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The Hejaz (or Hedjaz) railway (Turkish: Hicaz Demiryolu) was a narrow-gauge railway (1,050 mm/​3 ft 5 11⁄32 in track gauge) that ran from Damascus to Medina, through the Hejaz region of Saudi Arabia, with a branch line to Haifa on the Mediterranean Sea. It was a part of the Ottoman railway network and the original goal was to extend the line from the Haydarpaşa Terminal in Kadikoy beyond Damascus to the holy city of Mecca. However, construction was interrupted due to the outbreak of World War I, and it reached no further than Medina, 400 kilometres (250 mi) short of Mecca. The completed Damascus to Medina section was 1,300 kilometres (810 mi). The main purpose of the railway was to establish a connection between Constantinople, the capital of the Ottoman Empire and the seat of the Islamic Caliphate, and Hejaz in Arabia, the site of the holiest shrines of Islam and the holy city of Mecca, the destination of the Hajj annual pilgrimage. Another important reason was to improve the economic and political integration of the distant Arabian provinces into the Ottoman state, and to facilitate the transportation of military forces. The railway had no debt when completed.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Construction 1.2 Arrival in Medina 1.3 Attacks on the railway 1.4 World War I 1.5 World War II 1.6 The 1960s

2 Current status 3 Image gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External links

History[edit]

Map showing the Ottoman railways on the eve of World War I

Railroad spikes of the old Jezreel Valley railway (part of the Hejaz railway), found near Kfar Baruch

Construction[edit] A railway had been suggested in 1864 to relieve the suffering of the hajis on their 40-day journey through the wilderness of Midian, the Nafud, and the Hejaz Mountains. About 20% of them commonly died from starvation, thirst and diseases. The railway was basically a sub project of the Berlin-Bagdad Railway and started in 1900 at the behest of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II and was built by the German Civil Engineer Heinrich August Meißner and financed by the Deutsche Bank and strongly supported by the German Empire. A public subscription was opened throughout the Islamic world to fund construction. However, in 1912 the Ottoman Empire was owing the Deutsche Bank 29 million Turkey Pounds. The railway was to be a waqf, an inalienable religious endowment or charitable trust.[1] Before the construction, German military adviser in Constantinople Auler Pasha estimated that the transportation of soldiers from Constantinople to Mecca would be reduced to 120 hours.[2] The Berlin to Baghdad Railway was built during the same period. The railways were interrelated and aimed to strengthen the authority of the Empire over Arab provinces. Another intention was to protect Hejaz and other Arab provinces from British invasion. Other than the Haydarpasa-Izmit line, the Hejaz railway was the only railway the Empire built itself in its existence. Due to its reliance on charitable donation to cover costs, and mounting pressure from competing Britain and France, construction stalled, ending up taking significantly longer to finish than anticipated.[3] Arrival in Medina[edit] Under the supervision of chief engineer Mouktar Bey, the railway reached Medina on 1 September 1908, the anniversary of the Sultan's accession.[4] However, many compromises had to be made in order to finish by this date, with some sections of track being laid on temporary embankments across wadis. In 1913 the Hejaz Railway Station was opened in central Damascus as the starting point of the line. Attacks on the railway[edit] The Emir Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca viewed the railway as a threat to Arab suzerainty, since it provided the Ottomans with easy access to their garrisons in Hejaz, Asir, and Yemen. From its outset, the railway was the target of attacks by local Arab tribes. These were never particularly successful, but neither were the Turks able to control areas more than a mile or so either side of the line. Due to the locals' habit of pulling up wooden sleepers to fuel their camp-fires, some sections of the track were laid on iron sleepers. World War I[edit] During World War I, the German Army produced shale oil from the Yarmouk oil shale deposit to fuel locomotives operating on the railway.[5][6] The line was repeatedly damaged in fighting during the war, particularly at the hands of the guerrilla force led by T. E. Lawrence during the Arab Revolt, which ambushed Ottoman trains. The Turks built a military railway from the Hejaz line to Beersheba, opening on 30 October 1915.[7] World War II[edit] In World War II the Samakh Line from Haifa to Deraa at the Syrian border and to Damascus was run for the Allied forces by the New Zealand Railway Group 17th ROC from Afula, with workshops at Deraa and Haifa. The locomotives were 1914 Borsig and 1917 Hauptman models from Germany and Breda from Italy. The line, which had been operated by the Vichy French, was in disrepair. Trains over the steep section between Samakh (now Ma'agan) and Derea were 230 tons maximum, with 1,000 tons moved in 24 hours. The group also ran 60 miles (95 km) of branch line including Afula to Tulkarm.[8] The 1960s[edit] After the fall of the Ottoman Empire in 1920 the railway did not reopen south of the modern Jordanian–Saudi Arabian border. An attempt was made in the mid-1960s, but this was abandoned due to the Six-Day War in 1967.[9] Current status[edit] Two connected sections of the Hejaz railway are in service:

from Amman in Jordan to Damascus in Syria, as the Hedjaz Jordan Railway [10] and the Chemin de Fer de Hedjaz Syrie from phosphate mines near Ma'an to the Gulf of Aqaba, as the Aqaba Railway

Workers on the railway have restored many of the original locomotives: there are nine steam locomotives in Syria and seven in Jordan in working order. Since the accession of King Abdullah II relations between Jordan and Syria have improved, causing a revival of interest in the railway. The train runs from Qadam station in the outskirts of Damascus, not from the Hejaz Station, which closed in 2004, pending a major commercial development project. On 4 February 2009 the Turkish Transport Minister Binali Yildirim said in Riyadh regarding plans to rebuild the railway line:[11]

The plan envisages restoration and modernization of the railway line by the Turkish government within its territory, while it calls on Syria and Jordan to rebuild their sections of line. ... On the Saudi side, they do have an ambitious plan to set up railway projects, ... So, when these four countries (Turkey, Jordan, Syria and Saudi Arabia) come together, the entire project would be completed.

Small non-operating sections of the railway track, buildings and rolling stock are still preserved as tourist-attractions in Saudi Arabia, including the Medina Terminus, restored in 2005 with railway tracks and locomotive shed. The old railway bridge over the Aqiq Valley though was demolished in 2005 due to damage from heavy rain the year before.[12][13] Trains destroyed during the Arab Revolt of 1916–1918 can still be seen where they fell. Israel railways partially rebuilt the long-defunct Haifa extension, the Jezreel Valley railway, using standard gauge, with the possibility of someday extending it to Irbid in Jordan. The rebuilt line opened from Haifa to Beit She'an in October 2016. In 2009, Jordan’s transport ministry proposed a 990-mile (1590-km) US$5 billion rail network, construction of which could begin in the first quarter of 2012. The planned network would provide freight rail links from Jordan to Syria, Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Passenger rail connections could be extended to Lebanon, Turkey and beyond. The government, which will fund part of the project, is inviting tenders from private firms to raise the rest of the project cost. In 2008 the "museum of the rolling stock of Al-Hejaz railway" opened in Damascus Khadam station after major renovations for an exhibition of the locomotives. Trains run from Khadam station on demand (usually from German, British or Swiss groups). The northern part of the Zabadani track is no longer accessible. There is a small railway museum at the station in Mada'in Saleh[14] and a larger project is the "Hejaz Railway Museum" in Medina, which opened in 2006.[15] Image gallery[edit]

A coin commemorating the opening of the Ma'an Station of the Hejaz railway

Preserved 1902 Krauss steam locomotive No. 10 at the Israel Railway Museum

Monument commemorating the opening of the Turkish railway station in Haifa, Israel

Empty phosphate train at Ram station, coming from Aqaba, Jordan

See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hejaz Railway.

Arab Mashreq International Railway Similar gauges Transport in Jordan Transport in the Arab League

References[edit]

^ King Hussein And The Kingdom of Hejaz, Randall Baker, Oleander Press 1979, ISBN 0-900891-48-3, page 18 ^ Özyüksel, Murat (2000). Hicaz demiryolu. Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları. ISBN 975-333-137-1.  ^ Özyüksel, Murat (2016). The Hejaz railway and the Ottoman Empire: Modernity, Industrialisation and Ottoman Decline. Middle Eastern Studies. doi:10.1080/00263206.2016.1209491.  ^ Cole, Beverly (2011). Trains. Potsdam, Germany: H.F.Ullmann. p. 127. ISBN 978-3-8480-0516-1.  ^ Alali, Jamal (7 November 2006). Jordan Oil Shale, Availability, Distribution, And Investment Opportunity (PDF). Amman, Jordan: International Oil Shale Conference. Retrieved 25 October 2008.  ^ Hamarneh, Yousef; Alali, Jamal; Sawaged, Suzan (2006). "Oil Shale Resources Development In Jordan" (PDF). Amman: Natural Resources Authority of Jordan. Retrieved 25 October 2008. [permanent dead link] ^ Cotterell, Paul (1986). "Chapter 3". The Railways of Palestine and Israel. Abingdon, UK: Tourret Publishing. pp. 14–31. ISBN 0-905878-04-3.  ^ Judd, Brendon The Desert Railway: The New Zealand Railway Group in North Africa and the Middle East during the Second World War (2003, 2004 Auckland, Penguin) ISBN 0-14-301915-5 ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1955&dat=19651212&id=apEhAAAAIBAJ&sjid=D5gFAAAAIBAJ&pg=3194,7841060 ^ http://seat61.com/Jordan.htm ^ Article Kingdom, Turkey decide to restore historic Hejaz railway in the Arab News for Thursday 5 February 2009 ^ Article Madinah Municipality Razes Hijaz Railway Bridge in the Arab News from Wednesday 31 August 2005. ^ Site with a picture of the damaged bridge and the Medina station before restoration among others. ^ Article Move Under Way to Restore Madain Saleh Railway Station in the Arab News of Thursday 22 June 2006 ^ Article Hejaz Railway Museum Opened Archived 9 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine. in the Arab News of Saturday 21 January 2006

Further reading[edit]

Tourret, R. (1989). Hedjaz Railway. Tourret Publishing. ISBN 0-905878-05-1.  Nicholson, James. The Hejaz railway. Stacey International Publishers. ISBN 1-900988-81-X.  Judd, Brendon The Desert Railway: The New Zealand Railway Group in North Africa and the Middle East during the Second World War (2003, 2004 Auckland, Penguin) ISBN 0-14-301915-5

External links[edit]

Four podcasts about the Hejaz railway from BBC World service pictures and report of travelogue in the Saudi Section of Hejaz railway BBC: "A piece of railway history" BBC: "Pilgrim railway back on track" http://www.hejaz-railroad.info/Galerie.html lots of pictures from the Hidjaz Railway stations from a 2008 trip across Syria Extensive website on the Hejaz railway Yarmuk River railway bridges, 1933 aerial photographs. Aerial Photographic Archive for Archaeology in the Middle East / National Archives, London. Hejaz railway overlay on Google Maps

v t e

Rail transport in Saudi Arabia

Lines

Operational

 S  Al Mashaaer Al Mugaddassah Metro line Princess Nora University APM SRO Dammam–Riyadh line SAR Riyadh–Qurayyat line SRO cargo line SAR North–South Railway line

Under construction

Riyadh Metro  1   2   3   4   5   6  SRO Haramain high-speed rail project

Proposed

Dammam Metro  1   2  Jeddah Metro  1   2   3  Madinah Metro  1   2   3  Mecca Metro  A   B   C   D  Arab Mashreq International Railway SRO Saudi Landbridge Project Gulf Railway

Defunct

Hejaz railway

Organizations

Saudi Railways Organization (SRO) Saudi Railway Company (SAR) Arriyadh Development Authority (ADA) Makkah Mass Rail Transit Company (MMRTC) Madinah Metro Development Authority (MMDA) Jeddah Development & Urban Regeneration Company (JDURC) Eastern Province Municipality (EPM)

Rolling stock

Diesel

CAF Push–pull train Talgo 350 SRO Diesel EMD SW1200 Class 2400 Diesel EMD GP18 EMD FP7A EMD SD38-2 EMD SD50 EMD SD70ACS Class 319.2 CSR Qishuyan Type SDD17

Electric

Alstom Metropolis AnsaldoBreda Driverless Metro Talgo 350 SRO CNR Changchun Type A Siemens Inspiro

Authority control

WorldCat Identities LCCN: n96022658 VIA