in the last syllable as in أعي
د /ʔaʕiːd/ ('I
repeat') or قو
ل /guːl/ ('say!'); the vowel is shortened before the
suffixes as in أعِ
ك /ʔaʕidlak/ ('I repeat for you') and
ا /gulːaha/ ('tell her!') with the verbs resembling the
Jussive mood conjugation in Classical Arabic
the 3rd person past plural suffix -/u/ turns into -/oː/ (long o)
before pronouns. as in كتبو
ا /katabu/ ('they wrote') →
ي /kataboːli/ ('they wrote to me'), and عرفوا
/ʕirfu/ ('they knew') → عرفون
ي /ʕirfoːni/ ('they knew me')
the verbs highlighted in silver sometimes come in irregular forms e.g.
(ħabbē)-t "i loved", (ħabbē)-na "we loved" but (ħabb) "he loved"
and (ħabb)-u "they loved".
Example: katabt/aktub "write": non-finite forms
ل Active Participle
ل Passive Participle
ر Verbal Noun
Active participles act as adjectives, and so they must agree with
their subject. An active participle can be used in several ways:
to describe a state of being (understanding; knowing).
to describe what someone is doing right now (going, leaving) as in
some verbs like رح
ت ("i went") the active participle راي
going") is used instead of present continuous form to give the same
meaning of an ongoing action.
to indicate that someone/something is in a state of having done
something (having put something somewhere, having lived somewhere for
a period of time).
Enclitic forms of object pronouns are suffixes that are affixed to
various parts of speech, with varying meanings:
To the construct state of nouns, where they have the meaning of
possessive demonstratives, e.g. "my, your, his".
To verbs, where they have the meaning of direct object pronouns, e.g.
"me, you, him".
To verbs, where they have the meaning of indirect object pronouns,
e.g. "(to/for) me,(to/for) you, (to/for) him".
Unlike Egyptian Arabic, in Hejazi no more than one pronoun can be
suffixed to a word.
Possessive Pronouns (nominal)
-i/(-ya/-yya)2 my ـي
-na our ـنا
-ak/(-k) your ـك
-kum your ـكم
-ik/(-ki) your ـكي)/ـك)
-uʰ/( -[ː]ʰ 1) his ـه
-hum their ـهم
-ha her ـها
Direct Object Pronouns (verbal)
-ni me ـني
-na us ـنا
-ak/(-k) you ـك
-kum you ـكم
-ik(-ki) you ـكي)/ـك)
-uʰ/( -[ː]ʰ 1) him ـه
-hum them ـهم
-ha her ـها
Indirect Object Pronouns (verbal)
-li (for/to) me لي
-lana us لنا
-lak you لَك
-lakum you لكم
-lik you لِك
-luʰ him له
-lahum them لهم
-laha her لها
When a noun ends in a feminine /a/ vowel as in مدرسة /madrasa/
('school') : a /t/ is added before the suffixes as in →
ي /madrasati/ ('my school'), مدرسته /madrasatu/ ('his
ا /madrasatha/ ('her school') and so on.
After a word ends in a vowel (other than the /-a/ of the feminine
nouns), the vowel is lengthened, and the pronouns in (Parentheses) are
used instead of their original counterparts :-
the possessive pronouns as in كرس
ي /kursi/ ('chair') →
كرسيه /kursiː/ ('his chair'), كرسين
ا /kursiːna/ ('our
ي /kursiːki/ ('your chair' f.)
the direct object pronouns لاحقن
ا /laːħagna/ ('we followed')
→ لاحقناه /laːħagnaː/ ('we followed him'),
ي /laːħagnaːki/ ('we followed you' feminine).
the indirect object pronouns رحن
ا /ruħna/ ('we went') →
ا له /ruħnaːlu/ ('we went to him').
After a word that ends in two consonants, or which has a long vowel in
the last syllable, /-a-/ is inserted before the 5 suffixes which begin
with a consonant /-ni/, /-na/, /-ha/, /-hom/, /-kom/.
the possessive pronouns كتا
ب /kitaːb/ ('book') → كتابها
/kitaːbaha/ ('her book'), كتابه
م /kitaːbahum/ ('their book'),
م /kitaːbakum/ ('your book' plural), كتابنا
/kitaːbana/ ('our book').
the direct object pronouns عرف
ت /ʕirift/ ('you knew') →
ي /ʕiriftani/ ('you knew me'), عرفتن
('you knew us'), عرفته
ا /ʕiriftaha/ ('you knew her'),
م /ʕiriftahum/ ('you knew them').
only with indirect object pronouns when a verb ends in two consonants
as in katabt كتب
ت /katabt/ ('i wrote') : an /-al-/ is added
before the Indirect object pronoun suffixes → katabtallu كتبت
له /katabtalːu/ ('i wrote to him'), katabtallahum كتب
/katabtalːahum/ ('i wrote to them').
only with indirect object pronouns when a verb has a long vowel in the
last syllable as in أرو
ح /aruːħ/ ('I go') : the vowel is
shortened before the suffixes → أرُ
ا /aruħlaha/ ('I go
to her') with the verbs resembling the Jussive mood conjugation in
written Classical Arabic.
^1 the colon between the (Parentheses) indicate that only the vowel is
lengthened, since the word-final ـه [h] is silent in this position.
^2 if a noun ends with a vowel (other than the /-a/ of the feminine
nouns) that is /u/ or /a/ then the suffix (-ya) is used as in أبو
/abu/ ('father') becomes َابو
ي /abuːja/ ('my father') but if it
ends with an /i/ then the suffix (-yya) is added as in َّكرسي
/kursijːa/ ('my chair').
it is uncommon for Hejazi nouns to end in a vowel other than the /-a/
of the feminine nouns.
An Early Qur'anic manuscript written in
Hijazi script (8th century AD)
Hejazi is written using the
Arabic alphabet; like other varieties of
Arabic, Hejazi does not have a standard form of writing and mostly
Classical Arabic form of writing. In general people
alternate between writing the words according to their etymology or
the phoneme used while pronouncing them, which mainly has an effect
with the three letters ⟨ث⟩ ⟨ذ⟩ and ⟨ظ⟩, although this
alternation is not considered acceptable by all Hejazi speakers,
Another alternation which is more acceptable and likely to appear
happens when writing some words that end in a short vowel /a, u, i/,
whether to add a vowel letter ⟨و⟩ ⟨ا⟩ or ⟨ي⟩ at the end
of the word as in انت
ي /inti/ ('you' singular feminine) to
differentiate it from ان
ت /inta/ ('you' singular masculine), since
most word-final short vowels from the
Classical Arabic period have
been omitted and most word-final unstressed long vowel letters have
been shortened in Hejazi, another form of writing is to write its
Classical Arabic form ان
ت which can also be pronounced /inta/ or
/inti/ since in
Arabic handwriting of everyday use, in general
publications, and on street signs, short vowels are typically not
written, and when needed to be written they are written in a form of
diacritics; ـَ above the letter for /a/, ـُ above the letter for
/u/, ـِ under the letter for /i/.
The table below shows the
Arabic alphabet letters and their
corresponding phonemes in urban Hejazi :-
corresponding phonemes / allophones
/ʔ/ (see ⟨ء⟩ Hamza).
ل "he asked"
/a/ only when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed
it's an /aː/)
ا "we saw", (ذ
ا m. "this")
/ˈʃufna/, (/ˈdaː/ or /ˈðaː/)
additional ∅ silent word-final only in plural verbs and after
ا "they said", شكرً
in some words /t/; merger with ⟨ت⟩
or always/in some words as /θ/ (distinct phoneme)
/taxiːn/ or /θaxiːn/
in some words /s/; merger with ⟨س⟩
/misaːl/ or /miθaːl/
ل "mobile phone"
in some words /d/; merger with ⟨د⟩
or always/in some words as /ð/ (distinct phoneme)
/deːl/ or /ðeːl/
in some words /z/; merger with ⟨ز⟩
/zoːg/ or /ðoːg/
in some words /zˤ/ (distinct phoneme)
or always/in some words as /ðˤ/
/laħzˤa/ or /laħðˤa/
in some words /dˤ/; merger with ⟨ض⟩
/dˤilː/ or /ðˤilː/
/g/ (pronounced [q] in few words and phrases depending on the speaker)
/l/ (marginal phoneme /ɫ/ only in the word الله and words derived
م "meat", (الله "god")
/h/ (∅ silent only word-final in 3rd person masculine singular
pronouns and some words)
ا "air", (كتابُه "his book", شفناه "we saw him")
/hawa/, (/kitaːbu/, /ʃufˈnaː/)
ق "wake up!"
ق "above, up"
/u/ only when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed
it's either /uː/ or /oː/)
و "asthma", (م
و "is not", جو
ا "they came")
/ˈrabu/, (/ˈmuː/, /ˈd͡ʒoː/)
ض "whites pl."
/i/ only when word-final and unstressed (when word-final and stressed
it's either /iː/ or /eː/)
ي "saudi", (ذ
ي f. "this")
/suˈʕuːdi/, (/ˈdiː/ or /ˈðiː/)
Additional non-native letters
/p/ (can be written and pronounced as a ⟨ب⟩)
ل ~ بو
/poːl/ ~ /boːl/
/v/ (can be written and pronounced as a ⟨ف⟩)
س ~ فيرو
/vajruːs/ ~ /fajruːs/
Some words are an exception to these rules such as ضب
worked") is pronounced /zˤabatˤ/ and not /dˤabatˤ/.
The classical [q] is an allophone for /g/ ⟨ق⟩ only in few words
and proper nouns e.g. قامو
The classical [ðˤ] is an optional allophone for the letter ⟨ظ⟩,
its usage depends on the speaker's preference.
Short vowels are written as diacritics :-
ـَ above the letter for /a/.
ـُ above the letter for /u/.
ـِ under the letter for /i/.
The varieties of
Arabic spoken in the smaller towns and by the bedouin
tribes in the
Hejaz region are relatively under-studied. However, the
speech of some tribes shows much closer affinity to other bedouin
dialects, particularly those of neighboring Najd, than to those of the
urban Hejazi cities. The dialects of northern Hejazi tribes merge into
Jordan and Sinai, while the dialects in the south merge with
'Asir and Najd. Also, not all speakers of these bedouin
dialects are figuratively nomadic bedouins; some are simply sedentary
sections that live in rural areas, and thus speak dialects similar to
those of their bedouin neighbors.
The dialect of
Al-`Ula governorate in the northern part of the Madinah
region. Although understudied, it is considered to be unique among the
Hejazi dialects, it is known for its pronunciation of Classical Arabic
⟨ك⟩ /k/ as a ⟨ش⟩ /ʃ/ (e.g. تكذ
ب /takðib/ becomes
ب /taʃðib/), the dialect also shows a tendency to pronounce
long /aː/ as [eː] (e.g. Classical ماء /maːʔ/ becomes ميء
[meːʔ]), in some instances the Classical /q/ becomes a /d͡ʒ/ as in
قايلة /qaːjla/ becomes جايلة /d͡ʒaːjla/, also the second
person singular feminine pronoun /ik/ tends to be pronounced as /iʃ/
ك /rid͡ʒlik/ ('your foot') becomes رجلش
The dialect of Badr governorate in the western part of the Madinah
region is mainly noted for its lengthening of word-final syllables and
its alternative pronunciation of some phonemes as in سؤال
/suʔaːl/ which is pronounced as سعا
ل /suʕaːl/, it also shares
some features with the general urban dialect in which modern standard
Arabic ثلاجة /θalːaːd͡ʒa/ is pronounced تلاجة
/talːaːd͡ʒa/, another unique feature of the dialect is its
similarity to the
Arabic dialects of Bahrain.
Ethnologue (19th ed., 2016)
^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds.
(2017). "Hejazi Arabic".
Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck
Institute for the Science of Human History.
^ Alzaidi (2014:73)
^ Watson, Janet (2002). The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic. Oxford
university press. pp. 8, 9.
^ Lipinski (1997). Semitic Languages: Outline of a Comparative
Grammar. p. 75.
^ Abdoh (2010:84)
^ Omar (1975:xv)
^ Alahmadi (2015:45)
^ Kheshaifaty (1997)
^ Omar (1975)
^ Holes, Clive (2004). Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and
Varieties. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press, Washington
D.C. p. 92.
^ Aljuhani, Sultan (2008). "Spoken Al-'Ula dialect between privacy and
fears of extinction. (in Arabic)".
Saudi Arabia portal
Kees Versteegh, The
Arabic Language, NITLE Arab World Project, by the
permission of Edinburgh University Press, 
Ingham, Bruce (1971). "Some Characteristics of Meccan Speech".
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of
London. School of Oriental and African Studies. 34 (2): 273–97.
ISSN 1474-0699. JSTOR 612692 – via JSTOR. (Registration
Abdoh, Eman Mohammed (2010). A Study of the Phonological Structure and
Representation of First Words in
Arabic (PDF) (Thesis).
Alzaidi, Muhammad Swaileh A. (2014). Information Structure and
Intonation in Hijazi
Arabic (PDF) (Thesis).
Omar, Margaret k. (1975). "Saudi Arabic, Urban Hijazi Dialect"
Hamza M.J. (1997). "Numerals: a comparative study between
classical and hijazi arabic" (PDF). Journal of King Saud University,
Arts. 9 (1): 19–36.
Watson, Janet C. E. (2002). The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic
Arabic course with audio files.
Languages of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Sign Language
Varieties of Arabic
Central Asian Arabic
Arabic (extinct ancestor of Maltese which is not part of the
Creoles and pidgins
Italics indicate extinct languages.
^ "Documentation for ISO 639 ident